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Life's Solution
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  • 50 b/w illus.
  • Page extent: 486 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.926 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 576.8/01
  • Dewey version: 21
  • LC Classification: QH360.5 .C66 2003
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Evolution (Biology)--Philosophy
    • Convergence (Biology)

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521827041 | ISBN-10: 0521827043)




General index




Page numbers in italics indicate Figures.

α-helices 167, 170, 230, 357n55

α-proteobacteria 352n6

abalone 289

absorption spectra 109, 289, 110

acetylcholine 235–236

ACLU see American Civil Liberties Union

Acromyrmex 198

Actinocoryne 230

adenine 4, 13, 28, 30, 63, 64

African golden moles 141

African Grey parrot 225–6, 253

agriculture 2, 197–200, 205–207, 208–209, 210, 275, 401n25; ‘agro-predation’ 200, 207; ant ‘cartons’ 210; ‘bucket brigade’ 198, 400n6; caches 198; climate change 206; cropping 199; division of labour 198; dump-pits 205, 206; exchange 207; fertilizer 199, 210; fungus gardens 116, 197–200, 205–207, 206; herbicide 200; Mesoamerica 206; monocultures 207, 210; mulch 199; pathogens 200; pruning 199; waste disposal 205–206; weeding 199, 209, 210

alanine 13, 16, 115, 340n32

albatrosses 2, 14, 3

algae 62, 95, 107, 173, 294

Allan Hills meteorite (ALH 84001) 33–34, 75

ambrosia beetles 207–208

American Civil Liberties Union

(ACLU) 320, 321

amino acids 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 13–14, 16, 18, 23, 27, 35, 36, 40–41, 46, 53, 57, 59, 60, 61, 63, 77, 115, 167, 168, 171, 287, 296, 298; α-amino isobutyric acid 37; alanine 13, 16, 115, 340n32; arginine 13, 288, 296; artificial 335n22; aspartic acid 41, 296; dextral (d-) amino acids 340n30; enantiomorphs 39–41, 60, 65; glycine 13, 16, 33, 60, 115; impact origin 339n25; isovaline 37; left-handedness 40; lysine 126; oligomerization 53–54, 343n61; proline 13; racemic mixture 40–41, 60; serine 16; tryptophan 288, n.12/1

ammonia (NH3) 25, 62

ammonites n.35/6

amphibians 120, 190, 216, 220, 270, 289

amphioxus 6, 7, 180, 7

Amyciaea 212–213

angiosperms 135–138

annelids 154, 193; eyes 154

anthropic principles 327

antibiotics 200, 207

ants 2, 8, 116–117, 143, 197–201, 208, 210, 212–213, 284, 388n201

aphids 114

apinid honey bees 203

Apollo II, 70

aporrhaids 157

Arachnocampa 116

Archaea 170, 171

archaeogastropods 289

Archaeopteryx 298

Ardipithecus 271

argyrolagids 145–146

army ants 116, 200–201, 203–205, 207, 210–211, 202, 406n98

arthropods 116, 193, 284, 288

Asian swiftlets 181–182

asteroids 95, 96, 97

atmosphere 61–62, 72, 76, 107, 109; clouds 66

atonal gene 193

ATP (adenosine triphosphate) 25, 49, 113, 170

Atta 198

attine ants 116, 198–200, 205–207, 208, 198

Aurignacian culture 275, 278, 279, 280

Australopithecus 269, 271

baboons 242–243, 244

bacteria 1, 2, 18, 26, 34, 56, 74, 94, 99, 107, 113, 114, 121, 124, 166, 170, 200, 230, 235, 236, 288, 307; bacteriome 114; flagellum 111, 230; genome 238; motor 111, 230

bacteriorhodopsin 170–172

Barbourofelis 130

barnacles 119

bats 173, 181, 182, 192, 218, 256, 257, 265–268

bees 143, 202, 205, 207, 284

beetles 143, 147, 149, 292, 372n4

beluga whale 251

bennettitaleans 137

biosynthetic pathways 16, 18, 336n39

birds (see also cultures, sounds) 96, 138–139, 190, 194, 223, 225–226, 246, 254, 269, 306, 387n170

bivalves 158–159, 289, 159

bladder kelp 355n37

Blainville’s beaked whale 15

Bombardier beetle 372n4

Borszczowia 294

bottlenose whale 420n106

bowerbirds 285–286

Boxgrove Man 291, 292

brain (see also mental functions) 243, 244–249; amphioxus 6; bird 226, 412n180; blood–brain barrier 214; cephalopod 214; cerebellum 194, 195, 254, 256; cetacean 254; chimp 247; cortical cytoarchitecture 256; cortical structure 267; dolphin 247–249, 291, 247, 255; dorsal cochlear nucleus 396n284; electrosensory line lobe 189; encephalization 248, 273–274; encephalization quotient (EQ) 245, 247; environmental triggers 248–249, 291; folding 195, 256; frontal 256; great apes 248; gymnotids 195–196; hippocampus 265; hominids 273; Homo erectus 249; humans 246, 254, 255; insects 179–180, 407n106; inter-hemispheric independence 254; laterality 254; mammals 226; metabolic costs 195, 419n97; microchiropteran bats 256; mormyrid fish 194–196, 245, 256, 195; multi-layered cortex 226; neocortex 195, 254, 256, 265, 267; occipital 256; olfactory bulbs 265; optic tectum n.284/7; orthodenticle (otd) 241; otx gene 242; paralimbic 254; parietal 256; Pax-6 gene 193, 240; scombrid fish 223; sharks 399n327; size 245–248, 245; size increases 248, 273–274, 436n11, 245; structural organization 265, 266–268; teleost 194; temporal 256; tenrec 246; toothed whales 246–247; torus semicircularis 196; valvula cerebelli 194; vertebrate 6, 179–180

Branchiostoma 6

brittle-stars 155, 159–160, 406n75

bryozoans 126

bubble-rings 257–258, 257

budgerigars 219

butterflies 169

byssus threads 289

C-value paradox 417n53

C3, 109, 293–294

C4, 109, 293–294

cactus 134–135, 134

caddis-flies 116

Caenorhabditis 4, 238

calcite 41, 159

Callisto 348n49

camouflage 168, 215

Campylomormyrus 184

cancers 173, 240

carbohydrates 9, 24, 27, 135

carbon dioxide 55, 62, 76, 99, 108, 109, 216, 292–293, 294, 295

carbon monoxide 62, 63, 113, 356n38

carrot 141

castes 199

cats 147–148, 177–178, 181

Cebus 262, 263, 268

cells (see also ion channels) 38, 46, 47; endosymbiosis 352n6; secondary endosymbiosis 352n6; sodium transport 230

cellulose 27, 135, 199, 298, 311, 373n5

cephalopods 150, 151–154, 169, 214, 303

Cephalorhynchus 251

cerebellum 194, 195, 254, 256

Chalcides 221

Chamaesyce 294

chameleons 164

Châtelperronian culture 278–281, 279, 434n314

chenopodiacean 294

chimpanzees 5–6, 242, 247, 249, 262

chironomids 116

chitin 27

Chlamydomonas 165, 171

chlorophyll 106–111, 135, 233, 298, 110

chloroplasts 352n6

cichlids 133, 215–216, 224, 364n136, 436n11

ciliates 150, 235, 236, 287, 288, 356n44, 374n17

circadian rhythms 172–173, 385n138

circulatory systems 215–216

Circumstellar Habitable Zone (CHZ) 83, 99–100, 100

citric acid cycle 57

cladistics 299, 353n21, 367n169

clover 235

Clovis culture 281

coccoideans 149

cockroaches 208

comets 36, 42, 43, 94–99

commelinoids 365n142

common dolphin 247; Pacific white-sided dolphin 247; Tucuxi dolphin 247

communication (see also mental functions, sounds); ant 203–204; artificial language 252–253; babbling 251–252; bacterial 236; categorical perception 194; categories 259; chemical signals 236; chromatic signals 215; courtship 190; dialects 258, 423n163; distress cries 210; electrical 184–188, 190; gestures 252; grammar 253; head drumming 209; language 278; ‘language space’ 253; learned signals 252; microbial 236; mimics 225, 250–251; pheromones 179, 203–204, 209; re-amplification 210; rule-based systems 253; seismic 141, 144, 190, 209–210; semantics 252; ‘signature whistles’ 251; speech 194, 251–252, 278; steroid signalling 295; subterranean mammals 141, 190–191; symbolic 252–253, 258; syntax 252–253; termite 209–210; tutors 260; vocal capabilities 278; vocalizations 223, 225–226, 249, 250–252, 258, n. 140/9; whistles 250–251; ‘whistle matching’ 251; Zipf’s law 334n5, 407n107, 421n127, 422n140

