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Home > Catalogue > The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning
The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning

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  • 80 b/w illus. 34 tables
  • Page extent: 682 pages
  • Size: 253 x 177 mm
  • Weight: 1.16 kg
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 (ISBN-13: 9780521547512 | ISBN-10: 0521547512)

  • Also available in Hardback
  • Published August 2005

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Author Index

Abelson, H., 551, 558

Aberdeen, J. S., 341, 343

Abma, H. J., 84

Abraham, M., 420, 425

Abrahamson, C. E., 101

Abrami, P., 100, 101, 102

Ackerman, P. L., 105

Adam, J. J., 341

Adams, B. C., 56

Addison, P., 369

Admiraal, W. F., 257

Agapova, O., 418

Aglinskas, C., 378, 379, 383, 384, 385

Aidman, E., 328

Ainsworth, S., 64, 221, 272, 279, 457, 489, 491, 499, 500

Akaygun, S., 223, 420, 423

Aksu, M., 571, 578

Al-Ghafrey, S., 555, 556

Al-Seghayer, K., 122, 123, 473

Alborzi, H., 539

Alessi, S. M., 216, 219, 224

Aleven, V. A. W. M. M., 83, 275, 278

Allen, B. S., 497

Allen, G. L., 341

Allinson, L., 315

Allport, D. A., 150

Allspach, L., 511

Almeida, L., 530, 531

Alonso-Tapia, J., 385

Altschuld, J., 490

American Society for Training and Development (ASTD), 112

Amon, E., 479

Anderson, J. R., 77, 100, 161, 162

Anderson, R. B., 3, 45, 84, 121, 122, 124, 144, 146, 195, 271, 398, 433, 453, 459, 604

Anderson, T., 251, 255, 259, 261, 264

André, E., 106, 107, 509, 512, 514, 517

Andre, T., 421, 425

Andrews, L., 360

Andrews, T. K., 538, 540

Angeli, C., 254–256, 261

Anglin, G. J., 60

Anstett, M., 360

Antonis, B., 150

Arbaugh, A. B., 250

Ardac, D., 223, 420, 423

Arens, K., 473

Asgari, M., 380, 381

Ash, I. K., xiii, 7, 375

Ash, K., 530

Ashby, R., 386

Assad, C., 555

Astleitner, H., 576

Astur, R. S., 532

Ataya, R., 250, 262

Atkinson, C., 7, 54, 56

Atkinson, D., 468

Atkinson, R., 356

Atkinson, R. C., 24, 45

Atkinson, R. K., xiii, 81, 82, 83, 106, 127, 205, 208, 209, 210, 230, 231, 232, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 335, 393, 401–403, 404, 406, 508, 513, 516

Attree, E. A., 532, 535, 536, 538, 540

Atwood, M., 20

Ausubel, D. P., 319, 475

Avigail, O., 252, 259

Aviv, R., 266

Ayres, P., xiii, 6, 27, 79, 80, 81, 105, 109, 110, 123, 127, 135, 195, 232, 327, 330, 596, 610

Azevedo, R., 224, 319, 490, 491, 498, 499, 500

Babcock, R. L., 341, 345

Bacon, S., 468

Baddeley, A. D., 23–30, 34, 35, 36, 45, 54, 56, 71, 75, 148, 235, 342, 490, 510, 578, 598

Badger, S., 421, 422

Badler, N., 508

Baek, E., 561

Baek, Y. K., 287

Baggett, P., 143, 198, 456

Baggett, W. B., 458

Bagnara, S., 571

Bailey, J. H., 534

Baker, M., 223

Baker, P., 540

Baker, S., 345

Balajthy, F., 323

Bally, J., 431

Balota, D. A., 341

Bandura, A., 102

Banerjee, A., 413

Bangert-Drowns, R., 220

Bannert, M., 45, 46, 54, 56, 63, 272, 446, 492, 493, 498

Barab, S. A., 247, 539, 561, 576

Barak, M., 422

Barbieri, E., 532, 535

Bardram, L., 606

Barnea, N., 422, 425

Barnett, M., 539

Barron, K. E., 104

Barron, R., 360

Barton, K. C., 381, 382, 385

Bass, K., 411

Bassok, M., 14, 232, 233, 273, 278, 280

Bastiaens, Th. J., 80, 84

Bates, J., 508

Baum, D. R., 528

Baumer, A., 110, 347

Baylor, A. L., 106, 108, 508, 514

Bayon, V., 535

Beach, R., 372

Beal, C. R., 364

Beardon, L., 528, 536

Beccue, B., 582

Beck, I. L., 363

Becker, D., 412

Behara, R. S., 255

Beishuizen, J., 221, 222, 223

Belingard, L., 538

Bell, J. T., 530

Bell, L., 56

Bell, P., 218

Benbunan-Fich, R., 255

Bendix, J., 606

Benford, S., 528, 536

Bengston, B., 511

Bereiter, C., 380, 418

Bergeron, G., 303

Bergin, R. A., 607

Berliner, D. C., 16, 551

Berman, T. R., 239

Bernard, M., 301

Bernard, R., 100, 101, 102

Bernard, R. M., 255, 258, 262

Bernstein, J., 477

Berry, D. C., 222, 602

Bert-Erboul, A., 300, 304

Bertenthal, B., 542

Bétrancourt, M., xiv, 7, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 294, 346, 456, 457, 458

Bhattachyra, M., 250

Bibby, P., 272

Bielaczyc, K., 275

Biesenbach-Lucas, S., 251

Binkley, M., 124

Binru Huang, 100, 101, 102

Birkerts, S., 357

Bisciglia, M. G., 250, 252, 261

Bishay, M., 110

Bjork, R. A., 122

Black, J., 216

Black, J. B., 455

Blankinship, E., 382

Blok, H., 356

Bloom, E., 100

Blumenfeld, P., 411

Bobis, J., 163

Bocacz, S., 440

Bock, M., 299

Boechler, P. M., 578

Boeckheler, J., 292

Boerger, A., 320, 321

Boersma, K. (?Boersman in biblio), 256

Boire, M., 45, 84, 195, 343

Bolhuis, B., 81

Bolter, J. D., 357, 358

Boltman, A., 539

Boneh, T., 431

Bonito, J. A., 511

Bonk, C. J., 254–256, 261

Booth, M. B., 386

Borokhovski, E., 100, 101, 102

Borras, L., 477

Bosquet, D., 362, 364, 368, 380

Bosseler, A., 106, 512, 516

Bourne, L. E., Jr., 122

Bove, W., 45, 147, 162, 167, 190, 492, 498

Bowen Loftin, R. B., 529, 530, 538, 539, 540

Bower, G., 45, 140, 328

Bowerly, T., 528

Boyce, M., 555

Bradley, B. A., 360, 363, 367

Bradshaw, J. M., 508

Bragin, V., 422

Brandt, D., 355

Bransford, J. D., 12, 13, 32, 33, 298, 362, 404, 472

Brenner, W., 508

Brett, P., 472, 478

Brewer, W. F., 216

Bricken, M., 529

Bridwell-Bowles, L., 356

Brinkerhoff, J. D., 574

Britt, M. A., 66, 300, 303, 378, 379, 383, 384, 385

Britton, B. K., 124, 362, 364, 368, 380, 461

Brna, P., 279

Broadbent, D. E., 222

Broers, N. J., 80

Brooks, B. M., 532, 536, 538, 540

Brooks, L., 151

Brown, A., 319, 418

Brown, A. L., 12, 13, 32, 33, 234, 275, 279, 404, 559

Brown, C., 472

Brown, D. J., 535, 538, 540

Brown, J. S., 411

Brown, K., 248

Brown, S., 539

Brown, S. W., 366, 474

Brownston, L., 508

Bruce, B. C., 367, 369

Brünken, R., 126, 142, 155, 179, 197, 211, 519

Brush, T., 389, 390

Bryman, A., 45, 147, 162, 167, 190, 492, 498

Buckwalter, J. G., 528, 532

Bull, S., 500

Bunce, D., 410, 420, 423, 425

Burgoon, J. K., 511

Burkhardt, H., 612

Burnett, J., 472

Bus, A. G., 364, 368

Bush, V., 569

Butt, A., 149

Buxton, W. M., 478

Byers, J. L., 369

Byman, A., 260

Byrne, C., 530

Byrne, M. D., 290

Byrnes, H., 473

Cafolla, R., 573, 582

Calfee, R. C., 16, 36

Calisir, F., 572, 577

Callaway, C., 509

Callow, J., 369

Camacho, M., 413

Cammack, D., 250, 262

Camp, G., 80, 344, 347

Campbell, J., 202, 207, 210

Campione, J., 418

Campos, J., 542

Campos, R., 542

Canale, M., 468

Cannon-Bowers, J., 316

Caplan, L. J., 341

Cordova, 368, 370

Carey, J. O., 559

Carey, L., 559

Cariana, R. B., 482

Caris, M., 250, 261

Carlisle, M., 539

Carlson, R. A., 86

Carmel, F., 305

Carney, R. N., 56, 60, 333

Carpenter, P. A., 54, 121, 186, 363, 479

Carroll, J. M., 81, 90, 162, 167

Cassell, J., 106, 107, 210, 516

Cassidy, S., 104

Cate, C., 290, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461

Caterino, L. C., 61

Catrambone, R., 80, 234, 236, 237, 238, 290

Cattell, R. B., 105

Cazzulo, C. L., 532

Ceci, S. J., 105

Cederberg, C., 511

Cerpa, N., 84, 142, 143

Chambliss, M. J., 36

Chamot, A., 468

Chamot, T., 468

Chan, A. T., 302

Chan, Y. G., 302

Chandler, P., 26, 27, 28, 34, 35, 46, 63, 79, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 102, 105, 109, 121, 123, 124, 127, 128, 138, 139, 141–142, 143, 154, 155, 161, 162–163, 164, 175, 176, 178, 192, 194, 195, 197, 200, 231, 232, 235, 272, 283, 291, 292, 294, 327, 329, 330, 331, 332, 335, 343, 345, 346, 398, 399, 400, 404, 405, 575, 576, 596, 597, 598, 599, 601, 604, 610

Chanlin, L. J., 358

Channell, J., 477

Chapelle, C., 469, 470, 471, 475, 477, 478, 482

Chapuis, N., 532, 533

Char, P., 531

Charney, D., 300, 308, 500

Chase, P., 56

Chase, W. G., 20, 595

Cheema, I., 104

Chen, C., 300, 315, 318, 571

Chen, H., 305

Chen, J., 529, 538, 539, 540

Chen, Q., 218, 220, 222

Chen, S. Y., 580, 582

Chen, Z., 218

Chennault, R., 472

Chera, P., 363

Chi, M. T. H., xiv, 7, 14, 21, 232, 233, 234, 261, 271, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 280, 283, 333, 448, 457, 461, 516

Chin, E., 410, 411, 412, 421, 425

Ching, C., 560

Chinn, C. A., 216

Chiu, C.-H., 302

Chiu, M. H., 273, 274, 275, 280, 283, 448, 457, 461

Cho, K.-L., 256, 263

Choi, S., 106, 111

Chomsky, N., 468

Chou, C., 258, 574, 579

Christie, B., 266

Christie, M. A. T., 222, 615

Chu, G., 555, 556

Chua, C., 528

Chun, D. M., 45, 66, 468, 469, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481, 570, 578, 580

Chung, M., 275

Chung, S., 275

Churchill, E., 210

Clarebout, G., 508, 511, 519

Clarihew, A., 316

Clark, D., 221

Clark, J. M., 34, 71, 342, 472, 490

Clark, R. C., xiv, 7, 323, 500, 519, 589, 593, 596, 602

Clark, R. E., xiv, 6, 72, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102, 104, 106, 110, 111, 118, 128, 478, 516, 519, 594

Clarke, T., 79, 80, 110

Clements, D. H., 559

Clifford, B. R., 538, 540

Climent-Bellido, M. S., 531

Cobb, P., 559

Cobb, S. V. G., xiv, 7, 525, 528, 530, 531, 535, 536, 538, 539, 540

Cocking, R. R., 12, 13, 32, 33, 404

Cody, J., 426

Cognition & Technology Group at Vanderbilt University, 357, 367

Cohen, C. A., 454

Cohen, J., 174, 190, 206

Coiro, J. L., 369

Cole, M., 248

Cole, S. P., 123, 475, 476, 477, 481

Coleman, D., 299

Collins, A., 411, 559

Comenius, J. A., 50

Commack, D. W., 369

Conati, C., 234, 275, 284

Confrey, J., 559

Conklin, J., 300

Connolly, T., 253, 256

Constance, J., 539

Constantinidou, F., 345

Constantiono-Gonzalez, M. D., 252, 263

Cook, L. K., 36

Cooney, J. B., 62

Cooper, G. A., 20, 26, 137, 230, 232, 238, 330, 397, 596

Cooper, M., 26, 30, 109, 138, 163, 194, 197, 398, 404, 405

Corbett, A. T., 100, 111, 456

Corderoy, R., 496

Cordova, D. I., 364, 368

Corno, L., 127

Corrales, B., 535

Corrie, C., 477, 481

Cortina, J. M., 174, 190, 206

Coulson, R. L., 320, 321, 362, 367, 570, 571

Cowell, G. S., 479

Cox, P. W., 579

Cox, R., 279, 283

Craig, S. D., 106, 107, 108, 155, 164, 178, 193, 204, 208, 210, 508, 513, 514, 515, 518

Craik, E. I. M., 120, 125

Craik, F., 474

Crawford, S., 305

Cromby, J. J., 535, 538, 540

Cromley, J. G., 224, 319, 490

Cronbach, L. J., 99, 127, 328

Crosier, J., 529, 530, 531, 539, 540

Crowder, E. M., 283

Cuban, L., 8, 550, 589, 590

Cunningham, J. B., 219

Curry, J., 582

Curtis, D. C., 250, 254–256

Cutelli, E., 535

Czaja, S. J., 347

Czerwinsky, M., 302

Daele, A., 249

Dale, E., 357

Dallal, N. P., 307

Daneman, M., 54

Danielson, D. R., 307

Dar, T., 451

Darrow, M., 531

David, M., 252, 259

Davidson-Shivers, G., 579

Davies, A., 151

Davies, I. K., 298

Davis, E. A., 218, 224

Davis, J., 410, 412, 414, 560

Davis, J. N., 472

D’Cruz, M. D., 526

de Croock, M. B. M., 72, 80, 81, 335

de Groot, A. D., 20, 215

de Hoog, R., 219, 222

de Jong, T., xiv, 7, 109, 110, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 273, 278, 280, 552, 557, 558, 573, 605

de Leeuw, N., 273, 274, 275, 280, 283, 448, 457, 461

De Ridder, I., 472

De Simone, C., 250, 261

de Vries, E., 219, 222, 223, 573

Debreceny, R., 302

Deci, E. M., 519

Dede, C., 529, 530, 538, 539, 540

Dee-Lucas, D., 305, 308, 317, 582

Dehn, D. M., 106, 509, 511, 516

DeJong, M. T., 364, 368

Dempsey, J., 559

Dennis, L., 151

Deno, S. L., 472

Derry, S. J., 81, 230, 237, 491, 561

Dershimer, C., 413

Desmarais, S., 76

Desrochers, A., 472

Deterding, R., 600

Deters, R., 500

Detweiler, M., 148

Dick, W., 559

Dickinson, A. K., 386

Dillenbourg, P., 289, 291

Dillon, A., xiv, 7, 300, 362, 569, 570, 571, 572, 576, 579, 584, 594

diSessa, A., 551, 558, 559

Divine-Hawkins, P., 152

Dix, A., 318

Dixon, P., 230

Dochy, F. J. R., 129

Docq, F., 249

Doctorow, M., 37, 516

Doll, J., 105

Dooling, D. J., 298

Dori, Y., 422, 425

Doughty, C., 472, 475

Dow, G. T., 83, 106, 176, 178, 205, 209, 275, 278, 283, 345, 346, 514, 515, 516

Downey, M. T., 385

Drake, D., 301

Drayton, B., 260

Dreher, M. J., 300

Driscoll, D. M., 106, 107, 108, 155, 164, 178, 193, 204, 208, 210, 508, 513, 514, 515, 518

Druin, A., 539

Dryer, C., 509

Dubreil, S., 477, 481

Duff, A., 104

Duffy, H., 532, 533, 534, 540

Duffy, T. M., 104, 247

Dufresne, R. J., 81

Duguid, P., 411

Dunbar, K., 223

Duncan, R. G., 224

Dupree, A., 362

Duquette, L., 472

Durán, R., 516

Durkin, D., 361

Durup, M., 532, 533

Dutke, S., 56

Dwyer, D. J., 125

Dyer, D., 262

Eastgate, R. M., 526, 528, 536

Eccles, J. S., 102, 105

Echt, K. V., 347

Economou, D., 539

Edelson, D. C., 383

Edmonds, D., 580

Edwards, D., 306

Edwards, L. D., 558

Effken, J. A., 508, 516

Egan, D. E., 20

Egbert, J. L., 253, 256

Ehrenfeucht, A., 198

Ehri, L. C., 361

Ehsani, F., 477

Eisner, E., 500

Ekstrom, R. B., 578

Elen, J., 508, 511, 519

Eley, M., 454

Elkerton, J., 456

Ellion, D. M., 530

Elliot, R. G., 86

Elliott-Square, A., 535

Ellis, A. W., 66

Ellis, J. A., 122, 125

Ellis, R., 471, 476

Ellsworth, R. A., 366

Elshout, J. J., 109

Engeström, Y., 249

Enyedy, N., 223

Epstein, I., 302

Erickson, F., 551

Erickson, T., 108

Ericsson, K. A., 24, 105, 333, 335, 342

Erlich, Z., 266

Ertmer, P. A., 369

Evansm M. A., 561

Everson, H., 127

Fabos, B., 570

Faerch, C., 473

Fajen, B., 508, 516

Falk, J., 260

Fallside, D. C., 363

Faraday, P., 460

Faremo, S., 497

Farmer, L., 202, 207, 210

Farr, M. J., 333

Farris, M., 468, 473

Faust, M. E., 341

Favart, M., 300

Fayad, P., 302

Feldon, D. F., xiv, 97, 114

Feltovich, P. J., 333

Feltovitch, P. J., 320, 321, 362, 367, 570, 571

Fennel, S., 202, 207, 210

Ferguson, D., 250, 261

Ferguson, E. S., 447, 450, 453

Fergusson-Hessler, M., 273, 280

Ferretti, R. P., 386

Feuer, M. J., 551

Feyten, C., 478

Fienhold, J., 421

Fiolhais, C., 530, 531

Fischer, R., 468, 473

Fiset, M., 100, 101, 102

Fishman, B. J., 251

Fisk, J. E., 341

Fitzgerald, G. E., 577

FitzGerald, P. J., 508, 509, 511, 516, 518

Flach, J. M., 120

Flaitz, J., 473

Flammer, A., 299

Fleiszer, D., 491, 498

Fleming Seay, A., 290

Fletcher, J. D., xiv, 3, 6, 117, 118, 119, 123

Flood, J., 355, 357, 369

Fogg, B. J., 509, 511

Fogler, H. S., 530

Foltz, G., 360, 367

Foltz, P. W., 300, 302

Ford, J., 162

Ford, N., 580, 582

Foreman, N., 532, 533, 534, 538, 540

Forness, S. R., 104

Fors, U. G. H., 607

Fost, P., 473

Fowlkes, J. F., 530

Francoeur, E., 422

Frank, K. A., 550

Frankola, K., 103

Fraser, D. S., xiv, 7, 525

Fredericksen, E., 103

Frederiksen, J. R., 217, 551, 554, 559

Fredricks, J., 411

Freitas, C. M. D. S., 530

Freitas, P., 290, 456, 461, 602, 603, 604, 610

French, J. W., 578

Frensch, P. A., 333

Fretz, E., 224

Frick, R., 152

Friedler, Y., 215, 216, 218

Friedman, N. P., 55

Funch-Jensen, P., 606

Funke, J., 109

Furness, T., 530

Gabbard, R., 300, 569, 570, 571, 572, 576, 579, 594

Gable, D., 410, 420, 423, 425

Gabrys, G., 379

Gaddy, M. L., 299

Gagné, R. M., 87, 596

Gallimore, R., 240

Gallini, J. K., 44, 63, 123, 271, 328, 433, 453, 459, 460, 492, 498

Galvin, T., 589, 590, 592, 605

Ganeshan, R., 508

Garg, A. X., 454, 457

Garrett, S. R., 508, 516

Garris, R. D., 125

Garsoffky, B., 292, 294

Gass, M., 469

Gay, G., 123

Gee, J. P., 550

Gent, C., 539

Gentner, D., 562

Georgi, M. C., 379

Gerace, W. J., 81

Gerjets, P., 80, 230, 234, 236, 238

Geva, A., 266

Gholson, B., 106, 107, 108, 155, 164, 178, 193, 204, 208, 210, 508, 513, 514, 515, 518

