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The Psychology of Personnel Selection

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  • 5 b/w illus. 24 tables
  • Page extent: 297 pages
  • Size: 247 x 174 mm
  • Weight: 0.61 kg
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 (ISBN-13: 9780521687874)

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The Psychology of Personnel Selection
Cambridge University Press
9780521868297 - The Psychology of Personnel Selection - By Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic and Adrian Furnham
Frontmatter/Prelims

The Psychology of Personnel Selection

This engaging and thought-provoking text introduces the main techniques, theories, research and debates in personnel selection, helping students and practitioners to identify the major predictors of job performance as well as the most suitable methods for assessing them. Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic and Adrian Furnham provide a comprehensive, critical and up-to-date review of the constructs we use in assessing people – intelligence, personality, creativity, leadership and talent – and explore how these help us to predict differences in individuals' performance. Covering selection techniques such as interviews, references, biographical data, judgement tests and academic performance, The Psychology of Personnel Selection provides a lively discussion of both the theory behind the use of such techniques and the evidence for their usefulness and validity. The Psychology of Personnel Selection is essential reading for students of psychology, business studies, management and human resources, as well as for anyone involved in selection and assessment at work.

Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic is a senior lecturer at Goldsmiths, research fellow at UCL, and visiting professor at NYU in London. He is a world-renowned expert in personality, intelligence and psychometrics, and makes frequent media appearances providing psychological expertise on these issues.

Adrian Furnham is Professor of Psychology at UCL. He is also a consultant on organisational behaviour and management, and a writer and broadcaster. His columns have appeared in management magazines such as Mastering Management and Human Resources, as well as the Financial Times, Sunday Times and Daily Telegraph.


The Psychology of Personnel Selection

Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic and Adrian Furnham


CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo

Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK

Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York

www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521687874

© Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic and Adrian Furnham 2010

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2010

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication dataChamorro-Premuzic, Tomas.The psychology of personnel selection / Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic, Adrian Furnham. p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 978-0-521-86829-7 (hardback) – ISBN 978-0-521-68787-4 (pbk.)1. Employee selection. 2. Employees – Recruiting. I. Furnham, Adrian. II. Title.HF5549.5.S38C45 2010658.3′112019 – dc22 2009032958

ISBN 978-0-521-86829-7 Hardback
ISBN 978-0-521-68787-4 Paperback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.


For my father, in the hope that he survives this and many later editions

– TC-P

For Alison, who is particularly talented at personnel selection

– AF


Contents

List of boxes
viii
List of figures
ix
List of tables
xiii
Prologue and acknowledgements
xv
Part 1:   Methods of personnel selection
1
1         Early, unscientific methods
3
2         The interview
30
3         Letters of recommendation
52
4         Biodata
62
5         Situational judgement tests and GPA
75
Part 2:   Constructs for personnel selection
93
6         General mental ability
95
7         Personality traits
124
8         Creativity
175
9         Leadership
191
10        Talent
216
References
235
Index
278

Boxes

2.1       Aspects of the candidate assessed in an interview
38
5.1       SJT sample item or ‘scenario’
76
5.2       Summary of 1920s–2000s research on SJTs
76
5.3       SJT scoring methods
77
7.1       Situationalism: undermining personality traits
131
7.2       No aversive impact
133
7.3       The polygraph and the quest for an objective personality test
159
7.4       Theft estimates in the workplace
162
10.1      How do you identify your critical talent?
220
10.2      Performance/promotability matrix
223
10.3      Factors contributing to high-flyer performance
227