conifers 137

constructions (see also cultures, tools); ant-gardens 210; attine ant nests 205–206, 206; birds’ nests 358n72; bivouacs 201, 202; bowers 285–286; bridges 201, 401n32; ‘cartons’ 210, 214; fences 214; ‘fire zone’ 210; plugs 214; rafts 401n32; sheds 406n98; tents 116–117, 212, 358n70; termite nests 208; tracks 199; tunnels 208

convergences see Convergences index

Cope’s rule 304–306

corals 112, 154

cows 113, 298

crab spider 212

crabs 138, 150–151, 214

crayfish 169

creation ‘scientists’ xv, 301, 316, 322

crested auklet 139

crickets 192, 218, 285

crocodiles 227

crows 246

crustaceans 126, 130, 143–144, 158, 180, 214, 217, 129

cryptochromes 11, 172–173

crystallins 163, 166–167, 172, 173, 240, 312

cubozoans 154–155, 157, 160

cultures 258–260; apprenticeships 286; Aurignacian 275, 278, 279; beads 274; bicycles 111, 112, 270, 289, n.227/9; birds’ nest soup 181; bowers 436n11; burial 276, 278, 277; cargo cults 279; carvings 275, 280; Châtelperronian 278–281, 279; Clovis 281; ‘cultural revolution’ 260; destruction 359n83; figurines 275; gin and tonic 193, 334n12; instruction 259, 260; John Frum cult 279; language 278; Mousterian 275, 278; musical instruments 274–275; necklaces 279, 280, 279; ochre 275, 276; paintings 275, 281; Roman 281; Solutrean 281; symbolic compositions 275; Szeletian 280; terracotta head 281; transmission 258, 259–260, 261, 286; Uluzzian 280

cuttlefish 214–215

cyanobacteria 107, 113, 235, 287, 288, 352n6

cytosine 13, 28, 29

Darwinian selection 385n149, 441n91

Deimos 349n72

developmental biology 238–242; appendages 179, 239; atonal gene 193; cervical vertebrae 239–240; distal-less gene 179, 241–242; dorso-ventrality 239; eyes 239; heart 239; Hox gene 239; Math I gene 193; otd gene 242; otx gene 242; Pax-6 gene 193, 240–241; star-nosed mole 179

Dictyostelium 236

dicyemids 303

Dinopis 156

dinosaurs 1, 96, 115, 137, 228, 269

dipterans 148, 191, 192

distal-less gene 179, 241–242

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) 4, 13, 18, 23–24, 25, 27–31, 50, 52, 53, 54, 173, 233, 234, 237, 296, 298, 300; alternatives 30–31, 338n41; ancient DNA 276; Borromean rings 28; C-value paradox 417n53; ‘junk’ DNA 4, 237, 324; Zipf’s law 334n5

dogs 34, 173, 265

dolphins (see also common dolphin, whales) 234, 248–258, 260, 331, 257; bottlenose dolphin 247, 249

Dorylus 201

Drake equation 231

Drosophila 4, 124–125, 169, 238

duck-billed platypus 219, 388n195, 392n235, 395n268

earthworm 120, 154

echidnas 388n195, 392n235

echinoderms 155, 159–160

Eciton 204, 202

eclipses 93

Eimer’s organ 175, 178

electrogeneration 182–190; communication 185; defence 185; electric organ discharge (EOD) 185; gymnotids 184–190; jamming avoidance response (JAR) 186; mormyrids 184–190

electroreception 184–190, 265; gymnotids 184–190, n.259/7; interference 186; monotremes 183, 395n268; mormyrids 184–90, 394n259; sharks 187

electrotherapy 183, 393n244

elephant seals 258

elephants 246, 250, 259

Eligmodontia 146

Elvis taxa 126

encephalization quotient (EQ) 245, 247

endosymbiosis 352n6

enzymes 9, 26, 44, 108, 113, 126, 288, 295, 334n12

Epoicotherium 141

EQ see encephalization quotient

Erythropsidinium 165

Escherichia coli 121, 124, 126

Escovopsis 200

Eubacteria 170

eugenics 173, 325–326

eukaryote 4, 94

euphausiids 158

Euphorbia 134, 134

Europa 86

eurypterids 284

eusociality 141–144, 177, 180, 185, 203, 224, 284–285, 403n43

evolution; adaptation 96, 121, 122, 124, 125, 213, 224, 236, 249, 253, 256, 267, 272, 300, 301–302, 313, 388n192, 392n235; ‘arms race’ 201; attractors 127, 233, 309, 443n134; ‘bricolage’ 312; cladistics 299, 353n21, 367n169; co-option 8, 166, 193, 238, 241, 290, 312, 397n302; combinatorial space 117–119, 127, 118; competition 96, 125, 203; constraints 239–240, 300, 302, 353n21, 423n155, 426n213, 440n86; Cope’s rule 304–306; ‘dead ends’ 360n90; homoplasies 297, 299; hyperspace 10–11, 12, 16, 19–21, 107, 119, 126, 127–128, 232, 266, 287, 296, 308–310, 327, 334n17; immense numbers 16, 18, 334n11; inherency 5, 6, 166, 196, 234–235, 236, 237, 238, 242–243, 261; ‘intelligent design’ 111; macroevolution 12, 358n64; navigation 11, 13, 19–21, 66, 127–128, 232, 233, 253–254, 287, 289–290, 296, 297, 301, 308, 309–310, 327, 334n17, 443n133, 443n135; optimization 17, 31, 121, 253, 436n16; phylogenies 286, 297, 299–300; progress 301, 307, 397n70; radiations 96, 243, 358n74, 371n2; regression 6, 302–303, 382n113; saturation 301, 306–307; selection 1, 46, 204, 253, 266, 272, 290, 296, 307, 312, 385n149, 427n221; self-organization 46, 48, 57, 66, 201, 204, 341n9; stabilizing selection 115, 240; trajectories 24, 121, 144, 145, 156, 222, 229, 234, 246, 253, 294, 301, 302, 304, 308, 361n103, 403n43; trends 120–121, 213, 222, 268, 300, 301, 304–306, 359n87

