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The Bioarchaeology of Children

Details

  • Page extent: 266 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.54 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 618.92007
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: R134.8 .L49 2007
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Paleopathology
    • Human remains (Archaeology)
    • Human skeleton--Analysis

Library of Congress Record

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Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521836029 | ISBN-10: 0521836026)

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The Bioarchaeology of Children




This book is the first to be devoted entirely to the study of children’s skeletons from archaeological and forensic contexts. It provides an extensive review of the osteological methods and theoretical concepts of their analysis. Non-adult skeletons provide a wealth of information on the physical and social life of the child from their growth, diet and age at death, to factors that expose them to trauma and disease at different stages of their lives. This book covers non-adult skeletal preservation; the assessment of age, sex and ancestry; growth and development; infant and child mortality including infanticide; weaning ages and diseases of dietary deficiency; skeletal pathology; personal identification; and expo- sure to trauma from birth injuries, accidents and child abuse, providing new insights for undergraduates and postgraduates in osteology, palaeopathology and forensic anthropology.

MARY E. LEWIS is a lecturer at the University of Reading and has taught palaeopathology and forensic anthropology to undergraduate and postgraduate students for over 10 years. Mary is also an advisor to the police and has served as a registered forensic anthropologist for the Ministry of Defence.




Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology




Series editors

HUMAN ECOLOGY
C. G. Nicholas Mascie-Taylor, University of Cambridge
Michael A. Little, State University of New York, Binghamton
GENETICS
Kenneth M. Weiss, Pennsylvania State University
HUMAN EVOLUTION
Robert A. Foley, University of Cambridge
Nina G. Jablonski, California Academy of Science
PRIMATOLOGY
Karen B. Strier, University of Wisconsin, Madison

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The Bioarchaeology of
Children

Perspectives from Biological and
Forensic Anthropology


Mary E. Lewis

University of Reading




CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo

Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK

Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York

www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521836029

© Mary E. Lewis 2007

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception
and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2007

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library

ISBN-13 978-0-521-83602-9 hardback
ISBN-10 0-521-83602-6 hardback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of
URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and
does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or
appropriate.







       Contents




  Acknowledgements page x
1   The bioarchaeology of children 1
  1.1  Children in archaeology 1
  1.2  A history of childhood 2
  1.3  Children in biological anthropology 10
  1.4  Children in forensic anthropology 13
  1.5  Summary 19
2   Fragile bones and shallow graves 20
  2.1  Introduction 20
  2.2  Fragile bones? 23
  2.3  Little people . . . little things . . . 26
  2.4  The marginalised child? 30
  2.5  Obstetric deaths 33
  2.6  Summary 37
3   Age, sex and ancestry 38
  3.1  Non-adult ageing 38
  3.2  Sex determination 47
  3.3  Ancestry 55
  3.4  Summary 58
4   Growth and development 60
  4.1  Introduction 60
  4.2  Skeletal development and ossification 61
  4.3  Prenatal and postnatal growth 62
  4.4  Puberty and the growth spurt 64
  4.5  Factors affecting growth 66
  4.6  Growth studies: methods and concerns 68
  4.7  Interpretations of past growth 74
  4.8  Bone density 76
  4.9  Estimations of stature 77
  4.10  Summary 79
5   Difficult births, precarious lives 81
  5.1  Introduction
  5.2  Infant mortality rates 81
  5.3  Reconstructing child mortality 86
  5.4  Infanticide 87
  5.5  Summary 96
6   Little waifs: weaning and dietary stress 97
  6.1  Introduction 97
  6.2  Properties of human breastmilk 97
  6.3  Weaning and infection 99
  6.4  Ancient feeding practices 100
  6.5  The osteological evidence 103
  6.6  Weaning and bone chemistry analysis 115
  6.7  Specific diseases of malnutrition 119
  6.8  Summary 132
7   Non-adult skeletal pathology 133
  7.1  Introduction 133
  7.2  Non-specific infections 134
  7.3  Endocranial lesions 141
  7.4  Infantile cortical hyperostosis 143
  7.5  Tuberculosis 146
  7.6  Congenital syphilis 151
  7.7 Skeletal pathology and personal identification 159
  7.8 Summary 162
8   Trauma in the child 163
  8.1 Introduction 163
  8.2  Properties of paediatric trauma 163
  8.3  Types of fracture 165
  8.4  Birth trauma 168
  8.5  Non-adult trauma in the archaeological record 169
  Physical child abuse 175
  8.7  Clinical features of child abuse 176
  8.8  Child abuse in the archaeological record 181
  8.9  Summary 183
9   Future directions 184
  9.1  Is absence of evidence evidence of absence? 185
  9.2  Failure to adapt: children as non-survivors 186
  9.3  Tom, Dick or Harriet? Sexing non-adults 187
  9.4  The future
 
  References 188
  Index 248




    Acknowledgements




Many friends and colleagues have provided advice and encouragement in the preparation and writing of this book. In particular, Charlotte Roberts, Keith Manchester and Jenny Wakely were instrumental in first introducing me to human remains, and Charlotte Roberts has continued to provide invaluable advice and support throughout my career. I am indebted to many who provided unpublished data, assistance, access to images and comments on drafts of the text: Kristine Watts, Anthea Boylson, Louise Loe, Hella Eckardt, Louise Humphrey, Roberta Gilchrist, Margaret Cox, Rebecca Gowland, Rebecca Redfern, Gundula Mldner, Luis Rios, Bill White, Donald Ortner and Richard Steckle. I also thank the team at Cambridge University Press, Tracey Sanderson, Dominic Lewis, Emma Pearce and Anna Hodson.

I am thankful to all my friends and colleagues at the Department of Archaeology in Reading for making it such a stimulating place to work and who have allowed me the time and funds needed to finish this book. Finally, I am grateful to my family for their continued support.

Figures , and are from the research slide collection of D. J. Ortner, Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, digitised and made available through funds supporting National Science Foundation grant SES-0138129 by R. H. Steckel, C. S. Larsen, P. W. Sculli and P. L. Walker (2002), A History of Health in Europe from the Late Paleolithic Era to the Present (Mimeo, Columbus, OH). These images are reprinted with their kind permission. Figures –, , and are of specimens from the Human Remains Collection, Biological Anthropology Research Centre, Department of Archaeological Sciences, University of Bradford. Many of these photographs were taken by Jean Brown, to whom I am very grateful. Every effort has been made to acknowledge copyright holders, but in a few cases this has not been possible. Any omissions brought to my attention will be remedied in future editions.



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