Figures

1.1       Graphology: what does this say about the candidate's motivation?
5
1.2       Physiognomical interpretations of character
12
1.3       Astrological signs
20
1.4       Ambiguous inkblot stimulus
22
2.1       Percentage of employers using interviews
31
2.2       Five common guidelines for improving the interview
32
2.3       Phases of the interview
34
2.4       Functions of the appraisal interview
35
2.5       Dimensional structure of interviews
36
2.6       How to improve the validity of structured interviews
40
2.7       Validity and reliability
42
2.8       Predictive validity of interviews
43
2.9       Reasons for low validity of job interview
44
2.10      Factors influencing candidate's acceptance of interviews
45
2.11      Perceived fit and employment interview
49
2.12      What do interviewers assess?
50
3.1       Sample reference letter
53
3.2       Percentage of employers using references
53
3.3       Employment Recommendation Questionnaire (ERQ)
54
3.4       Referees' characteristics bias their evaluation of candidates
55
3.5       Distribution of negative and positive references
57
3.6       Improving recommendation letters
58
3.7       Positivity of information and use of examples in reference letters
59
3.8       Evolutionary-based hypotheses regarding reference letters
60
4.1       Percentage of employers using application forms in different countries
63
4.2       Scoring biodata
64
4.3       Biodata correlates of job performance in applicants and incumbents
66
4.4       Validity of elaborative vs non-elaborative biodata items
67
4.5       Meta-meta-analytic validities for biodata inventories
69
4.6       Meta-analytic validities of biodata across job types
69
4.7       Structure of biodata
71
4.8       Biodata and cognitive ability correlates of job performance
71
4.9       Twelve dimensions of biodata: reliabilities and correlations with impression management
72
4.10      Incremental validity of biodata dimensions
73
4.11      Personality vs biodata as predictors of ethical behaviour
74
5.1       Criterion-related validity of SJTs (McDaniel et al.'s 2001 meta-analysis)
78
5.2       Meta-analytic correlations between SJT and intelligence tests (McDaniel et al.'s 2001 meta-analysis)
80
5.3       Incremental validity of SJT over personality and intelligence
81
5.4       Achievement in life as a function of earlier academic performance
83
5.5       Erratic effect sizes for GPA as predictor of job performance between 1922 and 1973
85
5.6       Effect sizes for GPA and job performance found in Bretz (1989)
85
5.7       White–black difference in GPA
87
5.8       Meta-analytic validities of GPA as a predictor of job performance and salary
88
5.9       Validity of the MAT predicting academic and occupation success
89
5.10      Intellectual competence as the common source of variability in academic and occupational success
89
6.1       Graphical representation of the hierarchical structure of cognitive abilities identified by John Carroll
96
6.2       Some correlates of Spearman's g factor (after Spearman, 1904)
98
6.3       Two examples of Raven-like items
99
6.4       Percentage of employers using aptitude tests in Western Europe (Price Waterhouse Cranfield survey, 1994)
103
6.5       Occupational consequences of IQ
104
6.6       Validity of GMA across occupations in the UK
108
6.7       Validity of GMA across occupations in the EC
110
6.8       Training performance is predicted by GMA rather than specific abilities
113
6.9       Job knowledge mediates the effects of GMA on job performance and ratings
118
7.1       Ability and non-ability determinants of grade point average (GPA)
126
7.2       Ways of assessing personality traits
127
7.3       Percentage of companies using psychometric tests in Western Europe (Price Waterhouse Cranfield data, 1994)
129
7.4       Behaviour as a function of both personality and the situation
131
7.5       Big Five as universal language of personality
133
7.6       Validity of personality traits across occupations (early meta-analytic evidence)
135
7.7       Validities for ABLE personality traits
136
7.8       Meta-analysis of Big Five predicting objective and subjective work criteria
137
7.9       Personality and job performance in the EC (validities from Salgado's meta-analysis)
138
7.10      Publications related to personality and selection between 1985 and 2005
139
7.11      Structure and facets of Conscientiousness
140
7.12      Structure and facets of Neuroticism
143
7.13      Yerkes–Dodson law
144
7.14      Structure and facets of Extraversion
145
7.15      Structure and facets of Agreeableness
148
7.16      Structure and facets of Openness
149
7.17      Importance of the Big Five as predictors of motivational outcomes
150
7.18      Big Five as predictors of job and life satisfaction
151
7.19      Review of faking
154
7.20      Meta-meta analysis of the Big Five and job performance
156
7.21      Meta-meta analysis of the Big Five and different job outcomes
157
7.22      Meta-meta-analytic estimates of the validities of cognitive ability and personality scales
157
7.23      Validating emotional intelligence as a personality construct: three ‘ifs’
166
7.24      Meta-analytic validities for different EI scales (corrected correlations and their SDs)
167
7.25      Aspects of EI that predict work outcomes
168
7.26      Meta-analytic correlations (and their SDs) of EI with the Big Five and GMA
168
7.27      Performance as a function of the person–environment fit
171
7.28      Holland's RIASEC
172
7.29      Individual characteristics integrated into a two-dimensional RIASEC interest circumplex (from Armstrong et al., 2008; reproduced with permission)
173
8.1       Number of articles with ‘creativity’, ‘creative’ or ‘originality’ as keywords in applied journals until 2008
176
8.2       Components of the creative syndrome
177
8.3       Sternberg & Lubart's (1995) model of creativity
178
8.4       Personality facets associated with creativity (organised by the Big Five)
180
8.5       Threshold theory of creativity and intelligence
182
8.6       Biodata correlates of creativity
183
8.7       Amabile's componential model of organisational innovation
185
8.8       Guilford's scoring criteria for divergent thinking tasks
187
8.9       Creativity measures
187
9.1       Leadership-related articles published throughout the years
192
9.2       Approaches to leadership
193
9.3       Validity of intelligence as predictor of different leadership criteria
194
9.4       Stogdill's (1974) leadership traits in Big Five language
199
9.5       Big Five correlates of leadership emergence and effectiveness
201
9.6       Predicating self- and other-rated work criteria by narcissism scores
201
9.7       Early descriptions of leadership styles
202
9.8       Regression of five leadership styles onto five work criteria
207
9.9       Personality traits, transformational leadership and leadership effectiveness
209
9.10      Validity of two management-by-exception and laissez-faire styles at work
210
9.11      Validity of transformational and contingent reward leadership at work
211
9.12      Transformational and contingent reward leadership styles as predictors of occupational criteria across different settings
212
9.13      Effect sizes for gender differences in leadership styles
214
9.14      Zaccaro's integrative model of leadership
215



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