extraterrestrial (see also meteorites, Solar System); 55 Cancri 78, 83, 79, 80; aliens 158, 160, 162, 167, 172, 193, 229, 265, 288, 331–332; amino acids 8, 16, 33, 35, 36–37, 39–41, 43, 60, 339n11; β-Pictoris 77, 98; biochemistry 76–77; biospheres 16, 90, 110–111, 285; carbaquist 24–25; civilizations 22, 96, 100, 104, 226; communication 107, 252; Copernican principle of mediocrity 103, 105; Drake equation 231; extra-solar comets 97–98; extra-solar hot ‘Jupiters’ 78–79, 82, 86, 101–103, 104; extra-solar moons 86, 92; extra-solar planets 77–87, 100–103; Fermi paradox xiii, 104; ‘floaters’ 354n29; galactic niches 308; galactic zone of habitability 104–105; gamma-ray bursts 103; gravity 79, 92; habitable zones 43, 104–105; high-resolution stellar spectroscopy 77–78; intelligence 90, 103, 104, 156, 229, 420n112; interstellar clouds 25, 27, 33; interstellar planets 86, 178; life 16, 22, 25, 26, 29, 31, 34, 66, 79, 86, 95, 106, 178, 229–230, 354n29; microbial cul-de-sac 237; music 421n132; nervous systems 230; neutron stars 103; orbital eccentricity 82, 86; organic chemistry 23, 32, 33–43; Orion 388n199; OZMA project 231; Panspermia 26, 337n16; photosynthesis 353n14; planetary engulfment 85; planetary migration 85–86; planetary obliquity 90, 90; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) 33, 43; proteins 288, 289; red giant 337n16; SETI 231–232, 234, 351n4; silicon-based life 24–25; snowline 42, 86, 96–97; songs 226, 252; stars (HD 12661, 37124, 38529, 49674, 76700, 80606, 162020, 168443, 202206) 78, 82, 80; stellar luminosity 99; stellar metallicity 101–103, 104; sugars 36; supernovae 103; supply of organics 45, 62; Threga IX 23, 136, 138, 172, 228, 259, 266, 289, 336n6; Upsilon Andromedae 78, 80, 82; vocalizations 226; volatiles 42–43, 45, 87, 96–97, 98–99

eyes 151–170; accessory retina 154; acute zone 378n62; binocular 162; brittle-stars 159–160; calcitic 159; camera 148, 151–158, 162, 172, 193, 214, 152; cephalopods 151–154; chromophore 167, 172; cnidarians 154; colour vision 157, 167–170, 172; compound 147–148, 151, 158–163, 193, 204, 149, 159; copepod 374n21; crystallins 163, 166–167, 383n119; cubozoans 154; dichromacy 168; dinoflagellates 165–166; echinoderms 159–160; extra-ocular muscles 153–154; eye spots 154, 165, 171; ‘five-site rule’ 169; fovea 177; heteropods 154; lens 153, 154; mirrors 164, 167, 355n33; mormyrids 187, 188 188; mysids 160, 162, 161; oil droplets 170; Pax-6 gene 193, 240–241; phospholipase C n.219/7; polarization vision 170; protistans 165; red–green vision 168, 385n138; refractive index 153; retina 151, 153, 154, 157, 170, 172, 187, 223; retinal 167, 171–172; ‘reverse eye’ 167; rhodopsin 153, 167, 377n41, 380n75; schizochroal 159, 160; snails 154; spectral sensitivity 157, 168–170; spherical aberration 153, 156, 160; spiders 156–157; stomatopods 170; tapetum 164; telephoto system 157; transduction 180–181; trichromacy 167–168; trilobite 159–160; ultraviolet vision 168, 169, 170, 386n152; vertebrates 151–154; visual streak 378n62; visual tracking 163; wasps 373n6

fatty acids 27

Fermi paradox xiii, 104

fiddler crabs 189, 214, 286, 378n62

finches 125

fish 113, 133, 216, 234, 239, 133; alopiids 224; Arctic cod 290; cichlids 133, 215–216, 224, 364n136, 436n11; conger eels 112; deep-sea 154, 164, 169; electric eel 184; gymnotids 184–190, 195–6; lamnids 224; lamprey 150; minnows 189; mormyrids 184–190, 216, 245, 184; notothenioids 290; pike 133, 133; rays 119, 222, 223; sandlance 164; scombrids 223; sea-bream 133; sharks 119, 222, 223, 224, 363n126; spade-nose shark 221; swim-bladder 112–113; teleosts 194, 223; torpedo ray 183; tuna 223–224

flatworms 240, 303

flies 148–149, 169

flowers 117, 135–138, 278

formaldehyde 32, 45, 50, 64

Fortean bladders 112–115, 116, 117, 164, 216

Fortean Times 356n49

frogs 120, 139, 270, 391n.196

fruit-flies 237–238, 299

fungi 171; ascomycetes 207; basidomycetes 208; chytridiomycetes 171, 356n44; fungicides 200; mushrooms 208–209; ophiostomatoid 207; zoospores 171

fungus-gnat 116

galatheid crabs 158

gall thrips 143

geckos 383n119

genetic animism 323; code 13, 15–19, 52, 59, 107, 233, 336n40, 17; duplication 6, 168, 239, 324, 437nn32, 34; fundamentalism 237, 238, 322–325; lateral transfer 237, 287, 443nn2, 3; manipulation 311–312, 315; networks 239; transfer 237, 287; triplet code (codons) 13, 16, 336n40

genome 122, 237–238

giraffe 239

global warming 292–293, 295

glucose 121–122, 290

glycine 13, 16, 33, 60, 115

Gnetales 135–138

golden lion tamarin 262

gorilla 247

graphite 59, 72, 108, 341n30

grasses 293–294

grasshoppers 286

great apes 2, 180, 181, 182, 187, 234, 246, 247, 262

grebes 138

guanine 13, 28, 29, 112–113, 114, 164

gymnosperms 136

gymnotids 184–190, 195–6

haemocyanin 235, 288, 289, 408n117, 436n22

haemoglobin 5, 8, 235, 287–288, 331

halteres 148–150, 159, 149

Harbour seal 251

hearing (see also brain, sound) 2, 148, 186, 189, 190–193, 398n305; bulla 371n207; chordotonal organ 191, 193; cochlea 190; ear 190–193; Johnston’s organ 148, 191, 192, 193; mormyrids 189–190; otic capsule 190; owls 2, 395nn265, 266; pinna 191; semicircular canals 150, 191, 427n227; tympanic membrane 190, 191–192, 193

hedgehogs 257

hemipterans 149

Heterocephalus 142, 142

heteropod 154, 157, 193

heteropterans 139

Hibbertopterus 284

hippopotamus 291

hoatzin 298

hominids (see also cultures, sounds) 203, 222, 248, 249, 262, 263, 269, 270–281, 247; Arcy-sur-Cure 279, 280; Aurignacian 275, 278, 279, 280; australopithecines 268, 270, 271, 273; bipedality 269; Blombos cave 275; Boxgrove Man 291, 292; brain sizes 273, 276; burial 276, 278, 277; cannibalism 276; care 274, 276; Châtelperronian 278–281, 434n314, 279; Clovis 281; encephalization 273–274; evolution 269, 270–271; Grotte du Renne 280; ‘hominization’ 274; hunting patterns 276; Kebara 277; language 278; Les Chauvet 275; locomotion 267; Mousterian 275, 278, 281; murder 276; Neanderthals 276–281; Oldowan 262, 263, 273; robust australopithecines 272; Shanidar Caves 276; Solutrean 281; Szeletian 280; tools 273–274; Uluzzian 280; Upper Palaeolithic Revolution 274–275

