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Home > Catalogue > Meteor Showers and their Parent Comets
Meteor Showers and their Parent Comets

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  • 380 b/w illus.
  • Page extent: 804 pages
  • Size: 247 x 174 mm
  • Weight: 1.6 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 523.53
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: n/a
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Meteors
    • Comets

Library of Congress Record

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 (ISBN-13: 9780521853491 | ISBN-10: 0521853494)

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Meteor Showers and Their Parent Comets

Cambridge University Press
9780521853491 - Meteor Showers and Their Parent Comets - by Peter Jenniskens
Index


Index

a – semimajor axis 58

A – albedo 111, 586

A1 – radial nongravitational force 15

A2 – transverse, in plane, nongravitational force 15

A3 – transverse, out of plane, nongravitational force 15

A2 – effect 239

ablation 595

ablation coefficient 595

   carbonaceous chondrite 521

   cometary matter 521

   ordinary chondrite 521

absolute magnitude 592

accretion 86

   hierarchical 86

activity comets, decrease with distance from Sun

   Halley-type comets 100

   Jupiter-family comets 100

activity curve meteor shower 236, 567

air density at meteor layer 43

airborne astronomy 161

   1899 Leonids 161

   1933 Leonids 162

   1946 Draconids 165

   1972 Draconids 167

   1976 Quadrantids 167

   1998 Leonids 221–227

   1999 Leonids 233–236

   2000 Leonids 240

   2001 Leonids 244

   2002 Leonids 248

airglow 45

albedo (A) 16, 586

   comet 16

   dust 33, 37, 135

α-Bootids

   1984 telescopic outburst 199

   predictions 617

α-Capricornids 438

   radiant 439

   twin shower 440

   fragmentation index 444

   meteoroid density 444

   potential parent bodies 448–453

α-Centaurids 347–348

   1980 outburst 348

α-Circinids (1977) 198

   predictions 617

α-Lyncids (1971) 198

   predictions 617

α-Monocerotids 183

   1925 outburst 183

   1935 outburst 183

   1985 outburst 183

   1995 peak rate 188

   1995 activity profile 188

   activity 186

   χ 186

   dust trail width 188

   lack of sodium 190

   meteoroid density 190

   orbital period 188

   predictions 617

   upper mass cut-off 188

α-Pyxidids (1979) 199

   predictions 617

α-Scorpiids 511

α-Virginids 503

   particle density 503

amorphous water ice 22

Andromedids 153–155, 380–384

   1872 storm 380–384

   1885 storm 380–384

   1899 return 384

   activity 380–384

   discovery 9

   dust trail encounters 667

   mass loss of comet 383

   total mass 383

angular elements 59–60

annual shower 6, 475

   activity throughout year 6, 475

   apparent rate visible to naked eye 475

   χ 95

   cause of nodal dispersion 307

   definition 475

   different from Filament component 476

   dust distribution in Δr 478

   example: Lyrid shower 476

   formation of annual Leonids 476

   how to discover 9–10

   number of showers 475

   Sun’s reflex motion 478

   variation of rates during year 6, 475, 497

annual shower background 485

   caused by precession 485

   example: Perseids 485

annual variation of all meteor activity 6, 475, 497

   peaks in fall and summer 499

anomaly (angle from perihelion) 60

   eccentric 60, 61

   mean 61

   true (ν) 60, 61

antapex direction/source 496

antitail comet 33

antihelion direction/source 110, 496

   caused by Jupiter-family comets 496

   percentage of activity 515

apex direction/source 496

   northern/southern 496, 515

aphelion 36

aphelion distance (Q) 59

Apollo-like orbit 496

aqueous alteration of minerals 145

argument of perihelion (ω) 59

asteroid 140–149, 520

   Amor-type orbit 140

   Apollo-type orbit 140, 496

   Aten-type orbit 140

   definition 140, 520

   main belt asteroid 140

   near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 140

   origin 140

   rotation rate 149

   size boundary meteoroids–minor planet 140

   source of meteoroids 520

   source of meteoroid stream 140

asteroid main belt

   relative impact speed among asteroids 148

asteroids – individuals

   (1) Ceres 145

   (433) Eros 146

   (1566) Icarus 397

   (1620) Geographos 527

   (2101) Adonis 449

   (4179) Toutatis 499

   (4450) Pan 505

   (2102) Tantalus 519

   (2212) Hephaistos 509

   (4486) Mithra 509

   (5335) Damocles at Mars 569

   (5496) 361

   (9162) 1987 OA 449

   5025 P-L 463

   1990 SM 509

   1990 TG1 509

   1993 KA2 463

   1995 CS 449

   2000 YP29 509

asteroid family 148

   age 149

   colors (taxonomic class) 525

   percentage of all asteroids 149

   relative velocities 149

   size distribution of members 149

asteroidal meteoroids, how to recognize

   deep penetration 520

   early start of ablation 520

   k-criterion (ablation heights) 521

   pure iron 520

   Tisserand parameter (orbit) 520

asteroidal meteoroid streams 522

   case of δ-Leonids 528

   case of October 4/5 fireballs 528

   definition 523

   different materials in one stream 526

   H-chondrite stream (exposure ages) 528

   small impacts 146

   stream formation 146

astrobiology 223

astronomical unit (AU) 23

atmosphere 41, 42–45

   ionosphere 43

   thermosphere 43

   mesopause 43

   mesosphere 43

August Capricornids 438, 450

Aurigids 82

   1935 outburst 175

   1986 outburst 175

   1994 outburst 176

   2007 predicted outburst 192

   delta-Aurigids 175

aurora 43


B – exponent of exponential activity curve (∼width) 242

β – ratio of radiation/gravity forces 33

   definition 33

   maximum value for small grains 33

   typical value for meteoroids in comet tail 33

   typical value for meteoroids in dust trail 33

   value for meteoroids 540

Baker–Nunn Super–Schmidt camera 165

balloon flight 161

barycenter

   definition 179

β-Aurigids (1968) 197

β-Canis Minorids (1988) 200

β-Hydrusids (1985) 346–347

   outburst predictions 617

β-Leonis Minorids (1921) 193

β-meteoroids (small grains with high β) 540

   impact rate on Venus 565

β-Perseids (1935) 195

   predictions 617

β-Pictoris source of interstellar meteoroids 560

β-Tucanids (2003) 85

   predictions 617

bolide 3

   size boundary with asteroids 140

Bootids (see Quadrantids) 357

breakup (see fragmentation)

broken comet showers, 480


c – speed of light

c – solar constant 587

Cd – drag coefficient 595

χ – magnitude distribution index 92

χf – progressive fragmentation index 595

C-H stretch vibration emission 582

calcium–aluminum-rich inclusion 577

calendar 598

   Julian 598

   Gregorian 598

Canis Majorids (1985) 199

Capricornids (see α-Capricornids) 438–442

Capricornids–Sagittariids 442

   relationship to α-Capricornids 442

carbon (see “CHON”)