Gibson, J. J., 543

Gifford, B., 223

Gijlers, H., 223

Gildea, P. M., 361, 368

Gilinski, A., 341

Gillett, R., 532, 538

Gilley, W., 559

Gillingham, M., 531

Gilmartin, K., 20

Gimino, A., 102

Giroux, L., 303

Gittleman, S. S., 457

Glaser, R., 14, 21, 109, 218, 232, 233, 273, 278, 280, 333, 500

Glass, G., 100

Glavin, R. J., 80

Glenberg, A. M., 272, 300

Globerson, T., 358, 363, 491, 561

Glover, J. A., 316, 482

Glover, T., 528, 536

Gluck, K., 100

Goldman, S. R., 271, 298, 299, 362, 472, 499

Goldsmith, T. E., 304

Goldstein, D., 341

Gomez, L. M., 251, 262, 383

Gonzales, C., 287

Good, J., 279

Good, R., 413

Goodenough, D. R., 579

Goodman, J., 362

Goodman, K., 357

Goodyear, P., 110

Gordon, S., 302

Gorodetsky, M., 413

Gott, S. P., 607, 609

Gough, P. B., 356

Grabner-Hagen, M. M., 253

Grabowski, B. G., 254

Grace, C., 474

Graesser, A. C., 53, 64, 458, 461, 509

Graf, M., 109

Graf, P., 457, 461

Grant, M., 560

Grantcharov, T. P., 606

Gredler, M. E., 550, 559

Greenbowe, T., 421, 422, 425

Greene, S., 381

Greenhalgh, C., 528

Greeno, J., 328, 411

Greer, J., 500

Grégoire,, J. P., 509

Greidenhaus, T., 473

Gretton, C., 539

Grice, H., 202

Griffiths, G. D., 526

Große, C. S., 82, 230, 239, 240, 241

Grotzer, T. A., 105

Gruber, H., 109, 231, 234, 238, 275

Grusin, R., 370–374

Guerrera, C., 496, 497

Gulikers, J. T. M., 80

Gullo, D. F., 559

Gunawardena, C. N., 255, 264

Gundersen, D. E., 255

Gurel, Z., 572, 577

Guri-Rozenblit, S., 272

Gurtner, J., 211

Gussarsky, E., 413

Gustafsson, J. F., 131

Gustavel, J., 302

Guterman, E., 358

Guthrie, J. T., 300, 306, 308, 319

Gutierrez, K., 551

Gzrondziel, H., 292

Haderlie, S., 582

Hadwin, A. F., 499, 500

Haggerty, D., 341

Hagman, J. D., 122

Hakkarainen, K., 251, 253, 254, 258, 267

Häkkinen, P., 255, 260

Hammett, R., 364

Hammond, N., 315

Hankey, J., 302

Hanley, J. E. B., 123, 475, 476, 481

Hannafin, K. M., 120

Hannafin, M. J., 108, 120, 290, 456

Hanson, D., 356

Hara, N., 254–256, 261

Harackiewicz, J. M., 104

Hardinger, S., 422

Hardman, L., 306

Harel, I., 559, 560, 563

Harman, H. H., 578

Harp, S. F., 80, 191, 192, 209, 210, 491, 596

Harper, B., 490, 496

Hartley, J., 298

Hartman, M., 341

Haseman, W. D., 292, 579

Hasher, L., 341, 343, 345

Hausmann, R. G. M., 280, 283

Hawamdeh, S., 581

Hay, K. E., 530, 539

Hayes, D. A., 272

Hayes, J. R., 21

Hayes-Roth, B., 508

Hays, R. T., 219

Healy, A. F., 122

Heath, S. B., 355, 357

Hecht, H., 289, 290, 455, 465

Hedberg, J., 490, 496

Hegarty, M., xiv, 7, 55, 121, 186, 272, 289, 290, 291, 293, 329, 363, 433, 441, 447, 448, 450, 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461, 602, 603, 604, 610

Heining-Boynton, A. L., 479

Heiser, J., 45, 82, 124, 155, 164, 191, 193, 271, 283, 293, 343, 407, 453, 455, 456, 515, 518, 601

Hendricks, M., 344, 347

Hendricks, R., 151

Henning, P., 248

Henry, R. A., 105

Henson, R. K., 104

Herl, H. E., 178

Hermann, H., 250

Hernandez, S. S., 472, 478

Herring, S. C., 262, 264

Herron, C. A., 123, 475, 476, 477, 481

Hesketh, B., 122

Hesse, F. W., 292, 294, 460

Hewitt, J., 261

Hickey, D. T., 222, 615

Hidi, S., 127

Hiebert, J., 240

Hijne, H., 110

Hilbert, T., 241

Hill, M., 472

Hiltz, S. R., 255

Hiraga, M. K., 494

Hirst, W., 151

Ho, C., 360

Hoffman, B., 497

Hoffman, H., 531

Hoffman, R. R., 431

Hofman, R., 304, 305, 575

Holland, J. H., 76

Hollander, A., 531

Hollander, M., 473

Holmquist, S., 290, 291, 329, 456

Holt, G. R., 249

Holt, T., 377, 378

Holyoak, K. J., 76, 236

Hong, N., 262

Hooper, S. R., 120

Hoosain, R., 312

Hopkins, E., 528, 536

Horn, J., 105

Horowitz, P., 558, 559

Horwitz, P., 222, 558, 615

Houx, P. J., 341

Howard-Jones, P. A., 578

Howe, M. J., 479

Hoyles, C., 558

Hron, A., 333

Hsu, Y., 575

Huard, R., 508

Hughes, C. E., 530, 531, 539

Hulin, C. L., 105

Hull, S., 301

Hulshof, C. D., 221, 222, 223

Hulstijn, J., 473

Hummel, H. G. K., 616

Hundhausen, C. D., 261, 263

Huppert, J., 222

Hutchins, E., 254

Hwang, D., 104

Hymes, D., 468

Hynd, C. R., 362, 364, 368, 380

International Reading Association, 356, 369

International Society for Technology in Education, 369

Intrator, S., 356, 366

Isaak, M. I., 457

Issroff, K., 267

Iyer, G., 291, 293

Jackiw, N., 559

Jacobson, M., 362

Jacobson, M. J., 320, 321, 362, 367, 570, 571, 576

James, R., 364

James, W., 119

Jamieson, B. A., 348

Jansen, C., 573

Järvelä, S., 255, 260, 267

Jayawardena, S., 532

Jeffries, R., 20

Jehng, J. C. J., 256, 262, 320, 321

Jelsma, O., 72

Jensen, E. D., 472

Jessup, L. M., 253, 256

Jeung, H., 85, 154, 178, 235, 343, 399, 400, 404, 405, 604

Jih, H. J., 562

Jobst, J., xiv, 7, 569

John, B. E., 456

Johnson, A., 531

Johnson, B. T., 516, 518

Johnson, D. W., 248

Johnson-Laird, P. N., 54, 55, 298, 479

Johnson, M. K., 298

Johnson, R. T., 248

Johnson, W. L., 500, 508, 509, 511, 516, 519

Johnston, J., 372, 413

Joiner, E., 468, 478

Jolles, J., 341

Jonassen, D. H., xiv, 7, 247, 248, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 261, 262, 263, 359, 491, 550, 561

Jones, A., 267

Jones, D. M., 534, 540

Jones, L., 418

Jones, L. C., xiv, 7, 467, 473, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481

Jones, M., 422

Jones, T., 410, 412, 414

Jorde, D., 221

Joskowicz, L., 451

Judd, B. B., 341

Just, M. A., 121, 186, 272, 363, 433, 448, 453, 455, 457, 459, 460, 461, 479

Kaartinen, S., 223

Kafai, Y., 560

Kaiser, M. K., 289, 290, 455, 465

Kalawsky, R. S., 543

Kali, Y., 454

Kalra, M., 76

Kalyuga, S., xiv, 7, 15, 27, 63, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 105, 109, 123, 124, 127, 128, 154, 155, 164, 178, 179, 192, 197, 231, 232, 325, 327, 330, 331, 332, 335, 343, 575, 576, 596, 610

Kamil, M. L., 356, 366, 473

Kamin, C., 600

Kanari, Z., 216

Kane, M. J., 234

Kantardjieff, K., 422

Kanuka, H., 251

Kaplan, D., 216

Kaput, J., 400, 558, 559

Karagiannidis, C., 106

Karchmer, R. A., 367

Karp, S. A., 579

Kaspar, G., 473

Kauffman, D., 319

Kavale, K. A., 104

Kayany, J. M., 371

Kear, J. J., 366

Keehner, M., 454

Keeves, J., 274, 278, 281

Kehoe, E. J., 161

Keil, F. C., 462

Kellogg, G. S., 479

Kelly, M., 478

Kenelman, A., 216

Kennedy, C., 103

Kennedy, R. S., 530

Kern, R., 467, 479

Kerr, S., 528, 536, 538

Kerr, S. J., 535, 536, 539, 540

Keselman, A., 218

Kester, L., xv, 2, 6, 71, 72, 79, 81, 84, 105, 110, 127, 334, 347

Kettanurak, V. N., 292, 579

Kettel, L., 500

Khoo, H., 86

Kidd, G., 328

Kieras, D. E., 299

Kiesler, S., 511

Kim, B., 530

Kim, H., 356, 366

Kim, K.-S., 580

Kim, L., 528

Kim, M., 473

Kindfield, A. C. H., 222, 615

Kini, A. S., 120, 555

Kinshuk, 106

Kintsch, E., 56, 461

Kintsch, W., 24, 53, 55, 56, 65, 298, 299, 316, 319, 321, 335, 342, 400–401, 403, 404, 405, 461, 479

Kinzer, C. K., 250, 262, 355, 362, 368, 369

Kirasic, K. C., 341

Kirby, J. R., 66, 279, 580

Kirkley, S. E., 253

Kirkpatrick, H., 550

Kirriemuir, J., 559

Kirsch, I., 306, 308

Kirschner, P. A., 72, 79, 81, 84, 105, 110, 127, 334, 347, 616

Kitchner, K. S., 261

Klahr, D., 218, 220, 223

Klein, J. K., 253, 256

Kliegl, R., 341, 343, 345

Knauff, M., 55

Knerr, B. W., 534

Koedinger, K. R., 83, 275, 278

Kohn, A.

Kolar, C., 576

Kolb, D. A., 579

Kolers, P. A., 157

Koleva, B., 528

Korb, K. B., 431

Korhagen, F. A. J., 257

Koschmann, T., 283

Koskinen, P., 472

Kosslyn, S. M., 53, 54, 56

Kost, C. R., 473

Kostuck, J., 360

Kotovsky, K., 21

Koved, L., 301

Kozhevnikov, M., 455

Kozma, R. B., xv, 7, 98, 272, 328, 355, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 416, 418, 421, 423, 425, 433, 492, 498, 499, 500

Kozminsky, E., 298, 299

Kraiger, K., 316

Krajcik, J. S., 224, 411, 492, 493

Krampe, R. T., 341, 343

Krapp, A., 127

Krashen, S., 468, 469, 472, 474

Kraus, L. A., 577

Kress, G., 371

Kreuz, R., 509

Kristiansen, V. B., 606

Kriz, S., 290, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461

Krug, D., 316

Ku, H. K., 251

Ku, T., 582

Kuhl, J., 576

Kuhn, D., 216, 255

Kuhn, M. R., 364, 368

Kulhavy, R. W., 333

Kulik, C., 220

Kulik, J., 220

Kulikowich, J. M., 577

Kulvahy, R. W., 61

Kumar, D., 490

Kumpulainen, K., 223, 259

Küpper, L., 468

Kurland, M., 559

Kushmerick, 508

Kwon, H. I., 256

Kyllonen, P. C., 126, 128

Labbo, L. D., 250, 262, 356, 364, 365, 367, 368, 369

Lachman, R., 298

Lafayette, R. C., 477

Laffey, J., xv, 7, 247, 249, 251, 256

Lahar, C. J., 341, 343

Lahti, H., 251

Lajoie, S. P., xv, 7, 489, 491, 496, 497, 498, 499, 500, 561

Lamarche, J.-P., 303

Lambert, N. M., 32, 33

Lambert, W. E., 472

Land, S., 108

Landauer, T., 10, 571

Landes, S., 224

Lane, D. M., 356, 366

Lane, M., 369

Langston, W. E., 272, 300

Lanham, R. A., 358

Lansdale, M., 578

Lapkin, S., 469, 476, 481

Lapp, D., 355, 357, 369

Larkin, J. H., 21, 63, 163, 305, 308, 317, 457, 461, 582

Larsen-Freeman, D., 470

Larson, K., 302

Laufer, B., 472

Laurel, B., 508, 509

Laurinen, L., 251, 253, 255

LaVancher, C., 273, 274, 275, 280, 283, 448, 457, 461

Lave, J., 411

Lavigne, N. C., 496, 497

Lawless, K. A., 366, 474, 577, 582

Lawson, M. J., 250, 254–256, 274, 278, 281

Layne, B. H., 287

Lazarowitz, R., 222

Lazonder, A. W., 162, 217, 218, 219, 224

Le, S. E., 302

Leadbetter, A. G., 538, 540

Leahy, W., 82, 154, 343, 597, 599, 601, 604, 610

Learning Technology Center at Vanderbilt University, 362

LeBaron, C., 283

Lebiere, C., 77

Lee, C. B., xv, 7, 247

Lee, D., 482

Lee, L., 477

Lee, M. J., 300

Lee, P. J., 386

Lee, S.-Y., 256, 258

LeFevre, J. A., 230

Lehman, J. D., 474, 476, 481, 574, 576

Lehmann, A. C., 105

Lehrer, R., 559

Leibowitz, L., 273

Leidig, L., 318

Leinhardt, G., 378, 385

Lemke, J. L., 369

Lemon, M., 582

Lent, B., 508

Lentz, R., 60, 62, 328

Lenzini, J. J., 473

Leonard, A., 536, 538

Leonard, J. M., 318

Leone, T. J., 218

Leong, S. C., 581

Lepper, M. R., 211, 364, 368, 500

Lerche, T., 231

Leroux-Demers, T., 219

Lesgold, A. M., 500, 607, 609

Lester, J. C., 106, 108, 155, 204, 208, 500, 508, 509, 510, 511, 512, 513, 514, 515, 516, 518, 598

Leu, D. J. J., 250, 262, 355, 356, 369

Leutner, D., 45, 66, 81, 126, 142, 155, 179, 197, 211, 468, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 478, 479, 480, 483, 519, 570, 578, 580

Levie, H. W., 60, 62

Levie, W., 328

Levin, H. M., 100

Levin, J., 152

Levin, J. A., 219

Levin, J. R., 56, 60, 333

Levonen, J. J., 300, 308, 362

Levstik, L. S., 382, 385

Lewalter, D., 433, 493

Lewis, E. L., 219

Lewis, M. W., 14, 110, 232, 233, 273, 278, 280

Li, L., 114

Li, Y., 251, 252, 253, 256

Liao, Y. C., 571

Light, L. L., 341

Liker, J. K., 105

Limón, M., 223

Lin, D. M., 572

Lin, H., 574, 579

Linden, P., 475, 481

Linn, M. C., 109, 215, 216, 218, 219, 490

Lipman, P. D., 341

Lipponen, L., 253, 254, 258, 267

Litvak, S., 530

Liu, M., 472

Lockhart, R., 474

Lockhart, R. S., 120, 125

Lockhorst, D., 257

Loconte, A., 535

Loftin, R. B., 529, 530, 538, 539, 540

Logie, R. H., 598

Loh, B., 383

Lohman, D. F., 328

Löhner, S., 224

Lohr, L., 251

Loizou, A., 279

Loman, N. L., 197, 299

Lomask, S. M., 222

Lomicka, L. L., 478

Long, D., 468

Long, M., 470

Long, M. H., 469

Lonn, S., 45, 82, 124, 155, 164, 191, 193, 271, 283, 293, 343, 407, 515, 518, 601

Loo, R., 104

Lorch, E. P., 299, 305

Lorch, R. F., 305

Lorch, R. F., Jr., 197, 299

Lort, M., 380, 381

Lou, Y., 100, 101, 102

Lovett, M., 360

Low, H. L., 538

Low, R., xv, 6, 102, 147, 153, 178, 192, 197, 235, 343, 398, 399, 400, 404, 405, 518, 610

Lowe, C. A., 255, 264

Lowe, K. K., 493

Lowe, R. K., xv, 7, 53, 288, 292, 293, 294, 333, 429, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 440, 457, 458, 459

Luca, J., 251

Lucassen, B., 559

Luke, N., 555, 560

Lund, K., 223

Lundberg, I., 360

Lundeberg, M., 511

Lundgren-Cayrol, K., 255, 258, 262

Luursema, J. J., 80

Lyman-Hager, M. A., 472

Lynch, T., 468

Lynn, S., 382

Lyons, C., 596, 602

Lyster, R., 476, 481

Ma, R., 360

MacArthur, C. A., 386

MacArthur, C. D., 386

Macaulay, D., 456

Macedo-Rouet, M., 302

MacEneaney, J. E., 272

MacLatchy-Gaudet, H., 276

Macpherson, K. A., 239

Maddux, C. D., 590

Maehr, M. L., 127

Maes, P., 508, 509

Mageau, T., 590

Maheshwari, P., 454, 457

Maier, U. H., 238, 239, 335

Maj, L., 535

Mallett, A., 539

Mamelak, A. N., 532

Mandl, H., 109, 234, 238, 242, 275

Manlove, S., 217, 218, 219, 224

Mannes, B., 316

Mannes, S., 300

Maouri, C., 576

Maran, N. J., 80

Marchigiani, E., 571

Marcus, N., 30

Margrain, S., 149

Markman, A. B., 450

Marks, C., 37, 516

Mars, R., 45, 140, 147, 162, 167, 190, 328, 492, 498

Marshall, S., 383, 440, 560

Martens, R. L., 80, 85, 345, 346

Martin, A., 380, 381

Martin, H., 362

Martin, M., 418

Martin, N., 422

Martin, R. J., 578

Martinez-Jiménez, P., 531

Marttunen, M., 251, 253, 254–256

Marx, N., 410, 411, 412, 414, 421, 425

Marx, R., 411

Mason, M. E. J., 482

Mason, R. A., 379

Massa, L. J., 104, 111

Massara, A., 535

Massaro, D., 106, 512, 516

Masterman, E., 382

Mastropieri, M. A., 62

Masunaga, H., 105

Mathias, A., 79, 173, 176, 346, 594, 602, 604, 610

Matzko, M., 560

Mautone, P. D., 85, 177, 192, 204, 207, 223, 608

Mayer, R. E., xiii, xv, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 11, 15, 23, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 44, 45, 46, 50, 56, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 71, 77, 79, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85, 99, 104, 106, 108, 111, 117, 118, 119–120, 121–122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 132, 136, 139–141, 143–144, 146, 147, 155, 160, 162, 164, 167, 169, 170, 173, 175, 176, 177, 178, 185, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 197, 201, 202, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 216, 220, 221, 223, 235, 236, 271, 275, 278, 283, 291, 292, 293, 294, 299, 304, 306, 308, 316, 323, 328, 333, 335, 339, 342, 343, 345, 346, 357, 367, 393, 396, 398, 400, 401, 402–403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 409, 422, 423, 433, 452, 453, 457, 459, 460, 468, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 479, 480, 483, 489, 490, 491, 492, 493, 498, 499, 500, 507, 508, 509, 510, 512, 513, 514, 515, 516, 517, 518, 538, 540, 561, 562, 570, 575, 578, 580, 581, 584, 593, 594, 596, 598, 600, 601, 602, 604, 608, 610

Mayer, S., 83, 106, 176, 178, 205, 209, 275, 278, 283, 345, 346, 514, 515, 516

Mayr, U., 105, 341, 343, 345

Mazur-Rimetz, S., 162

McArthur, D., 110

McCabe, R., 360

McCalla, G., 500

McCallum, G. A., 125

McClean, C., 539

McClean, P., 530

McCloskey, M., 455

McCombs, B. L., 32, 33

McConkie, G. W., 359

McDaniel, M. A., 482

McDermott, J., 21

McDonald, S., 304, 572, 573, 577

McEwan, L. A., 250, 261

McEwan, P. J., 100

McFarlane, A., 559

McGee, J., 528

McGee, P., 369

McGinn, M., 411

McGlynn, D., 530

McGovern, L., 299

McKenna, M., 356, 366, 369

McKenna, M. C., 360, 363, 367

McKeown, M. G., 363

McKillop, A. M., 364

McKnight, C., 318, 584

McLarty, K., 362

McLaughlin, C., 251

McNamara, D. S., 56, 275, 280, 461

McNish, M. M., 362, 364, 368, 380

Meakin, L., 539

Meister, G. R., 100

Melara, G., 572

Mendozzi, L., 532, 535

Merrill, D. C., 224

Merrill, M. D., 72, 87

Merrill, M. M., 83, 208, 234, 238, 239, 402–403, 404, 406

Merrill, S. K., 224

Mestre, J. P., 81

Meyer, B. J. F., 298

Meyer, H. A., 127

Meyer, K. A., 250, 261

Meyers, S. D.