Homo 5, 203, 269, 270, 271, 273

Homo erectus 247, 249, 274, 291

Homo neanderthalensis 271, 276

Homo sapiens 271, 273, 276, 279, 280, 281, 284

horses 293

houseflies 285

hoverflies 163

Hox gene 239

humans (see also Homo) 1, 15, 16, 26, 95, 150, 160, 162, 194, 201, 206, 207, 209, 224, 225–226, 237, 239, 246, 250, 251–252, 253, 254, 259, 270, 294–295, 308, 314, 325; accidents 387n175; blind 340n222; fingerprints 174; hunting 409n134, 424n168; language 422n136; Maoris 409n134; Polynesians 19–21, 218, 363n123

humming birds 138, 368n171

Hydra 8

hydrocarbons 27, 37, 38, 43, 46, 61, 62–63

hydrogen cyanide 32, 45, 61, 62, 64

hydrogen sulphide 55

hydrogenase 113, 114, 356nn45, 46

hydrogenosomes 113–114, 356n44

hydrolysis 53, 54, 439n59

hydrothermal systems 54–57, 62, 63, 66, 74, 113, 114

hyenas 274

hymenopterans 143

hyperthermophiles 56–57, 74, 350n107

hypervitaminosis 274

Ibla 119

ice 25, 42, 290–291, 327, 352n7

ice ages 96, 99, 222, 248, 275, 291, 292, 294

impacts 43, 56, 62, 70–74, 87–89, 90, 94–95, 71

Indian Red ant 212

insectivores 265

insects 114, 115, 116, 128, 130, 179–180, 191–193, 194, 223, 284

intelligence (see also mental states and functions) 66, 89, 90, 141, 156, 229, 230, 246; abstractions 253; chimps 246; collective 201, 203–204; comprehension 252; crows 246, 262; dolphins 246–253, 256–258; gestures 252; great apes 246; human xi; monkeys 215; octopus 215; parrots 246; primates 246, 262; problem-solving 203 ion channels 193; bacterial 230; calcium 230–231; evolution 230–231; heliozoan 230; jellyfish 230; potassium 230; sodium 138–139, 230–231

jerboas 146

Johnston’s organ 148, 191, 192, 193

‘junk’ DNA 4, 237, 324

Jupiter 42, 78, 79, 83, 88, 93–97, 354n29

Kaali event 35

kakapo 218

kangaroo rats 145–146

kangaroos 15, 130

kea 14

Kenyanthropus 271

kiwi 218–220, 222, 227, 219

Kuiper Belt 97–98

lacewings 285

Lake Tagish 35

leaf-cutting ants 197–200, 209

learning 187, 215, 226, 246, 259, 402n37, 407n108, 421n125, 424n173

Les Chauvet culture 275

life, origin see origin of life

lipids 24, 27, 38, 170

Littorina 154, 157, 158

lizards 2, 125, 144–145, 164, 220, 227, 362n116

lobster 119, 130

locomotion (see also wheels); arboreal 267; bipedal 268–270; knuckle-walking 269; quadrupedal gait 267

locusts 357n51

loons 138

luminescence 116, 164, 167, 383n117, 385n150

Mabuya 221

macroevolution 12, 358n64

macrotermitinids 208, 209

magnetic fields 41, 86, 170

maize 294, 325

malignant hyperthermia 224

mammals 96, 223, 240, 305–306; bathyergids 143, 143; bonobo 253; chrysochlorids 141; flying pigs xii, 114, 356n49; necrolostid 139; palaeanodont 141; thylacosmilid 130, 227, 131

manatee 216–217

Mantispa 128, 129

Maoris 409n134

Mare Imbrium 70

Mare Tranquillitatis 70

maria 69, 70

marmoset 168

Mars 27, 34, 42, 43, 58, 73, 75–76, 83, 90, 92, 96, 99

marsupial mole 139

marsupials 130, 132, 139, 145–146, 267, 270, 372n3, 412n168, 426n216

mass extinctions 94–95; ecosystem recovery 94–95; Elvis taxa 126; end-Cretaceous (K/T) 94–95, 96, 206, 222, 339n25; end-Permian 94–95, 126; Lazarus taxa 126; postponed, not cancelled 96, 222

Math I gene 193

meliponinid bees 203

memory 187, 215, 226, 250, 253, 254, 256, 402n37, 407n108

mental functions (see also cultures, intelligence); abstractions 258, 420n116; animal navigation 178, 215, 252, 3; baboon 242–243; beauty, sense of 286; bees 402n37; categorical perception 194; cognitive abilities 252–253; collective decisions 402n36; cultural transmission 258, 286; curiosity 268; electrical world 187; equivalences 189, 391n223; feeding behaviours 259; flexibility 215; hunting 422n138; hydrodynamic image 216; innovations 246; internal representations 254; learning 187, 215, 226, 246, 259, 402n37, 407n108, 424n173; maps 178, 187, 216, 266, 388n201, 394n258; memes 324; memory 187, 215, 226, 250, 253, 254, 256, 402n37, 407n108; memory consolidation 202; mind of a bat 265–266; neophobias 246; personality 215; plasticity 187, 189, 202, 252, 407n106, 425n187; qualia 266, 396n281; self-recognition 258; sentience 329; sleep 202, 254, 256; social knowledge 259; synaesthesia 396n281; temperament 215; ultimate limitations 266; uncertainty response 254; unihemispheric sleep 254; vocal production 226

Mercury 82, 83, 92

Mesoplodon densirostris 15

meteorites (see also extraterrestrial) 34–38, 75, 95; Allan Hills (ALH 84001) 33–34, 75; carbon 345n11; carbonaceous 34–38, 42–43, 50, 60; contamination 35, 38, 339n11, 339n21, 340n32; fatalities 34–35; Kaali event 35; Lake Tagish 35; Murchison 35, 36; Nakhla 34, 75

methane 47, 62, 292, 295, 352n7, 438n47

methanogens 352n10

microchiropteran bat 256

midges 116

Miller-Urey experiments 58, 60–63

millipedes 372n4

mites 211–212, 368n171

mitochondria 4, 300, 352n6, 353n19, 356n44

moa 218

mole 139, 178, 239, 140

mole rat 141–143, 178, 142, 143; Zambian

common mole rat 141

molluscs 151, 288, 305; eyes 151–154, 158–159, 169, 159

monkey, ateline 249, 267; callitrichid 262; capuchin 262, 263; colobine 298; howler 168; langur 298; New World 168, 234, 262, 268, 426n219; Old World 167–168, 262, 268, 298; Spider monkey 249, 267

Mononykus 141, 144, monotreme 183, 219

Moon 69–72, 87–92, 275

mormyrids 184–190, 216, 245, 184

mosquitoes 147–148, 191, 352n20

moths 138, 168, 181, 191, 394n256

mouse 289

Mousterian culture 275, 278, 281

Murchison meteorite 35, 36

murinine bat 267

mynahs 225

Myrmarachne 212

myrmicine ants 200

mysids 160, 162, 161

Mystacina 218

Myxobacteria 236, 333n1(ch.1)

myxozoans 303, n.113/7

naked mole rat 142–143, 177–178, 285, 142

Nakhla 34, 75

naphthalene 33, 340n38

Neanderthals 276–281

nematode 4, 238, 240

Nematodinium 165

neocortex 195, 254, 256, 265, 267

Neptune 88, 97

nerve net 155, 160

nervous systems (see also brain, ion channels, intelligence); acetylcholine 235–236; action potential 230; glomeruli 179–180, 331; nerve net 155, 160; neuropeptides 236; neurotrophins 214; synapse 235

neuropterans 128

New Caledonian crows 261, 263

nucleotides (and related compounds; see also DNA, RNA) 4, 23, 24, 27, 53, 56, 59, 63; adenine 4, 13, 28, 30, 63, 64; cytosine 13, 28, 29; guanine 13, 28, 29, 112–113, 114, 164; isocytidine (iso-C) 29; isoguanosine (iso-G) 29; nucleotide-binding 295; oligomerization 53–54; oligonucleotides 27–28, 65; purines 37, 59, 77; pyrimidines 37, 59, 77; synthesis 341n27; thermal stability 342n37; thymine 13, 28, 29; uracil 13, 29

octopus 113, 151, 169, 170, 215

Ocythoe 113

Oecophylla 116, 212

ogre-faced spiders 115, 156–157

oilbirds 181–182

Oldowan culture 262, 263, 273

olfaction 173–181, 265; glomeruli 179–180, 331, 389n208; kiwi 219–220; nautilus 375n23; nervous system 193; Pax-6 gene 193; phospholipase C 390n219; proteins 180–181; transduction 180–181

