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The Cambridge Companion to Gandhi

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The Cambridge companion to Gandhi
Cambridge University Press
9780521116701 - The Cambridge companion to Gandhi - Edited by Judith M. Brown and Anthony Parel
Frontmatter/Prelims

The Cambridge companion to Gandhi

Even today, six decades after his assassination in January 1948, Mahatma Gandhi is still revered as the father of the Indian nation. His intellectual and moral legacy – encapsulated in works such as Hind Swaraj – as well as the example of his life and politics serve as an inspiration to human rights and peace movements, political activists, and students in classroom discussions throughout the world. This book, comprising essays by renowned experts in the fields of Indian history and philosophy, traces Gandhi's extraordinary story. The first part of the book, the biography, explores his transformation from a small-town lawyer during his early life in South Africa into a skilled political activist and leader of civil resistance in India. The second part is devoted to Gandhi's key writings and his thinking on a broad range of topics, including religion, conflict, politics, and social relations. The final part reflects on Gandhi's image – how he has been portrayed in literature and film – and on his legacy in India, the West, and beyond.

Judith M. Brown is Beit Professor of Commonwealth History at the University of Oxford. Her many publications include Gandhi's Rise to Power: Indian Politics 1915–1922 (1972), Gandhi and Civil Disobedience: The Mahatma in Indian Politics 1928–1934 (1977), Gandhi. Prisoner of Hope (1989), Modern India: The Origins of an Asian Democracy (1984), Global South Asians: Introducing the Modern Diaspora (2006), Nehru: A Political Life (2005), and The Oxford History of the British Empire: The Twentieth Century, co-edited with William Roger Louis (2001).

Anthony Parel is Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Calgary. His published works include Gandhi: Hind Swaraj and Other Writings Centenary Edition (2009) and Gandhi's Philosophy and the Quest for Harmony (2007).


The Cambridge companion to Gandhi

Edited by

Judith M. Brown

University of Oxford

Anthony Parel

University of Calgary


CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo, Mexico City

Cambridge University Press
32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473, USA

www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521133456

© Cambridge University Press 2011

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2011

Printed in the United States of America

A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library.

Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication data

The Cambridge companion to Gandhi / [edited by] Judith Brown, Anthony Parel.
 p. cm. – (Cambridge companions to religion)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-521-11670-1 (hardback) – ISBN 978-0-521-13345-6 (pbk.)
1. Gandhi, Mahatma, 1869–1948. 2. Gandhi, Mahatma, 1869–1948 – Political
and social views. 3. Gandhi, Mahatma, 1869–1948 – Influence. 4. Statesmen –
India – Biography. 5. Nationalists – India – Biography. 6. Political activists –
India – Biography. 7. Civil rights workers – India – Biography. 8. Pacifists –
India – Biography. 9. India – Politics and government – 1919–1947. I. Brown,
Judith M. (Judith Margaret), 1944– II. Parel, Anthony. III. Title. IV. Series.
DS481.G3C36 2011
954.03'5092–dc22 2010027387

ISBN 978-0-521-11670-1 Hardback
ISBN 978-0-521-13345-6 Paperback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party Internet Web sites referred to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such Web sites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.


Contents

Notes on contributors
vii
Glossary
ix
A chronology of Gandhi's life
xiii
Introduction
Judith M. Brown
1
Part I.   Gandhi: The historical life
1         Gandhi's world
Yasmin Khan
11
2         Gandhi 1869–1915: The transnational emergence of a public figure
Jonathan Hyslop
30
3         Gandhi as nationalist leader, 1915–1948
Judith M. Brown
51
Part II.  Gandhi: Thinker and activist
4         Gandhi's key writings: In search of unity
Tridip Suhrud
71
5         Gandhi's religion and its relation to his politics
Akeel Bilgrami
93
6         Conflict and nonviolence
Ronald J. Terchek
117
7         Gandhi's moral economics: The sins of wealth without work and commerce without morality
Thomas Weber
135
8         Gandhi and the state
Anthony Parel
154
9         Gandhi and social relations
Tanika Sarkar
173
Part III. The contemporary Gandhi
10        Literary and visual portrayals of Gandhi
Harish Trivedi
199
11        Gandhi in independent India
Anthony Parel
219
12        Gandhi's global legacy
David Hardiman
239
Conclusion
Judith M. Brown and Anthony Parel
258
Guide to further reading
263
Index
267

