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The Sound Structure of English

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The Sound Structure of English
Cambridge University Press
9780521850360 - The Sound Structure of English - An Introduction - By Chris McCully
Index

Index of topics

abstract, property of the phoneme 187

accent 7, 8, 213

accents of English, analysed or mentioned in text

American Englishes 143

Antipodean Englishes 115, 131, 137, 139, 154, 173

Bristol 124, 136

British English (BrE) 3, 57, 58, 115, 213

Cockney 136

Deep South 116

General American (GA) 4, 58, 99, 115, 143, 154, 164, 172, 173, 196, 218

Hull 169

Irish Englishes 137, 143, 172

Leeds 137, 139, 142

Liverpool 169

London 136, 141, 169

New York City (NYC) 109, 116, 139, 143

New Zealand (NZ) 109

Northern, Standard British 44, 109, 116, 120, 133, 139, 145

Norwich 136, 141

Received Pronunciation (RP) 109, 116, 120, 123, 139, 142, 144, 163, 164, 166, 173, 196, 222

advanced RP 124, 165

conservative RP 120, 165

Scottish 136, 137, 141, 172

Sheffield 169

Southern, South-West British 139, 143, 172

Southern, Standard British 165, 166, 173

Tyneside English 123, 164, 168, 169

See also happ-Y tensing

affricate 43, 193, 194, 213

allophone 51, 55–7, 58, 59, 86, 122, 154, 155, 157, 181, 213

context-determined nature of 112

and phoneme 56

predictability of 56

See also phonetics

alphabet 3

common, of English 2

common, limited use in analysis of sound-structure 2

phonemic

See IPA

phonetic

See IPA

See also graphology, runic alphabet

alveolar 54, 93

alveolar ridge 42, 43, 111, 193, 213

ambisyllabicity 104

See also syllabification

[±anterior]

See distinctive features

appendix 182

approximant 44, 45, 54, 84, 92, 95, 173, 213

articulation 213

See also manner of articulation, place of articulation, voicing

articulators, active 36

assimilation 185–9

manner 186

place 185, 186

progressive 186

regressive 186, 189

voice 186

aspiration 10

auxiliary template 191, 192

[±back]

See distinctive features

bilabial consonants 41, 54

Cardinal Vowels

See vowels, Cardinal, vowel

centring diphthong

See diphthong, centring

See also diphthong

chain shift 165, 214

in consonant systems 160

in Great Vowel Shift 159, 160

See also High German Consonant Shift

Chaucer’s London English 158, 159

classes of sound 55, 56, 92, 94

and syllable structure 81, 84, 85

See also natural classes

classical generative phonology 180, 187, 189, 191, 209

coda, of syllable

See syllable, coda

complementary distribution 51, 57, 214

See also allophone

compound stress 214

See also stress

compound words 62, 69–71, 72, 73

consonant 2, 4, 19, 215

defined as segment 24

distinct from vowel 23

distribution of English, within the syllable 51–9

inventory of consonants in one variety of English 46–7

constituent, of the syllable

See syllable

constraints, in OT 200, 201, 202, 203, 210, 215

[±continuant]

See distinctive features


contrastiveness 12, 19, 20, 116, 215

contrast defined and analysed 6

contrast and phonemes 22

contrast as underlying

contrastive distribution 20, 57, 216

[±coronal]

See distinctive features

dental 41, 216

Dependency Phonology 211

derivational morphology 70, 216

diachronic variation

See variation, historical

diachrony 151, 152, 153

See also dialectal variation, historical variation

dialect 7, 216

dialectal variation 148, 149

diphthong 91, 98, 99, 116, 127–47, 216

centring 140, 142, 143

non-centring 140

distinctive feature matrix 192, 218

distinctive feature theory 183, 193, 198

distinctive features 170, 172, 176, 177, 180–99, 216, 218

[±anterior] 193, 216

[±back] 184, 207, 216

[±continuant] 183, 194, 217

[±coronal] 183, 217

[±high] 184, 207, 217

[±labial] 183, 217

[±long] 180, 181, 217

[±low] 184, 217

[±nasal] 184, 194, 217

[±round] 184, 217

[±strident] 194, 217

[±tense] 170–2, 180, 181, 217

[±voice] 170, 180, 181, 183, 217

See also major class features, distinctive feature matrix

distribution 11, 12, 54, 59

general principles 22, 47

predictability of, as diagnostic for allophone 56

as diagnostic for phoneme 54

distributional constraints 52, 64

Dutch, Modern 146, 161, 201, 202, 203

egressive airstream 40, 94, 217

factorial typology, in Optimality Theory (OT) 217, 225

See also Optimality Theory

faithfulness, in Optimality Theory (OT) 200, 202, 204, 205, 208, 217

See also Optimality Theory

features of articulation 45

manner of

See also manner of articulation

place of

See place of articulation

voice

See voicing

French 146

fricative 38, 43, 84, 111, 194, 218

voiceless 154

function word

See non-lexical word

gap-filling 153, 158, 159, 160, 167

General American (GA)