Oort Clouds 94, 97–98, 104

orang-utan 247

Oreopithecus 269–270

origin of life (see also RNA, sugars) 44–68; catalysts 52, 53, 57, 59, 63; clays 53, 54; cyanoactylene 61; failures 49–52; Fischer-Tropsch reaction 62; formose reaction 50–51, 51; hydrothermal systems 54–57, 62, 63, 66; hypercycles 46; Miller-Urey experiments 58, 60–63; monolayers 59; oligomerization 30, 53–54, 58, 59, 65; ribose problem 50–52, 51; time required 73–74

Ormia 192

ormiinids 192

Orrorin 271

orthodenticle (otd) 241, 242

orthopterans 192

orypodid crabs 214

ostracods 158

otd gene see orthodenticle

otx gene 242

owls 2, 186, 395nn265, 266

oyster 289

pancreas 193, 240, 290

pangolin 112

Paranthropus 271, 272, 273

parrots 14–15, 218, 225, 246, 253

pathogens 11, 200, 207, 210, 295–296

Pax-6gene 193, 240–241

penaeids 217

Peniocereus 134, 134

Phobos 349n72

phorid flies 199, 208

photosynthesis (see also chlorophyll, plants) 73, 107–111, 135, 171, 293–294; C3, 109, 293–294; C4, 109, 293–294; C4 pathways 294; light-harvesting proteins 295; oxaloacetate 293; phosphoglycerate 293; red shift 109

pigs 224, 325

pines 138

Pitohui 138

pituitary 193, 236, 240

plankton 95, 114

Planodiscus 211–212

plants (see also chlorophyll, photosynthesis) 107, 134–138, 235, 366n151, 404n67; bundle-sheath cells 293; cryptochromes 173; double fertilization 136–137; endosperm 137; Kranz anatomy 293; leguminous 235; mesophyll 293; resins 208; stomata 294

Plectrocnemia 116

Pollimyrus 190

polychaetes; alciopid 154, 157, 193; sabellid 158

Polynesians 19–21, 218, 363n123

porpoise 248, 251

Portuguese man-of-war 113

praying mantis 128, 129

primate 267

prosimian 168

proteins 4, 9, 10, 11, 24, 111, 115, 126, 165, 166, 168, 171, 179, 193, 194, 234, 287–291, 295, 303; α-helices 167, 170, 230, 357n55; α/β barrels 287; antifreezes 290–291; arrestins 180; β-endorphin 236; β-pleated sheet 357n55; bacteriorhodopsin 170–172; cellulases 443n2; chlamyrhodopsin 171; collagen 8, 13; cryptochromes 11, 172–173; crystallins 163, 166–167, 172, 173, 240, 312; Darwinian selection 385n149, 441n91; dopamine 236; elastic 215, 295, 408n113; F1-ATPase 353n19; fibroins 115; haemocyanin 235, 288, 289, 408n117, 436n22; haemoglobin 5, 8, 235, 287–288, 331; heat-shock 166, 312; hyperspace 10–11, 16, 66, 287, 295, 296, 308, 20; indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) 288–289; isoforms 303, 324; lysozyme 297–298; membrane-spanning 167, 170, 230, 390n217; myoglobin 235, 288–289, 414n34; opsins 31; PEP carboxylase 293–294; photolyase 173; proteorhodopsin 171; rhodopsin 11, 163, 165, 167, 170–172, 173, 180, 241; RuBisCo 108–109, 293; sensitivity to change 172, 287, 303, 313, 442n109; trypsin 290, 334n12

protistans 236; ciliate 150, 235, 236, 287, 288, 356n44, 374n17; diatom 294; dinoflagellate 165; foraminiferans 358n75; heliozoan 230, 231; slime mould 236

proton pump 170, 172

pyrite 54–55, 65, 108

quinones 340n38, 351n5; red shift 109

reproduction; aggressions in 402n40; conjugation 236; dogfish egg case 357n59; gestation 221; hormones 416n44; maternal care 412n168; matrotrophy 221–223; menopause 259; ovoviviparity 219–223; ovum 220, 221; penis 119; placenta 220–221; promiscuous mating 249; sex determination 219–220, 295; sexual dimorphism 226, 395n263; sexual display 432n294; sexual signalling 394nn256,261; solitary males 250; temperature 222

rhachiberothidids 128

rhodopsin 11, 163, 165, 167, 170–172, 173, 180, 241, 402n41, 380n75

ribose 30, 50–52, 58, 63, 64

ribozymes 44, 297

RNA (ribonucleic acid) 4, 13, 25, 27, 29, 30, 31, 44, 50, 52, 65, 297, 336n35; folding 343n48; hammerhead ribozyme 297; ribozymes 44, 297; sequence space 334n17; world 29, 44, 56, 296–297, 343n50

Roche limit 89

rodents 125, 145–146, 270, 335n30

RuBisCo 108–109, 293

sabre-toothed cat 130, 132, 227, 131, 363n122

Sahelanthropus 269, 271

sarcophagids 192

Saturn 83, 88, 95

scallop 164, 167

Scapanus 178

sea anemones 112, 154

sea urchin 155, 337n30

seal 169

Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence see SETI

seaweeds 107, 111

sensory systems (see also electrogeneration, electroreception, eyes, hearing, olfaction, sounds); electrical ‘colour’ 188; equivalents 174, 177, 180–181, 182, 186, 188–189, 193, 265–266; exchange 178; plasticity 189; transduction 193, 194; transplants 189

SETI 231–232, 234, 351n4

sharks 119, 222, 223, 224, 363n126

Shoemaker-Levy, comet 93

shrimps 112, 119, 160, 162

silk 13, 14, 115–117, 156, 213, 289; ant 116–117; insect 116; spider 115–116

silk moth 116

siphonophores 113

skeletons (see also teeth) 117–120, 276; baculum 280, 359n78; bone 15, 119, 189; cartilage 119, 295; foot 269; hand 270; hip 269; hydrostatic 119–120; hyoid 278; hypoglossal canal 278; pre-pollex (radial sesamoid), 333n9; skull 248, 274; vertebrae 239–240

sloth 240

snail 120, 126, 154, 157, 288–289, 406n97

snakes 144, 178, 220–221

social systems 2, 11, 116, 142–144, 186, 187, 201, 202–203, 205, 207, 210–211, 236, 249–250, 259–260; ‘babysitting’ 250; eusocial 141–144, 177, 180, 185, 202–203, 284–285, 323; fission-fusion 249–250, 285; ‘hyperspaces’ 308–309; killer whales 260; lekking 214; male apprenticeship 286; matrilineal 250, 259; monkeys 268; ‘super-alliances’ 250

social vole 143

Solutrean culture 281

sounds (see also communication) 189–190; babbling 251–252; drumming 225; echolocation 181–182, 256, 265, 390n220, 391n233, 426n213; flutes 275; improvisation 260; music 225, 274–275; song 192, 225–226, 252, 260, 286, 421n131, 436n8–9; stridulations 209; ultrasound 181

spiders 14, 112, 115–116, 120, 156–157, 160, 212–213, 381n99

spinosaurs 227–228

sponges 8, 230, 260

spurge 134–135, 134

squid 151, 157, 167, 169, 170

staphylinid beetles 210–211, 213, 211

star-nosed mole 174–179, 175, 176

starfish 155

Stephens Island wren 218

stomatopods 112, 170

storks 99

strepsipterans 149–150, 159, 149

stromatolites 94

Strombus 154, 157

sugars and related compounds 8, 23, 27, 30, 36, 46, 50, 52; α-threofuranosyl 31, 52; aldopentoses 50; glucose 121–122, 290; hexose 31; maltose 121–122; ribose