Notes on contributors

Akeel Bilgrami holds the Johnsonian Chair of Philosophy at Columbia University and is a member of Columbia's Committee on Global Thought. After a first degree in English from Elphinstone College at Bombay University, he went to Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar where he read Philosophy, Politics, and Economics. He has a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. He is the author of Belief and Meaning (1992), Self-Knowledge and Resentment (2006), and Politics and the Moral Psychology of Identity (forthcoming). He is currently working on a short book on Gandhi's philosophy.

Judith M. Brown is Beit Professor of Commonwealth History at the University of Oxford and Professorial Fellow of Balliol College. She has written widely on Indian history and politics and has published major studies of Gandhi and Nehru. She recently edited a new edition of the volume of Gandhi's writings in the Oxford World's Classics series, Mahatma Gandhi. The Essential Writings (2008), and her latest book is a series of methodological essays, Windows into the Past: Life Histories and the Historian of South Asia (2009).

David Hardiman lived and worked in Gujarat for many years, and is now Professor of History at the University of Warwick, UK. He is the author of Peasant Nationalists of Gujarat: Kheda District 1917–1934 (1981), The Coming of the Devi: Adivasi Assertion in Western India (1987), Feeding the Baniya: Peasants and Usurers in Western India (1996), Gandhi: In His Time and Ours (2003), and Missionaries and Their Medicine: A Christian Modernity for Tribal India (2008).

Jonathan Hyslop is Professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of Pretoria. He is a long-standing member of the Johannesburg History Workshop and has published widely in the field of late-nineteenth-century and twentieth-century southern African social history. His current research focuses on the impact of militarism on modern South African politics and society and on the world of maritime labour in the British Empire from 1880 to 1950.

Yasmin Khan was educated at the University of Oxford and is a Lecturer at Royal Holloway, University of London. Her principal research interests are the twentieth-century history and contemporary politics of India and Pakistan, particularly decolonization, ethnic conflict, and nationalism. Her first book, The Great Partition: The Making of India and Pakistan (2007), won the Gladstone Prize from the Royal Historical Society.

Anthony Parel is Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Calgary. His research interests include Western political thought and Indian political thought, with a focus on Gandhi. He is the author of The Machiavellian Cosmos (1982) and Gandhi's Philosophy and the Quest for Harmony (2006), and the editor of Gandhi: Hind Swaraj and Other Writings (1997, 2009).

Tanika Sarkar is Professor of Modern History at the Centre for Historical Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi. Her recent publications include Rebels, Wives and Saints: Designing Selves and Nations in Colonial Times (2009); and she co-edited with Sumit Sarkar, Women and Middle Class Social Reform, Vols. 1 and 2 (2008).

Tridip Suhrud is a political scientist and a cultural historian, working on the Gandhian intellectual tradition and the social history of Gujarat of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. He is a Professor at Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology, Gandhinagar. He translated from Gujarati and edited C. B. Dalal's Harilal Gandhi: A Life (2007) and Narayan Desai's four-volume biography of Gandhi, My Life Is My Message (2009). His other books include Writing Life: Three Gujarati Thinkers (2008) and Hind Swaraj Vishe (2008) and An Autobiography or The Story of My Experiments with Truth: A Table of Concordance (2009), and, with Suresh Sharma, a bilingual critical edition of Hind Swaraj. At present, he is working on the English translation of Govardhanram Tripathi's four-part novel Saraswatichandra.

Ronald J. Terchek is Professor Emeritus of Government and Politics at the University of Maryland, College Park, and the author of Gandhi: Struggling for Autonomy (2000) and numerous articles on Gandhi. He is also the author of Republican Paradoxes and Liberal Anxieties (1997), as well as co-editor of Theories of Democracy (2001). He is currently writing on the connection of ethics and economics in Gandhi's thought.