carbon chain depletion 114

carbonization 107

cardinal directions 496

   antapex 496

   antihelion 496

   apex 496

   helion 496

Carinid Complex 516

catastrophic fragmentation

   of dust 94

   of comets 384

   amount of dust generated 384

Centaur (minor planet) 65

   number > 100 km 65

Centaurid Complex 516

CHON 105

   content by weight in comet dust 105

   content in IDP 106

   origin from irradiated frost 106

   origin from condensation of carbon gas 106

chondrules 577

clustering of grains 238

CN production 114, 581

CO in comets 22, 24, 318

   driver of outbursts 318

collision between comets 378

   explosion 378

   relative speed 378

collision cascade 50, 94

color index 592

color of meteors 48

   changes 48

coma 32

Comae Berenicids 313

   association with comet Lowe 313

comet 12

   activity at large distance from Sun 24, 317

   antitail 33

   brightness versus distance from Sun 95

   coma 32

   cometesimals 577

   definition 140

   diameter versus brightness 79

   dust tail 32

   formation 575

      infalling interstellar grains 575

      hierarchical accretion 576

      pebbles 576

      cometesimals 577

   gas production rate 79

   ion tail 31

   mass distribution index 79

   size nucleus from activity 79

   spectrum 103

   striae 35

comet crust

   cosmic ray exposure 86

   pristine 86, 190

   surface 18, 32

comet fragmentation

   amount of dust lost in LPC breakup 86

   brightening of comet 87

   catastrophic disruption 378

   different ways 378

      collisions 378

      spin-up 378

      tidal disruption 379

      thermal stresses 379

   separating fragments 378

   spill-off 378

comet model

   dirty snowball 15, 165, 261

   flying sandbank 14

   icy conglomerate 15

   icy mudball 261

   rubble pile 20, 86

comet nucleus

   albedo (A) 111

   bright spots 18

   bulk density 20, 91, 111

   examples: Halley 16

   extinct 137

   fraction surface area active (f ) 587

   ice content 87

   magnitude and diameter relationship 137

   rapid rotation 111

   spin 27

   splitting 86

   surface stress at equator 111

   surface temperature 24

   tensile strength 86, 378

comet individual

   1P/Halley 14, 91

      active area 18, 96

      activity versus distance from Sun 26

      age 493

      albedo 16

      associated showers (Orionids, η-Aquariids) 495

      at Mars 569

      axis ratio 91

      brightness 95

      bulk density 20, 91

      dust and gas production rate 96

      dust experiments 105

      ejection of small grains 307

      evolving into sungrazing comet 90

      jets 18, 96

      mass 91

      mass loss, function of mass 307

      mass lost from surface 495

      nongravitational force 96

      nucleus 16

      orbital evolution 305

      possible close approach to Jupiter 493

      rotation period 91

      size 91

      surface temperature 24

      water outflow speed 95

   2P/Encke 132–135

      active area 135

      albedo 134, 135

      associated showers (Taurids) 133, 457

      at Earth’s orbit 462

      at Mercury 564

      brightness with distance from Sun 133

      captured in present orbit 455

      dust albedo 135

      dust ejection speed 134

      dust production rate 134

      dust size distribution 134

      dust trail 29, 133

      dust-to-gas ratio 135

      dynamically old 127

      jets 135

      mass of trail 133

      nucleus size 134, 135

      peculiarities of orbit 130

      spin period 135

      total dust and gas loss per orbit 134, 135

      total mass 134

      water production rate 134

      width of trail 133

   3D/Biela 119–121, 383

      association with Andromedids 380–384

      diameter 120, 383

      dust trail encounters 667

      fragmentation 14

      mass loss comet 383

      moment of breakup 120

      relative speed fragments 120

   5D/Brorsen 361

   6P/d’Arrest 127

      possible meteor activity 351

      relationship to κ-Cygnids? 454

   7P/Pons–Winnecke 117–119

      association to June Bootids 337

      brightness 118

      diameter 119

      dust mass loss per revolution 119–121

      dust trail 29

      dust trail encounters 671

      dynamically old 127

      ejection speed 119

      gas loss rate 119

      IRAS dust trail 119

      orbital dynamics 117–119

   8P/Tuttle 102–104

      association with Ursid shower 263

      brightness 102

      diameter 102

      minimum distance 263

      nongravitational force 102

      small dust production rate 104

      spectrum comet 103

      theoretical radiant 263

      water evaporation rate 103

      water production rate 104

   9P/Tempel 1 18

      target of Deep Impact mission 18

      size 18

   10P/Tempel 2 29

      IRAS dust trail 29

   12P/Pons–Brooks

      association with Quadrantids (unlikely) 361

   13P/Olbers meteors at Mars 569

   14P/Wolf, relationship to Capricornids (unlikely) 448

   15P/Finlay 127

      future dust trail encounters 675

      meteor activity 350

   19P/Borrelly 16

      active area 18

      density 20

      jets 18

      size 16

      spin period 27

      target of Deep Space 1 mission 16

   21P/Giacobini–Zinner 110–114, 327

      albedo 111

      association with Draconids 325

      axis ratio 110

      brightness 113

      bulk density 111

      carbon chain depletion 114

      composition 113

      diameter 110

      dust density away from nucleus 113

      dust trail encounters (Draconid storms) 676

      dynamically old 127

      large grain ejection speed 113

      production of CN 114

      rotation period 110

      small grain ejection speeds 113

      spin axis 111

      surface stress at equator 111

      tail 113

      tensile strength meteoroids 111

      vapor outflow speed 113

   22P/Kopff

      ISO dust trail 38

   26P/Grigg–Skjellerup 114–117, 321

      active area 116

      association with π-Puppids 114, 321

      axis ratio 115

      diameter 115

      dust and gas production rate 116

      dust ejection speeds 116

      dust trail encounters 680

      dynamically old 127

      dynamic history 324

      large grains near nucleus 117

      nongravitational forces 116

      rotation period 115

      size distribution 116

      spin axis orientation 116

   38P/Stephan–Oterma

      association with Quadrantids (unlikely) 361

   41P/Tuttle–Giacobini–Kresák 31, 127, 506

      breakup 506

      meteor activity (unlikely) 353, 506

   45P/Honda–Mrkos–Pajdusáková 127, 449

      at Venus 564

      dust trail encounters 683

      relationship to α-Capricornids (unlikely) 448, 449

      future meteor activity 353

   46P/Wirtanen 888

      future meteor activity 350

   55P/Tempel–Tuttle 11

      865 AD, first inside Earth’s orbit 218

      902 AD, first storm 218

      1366 close encounter 99

      1866-dust trail segment 240

      albedo 100

      association with Leonids 11

      brightness 100

      brightness in 1998 208

      dust trail formation 36

      dust-to-ice ratio 101, 260

      detection in space 37

      diameter 99

      ejection in AD 1333 210

      jet 27

      mass loss per orbit 101, 260

      maximum particle size 27

      nearest to Earth in AD 1998 208

      nearest to Sun in AD 1998 208

      nongravitational parameter 100

      nuclear axis ratio 99

      recovery in AD 1997 208, 218

      shedding of boulders 259

      spin period 27, 100

      water production rate 100, 260

   62P/Tsuchinshan 1 127

      possible historic shower 127

   67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko 128

      possible future showers 128

   72P/Denning–Fujikawa 128

      future meteor activity 353

      relationship to Capricornids (unlikely) 448

      relationship to Sagittariids (unlikely) 513

   73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 3 121–123

      1995 breakup 122

      associated τ-Herculid shower 391

      diameter 123

      dust trail encounters 684

      orbital dynamics 121–123

      possibly dynamically young 127

      potential activity from Virgo 395

      relative speed of fragments 123

   76P/West–Kohoutek–Ikemura

      future dust trail encounters 353, 688

   79P/du Toit–Hartley 128

      potential source of historic showers 128

   81P/Wild 2 16

      jets 18

      size 16

      target of Stardust mission 16

   96P/Machholz 1 359, 426

      Machholz complex showers 425

      relation to sunskirting comets 425

   103P/Hartley 2 128

      diameter 349

      ejection speed dust 350

      formation temperature of ices 350

      future dust trail encounters 688

      predictions for future meteor activity 349–350

   107P/Wilson–Harrington 136

      albedo 137

      association with September Sagittariids 136

      diameter 136

      fading 136

      nuclear magnitude 137

      rotation period 137

   109P/Swift–Tuttle 11, 97–99

      AD 188 sighting 284

      69 BC sighting 284

      1981 predicted return 271

      1992 predicted return 274

      2126 collision with Earth? 284

      association with Perseids 11

      brightness 98

      diameter 98

      dust grain ejection speed 98

      dust-to-gas ratio 98

      location of active areas 98

      nongravitational force 97

      position of pole axis 99

      rotation period 98, 99

      size distribution index 98

   141P/Machholz 2 128

      relationship to α-Capricornids (unlikely) 452

   C/962 B1 311

      possible earlier sighting of C/1854 L1 (Klinkerfues) 311

   C/1457 L2 448

      proposed as α-Capricornid parent (unlikely) 448

   C/1490 Y1 361

      possibly associated with Quadrantids 361

      comet brightness 372

   C/1499 Q1 317

      possible earlier sighting of C/1991 L3 (Levy) 317

   C/1723 T1 (K.-C.-S.) 85

      linked to October Monocerotids 85

   C/1739 K1 (Zanotti) 82

      diameter 82

      likely parent of October Leonis Minorids 82

   C/1742 C1 315

      linked to C/1907 G1 (Grigg–Mellish) 315

   C/1798 X1 (Bouvard) 73, 84

      linked to December Leonis Minorids 84

   C/1852 K1 (Chacornac) 84

      diameter 84

      outburst predictions 617

      linked to η-Eridanids 84

   C/1854 L1 (Klinkerfues, 1854 III) 311

      associated with ε-Eridanids 311

      discovery 311

      outburst predictions 617

   C/1860 D1 (Liais)