30, 50–52, 58, 63, 64; threose 31, 52

Sulculus 289

swallows 115, 331

symbiosis (see also cells, endosymbiosis) 12, 107, 114, 207–208, 335n18

symbiotic bacteria 352n6

Synalpheus 144

Szeletian culture 280

tachinids 192

teeth (see also skeletons) 133, 227, 271–272, 273; canines 130, 227, 279; enamel 413n184; fish 363n126; hypocone 413n183; incisors 177, 227, 335n30; megadonty 272; molars 227, 272; sea urchin 444n30; tribosphenic 227; weak dentition 179, 187

teiids 227

teleology 2, 5, 60, 111, 128, 297, 313–316

tenrec 246

termites 143, 208–210, 284

Termitomyces 208–209

Thermopalia 113

thermoregulation 201, 269

TNA (threo-nucleic acid) 52–53

tools (see also constructions, cultures) 246, 261–264, 292, 427n226; Aurignacian 275, 278; birds 261; bonobo 262; bubble nets 261; callitrichids 262; capuchins 262–263; chimpanzee 261, 262; crows 262; dolphin 260; fire 274, 275, 276; gloves 260; golden lion tamarins 262; hooks 261; laterality 261, 263; lateralization 261; lithic 262, 273; Mousterian 275, 278; New Caledonian crow 261–263; Oldowan Industrial Complex 263, 273; spears 274, 275, 276; stasis 274, 275; tool-kits 274, 278; wasps 263–264

Townsend’s mole 178

trichopterans 116

trilobites 126, 155, 159, 362n107

tulips 2, 316

Tycho 70

ultraviolet radiation 40, 61, 100, 173, 334n16, 338n7, 351n6; reflectance 115; vision 168, 169, 170

Uluzzian culture 280

ungulate 276

Upper Palaeolithic Revolution 274–275

uracil 13, 29

Uranus 348n68

vangids 147

Venus 43, 72, 83, 89, 90, 92, 97, 99, 331

vestimentiferans 114

vitalism 5, 48

vitamin A 167, 171, 274; B2, 172

viviparity 220–223

Volvox 165, 171

walrus 419n90

warmbloodedness (see also thermoregulation) 96, 223–225

wasps 143, 205, 208, 263, 264, 284, 373n6, 402n40

weaver ants 116–117, 212

Weddell seal 258

wetas 218

whales (see also communication, dolphins, social systems, sounds); ancestors 248; beluga whale 251; Blainville’s beaked whale 15; bottlenose whale 420n106; humpback whales 252, 260, 261; killer whales 247, 258, 259–260; monodontids 419n90; odontocetes 246; sperm whales 250; toothed whales 169, 246, 249, 258, 260

wheels 111–112; microtubules 353n15; molecular motors 111; mosquitoes 353n20; stomatopods 112

winkle 154, 158

woodpecker 147, 371n1

woolly mammoth 291

Xenocranium 141

Zipf’s law 334n5, 407n107, 421n127, 422n140

ziphodonts 227




Convergences index




Page numbers in italics indicate Figures.

accessory retina 154

acute visual zone 378n62

African golden mole 141

Afrotheria 132

afterbirth 221

aggression 141, 220

agriculture 2, 198–200, 205–207, 208–209, 275, 401n25

alciopids 154

aldolase 126

alkaloids 138–139

allosaurids 130

α/β barrels 287

ambrosia beetles 207–208

aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases 295

amphibians 120, 220

annelids 154, 158–159

anolids 125

anteaters 132, 353n21

antifreeze proteins 290–291, 438nn42,43

antigen receptors 295

ants 135, 143 see also army ants

aorta 215, 408n114

apatemyids 372n3

appendages 241

aquatic birds 138

arboreal gait 267

argyrolagids 145–146

armadillos 354n26

army ants 200–201, 204, 406n98

arthropodization 284

arthropods 159, 284

artiodactyls 132

atelines 249, 267, 427n220

attachment pads 128, 130, 362n116

auditory mechanisms 191

aye-aye 372n3

babbling 251–252, 421n128

bacteria 230

bacterial symbionts 114

bacteriorhodopsin 171–172

balance 150–151, 153

barnacles 358n77

Batesian mimicry 213

bathyerids 143, 143

bats 181, 265–267, 390n221

bat carnivory 266

bees 143, 402n40

bee eusociality 203

beetles 143, 149, 211, 360n90, 362n116, 372n4

behaviours 139, 141, 213, 214, 236, 285–286

binocular vision 162–163, 376n36

bipedalism 144, 145, 269–270

bird songs 226

bird vocalizations 226, 251–252

birds 125, 138–139, 162, 181–182, 190, 225–226, 254, 368n170, 412n180

bivalve molluscs 158, 159

bladders 112–113, 355nn35,36,37

blood-brain barrier 214

blood rete 224

blue vision 169

blue-sensitive vision, loss 169

Bombardier beetle 372n4

bone 119

bottlenose dolphins 249

brain structure 132, 153, 158, 266–268, 364n128, 371n203

brains 196, 267, 406n102, 412n180, 426n212

brain-size increase 248, 273–274, 427n221

brittle-stars 155, 159–160

bryophytes 366n151

bryozoans 126, 362n108

‘bucket brigades’ 400n6

burrowing 120, 132, 139–145, 189–190, 266

burrowing cycle 359n79

butterflies 169, 368n174

C4 photosynthesis 109, 293–294

cactus 134–135, 134

458 convergences index

caddisfly 406n97

camera eyes 148, 151–158, 216, 232

canines 130, 132, 131

cartilage 216

cephalopods 150, 154, 158, 214, 215–216

chameleons 164

Châtelperronian 280–281

chemical 138–139, 360n90, 368n174

chemosensory 139

chimps 249

chitin-binding proteins 295

chrysochlorids 141

cichlids 133, 364n136, 436n11

circulatory systems 215–216, 224

cnidocyst 382n113

coccoideans 149–150

cochlea 190

cognitive processes 254, 256, 258

collembolans 360n90

colobine monkeys 294

commelinoids 365n142

communication 141, 252–253, 402n41

communities 125, 361n102

compound eyes 148, 155, 158–163, 284, 149, 159

concerted 299–300

constructions 406n98

counter-current systems 355n34

courtship behaviour 285

crab spider 212–213

crabs 130, 150

crested auklets 139

crickets 285

crustaceans 126, 130, 143

cryptochromes 173

crystallins 167, 383n119

cubozoans 154–155

cultural transmission 258, 412n175, 423nn163,164

culture 280–281, 423n164, 424n165, 435n318, 436n11

cyanogenic glycosides 139

cytokinases 295

defence 372n4

descended larynx 432n294

development 241–242

dialects 423n163

dichromacy 168

dinoflagellates 165

dipterans 148–149

disgust 404n55

DM domain factors 295

dolphins 181, 248–258

double-fertilization 137

duck-billed platypus 388n195, 392n235

E. coli 124

ears 190–191

echidna 388n195, 392n235

echolocation 181–182, 256, 390n220, 391n233, 426n213

ecomorphological 125, 133, 302, 361n104, 390n221

eel 133

elastic proteins 295, 408n113

elastic release 128

electric organs 11, 183–190

electrical signals 186

electrocytes 184–185

electrogeneration 182–190

electroreception 184–190, 392n235, 394n259

elephants 250

Elvis taxa 126

encephalization 273, 274

endosymbiosis 352n6, 382n109

endothermy 223–225

enzyme 126, 343n50, 439n59

Ernanodon 353n21

euphasiids 158

Eurotamandua 353n21

eusociality 141–144, 177, 180, 185, 203, 224, 284–285, 403n43

expressions of surprise 128, 134, 297, 304, 359n78, 362n111, 368n172, 376n32, 382n108, 382n113, 393n245, 394n259, 395n267, 398n305, 398n309, 401n27, 411n145, 419n90