Michas, I. C., 602

Middleton, T., 531

Mielke, K. W., 98, 99

Millar, R., 216

Miller, A. C., 340

Miller, D. P., 302, 303

Miller, G. A., 21, 24, 35, 361, 368, 596

Miller, L., 357

Miller, M. S., 56

Miller, R., 219

Miller, W., 161

Millis, K. K., 53, 64

Millogo, V., 300, 304

Mills, R., 366

Mintz, F. E., 440

Mintz, R., 530

Mishra, P., 576

Mitchell, D. R. D., 341

Mitchell, P., 528, 536, 537, 538

Mitchell, W. L., 539

Mitrovic, A., 106, 508, 509, 511, 512, 516

Miyake, A., 55

Mohageg, M. F., 306

Mohl, R., 544

Mohler, T., 531

Molinari, E., 532

Monk, A., 318

Monk, J. M., 545

Monk-Turner, E., 250, 252, 261

Montello, D. R., 454

Montemayor, J., 539

Montgomery, C., 422

Moon, Y., 509

Moore, C. A., 579

Moore, J., 302

Moore, M. G., 341

Moore, P. J., 66, 279, 580

Moreledge, D., 539

Moreno, R., xv, 7, 32, 45, 46, 61, 77, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85, 99, 106, 108, 122, 140, 144, 155, 164, 170, 178, 185, 191, 193, 194, 195, 197, 204, 206, 207, 208, 210, 217, 218, 220, 223, 235, 271, 290, 291, 329, 343, 400, 401, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 433, 452, 456, 460, 491, 492, 498, 500, 507, 508, 509, 510, 512, 513, 514, 515, 516, 517, 518, 538, 540, 570, 575, 581, 598, 600, 601, 604, 608, 610

Moriarty, S., 494

Morling, A., 532

Moro, W., 535

Morrell, R. W., 347

Morris, A., 508, 516

Morris, A. W., 249

Morris, B. A., 219, 559

Morrison, G. R., 99

Morrison, J. B., 290, 294, 346, 456, 457, 458

Moshell, J. M., 530, 531, 539

Moskal, P. J., 125

Motoda, H., 458

Motta, A., 532

Moundridou, M., 106, 107, 512

Mousavi, S. Y., 102, 153, 178, 192, 197, 235, 343, 398, 399, 400, 404, 405, 518, 610

Mulhern, J., 319

Muller, J., 106, 107, 509, 512, 514, 517

Mulligan, C. F., 125

Mulligan, C. P., 125

Mumme, D., 211

Munsie, S., 496, 497

Murdock, B. B., Jr., 149

Murphy, K. L., 254–256, 258, 268

Muyskens, J. A., 479

Mwangi, W., 235, 238, 276

Myers, J., 364, 369

Myers, J. L., 478

Nachmias, R., 215, 216

Nadolski, R. J., 81, 616

Naeve, A., 530

Nagao, K., 508

Najimi, A., 477

Najjar, L. J., 271

Nakamura, C., 7, 489

Nakheh, M., 410

Narayanan, N. H., 289, 290, 291, 329, 433, 448, 453, 456, 457, 458, 459, 461, 602, 603, 604, 610

Nardi, B. A., 249

Nass, C., 108, 202, 509

Nathan, M. J., 400–401, 403, 404, 405

National Assessment of Educational Progress, 389

National Center for History in the Schools, 377

National Reading Panel, 356

National Research Council, 411, 551, 560

Neale, H., 528, 529, 536, 538, 539

Neale, H. R., 535, 536, 539

Neisser, U., 119, 151

Nelson, T., 477, 569

Nelson, W. A., 559

Neuman, B., 472

Neuman, Y., 273, 278

Neumann, U., 528

Newman, D., 559

Newton, D., 261

Nguyen, 590

Nicholson, A. E., 431

Niederhauser, D. S., 315, 362, 575, 577

Nielsen, J., 303, 571

Niemi, C., 178

Niemivirta, M., 253, 258

Nigam, M., 220

Nijhoff, W. J., 84

Nikolova, O. R., 477

Nilsson, R. M., 304, 306, 308, 578

Nisbett, R. E., 76

Njoo, M., 110, 216, 217, 218, 223

Noah, D., 551, 553, 555, 561

Nobuyoshi, J., 476

Noh, T., 419, 422, 423, 425

Nolan, M., 551

Noon, S. L., 105

Norman, D. A., 9–10, 499, 509, 555, 562

Norman, G. R., 454, 457

Norman, K., 302

Norman, K. L., 303

Nosek, J., 318

Noss, R., 558

Nouri, H., 174, 190, 206

Oberauer, K., 126

Ocker, R. J., 250, 252

Oestermeier, U., 460

Office of Technology Assessment, 101

Ohlsson, S., 531

Okada, T., 223

Okolo, C. M., 386

Okonkwo, C., 511

Olin, K., 178

Olive, J., 558

Oliver, M., 258

Oliver, W., 477

Ollerenshaw, A., 328

Olson, J., 357

Olson, K., 372

Olson, R. K., 360, 367

Oltman, P. T., 579

Omaggio, C., 472

Omaggio Hadley, A. C., 479

O’Malley, C., 254

O’Malley, J. M., 468

O’Neil, H. F., 114, 178

O’Neill, D. K., 262, 380, 381, 385

Oostdam, R., 356

O’Reilly, M., 261

O’Reilly, T., 276

Orion, N., 454

Orly, Y., 252, 259

Osberg, K., 531

O’Shea, T., 251, 252, 253, 256

Oshima, J., 253

Oshima, R., 253

O’Sullivan, P., 600

Otter, M. E., 356

Otto, R. G., 497

Otto, S., 468

Oughton, J. M., 582

Overmaat, M., 356

Ozden, Y., 571, 578

Paas, F. G. W. C., xv, 7, 26, 27, 63, 64, 71, 72, 80, 81, 82, 108, 120, 126, 154, 179, 197, 211, 231, 335, 339, 341, 342, 343, 344, 347, 348, 598

Padovani, S., 578

Painchaud, G., 472

Paivio, A., 2, 34, 45, 54, 56, 63, 71, 92, 119, 121, 124, 222, 342, 367, 459, 472, 490, 493, 510, 561, 570

Palinscar, A. S., 279

Palmer, S. E., 56, 450

Palmeri, T. J., 77

Palmiter, S. L., 456

Palmquist, R. A., 580

Palonen, T., 253, 258

Pane, J. F., 456

Paolucci, R., 573

Papert, S., 551, 558, 559, 563

Paris, S., 361

Parise, S., 511

Park, O. C., 457

Parkinson, S., 302, 303

Parlangeli, O., 571

Parmley, M. W., 220, 555, 558

Parnell, R., 532

Parrish, P., 430

Parsons, S., 528, 536, 537, 538

Pasqualotti, A., 530

Payne, D. G., 315, 318, 321, 322

Payne, S. J., 534, 540

Pea, R. D., 491, 559

Peck, C., 550

Peeck, J., 64

Peirce, C. S., 494, 496

Pellegrini, A. D., 561

Penner, D. E., 218, 554

Penney, C. G., 23, 75, 149, 150

Perfetti, C. A., 56, 66, 300, 303, 379

Perkins, D. N., 76, 105, 363, 491, 561

Péruch, P., 538, 545

Peters, K. M., 262

Peterson, L., 22

Peterson, M., 22

Petz. W., 103

Phelps, A., 421

Phillips, C. B., 508

Philpott, L., 532

Piaget, J., 248

Pica, T., 469, 475, 476, 481

Picard, E., 333

Picciano, A. G., 254–256, 260, 262

Pickett, A., 103

Pickle, M., 363

Pieter, W., 250, 262

Pilkington, R. M., 253, 256, 261

Pintrich, P. R., 101, 102, 104, 519

Pirolli, P. L., 230, 273, 275

Plass, J. L., xv, 7, 45, 66, 126, 142, 155, 179, 197, 211, 467, 468, 469, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 478, 479, 480, 481, 483, 519, 570, 578, 580

Platner, M., 539

Ploger, D., 551, 558

Pollock, E., 79, 176, 329, 335, 346

Polo, J., 531

Polson, P., 20

Pontes-Pedraja, A., 531

Poole, D. M., 259, 260

Poole, M. J., 249, 251, 256

Poole, S., 550

Porteous, J., 539

Postovsky, V. A., 468

Potelle, H., xv, 7, 297, 305, 316, 317, 319, 321, 577

Potter, J., 532

Pouw, M., 572, 573

Powell, W., 605

Powers, D., 531

Pressley, M., 361

Prevost, S., 210

Prins, F., 221, 222, 223

Proffitt, D. R., 289, 290, 455, 465

Prothero, W., 177, 223, 608

Pugh, K., 369

Pugnetti, L., 532, 535

Pusack, J., 468

Quibble, Z., 307

Quilici, J. L., 80, 236, 290, 291, 329, 456

Quinlan, K. M., 376

Quintana, C., 224

Rada, R., 300, 315, 318, 571

Radinsky, J., 383

Radtke, P. H., 118

Rainer, K., 299

Rakestraw, J. A., Jr., 298, 299

Ramamurthy, K., 292, 579

Randel, J. M., 219, 559

Ranney, M., 263

Ranta, L., 476, 481

Raskin, E., 579

Rasmussen, K., 559, 579

Ratcliffe, A., 418

Ravid, G., 266

Rebetez, C., 289, 291

Recker, M. M., 230, 273

Reder, L., 161, 162

Reed, W. M., 472, 577, 582

Rees, E., 21

Reeves, B., 202, 509

Reeves, T. C., 262, 359, 474, 491, 562

Regian, J. W., 545

Reid, D. J., 218, 220, 222

Reigeluth, C. M., 240

Reimann, P., 14, 232, 233, 273, 278, 280, 333, 490, 493, 499, 500, 582

Reinert, H., 480, 580

Reinking, D., xv, 7, 272, 355, 356, 357, 358, 360, 361, 362, 363, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370

Reiser, B. J., 218, 224, 238, 383

Reitsma, P., 360

Remidez, H., 255, 258

Renkl, A., xv, 7, 26, 81, 82, 83, 109, 120, 127, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 274, 275, 278, 335, 342, 343

Renninger, K. A., 127

Rensink, R., 457

Resnick, M., 558

Reuter-Lorenz, P. A., 340

Reynard, G., 528, 536

Reynolds, H., 535

Reynolds, L., 366

Reynolds, N. R., 535

Reynolds, P., 150

Reynolds, R. E., 315, 362, 575, 577

Ricci, C. M., 364

Ricci, K. E., 125

Rice, M., 260, 261

Richardson, J., 584

Richardson, J. A., 104

Richardson, J. T., 104

Richey, R. C., 559

Rickel, J. W., 500, 508, 509, 516

Rickman, S. S., 361, 368

Riding, R. J., 104, 580

Rieber, L. P., xvi, 7, 120, 124, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 290, 456, 457, 493, 549, 550, 551, 553, 555, 556, 558, 560, 561, 563

Riempp, R., 292, 458

Rikers, R., 80, 344, 347

Ring, J., 360

Risko, V. J., 362, 368, 472

Rist, T., 106, 107, 509

Ritchey, K., 299

Riva, G., 532

Rivlin, E., 451

Rizzo, A. A., 528, 532

Roberts, G., 590

Robinson, N., 219

Rogers, W. A., 348

Rogers, Y., 251, 382, 465, 539

Roh, S.-Z., 303

Rohrer-Murphy, L., 561

Rollins, H. A., 150, 151

Roncarrelli, ?noalpha, 400

Rosch, E., 56

Roschelle, J., 558, 559

Roscoe, R. D., 276

Rose, A., 122

Rose, F. D., 532, 535, 536, 538, 540

Rose, H., 531

Rosenberg, J., 606

Rosenblit, L. G., 462

Ross, E., 369

Rost, M., 468

Roth, I., 318

Roth, W., 218

Roth, W.-M., 411

Rouet, J.-F., xvi, 7, 297, 300, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 308, 316, 317, 319, 321, 362, 379, 577

Rourke, L., 259, 261

Rovai, A., 250, 252

Roy, M., xvi, 7, 271

Roychoudhury, A., 218

Rubin, A., 367, 369

Ruddle, R. A., 534, 540, 545

Rummel, N., 241, 250

Russell, J., xvi, 7, 250, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 421, 425

Russell, T. L., 132

Rutten, A., 538

Ryan, R. L., 519

Ryokai, R., 106, 107

Rypma, B., 345

Ryu, J., 514

Sabol, M. A., 122, 125

Sadoski, M., 367, 561

Sahl, K., 369

Saint-Eidukat, B., 530

Salas, E., 316

Salden, R. J. C. M., 80

Salmen, D. J., 315, 362, 575, 577

Salmon, G., 257, 264

Salomon, G., 76, 83, 98, 99, 101, 102, 104, 248, 254, 358, 363, 367, 490, 491, 561

Salthouse, T. A., 341, 343, 345

Salzman, M. C., 529, 530, 538, 539, 540

Samarapungavan, A., 320, 321

Sampson, D., 106

Samuels, S. J., 473

Sandoval, W. A., 218

Sanger, M., 421, 422, 425

Sangin, M., 289, 291

Santos, J. G. E. D., 252, 263

Saussure, D., 494

Savelsbergh, E. R., 217, 218, 219, 224

Savery, J. R., 253

Saye, J. W., 389, 390

Scaife, M., 465, 539

Scanlon, E., 251, 252, 253, 256

Scardamalia, M., 380, 418

Scevak, J. J., 279

Schadelbach, H., 528

Schank, P., 416, 418, 423

Schank, R., 239

Scharmann, L., 419, 422, 423, 425

Schauble, L., 559

Scheiter, K., 80, 230, 234, 236, 238

Schmid, R. F., 250, 261

Schmidt, H. G., 343, 344, 347, 348

Schmidt, R., 471

Schmidt, R. A., 122

Schmitz, J., 320, 321

Schneider, V. I., 122, 360

Schneider, W., 21, 86, 148

Schnotz, W., xiii, xvi, 2, 6, 45, 46, 49, 54, 56, 63, 272, 288, 291, 292, 293, 294, 333, 409, 433, 446, 492, 493, 498

Schoenfeld, A. H., 240, 612

Schofield, N. J., 66, 580

Schoon, P., 573, 582

Schrader, P. G., 250, 262

Schramm, W., 98, 99

Schuh, J., 236

Schultze, R., 126

Schunk, D. H., 101, 102, 104, 519

Schuurman, J. G., 80

Schwan, S., 292, 294, 458

Schwartz, B. J., 20

Schwartz, D. L., 453, 455

Schwartz, M. N. K., 299

Schwarz, B., 273, 278

Schwarz, C. V., 559

Schweitzer, K., 231

Schwen, T. M., 575

Schwenz, R., 413

Schwert, D. P., 530

Schworm, S., 234, 241

Scifers, E. L., 255

Scott, J., 539

Scruggs, T. E., 62

Segers, E., 360

Seibert, D., 224, 319, 490

Seignon, N., 127

Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, P., 251

Seixas, P., 376, 381

Severance, C., 275

Sha, L., 380, 381

Shaffer, L. H., 150

Shallice, T., 54

Shank, P., 263

Shapiro, A. M., xvi, 7, 304, 305, 313, 316, 317, 318, 320, 321, 362, 572, 574

Sharit, J., 347

Sharp, D. L. M., 362, 472

Shavelson, R. J., 551

Shaw, E., 508, 511, 519

Shaw, G. P., 250, 258, 262

Shaw, R., 508, 516

Shea, P., 103

Shebilske, W. L., 545

Shehadeh, A., 476

Sheldon, S., 369

Shemilt, D., 381

Sherman, L., 539

Shiffrin, R. M., 21, 24, 45, 54, 56

Shneiderman, B., 301, 303, 509

Short, J., 266

Shotsberger, P. G., 250

Shute, V. J., 109, 218

Siegler, R., 276, 284

Silberstein, S., 473

Simon, D., 21

Simon, H. A., 20, 21, 35, 63, 137, 163, 223, 457, 461, 595

Simpson, A., 318

Sims, S., 76

Sims, V. K., 45, 55, 84, 124, 144, 195, 292, 455, 457, 458, 460

Simsarian, K., 539

Singer, M. J., 219

Singh, N., 161

Sinkoff, E., 508

Sisson, N., 302, 303

Skinner, B. F., 468

Skolmoski, P., 315, 362, 575, 577

Skovronek, E., 341

Slamecka, N. J., 457, 461

Slator, B. M., 530

Slotta, J., 218

Sluijsmans, D. M. A., 81

Smith, B., 218

Smith, B. K., 382

Smith, E. E., 299

Smith, G. G., 250, 261

Smith, J., 333, 555, 560

Smith-Kerker, P., 162

Smith, M., 555, 556

Smith, R. B., 251, 252, 253, 256

Snapp, J., 316

Snow, R., 328

Snow, R. E., 99, 127, 328, 500

Snowberry, C., 302, 303

Sobko, K., 204, 207

Soederberg Miller, L. M., 56

Sohbat, E., 380, 381, 385

Solman, R., 161

Soloway, E., 411, 492, 493

Songer, B. B., 256, 258

Songer, N. B., 56, 109, 461

Soraci, S., Jr., 362

Sorensen, F. K, 269

Sotillo, S. M., 250, 254–256, 259

Spada, H., 241, 250

Spahi, F., 555, 556

Spelke, E., 151

Spero, L., 454, 457

Sperotable, L., 454

Spieler, D. H., 341

Spires, H. A., 106, 108, 155, 204, 208, 500, 508, 510, 512, 513, 514, 515, 516, 598

Spiro, R. J., 320, 321, 362, 367, 570, 571

Spoehr, K. T., 376, 378–379, 383, 384, 385

Spoehr, L. W., 376, 378

Sproull, L., 509, 511

Spruijt, S., 573

Spyridakis, J. H., 298, 299

Squire, K., 539

Stacey, E., 260, 261

Stahl, S. A., 104, 362, 364, 368, 380

Staley, R., 238, 239, 335

Standal, T. C., 298, 299

Standen, P. J., 535, 538, 540

Stanezak, L., 340

Stanovich, K. E., 365

Stanton, D., 532, 533, 534, 538, 539, 540

Stanton, N. A., 304, 305

Stark, R., 109, 234, 238, 242, 275

Stasko, J. T., 290

Steinbacher, S., 155

Steinhoff, K., 45, 140, 328, 455

Steinmuller, F., 218

Stelling, G., 509

Stenning, K., 457

Stern, H. W., 118

Stern, J. L., 219

Sternberg, R. J., 36, 333

Steuer, J., 108

Stevens, A., 562

Stevenson, R. J., 304, 572, 573, 577

Stieff, M., 414

Stiehl, C., 328

Stigler, J. W., 240

Stine, E. A., 341, 343

Stine-Morrow, E. A. L., 56

Stock, W. A., 61

Stoltzfus, E. R., 341, 345

Stone, B., 509

Straetmans, G., 81

Streumer, J. N., 84

Strickland, W., 555, 556

Stroup, W., 558, 559

Subramani, R., 509

Sugrue, B., 118, 128

Sullivan, H., 253, 256

Sullivan, J., 210

Sullivan, M. A., 86

Sun, Y., 220

Sundblad, Y., 539

Sung, Y.-C., 299

Suraweera, P., 106, 508, 509, 511, 512, 516

Süß, H.-M., 126

Susskind, T., 412

Sutcliffe, A., 460

Sutherland, R. J., 532

Suthers, D. D., 252, 261, 262, 263

Sutton-Smith, B., 561

Suwa, M., 458

Svejda, M., 542

Svetcov, D., 589

Swaak, J., 215, 220, 222

Swaffar, J., 473

Swain, M., 468, 469, 476, 481

Swan, K., 103, 381

Swanson, H. L., 62

Sweller, J., xiii, xvi, 2, 6, 15, 19, 20, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 34, 35, 41, 45, 46, 63, 64, 65, 71, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 92, 102, 105, 108, 109, 110, 119, 120, 121, 123, 124, 126, 127, 128, 135, 137, 138, 139, 141–142, 143, 147, 153, 154, 155, 159, 161, 162–163, 164, 170, 176, 178, 184, 192, 193, 194, 195, 197, 200, 210, 220, 222, 223, 230, 231, 232, 235, 236, 238, 272, 276, 283, 327, 329, 330, 331, 332, 334, 335, 339, 342, 343, 346, 397–398, 399, 400, 403, 404, 405, 409, 510, 517, 518, 575, 576, 596, 597, 598, 599, 601, 604, 610

Swinney, D. A., 299

Symons, C. S., 516, 518

Symons, S., 276

Syri, J., 253, 258

Tabak, L., 218

Tabbers, H. K., xvi, 7, 83, 85, 126, 179, 197, 211, 345, 346, 347

Takeuchi, A., 508

Takle, E. S., 269

Tao, L., 363

Tapangco, L., 45, 147, 162, 167, 190, 492, 498

Tapola, A., 253, 258

Tarmizi, R. A., 137, 138, 232, 235, 397–398, 403, 404, 405

Taxén, G., 530, 539

Taylor, L. B., 532

Taylor, R. G., 304, 305

Teale, W. H., 250, 262

Teasley, S. D., 275

Tedder, M. L., 300

Teeken, J. C., 341

Teichert, H. U., 475

Tennyson, A., 500

Tergan, S., 321

Terjak, M., 360

Terrell, T., 479

Thagard, P. R., 76

Thibadeau, R., 150

Thibodeau-Hardman, P., 81

Thiebaux, M., 528

Thinus-Blanc, C., 532, 533, 538

Thomas, M. J. W., 251

Thomas, P., 413

Thorisson, 516

Thorndike, E. L., 11

Thurman, R. A., 178

Tierney, P., 26, 109, 138, 194, 197, 398, 404, 405

Tindall-Ford, S., 27, 28, 85, 154, 178, 195, 330, 343, 598, 610

Tinker, R., 415

Tlauka, M., 532, 534

Tobias, S., xvi, 3, 6, 117, 118, 120, 123, 127, 128, 362

Torres-Quiñones, S. S., 479

Toulmin, S., 255

Towne, L., 551

Towns, S. G., 508, 509, 511, 516, 518

Townsend, M., 316

Trafton, J. G., 238, 440

Treisman, A. M., 151

Treng, S., 220, 221, 222, 223, 555, 556, 563

Tribble, K., 220, 221, 222, 223, 555, 556, 563

Trickett, S., 440

Trinidade, J., 530, 531

Tron, M., 319

Trumpower, D. L., 304

Tseng, H., 511

Tufte, E. R., 451

Tung L. L., 302

Tuovinen, J. E., 81, 105, 109, 126, 179, 197, 211, 220, 222, 223, 231, 331, 332, 347, 518, 596

Turner, A., 20

Turner, T. E., 104

Tversky, B., 288, 290, 291, 293, 294, 346, 453, 455, 456, 457, 458

Tweedie, L. A., 304, 305

Ulivi, M. S., 341

Underwood, J., 474

Undheim, J., 131

University of Texas, 479

Uribe, D., 253, 256

Ushakov, A., 418

Vagge, S., 45, 84, 195, 343

Vahey, P., 223

Valanides, N., 255, 261

Valdez, F., 83

Vallar, G., 54

van Berkum, J. J., 110

Van Boxtel, M. P. J., 341

Van den Branden, K., 476, 481

van den Broek, P., 299

van der Maij, J., 216, 221, 223

van der Meij, H., 162, 256

van der Zaag, C., 528, 532

van Dijk, T. A., 53, 55, 56, 65, 298, 299

Van Dyke, J., 379

Van Gerven, P. W. M., xvi, 7, 126, 179, 197, 211, 343, 344, 347, 348

van Gog, T., 81

van Joolingen, W. R., 109, 110, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 222, 223, 224, 552, 557, 558, 605

Van Labeke, N., 221, 457

Van Loon, E. M., 341

van Merriënboer, J. J. G., xiii, xvi, 2, 6, 26, 27, 63, 64, 71, 72, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 105, 108, 110, 127, 154, 231, 240, 334, 335, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 598, 616