      association with Quadrantids (unlikely) 361

   C/1861 G1 (Thatcher) 80

      parent of April Lyrids 11

      cause of outbursts 172

      diameter 80

   C/1862 N1 (Schmidt) 73, 84

      linked to historic ζ-Arietids 84

   C/1874 G1 (Winnecke) 73, 84

      linked to η-Cetids (uncertain) 84

   C/1907 G1 (Grigg–Mellish) 315

      associated with δ-Pavonids 315

      outburst predictions 617

      theoretical radiant 315

   C/1911 N1 (Kiess) 82

      parent of Aurigids 82, 175

   C/1917 F1 (Mellish) 104–105

      association with December Monocerotids 309

      diameter 104

      discovery 104

   C/1939 B1 (Kozik–Peltier)

      linked to Quadrantids (unlikely) 361

   C/1943 W1 (V. G.-P.-D.) 73, 84

      associated with November Hydrids 84

   C/1947 F2 (Becvar) 73, 84

      associated with δ-Serpentids 84

   C/1964 N1 (Ikeya) 85

      linked to ε-Geminids (unlikely) 85

   C/1969 T1 (Tago–Sato–Kosaka)

      outburst predictions 617

   C/1976 D1 (Bradfield)

      expected activity from β-Tucanids 85

      outburst predictions 617

   C/1983 H1 (IRAS–Araki–Alcock) 73–77

      active surface area 76

      discovery 73

      mass 75

      northern pole 75

      parent of η-Lyrids

      rate of mass loss 76

      rotation period 75

      size 74, 75

   C/1983 J1 (S.-S.-F.) 80

      unlikely source of meteors 80

   C/1987 B1 (N.-T.-T.) 85

      linked to ε-Geminids (unlikely) 85

   C/1991 L3 (Levy) 316

      possible source of meteors 316

      spin period 316

   C/1995 O1 (Hale–Bopp) 18, 25

      activity versus r 26

      bright comet 18

      dust input in zodiacal cloud 544

      outflow speed 25

      size 18

   C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) 86

      well observed breakup 86

   D/1766 G1 (Helfenzieder) 129, 502

      association with η-Virginids 353, 503

      possible breakup 503

   D/1770 L1 (Lexell) 99, 125–126

      1770 close approach to Earth 126

      association with μ-Sagittariids 126, 513

   D/1783 W1 (Pigott)

