The reform era in Russia (1855–1881) witnessed the emancipation of the serfs, economic and social change, the reform of all imperial institutions, and the growth of national identity among Russians and the Empire's expanding Jewish population. Consequently, the 'Jewish Question' became one of most hotly debated topics in Russia. Attitudes toward the Jews which evolved during this period persisted up to the Revolution and beyond. This book, based on exhaustive archival research of materials published during the period, studies the interplay of public opinion and official policy. The author examines the attitudes of all sectors of Russian educated society towards the Jews. He also explores how a new group, the Russian Jewish intelligentsia, sought to define a modern Jewish identity in the midst of a multi-ethnic Empire.
• Unique in-depth study of relations between Russian and Jews in an era of sweeping social and political reform in tsarist Russia • Obvious parallels to upheavals in modern Russia, and the rise of the extreme right. Traces roots of Russian antisemitism • Klier is a leading scholar in the field, and editor of Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russia (760 copies sold at £50 since 1992)
Part I. The Era of the Great Reforms: 1. Moshkas and Ioshkas; 2. The Illustratsiia affair of 1858; 3. Defining terms; 4. Rassvet and the future of Judaism; 5. Sion and the problem of nationality; 6. The religious element in Russian Judeophobia; Part II. The Era of Russification: 7. Russification in the Northwest; 8. 'Kiev is Russian'; 9. 'Kiev is Ukrainian'; 10. Education and Russification; 11. Partisans of enlightenment: the ORPME; 12. 'A State within a State'; Part III. The Era of Social and Economic Change: 13. The theme of 'Jewish exploitation; 14. Dead souls: the military reform of 1874; 15. The dilemma of the Russian Jewish intelligentsia; 16. The riddle of liberal Judeophobia; 17. The crystallization of conservative Judeophobia; 18. The occult element in Russian Judeophobia.