See accents of English

generative phonology

See classical generative phonology

German, Modern 161, 201, 202

glide 140

glottal fricative 45

glottal stop 51, 57–8, 86, 218

glottis 35, 38, 183, 218

grammar 7, 218

graphology 3, 218

Great Vowel Shift 148, 158–60, 218

‘happ-Y tensing’ in Tyneside English 148, 167–9, 171, 172

hard palate 114, 218

heavy syllable

See syllable, heavy, syllable structure

hierarchy of constituents, in syllabic analysis 81

[±high]

See distinctive features

High German Consonant Shift 160

homophones 3, 4, 218

hypercorrection 158, 218

International Phonetic Association (IPA) 12, 25, 44, 46, 87, 131, 145, 173

IPA chart of consonants 26, 212

inventory

See phonemic inventory

Italian 161, 166

labial 95, 219

[±labial]

See distinctive features

labio-dental 41, 93, 111, 219

labio-velar 54

larynx 35, 219

lateral 44, 219

Latin, Provincial 161

lexical monosyllable 4, 62, 67, 68, 69, 70, 87, 100, 132, 219, 220

lexical word 219

lexicon 7, 8, 68, 220

liaison 174, 175, 206

light syllable

See syllable, light, syllable structure

lips 41

lip-rounding 117, 132

lip-spreading 117, 118

[±long]

See distinctive features

long vowel

See vowels, long

[±low]

See distinctive features

major class features 190–1, 194, 197

[±consonantal] 190, 197, 198, 216

[±sonorant] 190, 192, 194, 197, 198, 204, 217

[±syllabic] 190, 191, 197, 198, 217

manner of articulation 31, 34, 37–9, 58, 83, 87, 186, 220

merger 148, 153–6, 167, 220

Middle English 154, 156, 157, 160, 167

minimal pair 19, 29, 58, 108, 110, 132, 220

set 29

minimal-pair, test 29, 30, 86

monophthong 98, 99, 116

morphology 8, 69, 182, 219, 220


[±nasal]

See distinctive features

nasal cavity 15, 43

nasal consonants 38, 43, 44, 112, 220

nasal stops 84

nasalisation 185, 187, 188

nasals, syllabic 100

natural classes 214, 220

neutralisation 201–2

non-centring diphthong

See diphthong, non-centring

See also diphthong

non-lexical monosyllable 68

non-lexical word 68, 69

non-rhotic accents 127, 143, 144, 196, 207

noun 70, 71, 221

nucleus, of syllable

See syllable, nucleus

null phoneme 86

Old English 155, 167

Old High German 161

onset, of syllable

See syllable, onset

onsets, well-formed 53

opacity 199, 200, 221

openness 84

property of segments, and syllable structure 81

Optimality Theory (OT) 180, 199–208, 209, 211

See also constraints, faithfulness, factorial typology

oral cavity 14, 32, 38, 40, 110, 111, 140, 190, 221

palate 42, 43, 93, 193, 221

See also hard palate, velum

palato-alveolar 221

phoneme 13, 23, 27, 221

contrastive 57

underlying 22, 58

phonemic inventory 24, 28, 58, 86, 219

phonetics 9, 11, 55, 123, 221

See also allophone

phonological rules 175, 183, 186, 188, 189, 197, 221, 222

phonology 9, 22, 55, 222

and phonetics 9, 59, 192

likened to game of chess 15

likened to train timetable 9

See also phonological rules

phonotactics 93, 222

place of articulation 31, 34, 39, 40–6, 54, 58, 83, 87, 186, 222

plosion 10, 12, 39, 56, 193, 222

polysyllabic words 102, 222

bisyllabic 101

trisyllabic 101

post-vocalic 10, 28, 222

Prague School of Linguistics 195

prestige 143, 169

pre-vocalic 10, 222

primary stress 62, 68, 71, 72

Principle of Maximal Onsets (PMO) 102, 104, 105, 174, 175

quality, of vowels

See vowels, quality

quantity, of vowels

See vowels, quantity

See also vowels, long, vowels, short

/r/-deletion 177

/r/, intrusive 176, 204, 206–7, 208, 219

/r/, linking 174, 220

/r/, transcription of 173

Received Pronunciation (RP)

advanced

See accents of English

conservative

See accents of English

See accents of English

rhotic accents 59, 121, 127, 137, 172

See also non-rhotic accents

rhoticity 59, 121, 148, 172–5, 196, 197, 222

rhyme, of syllable

See syllable, rhyme

root, of word 96

[±round]