      association with Quadrantids (unlikely) 361

   D/1819 W1 (Blanpain) 123–124

      diameter 124

      dust trail encounters 690

      mass loss rate per orbit 124

      parent of Phoenicid shower 123

      possibly dynamically young 127

      potential storm from Gruis 124

   D/1892 T1 (Barnard 3) 129

      association with Quadrantids (unlikely) 361

   D/1978 R1 (Haneda–Campos) 124, 345

      parent of October Capricornids 345–346

      diameter 124

   D/1993 F2 (Schoemaker–Levy 9) 380, 571

      relative speed fragments 380

      secondary fragmentation 380

      size distribution grains 380

      example of tidal breakup 380

   P/1999 RQ28 (LONEOS) 128

      possible source of historic showers 128

   P/2000 G1 (LINEAR) 128

      possible source of Daytime Lepusids 128

   P/2001 Q2 (Petriew) 128, 349

      possible source of β-Cygnids 128

   P/2003 K2 (Christensen) 129

      possible source of future showers 129

   P/2004 CB (LINEAR) 129

      2014 meteors 352, 689

      brightness 352

      future dust trail encounters 689

   P/2004 R1 (McNaught) 129

      possible source of future showers 129

   1913 I (Lowe) 313

      uncertain comet, linked to Comae Berenicids 313

   1750 (Wargentin) 314

      badly observed, linked to Comae Berenicids 314

cometesimal 20

Corvid shower 136, 163

      discovery 395

      Giordano Bruno impact crater 395

      parent 395

      relation to comet 11P 395

      relation to comet 107P 395

counting meteors in bins 253

crevasse 21

Crifo ejection model 586

cross section dust trail 236

cross sectional area dust 92

crystallization 22

CS 75

cut-off, upper mass limit 188

Cyclids 542


d – diameter dust grain

Dc – diameter comet 79

Δa0 – initial change in semimajor axis 252

Δr – miss-distance 252

ΔΩ – shift in node

D-criterion 480, 596–597

DSH-criterion 480, 596–597

Daytime Arietids 428

   discovery 428

   evolution cycle 435

   relationship to Marsden group 427–430

   stratified structure 429

daytime showers 167

   discovery 428

December Leonis Minorids 84

December Monocerotids 309–311

   association with parent comet 309

   fireballs in Middle Ages 309, 310

   peak rate 309

   radiant 309

   unlikely link to 3200 Phaethon 309

declination 41

decoupled from Jupiter 130

δ-Aquariids 430–432

   activity as function of magnitude 432

   evolution cycle 435

   fragmentation index 437

   magnitude distribution index 432

   meteoroid density 437

   northern δ-Aquariids 435

   rates 7

   relation to Machholz complex 430

   southern δ-Aquariids 431

   stratified structure 432

δ-Pavonids 315

   link to comet Grigg–Mellish 315

δ-Piscids 200

δ-Serpentids 84

density comet 20, 91

density meteoroid 76, 237

   carbonaceous chondrite 521

      CV 522

      CM 522

      CI 522

   cometary matter 521

   freshly ejected cometary matter 521

   interplanetary dust particle 105

   Leonid dust 237, 257

   ordinary chondrite 521

direct association 481

distorted trails 321

dormant comet nucleus (see: extinct comet) 137

Draconids 325

   1926 outburst 163

   1933 storm 163

      cause 228

   1946 storm 165, 325

      cause 228

   1952 outburst 327

   1953 return 327

   1972 outburst 167, 327

   1985 outburst 327

      activity curve 327

   1986 outburst 327

   1988 predicted return 330

   1998 outburst 330

      activity profile 333

      mean radiant 332

      peak rate 331

      prediction 230

   1999 return 333

   2011 return predictions 334

   beginning heights 332

   dust trail encounters 676

   elemental abundance 328

   meteoroid density 328

   meteoroid fragmentation index 328

   tensile strength meteoroids 111, 328

drag coefficient 595

dust

   albedo 37

   density 76, 237

   equal cross section per interval 92

   equal mass in each mass interval 92

   thermal emission 28

dust mantle comet 76

dust number density

   decay with distance from comet 76, 95

dust tail 32

dust trail 28

   calculate total mass in trail 259

   dimensions 29

   discovery 28

   distribution of dust in trail 232, 250

   dust density 29

   evolution 38

   final position of particles 36

   formation mechanism 35

   illustration 36

   inward leg 36, 191

   motion near-Earth’s orbit 180

   particle sizes 37

   perpendicular spreading 38

   visible in scattered sunlight 38

dust trail distribution in node ΔΩ 237

   broadening with time 41, 249

   calculated distribution 255

   change by planetary perturbations 324

   cross section 236

   intrinsic width 237, 242

   offset center Leonids 237, 242

   variation with miss distance 241

   width 41, 237

dust trail distribution in orbit Δa0 232, 237

   evolution along the trail 190

   gap 232

   offset from comet position 237

   peak of dust density 255

   range in orbital periods 35

   spreading by planetary perturbations 321

   tail in distribution 253

   width 237

dust trail distribution in distance Sun Δr 242, 252

   change by planetary perturbations 324

   discrepancies 253

   distribution 253

   offset from calculated 253

   outward tail 255

dust trail distribution of meteoroid size 257

   change along dust trail 259

   presence of large masses 257

   typical value Leonid trails 257

   upper-mass cut-off 188

dust trail stages of evolution

   delay of orbital period 228, 229

   distortions from planetary perturbations 321

   Filament 192

   formation 35

dust trail from fragmentation 380

dust-to-ice ratio in comets

   long period comets 87

   Halley-type comets 98, 101, 260

   Encke-type comets 135


e – eccentricity 59

E – energy 589

ε – material emissivity 587

Earth

   reflex motion 180

   speed in orbit 4

eccentric anomaly 60

eccentricity (e) 59

ecliptic plane 58

ecliptic shower 496

ecliptic showers – individual

   ρ-Geminids 504

   δ-Cancrids 505

   δ-Leonids 505

   α-Virginids 503

   η-Virginids 506

   ν-Hydrids 507

   α-Leonids 507

   λ-Virginids 508

   Librids 508

   μ-Virginid 508

   γ-Librids 508

   δ-Librids 508

   May λ-Virginids 508

   α-Scorpiids 511

   ω-Scorpiids 513

   μ-Sagittariids 513

   σ-Sagittariids 513

   κ-Aquariids 514

ecliptic streams

   point of closest approach 324

   typical impact speed Earth 110

Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt 62

ejection of dust

   angle of ejection 250

   coupling to gas flow 586

   delay of orbital period 228, 229

   ejection speed 94

   initial acceleration 26

   maximum size 27

   position in comet orbit (Δa0) 250

   stress after ejection 26

ejection of meteoroids

   by breakup of comets 378

   collision cascade fragmentation of grains 259

   Whipple-type water vapor drag 585

ejection of comets

   during formation 87

ejection speed 94

   at perihelion 239

   for correct return time 229

   for grains arriving at Earth 250

   for Halley-type comets 239

   for Jupiter-family comets 116, 119, 350

   for Encke 134

   Whipple ejection speed 585

electron 43

ellipse 58

ellipsoidal shaped meteoroids 94

emission from meteors

   atomic lines 48

   dependence on speed and mass 48

   mechanisms 49–57

   molecular bands 48

Encke-type comets 130

   time until dormancy 130

energy

   conservation law 45

   kinetic energy 40, 45

   potential energy 40, 41

   total energy 40

epoch

ε-Eridanids

   1981 outburst 311

   annual activity 311

   association to Klinkerfues 311

   outburst predictions 617

   possible historic outbursts 314

   possible recent outbursts 315

ε-Geminids 85

equinox 59, 159

escape speed 569

η-Aquariids 303

   activity profile 306

   AD 585 shower 309

   AD 930 shower 309

   age 495

   discovery 304

   dust trail encounters 308

   ejection speed from Halley 94

   formation history 490

   origin 91

   no enhanced rate return Halley 304

   magnitude distribution index 92

   miss-distance 304

   rates 7

η-Eridanids 85

η-Lyrids 77

η-Virginids 506

   1953 possible outburst 506

evaporation 49

exponential component (B) 242

extinct comet nucleus 137

   dynamical lifetime 139

   most likely associated with showers 612

   nomenclature 368

   number in inner solar system 138

   percentage of time dormant 138

extinct comets (judging from meteoroid stream association)

   individual cases

      1979 VA (Wilson–Harrington) 615

         possible association with September Sagittariids 514, 615

      1983 LC 514

         possible source of November Scorpiids 514

      1983 TB = 3200 Phaethon 139, 397

         parent of Geminids 397

         diameter 139

         geometric albedo 139

         mythology 397

         rotation period 139

         surface melting 139

         taxonomic class 139

      1986 JK (14827 Hypnos) 514

         possible source of August Virginids 514

      1996 AJ1 508

         just perhaps associated with λ-Virginids 508

      1998 HJ3 508

         just perhaps related to May Virginids 508

      1998 SH2 508, 613

         possible association with α-Virginids 508, 613

      1998 SY14 514

         possible source of October Aquariids 514

      1998 KM 513

         just perhaps associated with α-Scorpiids 513

      1999 RD32 505

         possible association with δ-Leonids 505

      1999 RM45 507

         possibly associated with ν-Hydrids 507

      2000 DK79 519

         unlikely association with Puppids-Velids 519

      2000 QS7 513

         potential source of late Capricornids 513

         potential source of autumn Ophiuchids 514

      2001 HA 514

         possible source of β-Cetids 514

      2001 ME1 612

         Daytime Capricornids-Sagittariids 612

         possibly associated with N. σ-Sagittariids 513, 614

      2002 FC 613

         N. γ-Virginids 613

      2002 EX12 450

         relationship to Capricornids 453

      2002 GM5 508

         just perhaps associated with Virginids 508

      2003 BK47 513

         potential source of β-Cygnids 513

      2003 EH1 377, 612

         association with C/1490 Y1 371

         best possible common orbit 376

         diameter 371

         orbit 368

         parent of Quadrantids 368

      2003 WY25 377, 384, 616

         parent of Phoenicids 616

      2003 YG118 507

         possibly associated with N. ν-Leonids 507

      2004 BZ74 613

         possible association with α-Scorpiids 511, 613

      2004 HW 395, 613

         association with Corvids 613

      2004 JR1

         relation to κ-Cygnids? 454

      2004 NL8 514

         associated with κ-Aquariids 514

      2004 TG10 470

         parent of Taurids 378, 470

      2005 UB 399, 544, 566

         parent of Sextantids 399


f – fraction of surface area active 587

fm – mean anomaly factor 232, 251

φ – angle in elevation 589

F-Corona 541

   inner edge of meteoroid survival 541

   smallest perihelion distance streams 541

fading problem of long-period comets 71

   mean survival 72

falling star 3

fallen back meteoroids 32

Filament 192

   AD 608 ejecta 212

   1366: required ejection speed 210

   after comet return 249

   cause 210–215

   cause of onset of activity 214

   dispersion 212

   epoch of ejection 211, 212

   Leonid 202, 207

   Leonids, data and forecast 619

   Perseids 295

   Perseid dispersion of radiants 295

   response to Sun’s reflex motion 214

   role of 1366-dust trail 210

   spreading dilemma 214

   trails catch up on each other 192

   trapping in mean motion resonances 214

   typical diameter 192

   Ursids 263–265

fireball 3

flux of light 592

forecasting meteor storms

   activity of the shower 231, 250

   peak time 158

forward meteor scatter

   Global-MS-Net 201, 303, 342, 511

   Intern. Project for Radio Meteor Observations 468

   Radio Meteor Observers Bulletin 201

fragmentation

   1835 breakup of 3D 119–121

   1995 breakup of 73P 122

   attogram grains 26

   in interplanetary medium 238

   in comet coma 238

   index 307, 406

   meteoroids after ejection 26

   of boulders 238

   relative speed fragments 120, 123

fragmentation mechanisms comets

   collisions 378

   spin-up 378

      position primary component 378

      relative speed fragments 378

      threshold spin period 378

   thermal stresses 379

   tidal disruption 379

      binding energy 378

      separation velocity 379

FWHM (full-width-at-half-maximum) 21


g – gravitational acceleration at Earth’s surface

G – gravitational constant 587

γ-Delphinids (1930) 194

   predictions 617

gaps in dust trail 232

gas production rate

   function of comet volume 79

Gauss method 156

Gegenschein 544

Geminids 402

   age 408, 412

   activity 7, 402

      background component 405, 422

      change over the years 400

      main peak 405

      variation along orbit 402

   change of node over the years 400, 410

   change in orbital elements over time 422

      angular elements 420

      semimajor axis 419

   discovery 400

   discrete breakup 420

   fragmentation index 406

   future activity 422

   meteoroid density 406

   meteoroid tensile strength 328, 407

   orbit evolution 408

   total mass 406

   visual observations 414

   width of the shower 411

      variation with time 412

geocentric (from perspective of Earth)