Van Meter, P., 283

van Mulken, S., 106, 509, 511, 512, 514, 516, 517

van Nimwegen, C., 572, 573

van Oostendorp, H., 304, 305, 572, 573, 575

van Rijn, H., 221, 222, 223

Van Rooyen, A., 528

van Someren, M., 221, 222, 223

Van Willis, W., 422

Vanderbilt University (Cognition & Technology Group), 357, 367

Vanderbilt University (Learning Technology Center), 362

VanLehn, K., 234, 240, 275, 284

Vassileva, J., 500, 511

Vaucelle, C., 106, 107

Veen, W., 257

Veenman, M. V. J., 109

Veerman, A., 250, 256, 257

Veermans, K. H., 218, 222, 224

Veldhuis-Diermanse, D., 250, 256, 257

Verdi, M. P., 333

Verhoeven, L., 360

Vicente, K. J., 318

Vidal-Abarca, E., 300, 304, 306

Vila, J., 582

Villa, J. L., 385

Vinther, T., 472

Virvou, M., 106, 107, 512

Vispoel, W., 320, 321

Voss, J. F., 378, 379, 380, 383, 384, 385

Vye, N. J., 362

Vygotsky, L., 248, 471

Wade, A., 100, 101, 102

Wade, S. E., 478

Wagner, D., 355

Walker, C., 468

Walker, J. H., 509

Walker, S., 366

Walker, S. A., 253, 256, 261

Wallet, P. A., 100, 101, 102

Walsh, P., 318

Wang, F.-M., 302

Wang, H.-Y., 319

Wang, J., 576

Wang, M., 249, 251, 256

Wang, S., 254

Ward, M., 138, 235

Warr, P., 341

Warschauer, M., 467

Watanabe, Y., 473

Waters, K., 511

Waterworth, E. L., 526

Waterworth, J. A., 526

Watkins, J., 365, 368, 370

Watson, J., 468

Waugh, M., 219

Webber, C. L., 508

Weber, S., 231

Wenger, E., 259, 411

Wenger, M. J., 315, 318, 321, 322

Wertsch, J., 254

Wessling, R., 360

Wetzel, C. D., 118, 219, 559

Wetzell, K., 79, 173, 176, 346, 594, 602, 604, 610

Wey, P. S., 318

Whelan, S. M., 289, 290, 455, 465

White, A., 530

White, B. Y., 217, 551, 554, 558, 559

Whitehill, B. V., 219, 559

Whitley, L. K., 582

Whitten, W. B., 318

Wickens, C. D., 120, 538, 540, 575

Wiederhold, B. K., 532, 537

Wiederhold, M. D., 537

Wiemer-Hastings, K., 509

Wigfield, A., 102, 105

Wilensky, U., 414

Wiley, J., xvi, 7, 299, 375, 378, 379, 380, 383, 384, 385

Wilhelm, O., 126

Wilkins, L., 539

Williams, F., 266

Williams, H. P., 538, 540

Williams, M. D., 345

Williamson, V., 420, 425

Williges, R. C., 318

Willoughby, T., 76

Wilson, J. R., 526, 528, 530, 531, 536, 539, 540

Wilson, M., 509

Wilson, P. N., 532, 533, 534, 538, 540

Windschitl, M., 369

Wineburg, S. S., 362, 377, 378, 381, 384, 385

Wingfield, A., 341, 343

Winn, W., 279, 529, 531, 538

Winne, P. H., 499, 500

Wise, B. W., 360, 367

Wiser, D. C., 422

Wisher, R. A., 122, 125

Witkin, H. A., 574, 579

Witmer, B. G., 534

Wittig, H., 508

Wittman, W. W., 126

Wittrock, M. C., 34, 37, 490, 516

Wohldmann, E., 122

Wollensak, A., 531

Wong, R. M. F., 274, 278, 281

Wood, B., 508

Wood, C., 363

Wood, D., 272

Wood, E., 76

Wood, R., 582

Woods, D., 369

Woodward, A., 124

Woolverton, M., 211

Wortham, D. W., 81, 230

Wozney, L., 100, 101, 102

Wray, D., 259

Wright, P., 300

Wright, R., 490, 496

Wu, H.-K., 492, 493

Wubbels, T., 257

Wyatt, C., 307

Wykoff, J., 412

Xie, Q., 415

Yair, Y., 530

Yang, C.-C., xvi, 7, 247

Yang, E.-M., 421, 425

Yarborough, J. C., 298

Yaverbaum, G. J., 250, 252

Yeh, S., 474, 476, 481, 574, 576

Yelsma, P., 371

Yildirim, Z., 571, 578

York, H., 475, 481

Yoshii, M., 473

Young, A. W., 66

Young, E. Y., 400–401, 403, 404, 405

Young, K. M., 378

Young, M. F., 576

Young, R., 475

Youngblut, C., 118, 529

Younger, M., 600

Yu, B.-M., 303

Zacks, J. M., 291, 293, 458

Zacks, R. T., 341, 343, 345

Zammit, K., 369

Zaphiris, P., 303

Zarnekow, R., 508

Zelinski, E. M., 341

Zettlemoyer, L. S., 509

Zhang, H., 312

Zhang, J., 218, 220, 222

Zhao, Y., 369, 550

Zhu, X., 137

Zola, D., 359

Zumbach, J., 582

Zwaan, R. A., 53, 64





Subject Index

Illustrative materials are fully indexed under the entry “tables, charts, and figures.”


4C/ID-model, see four-component instructional design model

4M:Chem (now SMV:Chem), 412–414, 423

ACCESS, 378–379

achievement or performance

   assessing, see assessment

   intelligence, connection between, 105, 110

active learning, 14–15

   APAs (animated pedagogical agents), 510, 515, 516, 518

   cognitive processes involved in, 37

   cognitive theory, active processing assumption behind, 35–36

   historical background to concept, 44–45, 119

   knowledge structures involved in, 36–37

   mathematics, 404

   pictures, processing of, 42

   spoken words, processing of, 44

   working memory and active processing assumption of cognitive theory, 47

activity theory

   CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning), 254, 264

   games, simulations, and microworlds, 561

adaptive site maps, 322

ADDIE (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) model, 87

additive coding, 124, 129

additivity of visual and auditory capacities, lack of evidence for, 152

advance organizers

   defined, 483, 584

   hypermedia learning, 573–575, 584

   site map principle, 316, 322

   SLA (second language acquisition), see second language acquisition (SLA) with multimedia

age

   cognitive changes related to, see cognitive aging principle

   hypermedia learning research, age of learners studied in, 581, 583

agent-based instruction, see animated pedagogical agents; image principle

Air Force Armstrong Laboratory Test Development Center, 126

analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation (ADDIE) model, 87

ANIMATE, 400–401, 405

animated pedagogical agents (APAs), 507–508

   active learning, 510, 515, 516, 518

   animation and image effects, distinguishing between, 514

   anthropomorphism

     arguments in favor of and against, 509

     cognitive theory and, 510, 517

   cognitive load theory, 517

   cognitive skills and multimedia learning, future research in, 500

   cognitive theory

     implications of research for, 516–518

     model for multimedia learning with APAs, 511

     predictions about APA design drawn from, 509–510

   content areas for future research, 520

   cost-efficient principle, 518

   defined, 211, 507

   definitions pertinent to, 520

   examples of, 508–509

   false assumptions regarding effect of, 106–108

   future directions in research, 519–520

   guided-discovery principle, 515, 516, 518

   image principle, see image principle

   instructional design implications, 518–519

   interactivity principle, 515, 516, 518

   interest hypothesis (motivation), 510

     animation and image effects, distinguishing between, 514

     cognitive theory, implications of research for, 516

     distinguishing between image and modality effects, 514

     image effect, 512, 513, 514

     persona effect, 511–512

   internal vs. external properties, 508, 516, 519

   limitations of research on, 516

   modality principle, 515, 516, 518

   persona effect, 511–512

   personalization principle, 515, 516, 518

   redundancy principle, 510, 515, 516, 518

   reflection principle, 518

   role in multimedia learning, 509

   self-explanation principle, 516

   split-attention principle, 510, 512, 513, 514, 517

   summary of research results, 517

   survey of research on, 511–516

   transfer vs. retention testing, 512

animation principle, 7, 287–288

   see also image principle

   active exploration of phenomenon, encouraging, 289

   apprehension principle, 294

   attention-guiding principle, 294

   cognitive conflicts, presenting, 289

   cognitive theory, implications for, 293

   congruence principle, 294

   contiguity principle, 292

   definition of concepts, 287–288, 295

   e-learning, use of animation in, see e-learning

   examples of scenarios using, 288–289

   flexibility principle, 295

   hypermedia learning, 576

   image and animation effects, distinguishing between, 514

   instructional design implications, 293–295

   interactivity and, see interactivity principle

   limitations of research on, 292–293

   mathematics, use of dynamic graphics to teach, see mathematics and multimedia learning

   meteorological dynamics, research on providing students with explicit information about, 437–440

   modality principle, 292

   physical systems, use of animated graphics in, see physical systems and multimedia learning

   prior knowledge, effect of, 292, 293, 329

   signaling principle, 292, 295

   spatial abilities of learners, 292

   survey of research on, 122–123, 289–292

   visualization and mental representation processes, supporting, 288

annotations, SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 472, 473–474, 483

anthropomorphism of APAs (animated pedagogical agents)

   arguments in favor of and against, 509

   cognitive theory and, 510, 517

anticipative reasoning

   self-explanation principle, 274

   worked-out examples principle, 234, 237, 238

APAs, see animated pedagogical agents

apperception and SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 470, 471–472, 483

apprehension principle

   animation principle, 294

   cognitive aging principle, 346, 348

   defined, 348

   physical systems and multimedia learning, 458

aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) research

   chemistry and multimedia learning, 425

   defined, 129

   multimedia principle, 127–128, 129

   physical systems and multimedia learning, 457

   prior knowledge principle, 332

Armstrong Laboratory Test Development Center (Air Force), 126

assessment

   CSCL, see computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL)

   examinations as form

     CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning), 262

   examinations as form of

     transfer and retention, see transfer vs. retention testing

   guided-discovery principle and problems with

     learning outcomes, 222

     learning process, 222

   history and multimedia learning, 385

   mathematics and multimedia learning, 404, 407

   prior knowledge principle, 335

   SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 478, 481, 483

   transfer and retention, see transfer and retention testing

   VR and VE (virtual reality and virtual environments), 540

assimilation theory and site map principle, 319

assumptions about multimedia learning

   cognitive theory, assumptions underlying, 32–33

   dual coding theory, see dual coding theory

   false assumptions not supported by research, 97–98, 110–111

     animated pedagogical agents, effect of, 106–108

     different learning styles supported by multimedia learning, 103–106

     discovery learning environments, 108–110

     greater learning benefits from multimedia, 98–101

     motivation and interest, 101–103, 104, 106–108

asynchronous e-learning, 591–592, 612

asynchronous vs. synchronous tools in CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning), 250, 264, 266

ATI, see aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) research

attention-guiding principle and use of animation, 294

auditory processing

   animation, audio narration used to explain, 604

   cognitive aging and sensory deficits, 341

   cognitive theory and processing of spoken words, 43–44

   complex visual content explained with audio narration, 598–599

   e-learning, 598–601

   environmental sounds, use of, 600

   hypermedia learning, 575

   integrated model of text and picture comprehension

     auditory picture comprehension (sound comprehension), 58, 67

     listening comprehension, 58, 67

   mathematics, spoken text used to teach, 393

   see also mathematics and multimedia learning

   music, use of, 600

   physical systems, use of spoken materials to teach, 452

   redundant or extraneous audio, omission of, 599–601

   SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 472, 478, 483

   spoken vs. written word processing, see modality principle

   visual processing vs., see dual coding theory

automated cognitive defaults due to sensory overload, 102

automated processing

   cognitive load theory, see cognitive load theory

   4C/ID-model, automation of schemata in, 76

behavioral activity, 14–15

behavioral psychology

   hypermedia, 570

   SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 468

Belvedere, 262, 263

Berkeley, Bishop George, 118, 123, 130

BGuILE, 218, 220

BioWorld, 496–498

CAI (computer-assisted instruction), 8

Center for Applied Special Technology, 368

characteristics of learners, see learner characteristics

charts, see tables, charts, and figures

ChemDiscovery (formerly ChemQuest), 418–419

Chemical Change, 420

chemistry and multimedia learning, 409

   ATI (aptitude-treatment interaction) research, 425

   cognitive theory

     applicability of, 409–410

     implications for, 423–424

   concepts and principles, learning

     examples of multimedia learning of chemistry, 412–416

     theoretical underpinnings, 409–410

   contiguity principle, 410

   definitions pertinent to, 425

   examples of multimedia learning tools, 412–419

     ChemDiscovery (formerly ChemQuest), 418–419

     Chemical Change, 420

     ChemSense, 416–418, 423

     concepts and principles, learning, 412–416

     Connected Chemistry, 414–415

     Molecular Workbench, 415–416

     need for further research into, 425

     practice, learning chemistry as, 416–419

     SMV:Chem (formerly 4M:Chem), 412–414, 423

   future directions in research, 424–425

   gender-based differences, 420, 422, 425

   instructional design implications, 424

   interactive molecular modeling graphics, 421–422, 425

   interactivity principle, 410

   learner characteristics, 425

   limitations of research, 422–423

   modality principle, 410

   multimedia principle, 410

   practice, learning chemistry as

     examples of multimedia learning of chemistry, 416–419

     need for additional research on, 425

     theoretical underpinnings, 410–412

   representations and representational competence, 410–412, 418, 425

   signaling principle, 410

   situative theory, 410–412, 426

   spatial abilities of learners, 421, 425

   survey of research on, 419–422

ChemQuest (now ChemDiscovery), 418–419

ChemSense, 416–418, 423

chess and evidence for extensive long-term memory, 20

chunking

   cognitive load theory, 24

   limited capacity assumption, cognitive theory, 35

cinema, see film

CLP, 218

CLT, see cognitive load theory

CMDA (Computer-Mediated Discourse Analysis), 262, 264

Co-Lab, 219, 220

cognitive activity, 14–15

cognitive aging principle, 7, 339–340

   apprehension principle, 346, 348

   cognitive architecture and, 342

   cognitive load theory, 343, 347

   cognitive theory, 343

   coherence principle, 343, 344

   definitions pertinent to, 348

   dual coding theory, 342

   future directions in research, 347–348

   instructional design

     future directions in, 347–348

     learner control and parts-whole sequencing, 345–347, 348

     research on instructional mechanisms for dealing with cognitive aging, 343–345

     theoretical framework, implications of, 342–343

   just-in-time information presentations, 347, 348

   learner control issues, 345–347

   modality principle, 344, 345

   multimedia techniques’ significance for older learners, 348

   parts-whole sequencing (segmenting principle), 345–347, 348

   phenomenon of cognitive aging, survey of research on, 340–341

   prior knowledge principle, 342, 347

   reduced inhibition, 341, 344, 345, 348

   reduced integration or coordination, 341, 344, 345, 348

   reduced processing speed, 341, 344, 345, 348

   reduced working memory capacity, 340, 344, 349

   redundancy principle, 343, 344

   sensory deficits in older learners, 341

   sensory memory, 342

   signaling principle, 343, 344

   spatial contiguity principle, 343, 344

   table of declines and possible compensatory strategies, 344

   temporal contiguity principle, 343, 344

   theoretical framework, 342–343

   training variability, 348, 349

   worked-out examples principle, 348

cognitive aid, multimedia learning viewed as, 10

cognitive approach to SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 468

cognitive architecture

   cognitive aging principle, 342

   cognitive theory, 19

   defined, 28

   4C/ID-model, 75–77

   importance of understanding, 19

   instructional methods research and, 100

   integrated model, 49, 54, 59

cognitive capacity

   cognitive aging principle and reduced working memory capacity, 340, 344, 349

   defined, 170, 180, 198, 349

cognitive defaults, automated, 102

cognitive economy, integrated model of text and picture comprehension, 64, 67

cognitive flexibility theory

   hypermedia, 570, 571

   reading comprehension, 362, 367

   site map principle, 320, 321

cognitive load theory, 19, 120

   APAs (animated pedagogical agents), 517

   automated processing

     conscious or automatic processing of material held in long-term memory, 21

     defined, 28

     relations between long-term and working memory, 24, 25

   chunking, 24

   cognitive aging principle, 343, 347

   cognitive theory (Mayer) compared, 45, 46

   definitions pertinent to, 28–29, 130

   discovery learning environments, false assumptions regarding, 108

   e-learning and cognitive load management

     animation, use of, 603–604

     instructional design, 596

   element interactivity, see element interactivity

   evolutionary theory and, 19

     relations between long-term and working memory, 25

     working memory limitations, reasons for, 23

   expertise reversal effect, 27

   extraneous cognitive load, 26–27, 180

   germane cognitive load, 27

   guided-discovery principle, 222–223

   historical background, 120

   hypermedia learning, 578

   instructional design consequences, 19, 596

     central executive of working memory, instructional guidance acting as, 26–28

     e-learning and cognitive load management, 596

     working memory limitations, implications of, 22, 23

   intrinsic cognitive load, see intrinsic cognitive load

   long-term memory, 19

     conscious or automatic processing of material held in, 21

     defined, 29

     relations between working memory and, 24–25

     role in human cognition, 20

     schema construction and, 21

     structure of knowledge in, 20–21

   modality effect, 27

   modality principle, 148, 152

   motivation and metacognition, 127

   prior knowledge principle, 331

   random generation and effectiveness testing (inquiry-based learning)

     defined, 29

     limits of working memory for processing of new information, 22–23

     relations between long-term and working memory, 25

     schemas as central executive for working memory, 25

   redundancy principle, 27, 160–161, 165

   schemas, see schemas

   split-attention principle, 26, 29, 135, 140, 141, 142, 145

   understanding

     relations between long-term and working memory, 25

     structure of knowledge in long-term memory, 20

   worked example effect, 26

   worked-out examples principle, 230, 240

   working memory, 19

     defined, 29

     implications of multimedia principle research for, 126–127

     instructional design consequences of limitations on, 22, 23

     instructional guidance acting as central executive for, 26–28

     lack of central executive, 19, 126

     limitations when working with new information, 21–23

     multiple streams, channels, or processors, 23

     reasons for limitations on, 22–23

     relations between long-term memory and, 24–25

     schemas functioning as central executive, 25

cognitive mastery, 100

cognitive processes

   cognitive aging and reduced processing speed, 341, 344, 345, 348

   cognitive theory, see cognitive theory

   constructive nature of, 119

   essential processing, see essential processing, techniques for managing

   extraneous processing, see extraneous processing, techniques for reducing

   4C/ID-model, 76–77

cognitive psychology, basis for, 119

cognitive skills and multimedia learning, 489–490

   cognitive theory, implications of research for, 493–498

   cognitive tools

     concept of, 491–492

     defined, 501

     instructional design implications, 498–499

   coherence principle, 491

   definitions pertinent to, 501

   diagrams, 496

   dual coding theory, 490–491, 493, 497, 501

   example of, 491–492

   future directions in research, 499–501

   hypermedia, 490

   icons, indexes, and symbols, 494, 496, 501, 502

   images, 496

   information-rich environments, 496–498

   instructional design implications, 498–499

   interactive aspect of multimedia, 490

   limitations of research, 492–493

   logotypes, 495

   metaphors, 495, 496, 497

   multiple representations, 489

     instructional design implications, 498–499

     limitations of research, 492

     model of relationship between internal and external representations, 493–498

   pedagogical agents, use of, 500

   personalization principle, 491

   physical systems, 492

   prior knowledge, 499, 500

   scaffolding, 500

   self-regulation, 500

   semiotics, 494–496, 502

   signs, 494, 502

   simulation environments, 501

   spatial contiguity principle, 491

   systematization assumption, 492

   theoretical framework

     cognitive theory, implications of research for, 493–498

     dual coding theory, 490–491, 493, 497, 501

     interactive aspect of multimedia, 490

     semiotics, 494–496

     shift in, 490

   triadic vs. dyadic chains, 494

   VR and VE (virtual reality and virtual environments), 500, 501

cognitive styles and learning preferences

   assumptions regarding, 103–104

   hypermedia learning, 579–580

cognitive theory, 31–32, 119–120

   active processing assumption, 36–37

   animation and interactivity principles, implications of, 293

   APAs, see animated pedagogical agents (APAs)

   assumptions underlying, 32–33, 34

   ATI (aptitude-treatment interaction) research, 127–128, 129

   chemistry and multimedia learning

     applicability of, 409–410

     implications for, 423–424

   cognitive aging principle, 343

   cognitive architecture of, 19

   cognitive load theory (Sweller) compared, 45, 46

   cognitive processes required by, 38–41

     comparison of related theories, 45

     different types of materials, processing of, 33, 42–44

     five forms of representation reflecting, 41–42

     integration of verbal and pictorial models, 40–41

     organization of selected images, 40

     organization of selected words, 39–40

     selection of relevant images, 39

     selection of relevant words, 38–39

   cognitive skills and multimedia learning, research on, 493–498

   compared to related theories, 45–46

   criteria used for building (theoretical plausibility, testability, empirical plausibility, and applicability), 32

   definitions pertinent to, 47

   different types of materials, processing of, 33, 42–44

   dual coding theory, 33–35

   see also dual coding theory

   essential processing techniques, implications of research on, 178

   expertise reversal effect, implications of, 334

   extraneous processing, techniques for reducing

     basis for, 184

     implications of, 195–196

   future directions in, 46

   games, simulations, and microworlds, 561–562

   historical background, 44–45, 119–120

   hypermedia, 570

   implications of empirical research for, 125–128

   integrated model of text and picture comprehension compared, 45, 46, 56, 59, 64–65

   integration issues

     cognitive processes required by, 40–41

     implications of multimedia research for, 126

   limited capacity assumption, 35–36

   see also limited capacity assumption

   long-term memory, 37–38, 41–42

   mathematics and multimedia learning, 404

   memory stores, types of, 37–38, 45

   meteorological multimedia learning, implications of, 441–442

   modality principle, implications of, 178

   motivation and metacognition, 127

   pictorial models, 38

     five forms of representation, 41–42

     integration with verbal models, 40

     organization of selected images into, 40

     pictures, processing of, 42

   pre-training principle, implications of, 178

   printed words, processing of, 44

   prior knowledge principle, 333–334

   representation, five forms of, 41–42

   research-based approach, importance of, ix–xi

   research basis for multimedia learning, 6–7

   role of, 32

   segmenting principle, implications of, 178

   sensory memory, 37–38

   see also sensory memory

   site map principle research, implications of, 319–320

   SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 471, 479–480

   social cues, 209

   sociocultural and social cognitive theory, 248–249

   spoken words, processing of, 43–44

   underlying assumptions, 32–33, 34

   verbal models, 38

     five forms of representation, 41–42

     integration with pictorial models, 40

     organization of selected words into, 40

     spoken words, processing of, 44

   verbal processing

     integration of verbal and pictorial models, 40–41

     organization of selected words, 39–40

     printed words, processing of, 44

     selection of relevant words, 38–39

     spoken words, processing of, 43–44

   visual processing, see visual processing

   working memory, 37–38, 126–127

   see also working memory

cognitive tools

   cognitive science, see cognitive skills and multimedia learning

   guided-discovery principle, 217–219, 224

coherence principle, 6, 183–186, 187

   cognitive aging, 343, 344

   cognitive skills and multimedia learning, 491

   cognitive theory, implications for, 195–196

   defined, 184, 198

   example of, 187

   expertise reversal effect, 197

   future directions in research, 197

   instructional design implications, 196–197

   instructional effectiveness of multimedia principle, 121–122

   integrated model, 60–61, 65, 67

   limitations of research, 197

   redundancy principle (presentation of additional information), variation of, 160

   SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 480

   summary of results of research on, 191

   survey of research on, 190–191

   theoretical rationale for, 185–186

   type 1 extraneous overload, 185–186

collaboration principle, 7, 247–248

   constructivism, influence of, 247, 248

   CSCL, see computer-supported collaborative learning

   discovery learning environments, 223

   theory behind CSCL, 248–249

collaborative e-learning, synchronous or asynchronous, 591–592, 612, 614

collaborative user virtual environments (CVEs), see virtual reality (VR) and virtual environments (VE)