extra-embryonic membranes 410n144

extra-ocular muscles 153–154, 375n30

eye spots 165, 381n102

eyes 151–170, 175, 177, 193

farming 206

fibre-optics 158, 379n66

fiddler crabs 214, 286, 378n62

finches 125

fish 112–113, 133, 154, 220, 223, 133, 363n126

fission-fusion society 249, 268, 420n106

five-site rule 169

flies 148–149, 163, 285

flightlessness 218, 409n133

convergences index 459

flowers 135–138

fore-limb/hind-limb separation 267

fore-limb manipulation 270

fovea 177

frogs 139, 391n.196, 381n92

fruit-flies 299

gall-thrips 143

gas-filled bladders 112–113

geckos 383n119

grebes 138

gymnotids 184–190

gyroscopes 148–150

haemocyanin 235, 288, 436n22

haemoglobin 235, 287–288

halteres 148–150, 149

hearing 148, 189, 190–193, 371n207, 398n305

heat-sensitive organ 389n203

helicases 343n50

hemipterans 149

heteropods 154

heteropterans 139

hexapod gait 284

high-altitude birds 138

HIV proteases 295

hoatzin 298

hominid cultures 280–281

hominids 269, 271–274

hooves 227

houseflies 285

humming birds 138, 368n171

hyaluronan synthase 373n5

hydrogenosomes 356n44

hydrostatic skeleton 120

hymenopterans 143

hypocone 413n183

Indian Red ant 212–213

ink clouds 406n101

insect-bacterial association 356n48

insectivores 132

insectivorous birds 138

insects 128, 130, 138, 284, 435n3

intelligences 156, 256–257

island faunas 428n240

jamming avoidance response (JAR) 186

jellyfish 150

jerboas 146

kiwi 219–220, 219

lacewings 285

lactate dehydrogenases 295

lamprins 295

langur 298

lateral-line systems 216–217

latex 404n67

Laurasiatheria 132

leaf-eating 266, 440n85

leaves 135, 442n124

lekking 214

lens 153, 156

light-harvesting proteins 295

lilies 299

limb loss 145

limbs 416n38

lizards 125, 144–145, 220, 227, 362n116

locomotion 267

loons 138

luminescence 383n117

lysozyme 297–298

malignant hyperthermia 224

‘mammal-ness’ 222–223, 228, 234, 308

mammals 139–144, 158, 162, 190, 214, 219, 221–222, 304

manipulative skills 428n238

mantids 128, 163

mantispids 128, 129

marsupial mole 139

marsupials 130, 132, 139, 145–146, 267, 372n3, 412n168, 426n216

marsupium 363n124

maternal care 412n168

matrilineal social systems 250

matrotrophy 221–222

Mediterranean-style floras 135, 365n144

megadonty 272

memory 254, 407n108

menopause 259

mice 218

migratory birds 138

millipedes 372n4

mimicry 211–214, 406n94

mites 211–212, 368n171

molars 227

mole 139, 140

mole rat 141–143, 142, 143

molecular 10, 241, 287–298, 373n5, 436n77

molluscs 151–154

mormyrids 184–190

460 convergences index

morphological 12–13

moths 138, 394n256

Müllerian mimicry 213

multicellularity 237

music 225–226

myoglobin 235, 288

NADH dehydrogenase I 295

naked mole rats 142–143, 177–178, 142

necrolestids 139

nectar-feeding bats 266–267, 391n233

nectar-feeding birds 138

neural algorithms 186, 285, 395n265

neural networks 155

neural processing 163, 189, 375n28, 381n92, 388n191, 395n266, 396n284, 426n208

nicotine oxidases 295

nucleotide binding proteins 295

octopus 113, 215

oil droplets, in eye 170

olfaction 148, 179–180, 369n180

orypodid crabs 214

ormiinids 192

ostracods 158

ovoviviparity 220

ovum, minute 221

owls 186

palaeanodonts 141

pangolins 353n21

parallel, versus 435n1

parental care 225

pathogen–host relationship 295–296

pectinate claws 130

penis 119

peptidases 295

personalities 215

phorid flies 208

phylogenies 127

physiology 139, 141, 224

pike 133, 133

placenta 220–221, 365n145, 411n151

placentals 130, 132

plants 134–138, 366n151, 404n67

plant eating 139

polarization vision 170

polysaccharide lyases 295

porpoise 251

praying mantis 128, 129

precision grip 270

pre-pollex (Panda’s thumb) xii, 334n9

proteases 295

proteinase inhibitors 139

proteins 126, 165, 289, 295–296

push-rod mechanoreceptors 388n195

quorum sensing 401n29

raptorial 128

red vision 169

red-green vision 168, 385n149

reflective structures 164

Rensch’s rule 368n171

reproduction 220–223

resin 404n67

rhachiberothidids 128

rhodopsin 165, 171–172

RNA-protein 296

rodents 125, 132, 145–146, 335n30

rumen 298

sabellids 158–159

sabre-tooth cats 130, 139, 131, 363n122

sandlance 164

sarcophagids 192

sea-bream 133

sea urchin 335n30

seed dispersal 135

seismic communication 141, 144, 190, 209

self-organization, role of 205

self-recognition (mirrors) 258

semicircular canals 150–151

sharks 222, 223, 224, 295, 363n126

shrimps 144

sieve tubes 355n37

silk 115–117, 289

silk nets 116

skeletons 119

sleep 202, 422n144

snails 126, 154, 406n97

snakes 144, 220

social systems 205, 233, 236, 249–250, 268, 285

social voles 143

sodium channels 230–231, 400n18

somatosensory systems 177

song 225–226, 421n131, 436nn8,9

spectral sensitivities 168–169

speech 226

sperm whales 250

spherical aberration (eyes) 153, 156, 160

sphinx moths 138

convergences index 461

spider-monkey 249, 267, 268

spiders 156–157

spurge 134–135, 134

staphylinids 211

star-nosed moles 141, 175, 177, 265, 266

statocysts 150, 153

steroid signalling 295

strepsipterans 148–149, 159, 149

structural mimicry 295–296

super-efficient transport 201

surprise, expressions of see expressions of surprise

teeth 133, 227, 272, 335n30, 363n126, 412n181, 413nn182,183,184, 429n248

teiids 227

temperaments 215

tents 116–117

termite eaters 179

termites 143, 208–210

terrestrialization 284, 286

threads, adhesive 166

thylacosmilids 130, 132, 139, 131

toe-fringes 145

tools 233, 261–263, 425n200

topoisomerases 343n50

trabecular bone 119

trachea 284

tribosphenic 227

trichromacy 167–168

trilobites 126, 155, 159, 362n107

tropical seabirds 138

tuna 223–224

turret eyes 164

tympanic, ear 192

ultrasound detection 391n225, 394n256

uncertainty response 254

ungulate 132

unihemispheric sleep 254

vangids 147

vermivores 179

vertebrates 150–154, 190

vestibulo-oculomotor reflex 153

vision 148

visual stimuli 180

visual streak 378n62

visual systems 177

visual tracking 163

viviparity 221–223

vocal control systems 226

vocal learning 412n180, 421n125

vocalizations 225–226, 251–252, 412n175, 423n163

walking 148

walrus 419n90

warmbloodedness 223–225

wasps 143, 402n40

waste management 205, 208, 404n55

water-vascular system 366n151

weaver ants 212

wetas 218

winkle 154, 158

woodpecker 147, 371n2, 372n3

‘worker policing’ 402n40

worm 120, 234

xenarthran 353n21

xerophyte 135




Index of authors and other individuals




Page numbers in italics indicate Figures. [Notes] are listed by [page number].