   velocity 40

   radiant 41

Giant Comet Hypothesis (Taurid Complex) 455, 470

   size of proposed comet 455

   size accounted for 470

   time of breakup 471

giant planet region of comet formation 85, 86

Glanerbrug meteorite 526, 527

glass transition in water ice 22

gnomonic star chart 9

gravitation 14

gravity waves in atmosphere 57

grazing meteors 176

Gregorian calendar 598

Grün model of dust impacts on Earth 556


h – angular momentum 589

H – altitude above Earth’s surface 590

Halley-type comets 88

   circumstances of formation 105–107, 106

   number in inner solar system 88

   physical lifetime 90

   properties of dust 105–107, 106

halo and “shock” 246

hard bit 107

Harvard Meteor Program 165, 413, 419, 438, 480, 484, 515

   Dona Ana location 390

   Soledad Canyon location 390

heat

   fraction going into sublimation 587

   latent heat of sublimation 587

heliocentric distance (r) = distance from Sun 22

   onset meteoroid stream formation 110

helion source 110, 496

Hephaistos group 509–510

Hirayama asteroid family 148, 533

   age 149

   percentage of all asteroids 149

   relation to zodiacal dust bands 533

   relative velocities 149

   size distribution of members 149, 619

   Veritas family 533

history of meteor astronomy

   China 6

   Mesopotamia 6

   meteor storm predictions 228

   rates in Middle Ages 6

   records of meteor outbursts 6, 598

hui 12

hydrogen emission in meteors 581

hyperbolic tangent 594


i – inclination 59

IAU Photographic Meteor Orbit Database 439

ice of comets 22

   composition 22

   formation temperature 350, 577

impact

   frequency 531

   of 10 km sized minor planet 547

      example: demise of the dinosaurs 531

   of 1 km sized minor planets 550

      example: Indochina tektite field 550

      danger of dying 550

   of tens of meters in size 552

      example: Tunguska explosion 552

      impact frequency 552

      superbolides 552

impact crater

   comet 20

   moons of Jupiter 551

   population size index 551

   record on Moon 551

impact flashes 238, 562

   1999 Leonid storm 562

   luminous efficiency 562

   meteoroid impact gardening 563

   on Moon 238

   peak impact speed Moon 563

   rate of impacts on Moon 562

impact gardening 563

impact hazard comets 285

   cause of changing impact rates 551

   impact rate on Jupiter 550

   influx on Earth 552

      as function of mass 551

      as function of number 550

   long period comets 71, 179

   meteor showers as early warning 550, 551

   number of impacting NEOs 550

   Space Guard project 550

impact hazard of meteoroids to satellites 45, 216–220

   damage (size dependence) 557

   damage (speed dependence)

      penetration depth 557

      charge production 557

      plasma current 557

   distribution of impact speeds 559

   influx on Earth 552

      as function of mass 551

      as function of number 550

   range of sizes where meteoroids dominate 554

      low Earth’s orbit (LEO) 554

      geostationary orbit (GEO) 554

   situation during 1966 Leonid storm 554

   space shuttle 45

   speed distribution of meteoroids hitting Earth 559

   speed of meteoroids hitting Earth

   testimony US Congress 216

   total surface area for all satellites 555

   typical size for peak of mass influx 552

impact on asteroids

   dust size distribution 146

   escape speed 146

   fragments 147

   Hirayama asteroid families 148

   mass distribution in small collisions 147

   mutual collisions 148

   total ejected mass from gravel 146

inclination 59

influx of matter on Earth 552

   as function of mass 551

   as function of number 550

   Divine model 557

   Grün model 556

   Jenniskens and McBride model 557

   total mass 552

   typical grain size at peak of mass influx 552

Innisfree meteorite 524

integration program for orbits 229

intermediate long-period comets 71

interplanetary dust particles 105, 553

   carbon content 106

   density 105

   elemental composition 106

   GEMS 106

   solar wind tracks 541

interplanetary cloud (see zodiacal cloud)

intersect Earth’s orbit 62

interstellar meteoroid 559

   apparent impact speeds 559

interstellar meteoroid streams 559

ion 43

ion tail comet 18

ι-Aquariids 437

   meteoroid density 437

   N. ι-Aquariids 437

   S. ι-Aquariids 437

ι-Draconids (see June Bootids)