See distinctive features

rule-ordering 196

See also phonological rules

runic alphabet 3, 222

/s/ 182

problematic segment in syllable structure 83, 96, 191, 194, 205

Sardinian 161, 166

schwa 62, 66–7, 69, 72, 73, 100, 103, 107, 108, 121, 122, 135, 144, 222

transcription of 122

in unstressed syllables 66, 67, 120–2, 145

secondary stress 62, 71

See also stress, compound stress

segment 21, 75, 78, 80, 81, 85, 92, 129, 189, 192, 222

nature of 23

Shakespeare’s English 159, 160

short vowel

See vowels, short

sonority 74, 80, 81–5, 223

sonority scale 80, 82, 83

Sonority Sequencing Generalisation (SSG) 82, 223

spelling system of English 2–3, 208

See also alphabet

split 148, 153–7, 223

standard 8, 223

stop 39, 44, 57, 78, 79, 84, 111, 224

stress 58, 62, 67, 68, 69–71, 73, 103, 224

compound stress 71, 214

in lexical words

See lexical word, syllable, stressed

[±strident]

See distinctive features

substitution frame 7, 24–5, 26, 27, 28, 108, 110, 130, 134, 224

syllabification 102

and

See Principle of Maximal Onsets, syllable

syllable 6, 9, 10, 52, 54, 58, 59, 62–72, 74–89, 224

coda 53, 54, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 83, 88, 95–6, 97, 102, 103, 174, 181, 182, 191, 192, 214

heavy 91, 101–3

immediate constituents of 64, 74, 77

light 91, 101–3

nucleus 53, 74, 75, 76, 77, 88, 91, 97–100, 128, 141, 167, 170, 192, 221

onset 53, 54, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 83, 88, 92–4, 102, 191, 193, 203–5, 221

rhyme 74, 77, 78, 175, 181, 182, 222

stressed 55, 67, 68, 99, 100, 122

unstressed 62, 71, 100, 171, 207

syllable structure 64, 91–106

synchrony 148, 150, 151, 152, 176, 224

See also variation, synchronic

tableau, in OT 202, 205, 224

tap 44, 225

teleology 153

[±tense]

See distinctive features

tenseness, as feature of vowels 170–2

tongue 111, 183

blade 112, 114, 117, 132

body 112

tip 112, 117, 132

transcription 124, 125, 145, 175, 176, 177

types of 13, 31–2, 48, 60, 221

trill 44, 225

triphthong 127, 144

See also rhoticity

typology 88, 225

of the world’s languages in terms of syllable structure 88

underlying 167

universals, linguistic 195, 199, 225

uvular 44, 225

variation

See dialectal variation

variation, historical 148, 216

See also diachrony

variation, synchronic 148, 162–9, 224

See also dialectal variation

varieties of English 109, 121

variation in vowel systems of 127

velum 39, 43, 45, 112, 183, 193, 223, 226

vocal cords 35, 38, 226

vocal folds

See vocal cords

vocal tract 24, 35, 226

[±voice]

See distinctive features

voicing 21, 31, 35, 36, 58, 83, 87, 226

feature of consonant articulation 31, 37

vowel trapezium 107, 112, 114, 116, 125, 131, 161

vowels 226

back 116, 118

Cardinal 107, 114, 125, 131, 132, 133, 137, 147, 214

front 114

inventories 2, 130–5

long 6, 91, 127–47, 220

quality 107, 108, 226

quantity 107, 108, 226

short 6, 91, 107–26, 223

tense 170

written systems 2, 130–5

X-slots, in syllable structure 81, 87, 91, 92, 95, 97, 98, 123, 128, 129, 141, 167, 168, 170, 172

in stressed and unstressed syllabic nuclei 108

Yawelmani 204

‘zero phoneme’ 74, 75, 87

compared with other segments 86

in consonant inventories 87, 204

and Optimality Theory 207




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