Alexander, R. D. 142

Alroy, J. 305

Annis, J. 103–104

Arnold, N. 145

Bain, D. 259

Bakker, R. 130, 132

Bartel, D. 44

Beadle, G. 230, 231, 232

Beaven, C. 174

Benz, W. 89

Berger, T. 276

Bernal, J. D. 54

Bieri, R. 232–233, 284

Blackburn, D. 220–222

Block, B. 223, 224

Brownlee, D. xiv

Bryan, W. J. 319–321

Butlerov, A. M. 50

Cairns-Smith, G. 54

Calvin, W. 246

Cameron, A. G. W. 89

Carrier, M. 312

Catania, K. 175, 177, 179

Cellini, Benvenuto 74

Chambers, J. 83

Chesterton, G. K. 173, 313, 329

Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S. 262

Churchill, S. 281

Comins, N. 90

Craig, C. 115

Crespi, B. 236

Crick, F. 26, 67

Cronk, L. 308

Currey, J. 15

Damuth, J. 304

Darlington J. 209

Darrow, C. 319–322

Darwin, C. 1, 136, 225, 314, 316–317, 318, 325

Dawkins, R. 302, 315, 323

de Duve, C. 22, 32

Denton, E. 112

Denton, M. 11, 261

Desmond, A. 317

DeVore, I. 229

Diamond, J. 14, 218, 286

Dioscorides 183

Dose, K. 48

Doupe, A. 226

Drake, F. 231

Duboule, D. 312

Dulvy, N. 223

Edey, M. 23

Eigen, M. 46, 66

Ellington, A. 55, 66, 67, 296, 297

Elton, S. 273

Engel, M. 203

Eschenmoser, A. 30–31, 233

Faraday, M. 183–184

Farmer, C. G. 224–225

Faulds, H. 174

Feinberg, G. 25

Fernald, R. 170

Foley, R. 272, 302

Fort, C. 112

Fortey, R. A. 112

Franck, S. 100

Franks, N. 203–205

Freeland, S. 15, 16–18

Fry, I. 24–25, 66, 67

Galán, J. 296

Galen 183

Galis, F. 239

Galton, F. 173–174, 325

Gans, C. 14

Gasman, D. 319

Gatesy, J. 289

Gervase of Canterbury 70

index of authors and other individuals 463

Gibson, K. 263

Gonzalez, G. 104

Goodsell, D. 235

Göpfert, M. 191, 193

Gould, S. J. xi, xv, 66, 106, 283, 297, 301, 304, 306, 307

Gray, P. 275

Greene, J. 315, 316, 318, 325

Griffin, D. 182

Haeckel, E. 316, 318–319

Haldane, J. B. S. 48, 330

Hansell, M. 286

Hart, M. 99

Hauser, M. 252

Heim, R. 209

Hildebrand, J. 179

Hitler, A. 94, 283, 319

Holland, P. 242

Hoover, the Harbour seal 251

Horgan, J. 48

Hoyle, F. xv, 309

Humboldt, A. von 182, 225

Hunt, G. 261

Hurst, L. 15, 18

Huxley, J. 315, 316, 317–318

Huxley, T. H. 314, 316, 317, 325

Irwin, G. 19

Jablonski, D. 305

Jack, the baboon 242–243

James, K. 66, 67, 297

Janis, C. 304

Jeans, C. 53

Johanson, D. 23

Johnson, J. 132

Joshi, A. 124

Joyce, G. 65

Kanzi, the bonobo 262

Karlstrom, A. 126

Kay, R. 278

Keefe, A. 49

Kirsch, J. 132

Kistner, D. 211, 212

Koslowski, P. 323

Krabitzer, L. 267

Kuhl, P. 226

LaBarbera, M. 112

Land, M. 157, 164

Lenski, R. 121

Lewis, C. S. 326

Lewontin, R. C. xi

Lieberman, D. 273–274

Lissauer, J. 89, 92

Liu, R. 54

Lord, J. 300

Losos, J. 125

Lovelock, J. 99

McCowan, B. 251

McEwan, M. R. 187

Mackie, G. 236

Mares, M. 145–146

Marino, L. 247, 249, 251, 252, 254, 256

Marler, P. 252

Marshall, C. 11

Marzari, F. 86

Maurer, B. 306

Maynard Smith, J. xi, xii, 46

Mayr, E. xi, 164, 314

Mellars, P. 279

Miller, P. 259

Miller, S. 16, 48, 49, 58, 60–62

Modlin, R. 162

Morowitz, H. 9–10, 12, 16, 232, 325

Morrison, P. 233

Moynihan, M. 268

Mueller, U. 207

Nagel, T. 265–266

Nagy, L. 241, 242

Nakamura, Y. 296

Neumann-Held, E. 322

Nevo, E. 302

Nicholson, C. 194

Nieuwenhuys, R. 194

Nilsson, D. 162

Nisbet, E. 242–243

Nolen, T. 155

Norris, R. 103

O’Hear, A. 324

Omodeo, P. 165

Oparin, A. 48

Orgel, L. 26, 45, 54, 57, 59, 65, 67

Ornstein, L. 232

Oxnard, C. 265, 266, 267

Oyama, S. 323

Pace, N. 77

Parker, S. 262

464 index of authors and other individuals

Paul the Apostle 281

Peacocke, A. R. 314

Petroski, H. 14

Piccinni, E. 165

Piccirilli, J. 29

Pliny the Younger 281

Polanyi, M. 327

Pond, C. 225

Ponnamperuma, C. 32

Pytheas 35

Reif, W-E. 117

Reiss, D. 251, 252

Reynolds, J. 223

Robert, D. 191, 193

Roberts, T. 187

Roy, K. 157

Russell, M. D. 252

Saier, M. 231

Salehi-Ashtiani, K. 297

Salvini-Plawen, L. v. 164

Sandeman, D. 148, 151

Satterlie, R. 155

Schluter, D. 125

Scopes, J. T. 321, 322

Scribonius Largus 183

Shapiro, R. 25, 33, 45, 48, 50, 55, 63–65

Shattuck, R. 326

Shine, R. 220

Simpson, G. G. 229, 230, 231, 232, 234, 246, 314

Smith, F. 281

Smith, T. 9–10, 12, 16, 232, 325

Spudich, J. 171

Stebbins, E. 296

Stebbins, G. L. 117

Strausfeld, N. 179

Suomi, S. 262

Switzer, C. 27–28, 29

Szostak, J. 297

Taylor, S. R. xiv

Thomas, R. 117

Tierney, K. 320, 321, 322

Till, H. van 327

Toth, N. 262

Travisano, M. 121, 122

Trinkhaus, E. 276

Unrau, P. 44

Urey, H. 58, 60–61

Vark, G. van 274

Veitch, N. 39

Visalberghi, E. 263

Vogel, S. 114

Wächtershäuser, G. 55, 57, 67

Wagner, P. 306–307

Wald, G. 68, 76, 109–110, 233, 294

Ward, P. xiv

Weber, A. 15

Weber, N. 206

Weidenschilling, S. 86

Weilgart, L. 250

Westergaard, G. 262, 263

Wetherill, G. 94

Wide, J. E. 242–243, 244

Wilkins, A. 312

Williams, N. 242

Williston, S. W. 263–264

Wilson, E. O. 324

Winemiller, K. 133, 302

Winter, W. de 265, 266, 267

Wood, B. 269

Wyttenbach, R. 194

Yau, K. 34

Zhou, Z-H. 144

Zubay, G. 52


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