Harish Trivedi is Professor of English at the University of Delhi, and has been Visiting Professor at the Universities of Chicago and London. He is the author of Colonial Transactions: English Literature and India (1993: rpt. 1995), and has co-edited The Nation across the World (2007), Literature and Nation: Britain and India 1800–1990 (2000), and Interrogating Post-Colonialism: Theory, Text and Context (1996; rpt. 2000, 2006).

Thomas Weber is a Reader in the Politics and International Relations Program and head of Peace Studies at Melbourne's La Trobe University. He has been researching and writing on Gandhi's life and legacy for more than thirty years. His most recent publications include The Shanti Sena: Philosophy, History and Action (2009); Gandhi, Gandhism and the Gandhians (2006); and Gandhi as Disciple and Mentor (2004). He is currently working on Gandhi's relationship with Western women.


Glossary

Adhikar:

authority, qualification

Adivasis:

aboriginal inhabitants of India

Advaita:

branch of Vedanta philosophy emphasizing the unity of the individual and God

Ahimsa:

nonviolence

Anasakta:

one who acts without attachment to the fruits of action

Aparigraha:

non-possession

Artha:

pursuit of wealth and power

Ashram:

religious community in the Indian tradition

Ashramite:

member of an ashram

Atmakatha:

autobiography

Atman:

highest principle of life affecting everything in the world; a person's soul

Bania:

merchant caste

Bhangi:

sweeper caste

Bhoodan:

gift of land (movement started by Vinoba Bhave)

Brahmachari:

one who practises brahmacharya, celibate

Brahmacharya:

celibacy

Charkha:

spinning wheel

Dadagiri:

bullying, loutish behaviour

Dalits:

lit. ‘the oppressed’, name preferred by Untouchables for themselves

Dharma:

duty, ethics, religion

Diwan:

senior minister of Indian princely state

Dvaita:

the part of Hindu philosophy that states that the individual and God have separate existences

Ek-praja:

one nation

Gandhigiri:

a Hindi neologism, indicating opportunist or hypocritical practice of Gandhian teachings and methods

Gandhivad:

Gandhi's philosophy

Gandhivadi:

a follower of Gandhi's philosophy

Gramdan:

gift of a village (movement started by Vinoba Bhave)

Harijan:

lit. ‘child of God’, name chosen by Gandhi for Untouchables

Himsa:

violence

Hindutva:

an aggressive sense of Hindu identity, which presupposes a Hindu state

Holi:

Hindu spring festival

Itihas:

‘history’

Jati:

‘caste’, popular name for local caste groups

Kala pani:

lit. ‘black water’, the sea

Kama:

pleasure

Khadi:

hand-spun cloth

Khalifah:

Caliph, spiritual head of worldwide Muslim community

Kshatriyas:

warriors, one of the four varnas

Kudhar:

bad civilization

Langoti:

loincloth

Mahatma:

‘great soul’, honourific title

Mohurram:

Muslim festival

Moksha:

spiritual liberation, salvation

Panchayat:

village council

Praja:

nation

Purna swaraj:

full independence

Purusharthas:

the aims of life

Raj:

rule (hence British raj)

Ramanam(a):

recitation of the name of Ram

Ramarajya:

kingdom/rule of Ram

Rishi:

Hindu wise man, hermit

Sadhana:

ascetic discipline, spiritual path

Sadhu:

Hindu holy man

Sanatani:

orthodox Hindu

Sant:

saint

Sarvodaya:

welfare of all

Sati:

self-immolation of a widow on her husband's funeral pyre

Satya:

Truth

Satyagraha:

truth force, nonviolent resistance to wrong

Satyagrahi:

practitioner of satyagraha

Savarnas:

upper castes

Sena:

army

Shudra:

one of the four varnas

Smriti:

tradition that is remembered, as distinct from divine revelation

Sthitpragnya:

person of stable wisdom




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