J – Joule, unit of energy

jet, potential causes 18

   crevasse 21

   exposed ice 18

   landslide 18

   opening angle dust 21

   opening angle gas 21

   seep 21

   sink holes 19

   subterranean cavern 19

Julian calendar 598

June Arietids 167

June Bootids 334–344

   1916 ι-Draconids 334

      historic significance 335

   1921 return 336

   1922 return 336

   1927 return 336

   1998 outburst 336–339

      activity curve 337

      χ 337

      radiant 336

      source 337

   2004 outburst 339–344

      χ 342

      dynamic evolution 340

      time of ejection 340

      predicted peak 339

      spectrum 342

   association parent comet 335

   dust trail encounters 671

   mean-motion resonance 339

   meteoroid tensile strength 337

   past returns 344

   predictions 344

June Lyrids (1966) 196

Jupiter 155

   dark spots 572

   global influx of meteoroids 570

   impact rate of comets 550, 572

   impacts on Moons 572

   meteor showers on Jupiter 757

   orbital period 155

   peak impact speed 571

   relative speed with comet 109

   semimajor axis 109, 155

Jupiter’s Moons

   impacts 572

   Io’s atmosphere 573

   meteor showers 757

Jupiter-family comet 108

   definition 108

   dust trail encounters 321

   dust trail perturbations 321

   dynamical lifetime 110

   dynamically young 126

   fate of orbital evolution 110

   kernel of original nucleus 126

   number in inner solar system 108

   rate of decay 110

   reflex motion 179

   typical grain size ejected 126

   typical impact speed Earth 110


kb – Boltzmann constant 586

k-criterion (meteoroid nature) 521

   Group I (stony asteroidal) 521

   Group II (carbonaceous asteroidal) 521

   Group IIIA (cometary) 521

   Group IIIB (fresh cometary) 521

κ-Cygnids 442–448

   1993 outburst 445

   fragmentation index 444

   fireballs 444

   meteoroid density 444

   range of semimajor axis 446

   two components 446

κ-Pavonids 181, 346

   outburst predictions 617

Kuiper Belt 62, 62–65

   Classical 64

   outer edge 64

   Plutinos 63

   scattered Disk 64

Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) 62

   number > 100 km 63

   number > 1 km 63

   size distribution index 63


λ – solar longitude 158

Λ – fraction of heat that goes into sublimation 587

L1-libration point 555

Ls = latent heat of sublimation 587

Laplace’s formula 155

Leonis Minorids 82

Leonid MAC 167, 171, 222, 233–236, 244, 465, 562

   Astrobiology mission 223, 580

   constant nature of plasma temperature 581

   fate of organics 581

   discovery meteor halo phenomenon 53

   detection of meteoric glow in space 37

   first mid-IR spectra persistent trains 582

   luminous mechanism persistent trains 56

   origin of life 580

   rare Taurid fireball video 465

   use of lidar to weigh meteor 46, 204

Leonid Filament

   data 619

   forecast 619

Leonids

   902 storm 218, 261

   1771 storm 8, 262

   1799 storm 8, 262

   1833 storm 8

   1899 outburst 155–160, 228

      lack of storm 261

   1933 outburst 162

   1961 outburst 201

   1965 outburst

      meteoroid density 208

      radiant 207

   1966 storm 220

      peak rate 220, 253

   1969 outburst

      size distribution 259

   1994 outburst 201

      peak rate 202

   1995 outburst 203

      peak rate 203

      radiant 210

   1996 outburst 203

      peak rate 203

   1997 outburst 205

      predictions 216–218

   1998 Filament outburst 210, 221–227

      1899-dust encounter 225, 253

      fireball shower 224

      peak time 210

      predictions 216–220

      radiant 210

   1999 storm

      1866-dust 239

      prediction 230

      width of 1866-dust 239

   2000 outbursts

      1932-dust trail 259

      predictions 240

      width varies with miss distance 241

   2001 storms 242–248

      1767-dust trail encounter 246, 253

      news story of the year 246

   2002 storms 248–250

      background of activity 249

   brightest fireballs 27, 238

   future dust trail encounters 619

   historic storms, position comet 219, 619

   parent comet 11

   rates 7

   Sun’s reflex motion 220

length of perihelion (Π) 60

libration

   about mean motion resonance 90

lidar 46

lifetime against collisions zodiacal cloud 539

light of a meteor 49–57

lightcurve 15

long-period comet 71

   crust 86

   ejection of grains in bound orbits 190

   fading problem 71

   grain size ejected 126

   impact rate on Earth 71

   intermediate long period comet 71

   magnitude distribution index 71, 79

   mass distribution index 71, 79

   mean survival time 72

   minimum distance to Earth 72

   number of comets

      associated with streams 72

      in inner solar system 71

      in Oort cloud 71

   orbital period 73

   region of formation 85

   time before breakup 72

long-period comet dust trail 192

   follow Sun’s reflex motion 192

   outburst predictions 617

   phase lag 192

   position at Earth’s orbit 192

longitude of the ascending node 59

Lost City meteorite 524

Lorentz profile 236

luminous efficiency (τ) 46, 593

   average 594

   differential 594

   intrinsic 594

lunar transient phenomena (see: Moon impacts) 562

Lyrids 80

   687 BC outburst 6, 11

   1803 outburst 10

   1945 outburst 174

   1982 outburst 173

   annual shower 172, 476

   activity 7, 173

   cause of outbursts 172

   discovery 9

   magnitude distribution 172

   meteoroid density 172

   outburst predictions 617

   parent comet 11


m – magnitude of meteor, 488–492

M – mass of meteoroid, 488–492

M – mass of Sun 588

Mc – mass of comet 590

Machholz complex 425

   close encounter in 1059 AD 435

   δ-Aquariids evolutionary stage 435

   Kracht group evolutionary stage 435

   Marsden group evolutionary stage 435

magnetic forces on dust grains 538

magnitude scale

   absolute 592

   definition 591

magnitude of a meteor (m) 46

   relation to mass 92

magnitude distribution index (χ) 92

   annual showers 95

   function of mass in trails 259

   long period comets 71

   meteor storms 95

   sporadic background 95

Mars

   altitude of meteors 569

   entry speed 569

   first meteorite found on Mars surface 570

   Halley at Mars 569

   layer of exogenous matter from meteoroids 569

   Martian atmosphere 569

   meteor rate 569

   meteor showers 568, 756

Marsden group of sunskirting comets 427

   date of passing by Earth 427

   miss-distance 427

   relationship to Daytime Arietids 427–430

   short orbital period 427

mass of a meteor (M) 46, 488–492

   measurement by lidar 46

mass distribution index (s) 92

   definition 92

   long period comets 71

   same amount in each interval 92

mass influx curve

   different orbits on low-end size peak 553

   explanation of meteoroids mass peak 553

mean anomaly 61

mean anomaly factor (fm) 232, 251

mean motion resonance 89

   corresponding semimajor axis 210

   evidence from trapped Ursids 266

meetings dedicated to Leonid showers

   1998 Meteoroid satellite threat 207, 223

   1998 Leonid MAC workshop 207

   2000 Leonid MAC workshop 244

   2002 Leonid MAC workshop 248

Mercury impact flashes 564

   meteoroids from 2P/Encke 564

   peak impact speed 564

meteor

   beginning height 39

   cluster 540

   emission spectrum 48

   end height 39

   light curve 53, 328

meteor emission mechanism

   ablation vapor cloud 50

   afterglow 55

   average luminous efficiencies 594

   cascade phase 51

   collision cascade 50

   differential luminous efficiency 594

   duration 593

   expansion phase 51

   flare 54

   forbidden green line 56

   halo 53, 246

   hot component 51

   persistent train 56

   rapid evaporation 50

   recombination line emission 55

   sputtering 50

   V-shaped glow 50

   warm component 51

meteor gas flow conditions

   rarefied flow 50

   continuum flow 50

   shock wave 50

meteor lightcurve

   early peak 328

meteor outburst 6, 282

   α-Monocerotids 29

   Aurigids 29

   β-Hydrusids 29

   κ-Pavonids 29

   October Draconids 29

   Ursids 29

meteor shower 4, 8

   association with comets 10–11

   duration 41

   on other planets 561

meteor sounds

   electrophonic sounds 51

   shock wave 50

meteor storm

   1899 Leonids 155–160

   1095 April storm 4

   duration 41

   first successful prediction 153

   magnitude distribution index 95

meteoric glow 37

meteorite 49, 145, 520

   carbonaceous chondrite 521

      ablation coefficient 521

      density 521

   crust 49

   micro- 50

   ordinary chondrite

      ablation coefficient 521

      density 521

meteoroid 8

   Calcium–Aluminium-rich Inclusion 577

   chondrule 577

   cometary

      density 521

      ablation coefficient 521

   coupling with gas 25

   ejection speed 25

   fractal dimension 576

   fragmentation 53

      relative speed of fragments 540

   formation (sequential): 575

      interstellar grains 575

      hierarchical accretion 576

      aggregate particles 576

      aggregates 576

      pebbles 576

      cometesimals 577

   mass, relation to β 33

   orbit 58

meteoroid ejection mechanism 14

   Crifo ejection model 25

   Whipple equation 25

meteoroid model

   dust ball 54, 328

meteoroid stream 4

micrometeorite 553

   chemical diversity 553

   from collection in atmosphere 105

   from deep sea sediments 553

   from melt water lake 553

Minor Planet Center 191

minor planet nomenclature 368

miss distance comets 72

Moon impact flashes 561, 562

   1999 Leonid storm 562

   impact speed 563

   viewing conditions 754

Moon sodium atmosphere 561

   impact gardening 563

   Moon’s tail (1998 Leonids) 564

   photon sputtering 563

   solar wind 563

   thermal desorption 563

μ-Arietids 200

μ-Pegasids 389

mythology 3


N – number

naked eye sensitivity to light 592

near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 140

   Amor type 140

   Apollo type 140

   Aten type 140

Near-Earth object (NEO) 550

   number with D > 1 km 550

Neptune

   impact speed 573

   meteor showers on Neptune 573, 758

   reflex motion 180

   zone of influence 155

Neuschwanstein 524

neutral atom debris layer 561

news story of the year 246

night vision, adaptation 201

noctilucent cloud 45

nodal line 59

nodal miss distance 61

nomenclature

   of meteor showers 78

   of minor planets 368

nongravitational

   acceleration 15

   explanation 165

   force 15, 96

northern branch 131

November Hydrids 84

nucleus (see: comet nucleus) 15

nutation cycle (rotation of nodal line) 130

   Machholz Complex 426

   multiple cycles 485

   Orionids/η-Aquariids 490

   Quadrantids 357

   Taurids 456


Ω – longitude of the ascending node 59

ω – argument of perihelion 59

obliquity 75

observing conditions (visual) 202

October 4/5 shower 528

October Capricornids 345–346

   parent comet 345

October Monocerotids 85

ω-Orionids (1964)

   outburst predictions 617

ω-Cetids 435

one-revolution trail (see dust trail)

   total amount of dust 259

onset water vapor production 110

Oort cloud 65, 65–67

   aphelion distance 65

   erosion (sending comets our way) 551

      galactic tide 551

      orbits of Sun around center 551

      motion in and out of plane 551

      molecular clouds 551

      star systems 551

      most recent star encounter 552

      nearest supernova remnant 552

      supernova explosions 552

   extent 65

   formation 66

   origin 66

   Sedna 65

orange arc emission persistent trains 205

orbit 58

   distribution in zodiacal cloud 541

   integration program 229

orbital debris 553

orbital elements 58–60

orbital evolution

   towards avoidance of dangerous ω 132

orbital period (P) 59

   long period comets 71

   ILPC 71

   delay from radiation pressure 228

Organizations

   ALPO – Meteor Section 176, 562

   American Meteor Society 159, 173, 196, 220, 274, 384, 406, 505

   Arbeitskreis Meteore 170

   ASSA – Meteor Section 181, 199, 304

   BAA – Meteor Section 163, 198, 273, 274, 387

   British Meteor Society 266, 274

   California Meteor Society 203, 265, 287, 337

   Dutch Meteor Society 28, 82, 168, 196, 199, 203, 223, 234, 248, 263, 268, 286, 301, 391, 415, 419, 470, 495, 504, 524, 527, 593