Collaboratory Notebook, 262

COMET Program, 429

Committee on Development in the Science of Learning, 404

commodity view of multimedia learning, 12

community building and CSCL, see computer-supported collaborative learning

completion strategy principle, 4C/ID-model, 78, 81–82, 88

complex learning

   4C/ID-model for, see four-component instructional design model

   modality principle, 598–599

   navigational principles, complex text defined for purposes of, 298

   visual content explained with audio narration, 598–599

component-fluency principle, 4C/ID-model, 78, 86, 88

comprehension, reading, see reading comprehension

computer-assisted instruction (CAI), 8

Computer-Mediated Discourse Analysis (CMDA), 262, 264

computer simulations, see games, simulations, and microworlds

computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), 247–248

   activity theory, 254, 264

   APAs, see animated pedagogical agents (APAs)

   assessment, research on, 261–262

     CMDA (Computer-Mediated Discourse Analysis), 262, 264

     concept mapping, 261

     essays, 261

     examinations, 262

     findings, 261–262

     implications and recommendations, 262

     limitations of research, 262

   case studies, research in course of, 254–255

   CMDA (Computer-Mediated Discourse Analysis), 262, 264

   community building, research on, 258–261

     findings, 259–260

     implications and recommendations, 260

     learning and community, relationship between, 260

     limitations of research, 260

     social interaction in online learning, 259–260

   concept mapping as form of assessment, 261

   constructivism, influence of, 248–249, 265

   debates, 255–256

   definitions pertinent to, 264

   distributed cognitions theory, 254, 265

   ESL (English-as-a-second-language), 259

   essays as form of assessment, 261

   examinations as form of assessment, 262

   Explanatory Coherence, Theory of, 263

   F2F (face-to-face) learning, compared to, 249

   future directions in research, 263–264

   gender-based differences

     group composition, 252, 253

     technological issues, 250

   group composition, research on, 252–254

     findings, 252–254

     implications and recommendations, 254

     limitations of research, 254

   group size, 253

   ill-structured or wicked problems, 256, 265

   instructor, research on role of, 257–258

     findings, 257–258

     implications and recommendations, 258

     limitations of research, 258

   Interaction Analysis for Examining Social Construction of Knowledge, 264

   knowledge construction, 262–263

   learner characteristics, 253–254

   motivation, 253, 258, 260

   Multi User Dimension Object Oriented environments (MOOs), 252, 259, 265

   principles, research-based, 249

   prior knowledge, 258

   prior knowledge principle, 253

   problem-solving, 256

   scaffolding collaboration, 262–263, 265

   sociocultural and social cognitive theory, derived from, 248–249, 265–266

   synchronous vs. asynchronous tools, 250, 264, 266

   tasks, research on nature of, 254–257

     findings, 254–256

     implications and recommendations, 257

     limitations of research, 256–257

   technological issues, research on, 249–252

     appropriation of or resistance technology, 251

     findings, 249–251

     implications and recommendations, 251

     limitations of research, 251

     limitations on support for collaborative activity, 251

   theoretical bases, 248–249, 254, 263

computer technology

   animation, computerized, see animation principle

   APAs, see animated pedagogical agents

   cognitive skills, see cognitive skills and multimedia learning

   CSCL, see computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL)

   e-learning, see e-learning

   guided-discovery principle, 216–217, 224

   hypermedia, see hypermedia learning

   learner-centered approaches to multimedia learning, 10

   navigational principles and hypertext systems, see navigational principles

   part-task practice, 4C/ID-model, and drill & practice computer-based training (CBI), 85–86

   technology-centered approach to learning, problems with, 8

   VR and VE, see virtual reality (VR) and virtual environments (VE)

concept maps, see also site map principle

   assessment of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) using concept mapping, 261

   defined, 309, 386

   history and multimedia learning, 385, 386

   navigational principles, 303–307, 308

   prior knowledge principle, 304, 305

   search tasks comparing concept maps to other content representations, 305–307

conceptual simulations, 605, 606, 612

conceptually-oriented equations, worked-out examples principle, 238

congruence principle

   animation, use of, 294

   reading and multimedia learning, 363, 364

Connected Chemistry, 414–415

Construction-Integration Model

   navigational principles, 298, 299, 304, 309

   site map principle, 319–320, 321

constructionist learning, VR and VE (virtual reality and virtual environments), 530, 531, 539

constructivism

   cognitive processes, constructive nature of, 119

   collaboration principle and CSCL, 247, 248, 265

   defined, 265, 387

   discovery learning environment, false assumptions regarding, 108–110

   genetic epistemology, 248

   history and multimedia learning, 376–377, 384, 387

   hypermedia, 570

   SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 468

   social or sociocultural, 248–249

   VR and VE (virtual reality and virtual environments), 529, 530, 531

   worked-out examples principle, 239, 240

content areas, see also entries at domain

   APAs (animated pedagogical agents), future research in, 520

   chemistry, see chemistry and multimedia learning

   cognitive skills, see cognitive skills and multimedia learning

   history, see history and multimedia learning

   mathematics, see mathematics and multimedia learning

   meteorology, see meteorology and multimedia learning

   physical systems, see physical systems and multimedia learning

   reading, see reading and multimedia learning

   self-explanation principle research, 275

   split-attention principle researched over different content areas, 137–141

   VR and VEs used to communicate domain-specific knowledge, 529–531

   worked-out examples principle, relevance of content area to, 241

content, instructional, 597

content representations, navigational principles, see navigational principles

context issues in hypermedia learning, 580–583

contextualization heuristic, history and multimedia learning, 378, 387

contiguity principle

   animation principle, 292

   chemistry and multimedia learning, 410

   cognitive aging principle, 343

   e-learning, 610

   instructional effectiveness of multimedia principle, 121

   integrated model, 58, 60–61, 65, 67

   physical systems and multimedia learning, 460

   spatial contiguity, see spatial contiguity principle

   split-attention principle, 140, 143–144

   temporal contiguity, see temporal contiguity principle

control-of-processing principle

   integrated model, 65

   interactivity and control distinguished, 288, 295

Convince Me, 263

cooperation principle and social cues, 202

coordination, see entries at integration

corroboration heuristic, history and multimedia learning, 378, 387

cost issues

   APAs (animated pedagogical agents), 518

   ATI (aptitude-treatment interaction) research and efficient use of instructional materials, 127

   cosmetic features in e-learning, importance of, 611

   graphic detail, 125

   simulations, level of immersion and fidelity necessary for, 608–609

CSCL, see computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL)

CTML (cognitive theory of multimedia learning), see cognitive theory

cueing devices

   e-learning, 604

   physical systems and multimedia learning, 456

CVEs (collaborative user virtual environments), see virtual reality (VR) and virtual environments (VE)

Darrow, Benjamin, 8

DCT, see dual coding theory

debates used in CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning), 255–256

decoding and reading, 356, 359–361, 367

deductive learning, 593, 612

deep vs. superficial processing. integrated model of text and picture comprehension, 63

delivery media view of multimedia presentation, 2

dependent measure limitations and research on social cues, 210

design of instruction, see instructional design

design of research studies

   agent-based instruction, 106–108

   games, simulations, and microworlds, 563

   history, see history and multimedia learning

   hypermedia learning, 581

   instructional methods, 99, 100

   SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 477

diagrams

   cognitive skills and multimedia learning, 496

   hypermedia learning, 576

   physical systems, see physical systems and multimedia learning

directive e-learning, 591, 592–593, 594, 612

directive support, guided-discovery principle, 217

discovery learning environments

   false assumptions regarding, 108–110

   guided discovery, see guided-discovery principle

   history, inquiry learning in context of, see history and multimedia learning

   ineffectiveness of, 108–110, 215–216, 220, 608, 609

   random generation and effectiveness testing (inquiry-based learning), see cognitive load theory

   scientific discovery learning, 215

   simulations, 556, 557, 608, 609

   training in discovery skills, 218

   transformative and regulatory processes, 216, 218

   worked-out examples compared, 332

distributed cognitions theory, CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning), 254, 265

domain knowledge, see also content areas

   guided-discovery principle, 220

   hypermedia learning, 577–578, 580

   VR and VE (virtual reality and virtual environments) used to teach domain-specific knowledge, 529–531

domain models, 4C/ID-model, 74, 79, 82, 83

drop-out rates for multimedia courses, 103

dual coding theory (dual-channel assumption), 33–35

   cognitive aging principle, 342

   cognitive skills and multimedia learning, 490–491, 493, 497, 501

   defined, 130, 501

   different types of materials, processing of, 42–44

   division of sensory and working memory into two channels, 33–35

   e-learning, 406, 598, 612

   games, simulations, and microworlds, 561–562

   guided-discovery principle, 222–223

   historical background, 119

   historical background to cognitive theory, 44–45

   history and multimedia learning, 376, 388

   hypermedia, 570

   integrated model of text and picture comprehension, 54, 55

   mathematics and multimedia learning, 404

   modality principle and evidence for independent visual and auditory processing systems, 149–150, 151

   Paivio’s dual-coding theory, 45, 54, 119

   physical systems and multimedia learning, 459

   presentation mode approach, 34

   relations between channels, 34

   sensory-modalities approach, 34

   SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 472

   spatial ability of learners, effect of, 124

   worked-out examples principle, 235

   working memory’s multiple streams, channels, or processors, 23

dyadic vs. triadic chains, cognitive skills and multimedia learning, 494

dynamic graphics, see also animated pedagogical agents; animation principle

   hypermedia learning, 576

   mathematics, see mathematics and multimedia learning

   physical systems, use of animated graphics in, see physical systems and multimedia learning

dynamic principle, mathematics and multimedia learning, 403

e-learning, 589–590

   advantages of, 609–610

   animation, use of, 601–605

     audio narration used to explain, 604

     cognitive load management, 603–604

     cueing devices, use of, 604

     evidence of effectiveness, 604, 609, 611

     learner control, 604

     sequencing, 604

     visual alternatives to, 602–603

   asynchronous, 591–592, 612

   auditory processing, 598–601

   cognitive load management

     animation, use of, 603–604

     instructional design, 596

   collaborative, 591–592, 612, 614

   conceptual simulations, 605, 606, 612

   contiguity principle, 610

   cosmetic features, importance of, 611

   cueing devices, use of, 604

   deductive learning, 593, 612

   definitions pertinent to, 591, 612

   directive, 591, 592–593, 594, 612

   dual coding theory (dual-channel assumption), 406, 598, 612

   element interactivity, 597, 598, 613

   expertise reversal effect, 596, 613

   far transfer, 594, 597, 605, 613

   future directions in research, 610–612

   generalizability of multimedia principles regarding, 610

   guided-discovery principle, 592–593, 594, 595, 608, 613

   inductive learning, 594, 613

   instructional design, 594–597, 612

   learner control, 604, 613

   long-term memory, 595–596, 613

   mixed media, 598–601, 604

   modalities, 598–601

     complex visual content explained with audio narration, 598–599

     defined, 613

     extraneous audio, omission of, 599–601

     generalizability of modality principle, 610

     modality principle, 598, 613

     visual and auditory processing, 598

   near transfer, 593, 597, 613

   need for research on, 590–591

   operational simulations, 591, 605, 613

   practice opportunities, incorporation of, 610

   receptive, 592–593, 594, 613

   redundancy principle, 599–601, 614

   schemas, 595, 596, 597, 614

   sequencing principle, 604

   simulations, 605–609

     advantages of, 406, 605–608

     conceptual, 605, 606, 612

     defined and described, 605, 614

     future directions in research, 611

     high consequence tasks, 606

     ineffectiveness in pure discovery environment, 608, 609

     level of immersion and fidelity necessary, 608–609

     low incidence tasks, 606–607

     operational, 591, 605, 613

     scaffolding, need for, 608, 609, 611, 614

     troubleshooting tasks, 607

   solo, 591–592

   split-attention principle, applicability of, 141–143

     print materials alone vs. computer media alone, 142–143

     print materials alone vs. print and computer media, 141–142

   synchronous, 591–592, 611, 614

   time variations, generalizability of multimedia principles over, 610

   translating research into practice, 612

   unique qualities of, 597

   visual processing, 598–599

   working memory, 595–596, 614

easy-mapping guideline, worked-out examples principle, 235–236

Edison, Thomas, 8

effectiveness testing and random generation (inquiry-based learning), see cognitive load theory

elaboration, 4C/ID-model, 76, 83, 88

electronic performance support systems (EPSSs), 4C/ID-model, 83–85

element interactivity, 28

   defined, 28, 156, 613

   e-learning, 597, 598, 613

   intrinsic cognitive load and, 27, 28

   modality principle, 154

   prior knowledge principle, 330

   redundancy principle, 166

   split-attention principle, 141, 142, 145

empirical research, see research

empty vessel view of multimedia learning, 12

English-as-a-second-language (ESL), see second language acquisition (SLA) with multimedia

environmental sounds, use of, 600

EPSSs (electronic performance support systems), 4C/ID-model, 83–85

error-triggered learning

   animation principles presenting cognitive conflicts, 289

   worked-out examples principle, 240

ESL (English-as-a-second-language), see second language acquisition (SLA) with multimedia

essays as form of assessment in CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning), 261

essential processing, techniques for managing, 169–171

   see also pre-training principle; segmenting principle

   cognitive capacity, 170, 180

   cognitive theory, implications for, 178

   concise narrated animation, 169, 180

   definitions pertinent to, 169, 180

   essential material, 169, 170, 180

   essential overload, 169, 180

   examples of, 171–174

   future directions in research, 179–180

   instructional design implications, 179

   intrinsic cognitive load

     similarity of essential processing to, 170, 180

     types of essential overload, 180

   limitations of research on, 179–180

   modality principle, see modality principle

   prior knowledge principle, 174, 176, 178

   summary of results of research on, 175, 176, 177

   survey of research on, 174–178

   theoretical basis for, 170–171

   transfer vs. retention testing, 174, 178

   type 1 essential overload, 170, 171, 180

   type 2 essential overload, 170, 171, 180

EUMETCAL Program, 429

everyday life skills training, VR and VE (virtual reality and virtual environments), 535–536

evidence-based research, see research

evolutionary theory and cognitive load theory, 19

   relations between long-term and working memory, 25

   working memory limitations, reasons for, 23

examinations as form of assessment

   CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning), 262

   transfer and retention, see transfer and retention testing

experienced vs. novice learners, see expertise reversal effect; prior knowledge principle

experimental evidence, see research

experimental support, guided-discovery principle, 218

expert learners, see prior knowledge principle

expertise reversal effect

   cognitive load theory, 27

   cognitive theory, implications for, 334

   coherence principle, 197

   defined, 335, 613

   e-learning, 596, 613

   modality principle, 154

   redundancy principle’s centrality to, 165

   research findings, 328, 330–332

   worked-out examples vs. problem-solving, 165, 231, 331–332

Explanatory Coherence, Theory of, 263

explicit vs. intuitive or implicit knowledge, guided-discovery principle, 222

exploratory instructional approach, see discovery learning environments; guided-discovery principle

Exploring the Nardoo, 496

external representations, see representations

extraneous cognitive load, 26–27, 180

extraneous processing, techniques for reducing, 183–186

   see also coherence principle; redundancy principle; signaling principle; spatial contiguity principle; temporal contiguity principle

   cognitive theory

     based in, 184

     implications for, 195–196

   definitions pertinent to, 184, 198

   essential material, 184, 198

   examples of, 187–190

   extraneous material, 184, 198

   extraneous overload, 184, 198

   extrinsic cognitive load, similar to, 184

   future directions in research, 197–198

   instructional design implications, 184, 196–197

   learner characteristics, effects of, 197

   limitations of research on, 197–198

   prior knowledge, 190, 197

   redundancy principle, see also redundancy principle

   representational holding, 186, 198

   spatial abilities of learners, 190, 197

   summaries of results of research on, 191, 192, 193, 194, 196

   survey of research on, 190–195

   theoretical rationale, 184–186

   transfer testing, success of techniques in, 187, 190

   type 1 extraneous overload, 185–186

   type 2 extraneous overload, 185, 186

   type 3 extraneous overload, 185, 186

extrinsic cognitive load, similarity to extraneous processing, 184

false assumptions about multimedia learning not supported by research, 97–98

   see also assumptions about multimedia learning

far transfer

   defined, 407, 613

   e-learning, 594, 597, 605, 613

   mathematics and multimedia learning, 402, 403, 407

feedback delivery system, multimedia learning viewed as, 10

fidelity of computer simulation systems and guided-discovery principle, 219

fidelity principle, 4C/ID-model, 78, 79–80, 87, 88

field dependency/independence, 579, 580

figures, see tables, charts, and figures

film

   historical information, as source of, 381

   revolutionizing effect on learning, 8

flexibility, cognitive, see cognitive flexibility theory

flexibility principle and use of animation, 295

floundering (thrashing), 110

fluid ability and performance, 105

four-component instructional design model (4C/ID-model), 71–72, 86–88

   ADDIE (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) model, 87

   advantages and limitations, 86–88

   automation of schemata, 76

   cognitive architecture, 75–77

   cognitive processes, 76–77

   completion strategy principle, 78, 81–82, 88

   component-fluency principle, 78, 86, 88

   definitions pertinent to, 88–89

   domain models, 74, 79, 82, 83

   elaboration, 76, 83, 88

   electronic performance support systems (EPSSs), 83–85

   fidelity principle, 78, 79–80, 87, 88

   future directions of research, 88

   individualization principle, 78, 80–81, 87, 88

   induction, 76, 88

   knowledge compilation, 76, 83, 88

   learning tasks, 72–75, 78

     completion strategy principle, 78, 81–82, 88

     defined, 88

     fidelity principle, 78, 79–80, 87, 88

     individualization principle, 78, 80–81, 87, 88

     sequencing principle, 77–79, 89

     simulated task environments, 77–82

     training-wheels principle, 78, 81, 87, 89

     variability principle, 78, 80, 89

   limitations of, 87

   long-term memory, 75–76

   meaningful learning

     cognitive architecture and, 75–77

     implications of model for, 77

   memory systems, 75–76

   modality principle, 78, 85, 87, 88

   part-task practice, 72–75, 78

     component-fluency principle, 78, 86, 88

     defined, 88

     drill & practice computer-based training (CBI), 85–86

   procedural information, 72–75, 78

     defined, 89

     electronic performance support systems (EPSSs), 83–85

     modality principle, 78, 85, 87, 88

     signaling principle, 78, 85, 87, 89

     spatial split-attention principle, 78, 84–85, 89

     temporal split-attention principle, 78, 84, 89

   redundancy principle, 78, 82, 89

   SAPs (systematic approaches to problem-solving), 74, 79, 82, 83

   schemas, 75–77

   schemata, 75–77

   segmentation, 83

   self-explanation principle, 78, 83, 89

   self-pacing principle, 78, 83, 87, 89

   sequencing principle, 77–79, 89

   signaling principle, 78, 85, 87, 89

   split-attention principle

     applicability to different components, 87

     definitions, 89

     spatial split-attention principle, 78, 84–85, 89

     temporal split-attention principle, 73, 84, 89

   “streaming” or transient information, 83

   strengthening, 76, 77, 86, 89

   supportive information, 72–75, 78

     defined, 89

     elaboration, 76, 83, 88

     hypermedia, 82–83

     redundancy principle, 78, 82, 89

     self-explanation principle, 78, 83, 89

     self-pacing principle, 78, 83, 87, 89

   temporal split-attention principle, 78, 84

   theory, different levels of, 71, 86

   training-wheels principle, 78, 81, 87, 89

   variability principle, 78, 80, 89

   working memory, 75–76

4M:Chem (now SMV:Chem), 412–414, 423

Français Interactif, 479

future directions in research, see under specific topics

games, simulations, and microworlds, 549–551

   activity theory, 561

   cognitive skills and multimedia learning, 501

   cognitive theory, implications for, 561–562

   conceptual simulations, 605, 606, 612

   definitions, 563, 614

   design of research studies, 563

   discovery learning environments, simulations used as, 556, 557, 608, 609

   dual coding theory, 561–562

   e-learning, use of simulations in, see e-learning

   examples of, 551–554, 555

   explanation and experience, distinguishing, 550, 563

   4C/ID-model, 77–82

   frustration levels, measuring, 557

   future directions in research, 563

   goal orientation, 552

   guided-discovery principle, 216–217, 224, 552, 608, 609

   high consequence tasks, benefits of simulations for learning, 606

   instructional design implications, 563

   knowledge structures (mental models), 562

   learner design of their own games, 559

   level of immersion and fidelity necessary for simulations, 608–609

   limitations of research on, 560–561

   low incidence tasks, benefits of simulations for learning, 606–607

   modeling and model progression, 558, 563

   motivation and interest, 560

   operational simulations, 591, 605, 613

   play theory, 561

   quantitative vs. qualitative research, 560–561

   scaffolding, need for, 608, 609, 611, 614

   scripted vs. interactive multimedia, 550

   similarities and differences between, 549–551

   survey of research on, 554–560

     games, 559–560

     microworlds, 558–559

     simulations, 554–558

   theoretical frameworks, 561–562

   troubleshooting tasks, 607

GEFT (Group Embedded Figures Test), 574, 579, 584

gender-based differences

   chemistry and multimedia learning, 420, 422, 425

   CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning)