   FEMA 169

   Fremont Peak Observatory Assoc. 86

   Hawaiian Meteor Society 181

   International Meteor Organization 169, 239, 253, 274, 304

   Italian Meteor Association 304

   Japanese Fireball Network 276

   Minor Planet Center of IAU 191

   MMETH 175

   NAPO – Meteor Section 315

   Nippon Meteor Society 268, 275, 376, 468

   North American Meteor Network 176

   NAS – Meteor Section 267

   NVVS – Meteor Section 280

   Royal Astronomical Society 274

   San Jose Astronomical Association 171

   Shinshu University Astro O.B. Club 275

   SOMYCE 184, 201, 234, 248

   SOVAFA 200

   WAMS 345, 346, 348

   Werkgroep Meteoren van de VVS 170

organic matter 575

   atomic hydrogen from carbonization 581

   chemically induced from atmosphere by meteors 575

   C-H stretch vibration emission 582

   CN emission 581

   comet dust 105, 582

   content by weight comet dust 105

   delivery to Earth 575

   fate in meteoric ablation 581

   Leonid meteoroids 236

   lack of CN in meteors 236

   locked in larger grains 114

   OH radicals and hydrogen atoms 581

origin of life 578

   chemistry during meteor phase 579

   exogenous delivery 579

   Hadean 578

   meteor rate at time 578

   nature of early life 578

   source of organics and water 579

   role of meteors 578

Orionids 301

   1993 outburst 301

   activity is stable 303

   age 495

   annual shower peak 301

   discovery 9

   meteoroid density 20

   origin 91

   ejection speed from Halley 94

   formation history 490

   long-term orbital evolution 490

   mass distribution index 94

   meteoroid density 307

   meteoroid distribution versus Halley 307

   miss distance 301, 490

   outburst, mass distribution index 94

   radiant structure 493

   rates 7, 301

   Ribbon/Shell Model 303, 492

   secondary peaks 493

   volume of stream 492

outflow speed from comet nucleus

   coupling of dust and gas 586

   of dust (see: dust ejection) 92

   of water vapor 95

overdense echoes 427


P – orbital period 59

π – pi = 3.1415

Π – longitude of perihelion 60

panchromatic 592

parabolic orbits 14

perception 202

perihelion

   preferred site for ejection 239

perihelion distance (q) 58

   smallest perihelion distance streams 541

Perseids 271

   1862 outburst 284

   1863 outburst 284

   1979 Perseid dust trails 272

   1980 Perseids 271

   1981 predicted return of 109P 271

   1981 postdicted outburst 273

   1991 outburst 275

   1992 outburst 279–284

   1993 outburst 284–286, 659

      activity profile 295

      dispersion of radiants 295

      predicted χ 294

      predicted rates 292

   1994 outburst 288

      prediction 287

   1997 outburst 295

   2004 outburst 296

   age of annual shower 479

      Filament 299

      loss mechanism 479

   discovery 9

   dust trail model 290–295

   dust trail predictions 649

   early stream model 158

   Filament predictions 284–286, 659

   historic dust trails 649

   historic Filament observations 284–286, 659

   Filament 295

   meteoroid tensile strength 328

   outbursts 1989–1997 271

   parent comet 11

   periodicity of rates 299

   radiant 271

   rates 7

   Sun’s reflex motion 294

   total amount of mass 298

persistent trains 57, 288

   buoyancy 57

   FeO 56, 205

   gravity waves 57

   luminous mechanism 205

   sodium 56

   two parallel lanes 57

personal perception 202

Phoenicids 387

   1956 outburst 387

   1972 outburst 388

   annual shower 388

   association with comet 385

   association with μ-Pegasids 389

photographed meteor

   DMS program for multistation photography 168

   first 155

   Harvard meteor Program 165

photographic fireball network

   European Network 168, 466, 495, 524, 529

   Meteorite Orbit and Recovery Project 168, 406, 413, 484, 522, 524

   Prairie Network 166, 522, 524

physical properties of minor bodies, data 463

π-Cetids (1977) 199

π-Puppids 321

   1878-dust trail 321

   1848-dust trail 321

   broadening of trail 323

   change distribution of nodes 324

   discovery 114

   dust ejection at comet 116

   dust trail encounters 680

   dust size distribution at comet 116

   ejection epoch

      effect on radiant 324

   Gauss’ method 156

   large grains near comet nucleus 117

   merging into zodiacal cloud 533

   meteor properties 324

planetary perturbations 14, 155

   relative importance of the planets 155

      Roche lobe radius 156

      zone of influence 155

   spreading along orbit 321

   trapping in mean motion resonances 321

Plutinos 63

Pluto 63

   escape speed 574

   impact speed 574

   meteors on pluto 573

   Pluto as a comet 63

Poynting-Robertson drag 480, 536

   change of orbital elements over time 536

   expected dust density inside source region 536

prebiotic compounds (see: organic matter)

precession

   Earth’s spin axis 10

   function of orbital period 490

   meteoroid orbit 11, 60, 133, 408, 485

predicting meteor storms 153

   time of maximum 158

Pribram meteorite 523, 524

primary component in breakup 378

pristine comet crust 190

progressive fragmentation index (χf) 307

prograde orbit 88

progressive search 481

Puppid-Velid Complex 516–519

   Puppid-Velid I Complex 516, 518

   Puppid-Velid II Complex 516


q – perihelion distance (AU) 58

Q – aphelion distance (AU) 59

QH2O – gas production rate 587

Qpr – radiation pressure efficiency 33, 588

θ – angle in azimuth 589

Quadrantids 357–375

   1976 airborne expedition 167

   activity curve 7, 362

      background component 362

   activity over the years 362

   association with C/1490 Y1 371

   discovery 8, 357

   dispersion of aphelion 364

      from photographed orbits 366

   effect of Jupiter on broadening 361

   evolution of the node 362

   explanation for yearly variability rates 376

   nutation cycle 357

   magnitude distribution index 362

   mass of stream 366

   mean density meteoroids 367

   meteoroid penetration depth 371

   orbital evolution 357

   parent body identification 368

   radiant dispersion 364

   unusual sighting 200


r = distance from the Sun (AU) 22

RE = radius Earth 591

ρ = meteoroid density

ρc = density comet

radar 167

   1946 Draconid storm 167

   echo height ceiling 53, 542

   meteor head echo 53

   observational biases 168

   overdense echoes 427

   underdense echoes 427

radar installations

   Adelaide Radar Survey (Australia) 168, 483

   AMOR (New Zealand) 168, 398, 432, 435, 531, 559

   Harvard Radar Survey (Havana, Ill.) 168, 482, 541

   Jodrell Bank (UK) 167

   Mogadishu (Somalia) 168

   Ondrejov Observatory (Czech Republic) 168

   Springhill Observatory (Canada) 168

   Ukranian Kharkov Polytechnical Institute 168

   University of Sheffield (UK) 167

   SkyMet radar (global) 511

radiant 8

   catalog 482

   coordinates 41

   daily drift 41

   definition 39–40, 41

   distribution in stream 499

   size 499

   true 40

radiation force 33

   delay of orbital period 228, 229

   efficiency 33

   effect on dust trail 37, 228

   factor β 33

   nonradial force 249

   nonspherical grain 25

radiation force, nonradial

   anisotropic emission and scattering 536

   Poynting–Roberston drag 480, 536

   Yarkovsky–Radzievskii effect 536

rates

   variation during year 6

   year-to-year variation 43

re-entry of sample return capsules 583

reservoirs of comets

   Kuiper belt 62–65

   Oort cloud 65–67

resonance 146, 148

   corresponding semimajor axis 210

   kozai 91

   mean motion 89

   secular 90, 148

retrograde orbit 88

ρ-Geminids 504

   1993 outburst 504

Ribbon Model (see Orionids) 303

right ascension 41

Roche Lobe radius 156

rocking mirror 164

rotating argumen of perihelion 130

rubble pile 86


s – differential mass distribution index 92

σ – ablation coefficient 595

σb – Stephan-Boltzmann constant 587

S2, diatomic sulfur 75

satellites

   Chandra X-ray Observatory 555

   Deep Space 1 136

   Giotto 12, 15, 92, 95, 116

   HELIOS A and B 541

   HEOS 2 539

   Hubble Space Telescope 86, 284, 555

   International Cometary Explorer 112

   International Space Station 554

   IRAS 28

   IUE 75

   LDEF 552

   Mariner 4 555

   Mars Exploration Rover 570

   Mars Pathfinder 568

   Midcourse Space experiment 205

   Olympus 285, 554

   Pegasus 2 and 3 554

   Pioneer 10 544, 566

   Pioneer 11 544, 566

   Pioneer Venus Orbiter 567

   SEDS-2 554

   SOHO 423

   Solar Maximum Mission 423

   SOLWIND 423

   ULYSSES 544

   VeGa 15, 92, 95

   Viking Landers 568

   WIND 555

   Voyager 2 570

satellite impact hazard (see impact hazard meteoroids)

Saturn 155

   atmosphere 572

   B-ring spokes 573

   impact speed 573

   levitated dust over rings 573

   mass 155

   meteor showers 572, 758

   orbital period 155

   reflex motion 180

Saturn’s moons

   meteor showers 758

   Titan’s atmosphere 573

scattered disk object 64

Scorpiid–Sagittariid Complex 510–513

SDO 64

secondary nuclei 378

secular nutation cycle 131

secular perturbation 131

secular perturbation method 459

secular resonance 90

seep 21

semimajor axis 58

   delay from radiation pressure 229

September Sagittariids 136

serial association 481

Sextantids 398

   association with 2005 UD 399

shape cross section trail 321

shape of meteoroids 94

Shell Model (see Ribbon Model) 492

shooting star 3

shower versus sporadics 475

   percentage 482

      fireballs 484

      photography 484

      radar 482

   recognizing showers 478–482

      D-criterion 480

      direct association 481

      progressive search 481

      serial association 481

sintering and melting of grains 541

   inner edge of meteoroid survival 541

   smallest perihelion distance streams 541

size of comet nuclei

   from activity 79

size distribution index (α) 92

   transformation to mass distribution 92

solar constant 587

solar longitude (λ) 158

solar system

   barycenter 179

   formation (in sequence:) 575

      infalling interstellar grains 575

      hierarchical accretion 576

      pebbles 576

      cometesimals 577

      protoplanets 578

      Moon 578

solar wind 31, 540

solar wind tracks 541

sound of meteors

   audible sounds 50

   sound speed 50

southern/northern branch 131

space weathering 437, 539

   chemical change of organic matter 541

   collisions with β-meteoroids 539

   creation of glasses (amorphization) 541

   density 437

   exposure by energetic particles 540

   fragmentation index 437

   minimum size of grain surviving collisions 553

   sintering and melting of grains 541

   solar wind tracks 541

   thermal heating 437

speed (see: velocity) 40

spin (see: comet nucleus, meteoroids)

spin-up

   fragment relative speed 378

   threshold spin period 378

spectrum of meteor 48

splitting nucleus 86

sporadic meteors 531

   age 539

   alignment of apside line with Jupiter 538

   distribution of orbits 541

   lifetime grains against collisions 539

   lifetime of JFC meteoroids against ejection 534

   mean impact speed 542

   magnitude distribution index 95, 531

   preferred aphelion at Jupiter 538

   relation to zodiacal cloud 531

   trapped in mean-motion resonances 534

   typical size of meteoroid 95

   typical mass of meteoroid 95

sporadic-E layer 45

sprite 236

sputtering 50

stars fell like rain 187

sublimation 24

Sun’s reflex motion 179

   long-period comet dust trail 192

   phase lag 192

Sungrazer comets 423

   Kreutz sungrazing group 423

      subgroup I 424

      subgroup II 425

   retrograde orbit 423

   Sungrazer Parent Comet 423

Sunskirting comets 423, 425

   Kracht group 425

   Marsden group 425

   Meyer group 425

   relation to Daytime Arietids 427–430

   relation to δ-Aquariids 430–432

   relation to Machholz complex 425

Sunskirting streams 427–430, 499

   Daytime Arietids 427–430

   δ-Aquariids 430–432

   Geminids 402

surface temperature comet 76

swarm 539

synchrone/syndyne diagram 33

   synchrone 35

   syndyne 35


t – time, duration 593

T – temperature

τ – luminosity efficiency 593

τ-Herculids 391

   1930 outburst 392

   1941 encounter 393

   2022 return predictions 394

   relation to May Bootids 394

Taurids 455

   1990 possible outburst 468

   1995 outburst 466

   2001 possible outburst δ-Piscids 468

   2001 possible outburst daytime 468

   activity 7

   age 456, 458

      rotation of ω 456

      young age 464

   albedo of dust of Encke 135

   association with 2004 TG10 470

   association with 2P/Encke 133, 457

   change of radiant with node 469

   ejection speed from Encke 134

   Encke at Earth’s orbit 462

   evolution of orbital elements 458

      effect of comet ejection 461

   fireball flares 465

   fireball swarms 464

   Giant Comet Hypothesis 455

   N./S. difference in χ 466

   nodal dispersion 469

   origin in asteroid collision 459

   progressive fragmentation index 465

   size distribution of dust from Encke 134

   trapping in mean-motion resonances 464

   radiant 499

Taurid complex showers 456, 499

   Arietids 456

   χ-Orionids 456

   Daytime β-Taurids 456

   Daytime S.-Arietids 456

   Daytime ζ-Perseids 456

   Piscids 456

Taurid Complex of minor planets 462–464

   among asteroids 464

   associated meteoroid stream 502

   candidate extinct comet nuclei 464

Taxonomic classes of asteroids 141–146

   C-complex 143

   S-complex 142

tektites 550

   formation 547

temperature

   dust grain day/night difference 537

   dust temperature versus distance from Sun 586

   formation temperature of ices 350, 577

   ice temperature versus distance from Sun 586

   meteor emission excitation temperature 51

   of surface comet 24, 76

   of zodiacal dust grains 532

θ-Aurigids (see: Aurigids) 82

theoretical radiant 62

tidal force 14

time of maximum 158

Tisserand invariant 109

   asteroids (TJ > 3) 109, 520

   discriminate comets and asteroids 138

   extinct comet nuclei 137

   invariance, recognize streams 480

   relation to relative speed comet–Jupiter 109

   value for Halley-type comets (<2) 109

   value for Jupiter-family comets 109

Tisserand (T) criterion 597

toroidal source 515

trans-Neptunian object (TNO) 62

transmission grating 48

trailet 210, 266

   cut 321

   detachment 321

   shape of cross section 321

triangulation 39

true anomaly (ν) 60, 61

true radiant 40

twin shower 440


underdense echoes 427

Uranus

   escape velocity 573

   impact speed 573

   meteor showers on Uranus 573, 758

   reflex motion 180

Uranus’ Moon

   meteors on Triton 573

Ursids

   1945 outburst 266

   1973 outburst 266

   1986 outburst 267

   2000 outburst 267

      fragmentation properties 270

   association with 8P/Tuttle 263, 268

   Filament 263–265

   future dust trail predictions 641

   future Filament forecast 644

   historic dust trail encounters 641

   historic Filament observations 644

   in mean-motion resonances 265

   minimum distance 263

   outbursts at aphelion 263, 266

   radiant 263


V – velocity (speed, vector)

Vej – ejection velocity (terminal, after leaving comet) 585

Vg – gas ejection speed from comet 40, 586

Vd – dust ejection speed 586

V – atmospheric speed 41, 569

vector sum 40

velocity 40

   atmospheric 41

   geocentric 40

Venus 566

   altitude of meteors 566

   β-meteoroids impact rate 33

   coincidence of nodes 565

   Geminids at Venus 565

   meteors seen from Earth 566, 753

   meteor showers on Venus 752

   number of short-period comets 564

   peak brightness 566

vernal equinox 59, 159

Virginid Complex 503

   α-Virginids 503

visual observations of meteors 202, 414


water in comets 22

   crystallization 22

   glass transition 22

   liquid water 22

   latent heat of sublimation 587

   mass of molecule 586

   ratio of specific heats 586

Whipple ejection speed 585

Whipple shields 555

width of dust trail

   broadening with time 249

   cross section 236

   function of miss-distance 237, 241

   intrinsic width at center 242


Yarkovsky–Radzievskii effect 536


z – zenith angle, or angle from subsolar point 586

zenith attraction 41

zenith hourly rate 29, 41, 42–45, 274

zodiac 496

zodiacal cloud 531

   age 539

   distribution of orbits 541

   dust bands 29, 533

   dust density past Jupiter 544

   dust from Kuiper belt 544

   dust spatial density at Earth 532

   F-Corona

   Gegenschein 544

   grain size 532

   grain temperature 532

   inclination 532

   irregularities in dust input 544

   merging of meteoroid stream 533

   meteoroids from HTC 532

   meteoroids from JFC 532

   orientation 532

   total mass 532

zodiacal dust bands 29, 533

zone of influence 155

   Laplace’s formula 155

   Roche lobe radius 156


© Cambridge University Press


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