     group composition, 252, 253

     technological issues, 250

   hypermedia learning, 581–582

generative activities and hypermedia learning, 576, 584

generative theory of multimedia learning, 570, 578, 584

genetic epistemology, 248

GenScope, 605

germane cognitive load, 27

goal orientation, 104, 127

   games, simulations, and microworlds, 552

   hypermedia learning, 582–583

   instructional design, 597

   site map principle, 317, 318, 321

goals of multimedia learning, 13–14

   see also outcomes of multimedia learning

graphic detail, 125

group composition and CSCL, see computer-supported collaborative learning

Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), 574, 579, 584

guided-discovery principle, 7, 215–216

   adaptivity of guidance to learner characteristics, 221

   APAs (animated pedagogical agents), 515, 516, 518

   assessment problems

     learning outcomes, 222

     learning process, 222

   assignments, 217, 220

   cognitive load theory, 222–223

   cognitive tools, 217–219, 224

   collaborative discovery, 223

   computer simulations as example of multimedia environment for, 216–217, 224

   definitions pertinent to, 224, 613

   directive and non-directive support, 217

   domain knowledge, provision of, 220

   dual coding theory, 222–223

   e-learning, 592–593, 594, 595, 608, 613

   effectiveness, mixed results regarding, 219–221

   explicit vs. intuitive or implicit knowledge, 222

   fidelity of simulation systems, 219

   future directions in research, 223–224

   games, simulations, and microworlds, 216–217, 224, 552, 608, 609

   hints, 217, 220

   history and multimedia learning, 385

   instructive vs. inductive learning modes, 215

   interpretive, experimental, and reflective support, 218

   just in time explanations, 220

   limitations of research on, 221–222

   modeling and model progression, 220, 224

   prior knowledge, 218, 221

   regulatory processes, 216, 218

   representational mode used, significance of, 221

   scientific discovery learning, 215, 225

   SDDS (Scientific Discovery as Dual Search) model, 223

   theory of, 222–223

   training in discovery skills, 218

   transformative processes, 216, 218

   types of guidance, 217–219

   VR and VE (virtual reality and virtual environments), 538

head-mounted display/devices (HMDs) used in virtual reality (VR), 526, 527

help guidelines (instructional explanations), worked-out examples principle, 234–235

hierarchical concept maps in hypermedia

   navigational principles, 303–307, 308

   site map principle, 316

high-knowledge learners, see prior knowledge principle

history and multimedia learning, 375–376

   assessment, 385

   audience, student vs. expert sense of, 381

   concept maps, 385, 386

   constructivism, 376–377, 384, 387

   contextualization heuristic, 378, 387

   corroboration heuristic, 378, 387

   definitions pertinent to, 376–377, 384–385

   design studies vs. controlled experiments

     definitions, 387

     future directions in research, 386

     limitations of research regarding, 384

   “disciplinary approach,” 376–377, 384–385

   dual coding theory (multiple channel learning), 376, 388

   enhancing collective memory, history learning viewed as, 376

   films as source of historical information, 381

   future directions in research, 385–386

   guided-discovery principle, 385

   initial cognitively-based projects contrasting thought processes of experts with students, 377–378, 381

   inquiry learning

     defined, 387

     instructional design implications, 384–385

     research projects intended to stimulate, 377–379, 380–381

   instructional design implications, 384–385

   knowledge structures (mental models), 385, 388

   learner characteristics, 385–386

   learning outcomes

     defined, 387

     limitations of research regarding, 383–384

   learning tasks, role of, 379–380

   limitations of research, 383–384

   mentors, use of, 380

   motivation, multimedia used for purposes of, 381–383

   National Standards for History, 377

   primary sources

     defined, 388

     research projects on student use of, 383

   prior knowledge, 385

   scaffolding, 378, 383, 388

   sense of historical time, developing, 382

   sequencing tasks, 382, 388

   silence, absence, or incomplete information, judgments drawn from, 378

   sourcing heuristic, 377, 388

   survey of research on, 377–383

   theoretical approaches, 376–377, 384

HMDs (head-mounted display/devices) used in virtual reality (VR), 526, 527

hypermedia learning, 569–570

   advance organizers, 573–575, 584

   age of learners studied, 581, 583

   auditory processing, 575

   behavioral psychology, 570

   cognitive flexibility theory, 570, 571

   cognitive load theory, 578

   cognitive skills and multimedia learning, 490

   cognitive theory, 570

   concept maps, see concept maps; site map principle

   constructivism, 570

   content area knowledge, effect of, 577–578

   context issues, 580–583

   defined, 300, 309, 322

   definitions pertinent to, 584

   design of research studies, 581

   diagrams, 576

   domain knowledge, 577–578, 580

   dual coding theory, 570

   dynamic graphics and animation, 576

   future directions in research, 583

   gender-based differences, 581–582

   generative activities, 576, 584

   generative theory of multimedia learning, 570, 578, 584

   goal orientation, 582–583

   guidelines for, 583

   individual differences principle and learner characteristics, 577–580

     domain knowledge and prior knowledge, 577–578, 580

     spatial abilities of learners, 578–579, 580

     styles of learning and cognition, 579–580

   instructional design issues, 572–577, 584

     advance organizers, 573–575

     mixed media, 575–576

     structure of information, 572–573

   learner control issues, 576, 584

   limitations of research, 571, 583

   metaphors, 575, 578

   mixed media, 575–576

   modality principle, 570

   navigation, see navigational principles

   prior knowledge, effect of, 577–578

   site maps, see concept maps; site map principle

   SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 576

   spatial abilities of learners, 578–579, 580

   structure of information, 572–573, 585

   styles of learning and cognition, 579–580

   supportive information component of 4C/ID-model, 82–83

   survey of research reviews, 571–572

   theoretical framework, 570–571, 584

   visual processing, 576

hypertext systems, navigational principles for, see navigational principles

icons, semiotics concept of, 494, 496, 501

iExpeditions system, 249

ill-structured or wicked problems, 256, 265

illustrations, see tables, charts, and figures

image principle, 6, 201, 204, see also animated pedagogical agents

   animation and image effects, distinguishing from, 514

   cognitive load, social cues adding to, 210

   cognitive theory, implications for, 209

   defined, 201, 211

   example of, 204

   independent variable limitations, 210

   instructional design implications, 209

   modality principle, distinguishing from, 513–514

   research regarding, 208–209, 210–211, 512–513

   tabular summary of research results, 208

image processing, see visual processing

images as semiotics concept, 496

imagination effect in instruction, 330, 336

implicit or intuitive vs. explicit knowledge, guided-discovery principle, 222

incidental learning and site map principle, 321

independent variable limitations and research on social cues, 210

indexes as semiotics concept, 494, 501

individual differences principle, see also learner characteristics

   hypermedia, see hypermedia learning

   mathematics and multimedia learning, 406

   prior knowledge, 328

   SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 479, 480

   VR and VE (virtual reality and virtual environments), 540

individual learner characteristics, see learner characteristics

individualization principle, 4C/ID-model, 78, 80–81, 87, 88

individualized instructor contact, multimedia courses believed to provide more of, 103

inductive learning

   e-learning, 594, 613

   4C/ID-model, 76, 88

   guided-discovery principle, instructive vs. inductive learning modes, 215

information acquisition, multimedia learning viewed as, 10, 11, 12

“information” as term, use of, 349

information delivery system, multimedia learning viewed as, 10

inhibition

   defined, 348

   reduced inhibition due to cognitive aging, 341, 344, 345, 348

inquiry learning, see also discovery learning environments

   history, in context of, see history and multimedia learning

   random generation and effectiveness testing, see cognitive load theory

instructional design

   animation and interactivity principles, implications of, 293–295

   APAs (animated pedagogical agents), 518–519

   approaches to, 10

   chemistry and multimedia learning, 424

   cognitive aging principle, see cognitive aging principle

   cognitive load theory and, see cognitive load theory

   cognitive skills and multimedia learning, 498–499

   content and goal, 597

   e-learning, 594–597, 612

   essential processing techniques, implications of research on, 179

   extraneous processing, techniques for reducing, 184, 196–197

   games, simulations, and microworlds, 563

   goal orientation, 597

   graphic detail, 125

   history and multimedia learning, 384–385

   hypermedia learning, see hypermedia learning

   implications of multimedia research for, 124–125

   integrated model, implications of, 64–65

   learner-centered approaches, 9–10

   learner involvement in

     games, simulations, and microworlds, 559

     VR and VE (virtual reality and virtual environments), 539

   mathematics and multimedia learning, 405–406

   media vs. methods, 594

   meteorology and multimedia learning, 442–444

   methods, significance of, 594, 597

   modality principle, 153–155, 179

   most significant factors in, 597

   motivation and interest, 596

   pre-training principle, 179

   prior knowledge principle, 595, 596, 597

   prior knowledge principle, implications of, 334–335

   reading and multimedia learning, 365–366

   redundancy principle, implications of, 165–166

   relevancy of multimedia materials, importance of, 124–125

   research-based approach, importance of, ix, x

   seductive detail, distractive qualities of, 596

   segmenting principle, 179

   self-explanation principle, implications of, 282–284

   site map principle, 320–321

   SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 480–482

   social cues, implications of, 209

   split-attention principle, implications of, 145

   technology-centered approaches, 8–9, 10

   theories of multimedia learning, different levels of, 71

   worked-out examples principle

     implications, 239–240

     requirements, 232–238

instructional effectiveness

   empirical foundations, 121–122

   false assumptions about greater learning benefits from multimedia, 98–101

   methods, of different types of, 99, 100, 118

   need to combine multimedia principle with other practices, 122

instructional explanations (help guidelines), worked-out examples principle, 234–235

instructional methods

   ATI (aptitude-treatment interaction) research, 127–128, 129

   effectiveness of different types of, 99, 100, 118

   split-attention principle and e-learning, 142–143

instructional support, learner need for, 109–110, 123

instructive vs. inductive learning modes and guided-discovery principle, 215

instructors’ role in CSCL, see computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL)

integrated model of text and picture comprehension, 49–52, 56–60

   auditory processing

     auditory picture comprehension (sound comprehension), 58, 67

     listening comprehension, 58, 67

   cognitive architecture, 49, 54, 59

   cognitive economy, 64, 67

   cognitive theory compared, 45, 46, 56, 59, 64–65

   coherence and contiguity principles, 60–61, 65, 67

   compared to related theories, 45, 46, 56, 59, 64–65

   control-of-processing principle, 65

   deep vs. superficial processing, 63

   definitions pertinent to, 67

   depictive and descriptive representations, 52–54, 67

   distinction of sensory channels on perceptual level from representational channels on cognitive level, 59

   dual-coding theory, relationship to, 54, 55

   empirical evidence for, 60–64

   external representations, 52–54

   future directions of research in, 65–67

   instructional design implications, 64–65

   internal or mental representations, 53

   knowledge structures (mental models), 64, 67

   limitations, 65–67

   listening comprehension, 58, 67

   long-term memory, 56

   mental or internal representations, 53

   modality principle and modality effect, 61, 65, 67

   multimedia effect (multimedia principle), 65, 67

   multiple memory systems, 54–56, 64

   negative effects of combining text and pictures, 62–64

   positive effects of combining text and pictures, 60–62

   prior knowledge, 62

   reading comprehension, 57, 62, 67

   redundancy

     general, 62–63, 65, 67

     specific, 62, 65, 67

   representations, see representations

   sensory registers, 55–56, 67

   sequencing, 61–62, 65, 67

   sound comprehension (auditory picture comprehension), 58, 67

   source of information, memory for, 64

   structure mapping, 63, 65, 68

   superficial vs. deep processing, 63

   visual picture comprehension, 58, 68

   working memory, 54–55, 68

integrated model, SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 471, 478, 483

integration issues, 272

   see also split-attention principle

   cognitive aging, reduced integration or coordination due to, 341, 344, 345, 348

   cognitive theory

     cognitive processes required by, 40–41

     implications of multimedia research for, 126

   definition of integration or coordination, 348

   implications of multimedia research for, 126

   worked-out examples principle, 233, 236, 238

   working memory and long-term memory, 126

intelligence and achievement/performance, connection between, 105, 110

Interaction Analysis for Examining Social Construction of Knowledge and CSCL, 264

interactionist perspective/theory, SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 469–471, 473, 483

interactive media or multimedia

   cognitive science, 490

   see also cognitive skills and multimedia learning

   scripted multimedia vs., 550

interactive molecular modeling graphics technology, chemistry and multimedia learning, 421–422, 425

interactive processing, SLA, see second language acquisition (SLA) with multimedia

interactivity, element, see element interactivity

interactivity principle, 7

   animation and, 287–288, 294

     APAs (animated pedagogical agents), 515, 516, 518

     cognitive theory, implications for, 293

     definition of interactivity concepts, 288, 295

     examples of scenarios using, 288–289

     instructional design implications, 293–295

     limitations of research on, 292–293

     survey of research on, 289–292

   chemistry and multimedia learning, 410

   control and interactivity distinguished, 288, 295

interest, elements providing, see motivation and interest

internal representations, defined, 425, 448, 462

   see also knowledge structures; representations

Internet, see e-learning; hypermedia learning

interpretive support, guided-discovery principle, 218

intrinsic cognitive load, 27

   defined, 29, 156

   essential processing similar to, 170, 180

   see also essential processing, techniques for managing

   types of essential overload, 180

intuitive orimplicit vs. explicit knowledge, guided-discovery principle, 222

isolated-interacting elements instructional effect, 329, 335, 336

ITPC model, see integrated model of text and picture comprehension

just-in-time information presentations

   cognitive aging principle, 347, 348

   defined, 348

   guided-discovery principle, 220

KIE, 218

knowledge construction

   CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning), 262–263

   4C/ID-model, 76, 83, 88

   multimedia learning viewed as, 10, 11, 12–13

Knowledge Forum, 380

knowledge levels of learners, see prior knowledge principle

knowledge structures (mental models)

   active processing assumption behind cognitive theory, 36–37

   defined, 388, 463

   games, simulations, and microworlds, 562

   history and multimedia learning, 385, 388

   integrated model of text and picture comprehension, 64, 67

   internal representations, defined, 425

   long-term memory and cognitive load theory, 20–21

   meteorology and multimedia learning, 431

   navigational principles and mental model theory, 298

   physical systems, 448–449, 463

   pictorial models and cognitive theory, see cognitive theory

   reading comprehension, 362

   two-stage theory, 346, 349

   verbal models and cognitive theory, see cognitive theory

learner-centered approaches to multimedia learning, 9–10

learner characteristics, see also individual differences principle

   ATI, see aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) research

   chemistry and multimedia learning, 425

   CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning), 253–254

   experience levels, see prior knowledge principle

   extraneous processing, techniques for reducing, 197

   gender, see gender-based differences

   goals, see goal orientation

   guided discovery, adaptivity of, 221

   history and multimedia learning, 385–386

   hypermedia, individual differences principle, see hypermedia learning

   mathematics and multimedia learning, 401, 403, 406

   metacognition and site map principle, 318

   motivation, see motivation

   novice vs. experienced learners, see expertise reversal effect; prior knowledge principle

   older learners, see cognitive aging principle

   research on effects of, 123–124

   self-explanation principle, 275

   site map principle, 318, 321

   SLA (second language acquisition), see second language acquisition (SLA) with multimedia

   spatial abilities, see spatial abilities of learners

   split-attention principle, 145

   verbal ability of learners, SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 475, 479, 480, 484

   VR and VE (virtual reality and virtual environments), 540

learner control issues

   cognitive aging principle, 196–197

   e-learning and animation, 604, 613

   hypermedia learning, 576, 584

   segmenting principle, 171–173, 179

   SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 474, 481

   VR and VE, self-directed activity using, 538

learner involvement in instructional design

   games, simulations, and microworlds, 559

   VR and VE (virtual reality and virtual environments), 539

learning outcomes, see outcomes of multimedia learning

Learning Style Inventory (LSI), 579, 584

learning styles supported by multimedia learning

   assumptions regarding, 103–106

   hypermedia learning, 579–580

learning tasks, see tasks

Levenson, William, 8

life skills training, VR and VE (virtual reality and virtual environments), 535–536

limitations of research, see under specific topics

limited capacity assumption

   Baddeley’s model of working memory compared to, 45

   cognitive theory, 35–36

   mathematics and multimedia learning, 404

   working memory, 47

   working memory limitations when working with new information, 21–23

links, explicit vs. embedded, 301–302, 309

Lisp programming, 100, 273

listening comprehension, see auditory processing

logotypes as semiotics concept, 495

long-term memory

   cognitive aging principle, 342

   cognitive load theory, see cognitive load theory

   cognitive theory, 37–38, 41–42

   defined, 47, 130

   e-learning, 595–596, 613

   4C/ID-model, 75–76

   integrated model of text and picture comprehension, 56

   integration with working memory, 126

   prior knowledge principle, 595

   representation of words and pictures in, forms of, 41–42

low-knowledge learners, see prior knowledge principle

LSI (Learning Style Inventory), 579, 584

macrostructures

   navigational principles, 304, 305, 309

   site map principle, 319

mastery goal orientation, 104

mastery methods, 100

mathematics and multimedia learning, 393–397

   active processing assumption, 404

   assessment, 404, 407

   cognitive theory, 404

   definitions pertinent to, 407

   dual coding theory (dual channel assumption), 404

   dynamic graphics, 393, 407

   dynamic graphics and spoken text, 393

     example of, 394, 395

     instructional design implications, 406

     research on, 401–403

   dynamic graphics and written text, 393

     instructional design implications, 405

     research on, 400–401

   dynamic principle, 403

   examples of, 393–397

   future directions in research, 406–407

   individual differences principle, 406

   instructional design implications, 405–406

   instructional overviews, usefulness of, 398

   learner characteristics, 401, 403, 406

   limitations of research on, 403–404

   limited capacity assumption, 404

   modality principle, 398, 405

   multimedia principle, 405

   problem-solving, 397

   redundancy principle, 405

   spatial contiguity principle, 405

   split-attention effect, 394

   static graphics, 393, 407

   static graphics and spoken text, 393

     instructional design implications, 405

     research on, 398–400

   static graphics and written text, 393

     example of, 394

     instructional design implications, 405

     research on, 397–398

   survey of research, 397–403

   transfer testing

     far transfer, 402, 403, 407

     limitations on assessment in research, 407

     near transfer, 402, 403, 407

   voice principle, 403, 406

   worked-out examples, 393–397

   written text, worked examples consisting solely of, 394

“Matthew Effects,” 365

meaningful building-blocks guideline, worked-out examples principle, 237–238

meaningful learning

   behavioral and cognitive activity, 14–15

   4C/ID-model

     cognitive architecture and, 75–77

     implications of model for, 77

   goal or outcome of multimedia learning, 13–14

   long-term memory, structure of knowledge in, 20

memory, see also long-term memory; sensory memory; working memory

   cognitive theory and types of memory stores, 37–38, 45

   4C/ID-model, 75–76

   integrated model of text and picture comprehension, multiple memory systems used in, 54–56, 64

mental animation (inference of movement in static diagrams), 450, 454–456, 461–462, 463

mental effort, impact of multimedia learning on, 102

mental models, see knowledge structures

mentors used in multimedia history learning, 380

menus in hypermedia, 302–303, 305–307

meta-analytic studies, 100

metacognition, 127

   defined, 322

   site map principle, 318, 322

   strategies, metacognitive, 36

metaphors

   cognitive skills and multimedia learning, 495, 496, 497

   hypermedia learning, 575, 578

meteorology and multimedia learning, 429–431

   animation used to explicitly teach meteorological dynamics, 437–440

   cognitive theory, implications for, 441–442

   comprehension of weather maps

     examples of multimedia learning in meteorology, 431–434

     research on, 434–436

   definitions pertinent to, 444

   dynamics in meteorology, research on providing students with explicit information about, 437–440

   examples of, 431–434

   future directions in research, 444

   instructional design implications, 442–444

   knowledge structures (mental models), 431, 434–436

   limitations of research, 440–441

   predictive tasks

     importance of visual processing for, 430

     research on comprehension for purposes of, 436

   survey of research, 434–440

   visual processing

     examples of weather maps requiring visual interpretation, 431–434

     importance of, 429–431

microworlds, see games, simulations, and microworlds

mindful abstraction, 76

mixed media, see also modality principle; redundancy principle

   animation, audio narration used to explain, 604

   e-learning, 598–601, 604

   hypermedia learning, 575–576

   mathematics, see mathematics and multimedia learning

   physical systems, see physical systems and multimedia learning

modality principle, 6, 147–148

   additivity, lack of evidence for, 152

   animation principle, 292

   APAs (animated pedagogical agents), 515, 516, 518

   chemistry and multimedia learning, 410

   cognitive aging, 344, 345

   cognitive load theory, 27, 148, 152

   cognitive theory, implications for, 178

   complex learning, 598–599

   definitions pertinent to, 156, 170, 613

   e-learning, see e-learning

   element interactivity, 154

   essential processing, techniques for managing, 169–171, 174

     definition of modality principle for purposes of, 170

     example of modality technique, 174

     limitations and future directions, 180

     research using modality techniques, 177–178, 180

     split-attention principle, relationship of modality effect to, 181

     theoretical rationale, 170

   evidence for, 150–152

   example of technique, 174

   expertise reversal effect, 154

   extraneous cognitive overload, 180

   4C/ID-model, 78, 85, 87, 88

   future directions in research, 180

   hypermedia, 570

   image principle, distinguishing from, 513–514

   independent visual and auditory processing systems, evidence for, 149–150, 151

   instructional design implications, 153–155, 179

   integrated model, 61, 65, 67

   limitations of research, 180

   mathematics teaching, 398, 405

   physical systems and multimedia learning, 460–461

   prior knowledge principle, 178, 331

   redundancy principle, 154

   SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 480

   split-attention principle, 147, 152–153, 154, 181

   summary of results of research, 177

   survey of research, 177–178

   theoretical rationale for, 170

   working memory capacity, expansion of, 147

model tracing, 100

modeling and model progression

   games, simulations, and microworlds, 558, 563

   guided-discovery principle, 220, 224

modular solutions, worked-out examples principle, 238

Molecular Workbench, 415–416

MOOs (Multi User Dimension Object Oriented environments), 252, 259, 265

motion pictures, see film

motivation and interest

   APAs and interest hypothesis, see animated pedagogical agents (APAs)

   CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning), 253, 258, 260

   false assumptions about, 101–103

     animated agents providing motivation, 106–108

     goal orientation and motivation, 104

   games, simulations, and microworlds, 560

   history and multimedia learning, 381–383

   implications of multimedia principle research for cognitive theory, 127

   instructional design, 596

   reading and multimedia learning, 363, 364, 365–366, 368

   VR and VE (virtual reality and virtual environments), 538

movies, see film

Multi User Dimension Object Oriented environments (MOOs), 252, 259, 265

multimedia

   defined, 1–2, 49, 98

   reading, defined in context of, 357–359

multimedia instruction, defined, 2, 3

multimedia instructional messages, 32, 47

multimedia learning, 1–15

   see also more specific entries

   active learning, 14–15

   advantages

     over single media, 271–272

     separated from instructional method used, 100

   assumptions about, see assumptions about multimedia learning

   defined, ix, 2, 15, 50, 118

   difficulties of, 271–272

   information acquisition, viewed as, 10, 11, 12

   knowledge construction, viewed as, 10, 11, 12–13

   learner-centered approaches, 9–10

   older learners, significance for, 348

   outcomes or goals, 13–14

   see also outcomes of multimedia learning

   rationale for, 3–6, 31

   research-based approach, importance of, ix–xi

   research basis for, 6–7

   response strengthening, viewed as, 10–11

   role of theory in, 32

   technology-centered approaches, 8–9

multimedia learning hypothesis, 1

multimedia presentation, 2

multimedia principle, 6, 117–118

   chemistry and multimedia learning, 410

   cognitive theory, 31, 47, 125–128

   definitions pertinent to, 129

   false assumptions about greater learning benefits from multimedia, 98–101

   future directions in research, 128–129

   instructional design implications, 124–125

   instructional effectiveness, 121–122

   integrated model of text and picture comprehension, 65, 67

   mathematics and multimedia learning, 405

   research foundations, 120–124

   SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 479, 480

   theoretical foundations, 118–120

multiple representations and cognitive skills, see cognitive skills and multimedia learning

music, use of, 600

National Science Education Standards, 411

National Science Foundation, 425

National Standards for History, 377

navigational principles, 7, 297–298

   complex text defined for purposes of, 298

   concept maps, 303–307, 308

   content representations

     defined, 298, 309

     global content representations, 299–300, 308

     hypertext systems, see subhead “hypertext systems,” this entry

     print media, role in, 298–300

     search tasks, role in, 305–307

     tabular presentation of types of, 305

   definitions pertinent to, 309

   hypertext systems, 300–309

     comparison of concept maps and menus, 303–305

     concept maps, 303–307, 308

     defined, 300, 309

     links, explicit vs. embedded, 301–302, 309

     menus, 302–303

     search tasks, comparison of content representation performance in, 305–307

   links, explicit vs. embedded, 301–302, 309

   menus in hypermedia, 302–303, 305–307

   print media, 298–300, 308

   search tasks in hypermedia, 305–307

   semantic groupings for menus, 302

   site maps, see site map principle

   structural properties of texts, 298–299, 304

   surface representation, 298

   theoretical basis, 298

near transfer

   defined, 407, 613

   e-learning, 593, 597, 613

   mathematics and multimedia learning, 402, 403, 407

network concept maps in hypermedia

   navigational principles, 303–307

   site map principle, 316

No Child Left Behind Act, scientifically-based research requirement of, 590

non-directive support, guided-discovery principle, 217

novice vs. experienced learners, see expertise reversal effect; prior knowledge principle

older learners, see cognitive aging principle

operational simulations, 591, 605, 613

outcomes of multimedia learning, 13–14

   guided-discovery principle and assessment problems, 222

   history and multimedia learning

     definition of learning outcomes, 387

     limitations of research, 383–384

   remembering and understanding as learning outcomes, 13–14

over-learning, 122

part-task practice as component of 4C/ID-model, see four-component instructional design model

participatory design approach, virtual reality (VR) and virtual environments (VE), 539

parts-whole sequencing, see segmenting principle

pedagogical agents, see animated pedagogical agents; image principle

performance or achievement

   assessing, see assessment

   intelligence, connection between, 105, 110

performance-oriented learners, 104

persona effect, APAs (animated pedagogical agents), 511–512

personalization principle, 6, 201, 203

   APAs (animated pedagogical agents), 515, 516, 518

   cognitive load, social cues adding to, 210

   cognitive skills and multimedia learning, 491

   cognitive theory, implications for, 209

   defined, 201, 211

   example of, 203

   independent variable limitations, 210

   instructional design implications, 209

   research regarding, 206–207, 210–211

   scripts, personalized and nonpersonalized, 204, 205

   tabular summary of research results, 206

philosophy, multimedia principle’s basis in, 118

physical systems and multimedia learning, 447–448, 462

   animated diagrams, 451–452

     dynamic events understood from, 456–458

     reasons for lack of effectiveness of, 457–458

     static structure understood from, 454

     three-dimensional objects, ability to display, 451, 454

     ways to make animation more effective, 458

   apprehension principle, 458

   ATI (aptitude-treatment interaction) research, 457

   cognitive skills, 492

   contiguity principle, 460

   definitions pertinent to, 448, 462

   diagrams

     animated diagrams, see subhead “animated diagrams,” this entry

     relationship between verbal materials and, 452–453

   see subhead “relationship between diagrams and verbal materials,” this entry

     schematic, 453

     static diagrams, see subhead “static diagrams,” this entry

     understanding and learning from diagrams only, 453–458

   dual coding theory, 459

   dynamic events

     animated diagrams portraying, 456–458

     static diagrams used to display, 454–456

   knowledge structures (mental models), 448–449, 463

   media and modalities used, 460–461

   mental animation (inference of movement in static diagrams), 450, 454–456, 461–462, 463

   meteorology, see meteorology and multimedia learning

   prior knowledge, effect of, 458

   relationship between diagrams and verbal materials, 452–453

     content relations, 459–460

     format relations, 460–461

   representations

     defined, 449, 462

     theoretical framework, 448, 449

     types of, 449–453

   resemblance principle, 458

   schematic diagrams, 453

   single medium or display, 448, 449

   spatial abilities of learners, 455, 457

   static diagrams, 450–451

     dynamic events understood from, 454–456

     graphic devices used to communicate dynamic events in, 456

     illustrations of, 450, 451

     schematic, 453

     static structure understood from, 453–454

     three-dimensional objects, 454

   survey of research on

     diagrams only, 453–458

     multimedia presentations, 459–462

   theoretical framework, 448–449

   three-dimensional objects

     ability of animated graphics to display, 451, 454

     static diagrams of, 454

   verbal materials, 452

     relationship between diagrams and, see subhead “relationship between diagrams and verbal materials,” this entry

     understanding and learning from multimedia presentations, 459–462

   weather, see meteorology and multimedia learning

pictures, processing of, see visual processing

PLATO, 9

play theory, 561

PPPersona agent, 107

practice opportunities, incorporation of, 610

pre-training principle, 6, 169–171, 173–174

   cognitive theory, implications for, 178

   defined, 170, 180

   example of, 173–174

   future directions in research, 180

   instructional design implications, 179

   limitations of research, 180

   prior knowledge

     effect of prior knowledge on results of pre-training techniques, 176

     pre-training as means of providing, 170

   summary of research results, 176

   survey of research, 176–177

   theoretical rationale for, 170

predictive tasks in meteorology

   importance of visual processing for, 430

   research on comprehension for purposes of, 436

presentation modes view of multimedia presentation, 2

presentation of multimedia, 2

print media

   navigational principles, 298–300, 308

   reading theory, 357–359

printed/digital words, visual processing of, see reading comprehension

prior knowledge principle, 7, 325–328

   animation principle, 292, 293, 329

   assessment issues, 335

   ATI (aptitude-treatment interaction) research, 127–128, 129, 332

   central executive function keyed to structure of prior knowledge, 126

   cognitive aging principle, 342, 347

   cognitive load theory, 331

   cognitive skills and multimedia learning, 499, 500

   cognitive theory, implications for, 333–334

   concept maps in hypermedia, 304, 305

   CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning), 253, 258

   definitions pertinent to, 335

   element interactivity, 330

   essential processing and essential overload, 174, 176, 178

   example of, 326–328

   expertise reversal effect, see expertise reversal effect

   extraneous processing and extraneous overload, 190, 197

   false assumptions about multimedia learning, 105

   future directions in research, 335

   guided-discovery principle, 218, 221

   history and multimedia learning, 385

   hypermedia learning, 577–578

   imagination effect in instruction, 330, 336

   instructional design, 595, 596, 597

   instructional design implications, 334–335

   integrated model of text and picture comprehension, 62

   isolated-interacting elements instructional effect, 329, 335, 336

   learner characteristics, research on effects of, 123–124

   learner control and segmenting principle, 179

   limitations of research, 332–333

   modality principle, 331

   modality principle research, 178

   multimedia principle and, 118

   physical systems and multimedia learning, 458

   pre-training principle

     effect of prior knowledge on results of pre-training techniques, 176

     pre-training as means of providing, 170

   reading and multimedia learning, 357

   schemas, 333

   self-explanation principle, 275

   site maps, see site map principle

   SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 473, 475

   split attention and, 140, 328

   summary of research results, 329

   survey of research, 328–332

   theory behind, 333

   transfer vs. retention testing, 316

   worked-out examples principle, 331–332, 334

   working memory and long-term memory, 595

probe recall tasks, modality principle research using, 149

problem-solving

   CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning), 256

   expertise reversal effect, worked-out examples vs. problem-solving, 165, 231, 331–332

   ill-structured or wicked problems, 256, 265

   mathematics and multimedia learning, 397

   worked examples vs., see worked-out examples principle

procedural information as component of 4C/ID-model, see four-component instructional design model

psychological theory, navigational principles based in, 298

qualitative vs. quantitative rationale for multimedia learning, 4, 5

qualitative vs. quantitative research in games, simulations, and microworlds, 560–561

radio as revolutionizing learning, 8

random generation and effectiveness testing (inquiry-based learning), see cognitive load theory

rationale for multimedia learning, 3–6

reading and multimedia learning, 355–356

   comprehension issues, see reading comprehension

   congruity of media presentations, 363, 364

   decoding, 356, 359–361, 367

   future directions in research, 365–366

   instructional design implications, 365–366

   limitations on research, 356–357, 366

   motivation and interest, 363, 364, 365–366, 368

   multimedia defined in context of reading, 357–359

   pictures and content, relationship between, 363

   printed vs. digital text, 357–359

   prior knowledge principle, 357

   semiotics, 365, 367

   theoretical views regarding

     bottom-up vs. top-down process, 356

     cognitive flexibility theory and reading comprehension, 362

     critical stance, helping readers develop, 368

     multimedia, definition of, 357–359

     richness of, 367

reading comprehension (processing of written, printed or digital words)

   cognitive flexibility theory, 362, 367

   cognitive theory, 44

   critical approach to texts, developing, 361, 362, 364, 368

   integrated model of text and picture comprehension, 57, 62, 67

   knowledge structures (mental models), 362

   mathematics, use of written words to teach, 393

   see also mathematics and multimedia learning

   physical systems, use of written materials to teach, 452

   relationship between verbal and nonverbal signs (text and pictures), 493–498

   research on, 361–365, 368

   spoken vs. written word processing, see modality principle

receptive e-learning, 592–593, 594, 613

redundancy principle, 6, 159–160

   additional information, presentation of (coherence principle), 160

   APAs (animated pedagogical agents), 510, 515, 516, 518

   cognitive aging, 343, 344

   cognitive load theory, 27, 160–161, 165

   counterintuitiveness of, 159, 166

   defined, 159, 167

   e-learning, 599–601, 614

   element interactivity, 166

   evidence from research for, 161

   expertise reversal effect, centrality to, 165

   extraneous audio, omission of, 599–601

   extraneous processing, techniques for reducing, 183–186, 188

     cognitive theory, implications for, 195–196

     definition of redundancy principle for purposes of, 184, 198

     example of redundancy techniques, 188

     instructional design implications, 196–197

     limitations and future directions of research, 197

     subset of Sweller’s redundancy principle, 193

     survey of research on, 192–193

     tabular summary of research results, 193

     theoretical rationale, 186

     type 1 extraneous overload, 185–186

   first use of term, 161

   4C/ID-model, 78, 82, 89

   historical background and periodic rediscovery, 159, 165

   identical information presented in different media (Mayer’s redundancy effect), 160

   instructional design implications, 165–166

   integrated model of text and picture comprehension

     general redundancy, 62–63, 65, 67

     specific redundancy, 62, 65, 67

   mathematics and multimedia learning, 405

   modality principle, 154

   revision, need for, 166

   schemas, 166

   SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 480

   split-attention principle, 139, 143, 145, 162–163

   variations on, 160

   working memory, 160–161

reflection principle, APAs (animated pedagogical agents), 518

reflective support, guided-discovery principle, 218

regulatory processes and guided-discovery principle, 216, 218

relevancy of multimedia materials, importance of, 124–125

remembering vs. understanding, 13–14

   see also memory; transfer and retention testing; understanding

representations

   animation principle supporting visualization and mental representation processes, 288

   chemistry and multimedia learning, 410–412, 418, 425

   cognitive science and multiple representations, see cognitive skills and multimedia learning

   cognitive theory, five forms of representation in, 41–42

   external representations, defined, 425, 462

   integrated model of text and picture comprehension, 57

     channels of representation, 55

     depictive and descriptive representations, 52–54, 67

     distinction of sensory channels on perceptual level from representational channels on cognitive level, 59

     forms of representation, 52–54, 55, 67, 68

   internal representations, defined, 425, 448, 462

   see also knowledge structures

   navigational principles

     content representations, see navigational principles

     surface representation, 298

   physical systems, see physical systems and multimedia learning

   type 3 extraneous overload and representational holding, 186, 198

research, see also under specific topics

   assumptions about multimedia learning not supported by, 97–98

   see also assumptions about multimedia learning

   basis for, 6–7

   design issues, see design of research studies

   importance of approach based on, ix–xi

   No Child Left Behind Act, scientifically-based research requirement of, 590

resemblance principle, physical systems and multimedia learning, 458

response strengthening, multimedia learning viewed as, 10–11

retention testing, see transfer and retention testing

revision not counting as redundancy, 166

rote learning, 13–14, 20

SAPs (systematic approaches to problem-solving), 4C/ID-model, 74, 79, 82, 83

scaffolding, 100, 105

   cognitive skills and multimedia learning, 500

   CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning), 262–263, 265

   defined, 388, 614

   e-learning via simulations, 608, 609, 611, 614

   guidance tools, 217–219, 224

   see also guided-discovery principle

   history and multimedia learning, 378, 383, 388

   prior knowledge principle, instructional design implications of, 334

   VR and VE (virtual reality and virtual environments), 538

schemas

   central executive for working memory, functioning as, 25

   cognitive theory (Mayer) compared, 41, 45

   defined, 29, 156

   e-learning, 595, 596, 597, 614

   4C/ID-model, 75–77

   pre-training principle, 170

   prior knowledge principle, 333

   redundancy principle, 166

   relations between long-term and working memory, 24, 25

   structure of knowledge in long-term memory, 21

Scientific Discovery as Dual Search (SDDS) model, guided-discovery principle, 223

scientific discovery learning, 215, 225

   see also guided-discovery principle

scripted vs. interactive multimedia, 550

SDDS (Scientific Discovery as Dual Search) model, guided-discovery principle, 223

search tasks in hypermedia and navigational principles, 305–307

second language acquisition (SLA) with multimedia, 467–469

   acquisition vs. learning of language, 468, 484

   advance organizers, 469

     defined, 483

     instructional design implications, 481

     research on, 475–476

   annotations, 472, 473–474, 483

   apperception, 470, 471–472, 483

   assessment, 478, 481, 483

   auditory processing, 472, 478, 483

   cognitive approach, 468

   cognitive theory, 471, 479–480

   coherence principle, 480

   comprehensible input

     defined, 483

     future directions in research, 482

     interactionist perspective, 469–471

     limited nature of research on, 478

     survey of research on, 471–472

   comprehensible output

     defined, 483

     future directions in research, 482

     instructional design implications, 481

     interactionist perspective, 469–471

     research on, 476–477

   constructivism, 468

   CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning), 259

   definitions pertinent to, 483

   design of research studies, 477

   dual coding theory, 472

   example of, 469

   future directions in research, 482–483

   hypermedia learning, 576

   individual differences principle, 479, 480

   input and output competencies, 467

   see also subheads “comprehensible input” and “comprehensible output,” this entry

     definitions of input and output, 483, 484

     interactionist perspective, 469–471

   instructional design implications, 480–482

   intake/integration of information, 475–476

   integrated model, 471, 478, 483

   interactionist perspective/theory, 469–471, 473, 483

   interactive processing

     comprehensible output research on, 472–475

     definitions pertinent to, 483

     future directions in research, 482

     interactionist perspective, 469–471

     survey of research on, 472–475

   learner characteristics

     individual differences principle, 479, 480

     prior knowledge, 473, 475

     spatial ability of learners, 472, 475, 479, 480, 484

   learner control, 474, 481

   limitations of research, 477–479

   materials

     authentic materials, need to use, 477, 479, 483

     future directions in research, 482

     limitations on research, 479

   modality principle, 480

   multimedia principle, 479, 480

   organizational issues, 472–475

   prior knowledge, 473, 475

   redundancy principle, 480

   sociocognitive approach, 468

   spatial ability of learners, 472, 475, 479, 480, 484

   structural approach of behavioral psychology, 468

   survey of research, 469–477

   theoretical frameworks, 467–468

     cognitive theory, 471, 479–480

     constructivism, 468

     dual coding theory, 472

     interactionist perspective/theory, 469–471, 473, 483

     limitations of research without, 478

     sociocognitive approach, 468

     structural approach of behavioral psychology, 468

   verbal ability of learners, 475, 479, 480, 484

seductive detail

   defined, 614

   distractive qualities of, 596

   social cues creating, 209

segmenting principle, 6, 169–173

   cognitive aging, parts-whole sequencing to counteract, 345–347, 348

   cognitive theory, implications for, 178

   defined, 170, 180

   example of, 171–173

   4C/ID-model, part-task practice as component of, see four-component instructional design model

   future directions in research, 179–180

   instructional design implications, 179

   learner control issues, 171–173, 179

   limitations of research, 179–180

   self-pacing principle and 4C/ID-model, 83

   summary of research results, 175

   survey of research, 174–176

   theoretical rationale for, 170

self-directed activity in VR and VE (virtual reality and virtual environments), 538

self-explanation principle, 7, 14, 271–272

   analysis of research results, 279–282

   APAs (animated pedagogical agents), 516

   content areas, 275

   defined, 272

   example of self-explanation in multimedia, 277–278

   explaining to others vs. self-explaining, 276–277

   4C/ID-model, 78, 83, 89

   high-quality vs. low-quality explanations, 273, 275, 278–279

   instructional design implications, 282–284

   learner characteristics, 275

   prior knowledge, effect of, 275

   spontaneous self-explaining, effectiveness of, 273–274

   summary of research results, 280, 281, 282

   survey of research, 277–279, 282

   trainable learning strategy, effectiveness as, 274–275

   worked-out examples principle, 232–234, 238, 239, 242

self-pacing principle, 4C/ID-model, 78, 83, 87, 89

self-regulation and cognitive skills, 500

semantic groupings for menus, effectiveness of, 302

semiotics

   cognitive skills and multimedia learning, 494–496, 502

   defined, 502

   reading theory, 365, 367

sensory deficits and cognitive aging principle, 341

sensory memory

   cognitive aging principle, 342

   cognitive theory, role in, 37–38

   defined, 47, 130

   dual coding theory, 47

   integrated model of text and picture comprehension, 55–56, 67

   pictures, processing of, 42

   representation, forms of, 41–42

   spoken words, processing of, 43

sensory modalities view of multimedia presentation, 2

sensory overload, 99, 102

sequencing principle

   e-learning and animation, 604

   4C/ID-model, 77–79, 89

   integrated model of text and picture comprehension, 61–62, 65, 67

sequencing tasks in multimedia history learning, 382, 388

Sherlock, 607, 609

SICUN, 491–492

signaling principle, 6, 183–186, 187

   animation principle, 292, 295

   chemistry and multimedia learning, 410

   cognitive aging, 343, 344

   cognitive theory, implications for, 195–196

   defined, 184, 198

   example of, 187

   4C/ID-model, 78, 85, 87, 89

   future directions in research, 197

   instructional design implications, 196–197

   limitations of research, 197

   summary of research results, 192

   survey of research, 192

   theoretical rationale for, 185–186

   type 1 extraneous overload, 185–186

   worked-out examples principle, 235

signs as semiotics concept, 494, 502

simplifying conditions method, worked-out examples principle, 240

SimQuest, 216–217

simulations, see games, simulations, and microworlds

single user virtual environments (SVEs), 527, 528, 536

site map principle, 7, 313–315

   see also concept maps

   adaptive site maps, 322

   advance organizers, 316, 322

   assimilation theory, 319

   cognitive flexibility theory, 320, 321

   cognitive theory, implications of research for, 319–320

   Construction-Integration Model, 319–320, 321

   defined, 313

   definitions pertinent to, 322

   examples from National Zoo web site, 314–315

   future directions in research, 321–322

   goal orientation, 317, 318, 321

   graphic vs. linguistic maps, 318–319

   incidental learning, 321

   instructional design implications, 320–321

   learner characteristics, 318, 321

   limitations of research, 318–319

   macrostructures, 319

   metacognition, 318, 322

   prior knowledge principle

     cognitive theory, implications of research for, 319, 320

     future directions in research, 321

     instructional design implications, 321

     limitations of research, 318

     survey of research, 316, 317

   purpose of site map, 313

   size of hypertext, effect of, 321

   survey of research, 315–318

situated learning using CVEs (collaborative virtual environments), 530

situation models

   defined, 322

   navigational principles, 298, 304, 309

   site map principle, 319, 322

situative theory of multimedia learning in chemistry, 410–412, 426

SLA, see second language acquisition (SLA) with multimedia

SMV:Chem (formerly 4M:Chem), 412–414, 423

social agency theory, 202, 209

social cues, 201

   see also image principle; personalization principle; voice principle

   cognitive load added by, 210

   cognitive theory, implications for, 209

   cooperation principle, 202

   defined, 211

   dependent measure limitations, 210

   examples of, 202–205

   flow chart, 203

   future directions in research, 210–211

   importance of, 202

   independent variable limitations, 210

   instructional design implications, 209

   limitations of research, 210–211

   summaries of research results, 206, 207, 208

   survey of research, 205–209

   task environment limitations, 210

   theory behind, 202

   transfer vs. retention testing, 206, 210

social skills training using VR and VE, 536–538

sociocognitive approach to SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 468

sociocultural and social cognitive theory, 248–249, 265–266

sound comprehension, see auditory processing

Sourcer’s Apprentice, 378, 379

sourcing heuristic, history and multimedia learning, 377, 388

spatial abilities of learners

   animation principle, 292

   chemistry and multimedia learning, 421, 425

   extraneous processing and extraneous overload, 190, 197

   hypermedia learning, 578–579, 580

   mathematics and multimedia learning, 401

   multimedia principle and effect of, 124

   physical systems and multimedia learning, 455, 457

   shortcut tasks, 532, 533

   SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 472, 475, 479, 480, 484

   VR and VEs used to investigate and train, 532–535, 538, 540

spatial contiguity principle, 6, 183–186, 189

   cognitive aging, 343, 344

   cognitive skills and multimedia learning, 491

   cognitive theory, implications for, 195–196

   defined, 184, 198

   example of, 189

   future directions in research, 197

   instructional design implications, 196–197

   instructional effectiveness of multimedia principle, 121

   limitations of research, 197

   mathematics and multimedia learning, 405

   split-attention principle, 140, 195

   summary of research results, 194

   survey of research, 193–195

   theoretical rationale, 186

   type 2 extraneous overload, 185, 186

Spearman’s “g” and working memory, 126

split-attention principle, 6, 135

   APAs (animated pedagogical agents), 510, 512, 513, 514, 517

   cognitive load theory, 26, 29, 135, 140, 141, 142, 145

   contiguity principle, 140, 143–144

   defined, 135

   definitions pertinent to, 146

   different content areas, validity over, 137–141

   direct comparison of integrated with non-integrated information, 140

   e-learning, applicability to, 141–143

     print materials alone vs. computer media alone, 142–143

     print materials alone vs. print and computer media, 141–142

   element interactivity, 141, 142, 145

   4C/ID-model, see four-component instructional design model

   importance of integrated information, identification of, 99, 140

   instructional design implications, 145

   integrated model of text and picture comprehension, 60, 61, 62, 63, 65, 68

   learner characteristics, 145

   mathematics and multimedia learning, 394

   mental integration required by learners, 137

   modality principle, 147, 152–153, 154, 181

   physical integration of materials, importance of, 137, 145

   prior knowledge, effect of, 140, 328

   redundancy principle, 139, 143, 145, 162–163

   research survey, 137–141

   spatial contiguity principle, 140, 195

   temporal contiguity principle, 143–144, 195

   temporal split-attention principle, 4C/ID-model, 78, 84

   temporal vs. physical splitting/integration of source materials, 143–144

   types of materials causing split attention, 136

   worked-out examples principle, 232, 233

spoken word processing, see auditory processing

Stanford Project, 356

static graphics

   diagrams, see diagrams

   hypermedia learning, 576

   mathematics, see mathematics and multimedia learning

   physical systems, see physical systems and multimedia learning

step-by-step presentation of worked-out examples, 237

“streaming” or transient information, 4C/ID-model, 83

“strengthening” concept, 4C/ID-model, 76, 77, 86, 89

structural approach to SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 468

structural properties of texts and navigational principles, 298–299, 304

structure-emphasizing guideline, worked-out examples principle, 236–237, 242

structure mapping, integrated model of text and picture comprehension, 63, 65, 68

structure of information in hypermedia learning, 572–573, 585

students, see entries at learner

styles of learning supported by multimedia learning

   assumptions regarding, 103–106

   hypermedia learning, 579–580

superficial vs. deep processing, integrated model of text and picture comprehension, 63

support, learner need for, 109–110, 123

supportive information as component of 4C/ID-model, see four-component instructional design model

surface representation and navigational principles, 298

SVEs (single user virtual environments), 527, 528, 536

symbols as semiotics concept, 494, 502

synchronous e-learning, 591–592, 611, 614

synchronous vs. asynchronous tools in CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning), 250, 264, 266

systematic approaches to problem-solving (SAPs), 4C/ID-model, 74, 79, 82, 83

systematization assumption, cognitive skills and multimedia learning, 492

tables, charts, and figures

   active learning, pumps animation frames illustrating cognitive vs. behavioral, 4, 5

   animation and interactivity, 291

   APAs (animated pedagogical agents)

     cognitive model for multimedia learning with, 511

     summary of research results, 517

   chemistry and multimedia learning

     ChemDiscovery (formerly ChemQuest), 419

     ChemSense, 417

     Connected Chemistry, 415

     Molecular Workbench, 416

     SMV:Chem and 4M:Chem, 413

   cognitive aging declines and possible compensatory strategies, 344

   cognitive skills and multimedia learning

     model of relationship between internal and external representations, 493, 497

     semiotics perspective, 495

     triadic and dyadic models of signs, 494

   cognitive theory, 33

     cognitive processes required by, 41

     different types of materials, processing of, 33

     memory stores, 37, 45

     narrated animation on lightning formation representation used in experiments in, 33

     representation, five forms of, 42

     underlying assumptions, 34

   coherence principle

     added text samples, 186

     separated presentation, 187

     summary of research results, 191

     type 1 overload scenario, 185

   definition of multimedia, multimedia learning, and multimedia instruction, 2

   e-learning

     animation, use of, 603

     collaborative, synchronous or asynchronous, 592

     complex visual content explained with audio narration, 599

     conceptual simulations, 606

     directive, 591

     extraneous audio, omission of, 600, 601

     guided-discovery principle, 595

     operational simulations, 591

     receptive, 593

     solo, 591

     three factors shaping learning landscape, 597

     troubleshooting tasks, 607

   essential processing management techniques

     breakdown of lightning script into segments, 172

     learner control and segmentation, 172

     selected frames illustrating pre-training techniques, 173, 175

     summary of research results, 175, 176, 177

     type 1 and type 2 essential overload scenarios, load-reducing strategies for, 171

   extraneous processing, techniques for reducing

     added text samples illustrating coherence principle, 186

     emphasized text samples illustrating signaling principle, 188

     overload scenarios, 185

     summaries of research results, 191, 192, 193, 194, 196

   4C/ID-model, 73, 78

   games, simulations, and microworlds

     simple simulation, 553

     simulation/game, 557

     ThinkerTool microworld, 555

   guided-discovery principle and computer simulation learning environment, 217

   image principle, summary of research results, 208

   information acquisition, multimedia learning viewed as, 11

   instructional design

     technology-centered vs. learner-centered approaches to, 10

     three factors shaping learning landscape, 597

   integrated model of text and picture comprehension

     bird migration pictures, 50

     representational channels, 55

   knowledge construction, multimedia learning viewed as, 11

   mathematics and multimedia learning

     dynamic graphics and spoken text, 395

     static graphics, 394

     written text, worked examples consisting solely of, 394

   meteorology and multimedia learning, weather map used in, 431

   modality principle

     research results, summary of, 177

     type 2 overload scenario, 171

   navigational principles

     types of content representations, 305

     types of link presentation, 301

   outcomes or goals of multimedia learning, remembering and understanding as, 13

   personalization principle

     scripts, personalized and nonpersonalized, 204, 205

     summary of research results, 206

   physical systems and multimedia learning

     single medium or display, 449

     static diagrams, 450, 451

   pre-training principle

     research results, summary of, 176

     selected frames illustrating, 173, 175

     type 1 overload scenario, 171

   prior knowledge principle

     multimedia vs. diagram-only instructional formats, 326, 327

     summary of research results, 329

   redundancy principle, extraneous processing techniques

     integrated presentation, 191

     selected frames, redundant and non-redundant presentations, 189

     summary of research results, 193

     type 1 overload scenario, 185

   response strengthening, multimedia learning viewed as, 11

   segmenting principle

     breakdown of lightning script, 172

     learner control, 172

     research results, summary of, 175

     type 1 overload scenario, 171

   self-explanation principle, results of research on, 280, 281, 282

   shortcut tasks and spatial cognition, 532, 533

   signaling principle

     emphasized text samples, 188

     summary of research results, 192

     type 1 overload scenario, 185

   SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia

     integrated model, 471

     interactionist model, 470

     picture annotation, 470

   social cues

     flow chart, 203

     image principle, summary of research results, 208

     personalization principle, scripts and summary of results, 204, 205, 206

     voice principle, summary of research results, 207

   spatial contiguity principle

     integrated presentation, 191

     separated presentation, 187

     summary of research results, 194

     type 2 overload scenario, 185

   split-attention principle, worked examples illustrating, 136, 137, 139

   temporal contiguity principle

     summary of research results, 196

     type 3 overload scenario, 185

   voice principle, summary of research results, 207

   VR and VE (virtual reality and virtual environments)

     attributes of VR as subset of VE attributes, 530

     collaborative user environments (CVEs), 529

     constructivist mainstream learning environments and domain-specific knowledge, 531

     desktop systems, 527

     everyday life skills training, 535, 536

     head-mounted display/devices (HMDs), 527

     single user environments (SVEs), 528

     social skills training, 537

     spatial cognition training, 533, 534

   worked-out examples principle, 231, 233

tasks

   CSCL tasks, see computer-supported collaborative learning

   4C/ID-model

     learning tasks, see four-component instructional design model

     part-task practice as component of, see four-component instructional design model (4C/ID-model)

   predictive tasks in meteorology

     importance of visual processing for, 430

     research on comprehension for purposes of, 436

   probe recall tasks, modality principle research using, 149

   social cues and task environment limitations, 210

teachers and teaching, see entries at “instruct

technology-centered approaches to multimedia learning, 8–9, 10

   see also computer technology

television as revolutionizing learning, 8

temporal contiguity principle, 6, 183–186, 190

   cognitive aging, 343, 344

   cognitive theory, implications for, 195–196

   defined, 184, 198

   example of, 190

   future directions in research, 197

   instructional design implications, 196–197

   instructional effectiveness of multimedia principle, 121

   limitations of research, 197

   split-attention principle, 143–144, 195

   summary of research results, 196

   survey of research, 195

   theoretical rationale, 186

   type 3 extraneous overload, 185, 186

tests as form of assessment

   CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning), 262

   transfer and retention, see transfer and retention testing

textbases

   defined, 309, 322

   navigational principles, 298, 299, 304, 309

   site map principle, 319, 322

theory

   basis in theory and research for multimedia learning, 6–7

   cognitive aging principle, 342–343

   cognitive flexibility theory, see cognitive flexibility theory

   cognitive load theory, see cognitive load theory

   cognitive science, see cognitive skills and multimedia learning

   cognitive theory, see cognitive theory

   coherence principle, 185–186

   constructionist learning, VR and VE (virtual reality and virtual environments), 530, 531, 539

   constructivism, see constructivism

   CSCL (computer-supported collaborative learning), 248–249, 254, 263

   different levels of, 71, 86

   essential processing, techniques for managing, 170–171

   Explanatory Coherence, Theory of, 263

   extraneous processing, techniques for reducing, 184–186

   games, simulations, and microworlds, 561–562

   guided-discovery principle, 222–223

   history and multimedia learning, 376–377, 384

   hypermedia learning, 570–571, 584

   importance of theory-grounded and research-based approach, ix–xi

   integrative model, see integrative model of text and picture comprehension

   mental model construction, two-stage theory of, 346, 349

   multimedia principle, theoretical foundations of, 118–120

   navigational principles based in psychological theory, 298

   physical systems and multimedia learning, 448–449

   pre-training principle, 170

   prior knowledge principle, 333

   reading and multimedia learning, see reading and multimedia learning

   redundancy principle, 186

   role in multimedia learning design, 32

   segmenting principle, 170

   signaling principle, 185–186

   site map principle research, implications of, 319–320

   SLA (second language acquisition), see second language acquisition (SLA) with multimedia

   social agency theory, 202, 209

   social cues, 202

   spatial contiguity principle, 186

   temporal contiguity principle, 186

   worked-out examples principle, 230

ThinkerTools, 551, 554, 555, 563

thrashing (floundering), 110

three-dimensional objects

   ability of animated graphics to display, 451, 454

   static diagrams of, 454

TICCIT, 9

time required to learn, methods reducing, 100, 111

time variations, generalizability of multimedia principles over, 610

training variability and cognitive aging principle, 348, 349

training-wheels principle, 4C/ID-model, 78, 81, 87, 89

transfer and retention testing, see also far transfer; near transfer

   animation and video, effects of use of, 122

   APAs (animated pedagogical agents), 512

   cognitive theory, 32, 125

   essential processing, techniques for managing, 174, 178

   extraneous processing, techniques for reducing, 187, 190

   instructional effectiveness of multimedia principle, empirical foundations for, 121, 122

   mathematics, see mathematics and multimedia learning

   prior knowledge principle, 316

   rationale for multimedia learning, 3

   remembering and understanding as learning outcomes, 13–14

   self-explanation principle, 4C/ID-model, 83

   social cues, research on, 206, 210

   VR and VE, transfer of training to real world from, 534, 535, 542

transformative processes and guided-discovery principle, 216, 218

transmission view of multimedia learning, 12

triadic vs. dyadic chains, cognitive skills and multimedia learning, 494

tutors, see entries at “instruct

two-stage theory of mental model construction, 346, 349

UCD (user-centered design) in VR and VE (virtual reality and virtual environments), 539

understanding

   cognitive load theory

     relations between long-term and working memory, 25

     structure of knowledge in long-term memory, 20

   learning with, see meaningful learning

   remembering vs., 13–14

user-centered design (UCD) in VR and VE (virtual reality and virtual environments), 539

variability in sequencing of training problems, cognitive aging principle, 348, 349

variability principle, 4C/ID-model, 78, 80, 89

VE, see virtual reality (VR) and virtual environments (VE)

verbal ability of learners, SLA (second language acquisition) with multimedia, 475, 479, 480, 484

verbal models and cognitive theory, see cognitive theory

verbal processing, see also reading comprehension

   cognitive theory, see cognitive theory

   mathematics, use of written or spoken words to teach, 393

   see also mathematics and multimedia learning

   physical systems, use of verbal materials to teach, see physical systems and multimedia learning

   relationship between verbal and nonverbal signs (text and pictures), 493–498

   visualizer vs. verbalizer learning preferences, 580

video, research on effectiveness of, 122–123

virtual reality (VR) and virtual environments (VE), 525–526

   assessment, 540

   attributes of VR as subset of VE attributes, 529, 530

   augmented reality systems, 526

   cognitive skills and multimedia learning, 500, 501

   constructionist learning, 530, 531, 539

   constructivism, 529, 530, 531

   CVEs (collaborative user environments), 527, 529

     defined, 541

     mainstream learning environments and domain-specific knowledge, 530, 531

     social skills training, 536, 538

   definitions pertinent to, 525, 541

   desktop systems, 526, 527, 540

   domain-specific knowledge, 529–531

   educational applications, 528–529

   everyday life skills training, 535–536

   future directions in research, 540–541

   growing feasibility of use of, 75

   guided-discovery principle, 538

   hardware, 526

   HMDs (head-mounted display/devices), 526, 527

   instructional design, 539

   learner characteristics and individual differences principle, 540

   learner involvement in instructional design, 539

   life skills training, 535–536

   limitations of research on, 538–539

   mainstream learning environments, 529–531

   modality principle research, 178

   motivation and interest, 538

   participatory design, 539

   projected systems, 526

   rehabilitation, used for, 531

   scaffolding, 538

   self-directed activity, 538

   situated learning using CVEs, 530

   social skills training, 536–538

   software, 526

   spatial cognition assessment and training, 532–535, 538, 540

   special needs education, 531

   SVEs (single user environments), 527, 528, 536

   time delays, 540

   total or partial immersion, 526, 529, 540

   transfer of training, 534, 535, 542

   UCD (user-centered design), 539

   user participation, 527

visual processing

   animation principle supporting, 288

   auditory processing vs., see dual coding theory

   cognitive aging and sensory deficits, 341

   cognitive theory

     integration of verbal and pictorial models, 40–41

     organization of selected images, 40

     pictorial models, see cognitive theory

     pictures, processing of, 42–43

     selection of relevant images, 39

   complex visual content explained with audio narration, 598–599

   e-learning, 598–599

   hypermedia learning, 576

   integrated model, visual picture comprehension, 58, 68

   mathematics, graphics and written words used to teach, 393

   see also mathematics and multimedia learning

   meteorology and multimedia learning

     examples of weather maps requiring visual interpretation, 431–434

     importance of visual processing to, 429–431

   relationship between verbal and nonverbal signs (text and pictures), 493–498

   spoken vs. written word processing, see auditory processing; modality principle; reading comprehension

   verbalizer vs. visualizer learning preferences, 580

VLE (virtual learning environments), see virtual reality (VR) and virtual environments (VE)

voice principle, 6, 201, 204

   cognitive load, social cues adding to, 210

   cognitive theory, implications for, 209

   defined, 201, 211

   example of, 204

   independent variable limitations, 210

   instructional design implications, 209

   mathematics and multimedia learning, 403, 406

   research regarding, 207–208, 210–211

   tabular summary of research results, 207

VR, see virtual reality (VR) and virtual environments (VE)

The Way Things Work, 456

weather, see meteorology and multimedia learning

wicked (ill-structured) problems, 256, 265

WISE, 218, 220

worked-out examples principle, 7, 229–230

   anticipative reasoning, 234, 237, 238

   cognitive aging principle, 348

   cognitive load theory, 26, 230, 240

   conceptually-oriented equations, 238

   constructivism, 239, 240

   content area relevance, 241

   defined, 230

   definitions pertinent to, 242

   discovery-based approach compared, 332

   dual coding theory, 235

   easy-mapping guideline, 235–236

   error-triggered learning, 240

   expertise reversal effect, 165, 231, 331–332

   faded examples, 238–239, 335

   future directions in research, 240–242

   help guidelines (instructional explanations), 234–235

   initial skill acquisition, 238–239

   instructional design

     implications, 239–240

     requirements, 232–238

   integration issues, 233, 236, 238

   limitations of, 240–242

   limitations of research, 240–242

   mathematics and multimedia learning, 393–397

   meaningful building-blocks guideline, 237–238

   modular solutions, 238

   multiple solution procedures, showing, 240

   preference of learners for worked-out examples, 230

   prior knowledge principle, 331–332, 334

   prompts, 234, 239, 241, 242

   self-explanation elicitation, 232–234, 238, 239, 242

   signaling principle, 235

   simplifying conditions method, 240

   split-attention effect, 232, 233

   step-by-step presentation, 237

   structure of problem, emphasizing, 236–237, 242

   survey of research, 230–232

working memory

   active processing assumption of cognitive theory, 47

   aging, effect of, 342

   see also cognitive aging principle

   capacity, see cognitive capacity

   cognitive load theory, see cognitive load theory

   cognitive theory, 37–38, 126–127

   defined, 47, 130

   dual coding theory, 47

   e-learning, 595–596, 614

   4C/ID-model, 75–76

   implications of multimedia principle research for, 126–127

   independent visual and auditory processing systems, evidence for, 149–150, 151

   integrated model of text and picture comprehension, 54–55, 68, 126

   integration with long-term memory, 126

   limited capacity assumption, 47

   modality principle and expansion of capacity, 147

   pictures, processing of, 42

   printed words, processing of, 44

   prior knowledge principle, 595

   redundancy principle, 160–161

   representation of words and pictures in, forms of, 41–42

   Spearman’s “g” and, 126

   spoken words, processing of, 44

World-Wide Web (WWW), see e-learning; hypermedia learning

written words, processing of, see reading comprehension

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), 471


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