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A Concise History of Finland
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  • 40 b/w illus. 5 maps
  • Page extent: 362 pages
  • Size: 216 x 138 mm
  • Weight: 0.599 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: n/a
  • Dewey version: n/a
  • LC Classification: DL1032 .K53 2006
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Finland--History

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521832250 | ISBN-10: 052183225X)




Index


Aalto, Aino, architect 241

Aalto, Alvar, architect 241

Abrahams, Ray, anthropologist 299

Academic Karelia Society (AKS) 166, 182, 184, 200, 201, 229, 232, 248

active resistance movement 157

activists 165, 181–182

Adlerberg, Nikolay, governor-general 124

administrative reforms 284–286

Aejmelaeus, Johan, clergyman 98

Agrarian Union 150, 167, 181, 184, 185, 195, 235, 238, 248, 249, 250–253, 262, 277, 318; (from 1965, Centre Party) 269, 270, 272, 277, 281, 317

Agricola, Mikael, bishop of Turku 40

agriculture 112–113, 187–188, 287, 294–299

Ahlqvist, August, professor of Finnish 99, 117, 120

Aho, Esko, prime minister 278, 281, 282, 291

Aho, Juhani, author 134

Ahtisaari, Martti, president 282, 284

Åland islands 8, 14, 17, 20, 21, 83, 104, 169, 176; disputed territory 191, 202; demilitarisation 204–205, 216; as autonomous region 300

Alapuro, Risto, sociologist 168–183

Albert of Buxtehude, bishop of Riga 8

Albrecht of Mecklenburg, king of Sweden 10, 11, 14

alcohol 57–58, 193

Alexander I, emperor of Russia 15, 64, 72, 73–79, 81, 83–85, 86, 88, 89, 90, 103, 123, 148, 165

Alexander II, emperor of Russia 82, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107–108, 115, 121, 193

Alexander III, emperor of Russia 123, 125, 127–128

Alexander III, pope 6, 168

Alexander VI, pope 16

Alexander Nevsky, prince of Novgorod 8, 9

Alfred, king of Wessex 3

Alkio, Santeri, author, agrarian politician 134, 181, 322

allied control commission in Finland 232–233, 243

Alopaeus brothers 82

Aminoff, Berndt, major 90

ancient tribes (Kweni, Hornfinns, Biarmi) 3

Andersson, Sven, Swedish defence minister 267

Anjala conspiracy 64, 68–70, 321

Antikainen, Toivo, communist exile 202

Anttila, Akseli, communist exile 202

Arakcheyev, Aleksey, minister of war 74

Archangel 193

architecture 241

Arckenholtz, Johan, politician and historian 59

Arctic Ocean 1, 3, 9, 232

Armfelt, Alexander, state-secretary 87, 101, 106, 118, 122, 125

Armfelt, Carl, commander of the Finnish army 68–69, 321

Armfelt, Gustaf, soldier, statesman 71, 74, 75, 77, 80, 84, 90–91, 123, 321

Arwidsson, Adolf, historian and polemicist 89, 91, 94

Askola 287

associational activities 115, 130–133

Åström, Sven-Erik, historian 47

athletics associations (SVUL, TUL) 217

Auer, Väinö, geographer 225

Aurora society 66

Austria 281, 282

Axelsson Tott clan 13

Baltic provinces 79, 122, 125, 128

Baltic Sea 1, 4, 7, 252, 258

Baltic states 164, 198, 205, 215, 218, 219, 242, 278–279; see also Estonia, Latvia

Bank of Finland 110, 186, 289, 290, 291

Barclay de Tolly, Mikhail, field-marshal, governor-general 84

Bartlett, Robert, historian 4

Belyakov, Aleksey, Soviet ambassador 265, 323

Bengt, duke of Finland 4

Berg, Friedrich von, governor-general 102, 106–107

Bessarabia 219

Bidz, Konrad, bishop of Turku 26

Bielke, Erik, nobleman 16, 262

Birger Jarl, nobleman 8

Birgitta, saint 25

Black Death in Northern Europe 24–25

Bobrikov, Nikolay, governor-general 128–130, 138, 139–141, 142, 143, 150

Bolsheviks 159–160, 164

Bomarsund, fortress 103, 104

Bonde, Karl Knutsson, regent, king of Sweden 13

Bonden Paavo (Farmer Paavo) 98, 112

Boris Godunov, tsar of Muscovy 30

Born, Viktor von, nobleman 121

Borodkin, Mikhail, nationalist historian 124

Bothnia, gulf of 1, 3, 9, 16, 18, 20, 102

Brahe, Per, governor-general of Finland 38

Brezhnev, Leonid, Soviet leader 259, 262, 263, 265, 266

Britain 211–12; and Finland 224, 249, 256, 274

Browallius, Johan, clergyman and natural scientist 61

Browning, Christopher, political scientist 302

burn-beat cultivation 21, 22, 23, 112

Bush, George, president of the United States 278

Buxhoevden, Friedrich Wilhelm von, commander of Russian forces in Finland 72, 73

Cainberg, Erik, sculptor 92

Cajander, A. K., prime minister 185, 195, 211, 248, 320

Canada 188

Canth, Minna, author 135

‘Caps’, political party 46

Carl XIV Johan (Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte), king of Sweden 78, 88

Castrén, Matthias, philologist 94, 95, 102

Catherine II, empress of Russia 68, 79, 82

Catholic church 4, 8

censorship 272–275

Charles V, emperor 17

Chernobyl nuclear accident 278, 301

Christian II, last Union king 17–18, 28

Christian III, king of Denmark 28

Christian of Oldenburg, king of Sweden 12, 13

Christian People's Party 318

Christiansen, Eric, historian 8, 10, 25

Christina, queen of Sweden 38

Church Law (1869) 113

Churchill, Winston, prime minister 236

Chydenius brothers 60–61

Chydenius, Anders, clergyman, advocate of free trade 58, 59, 60

Chydenius, Wilhelm, social reformer 135

civil guard defence corps (suojeluskunta) 161, 163, 165, 166, 167, 168, 174, 178, 179–180, 212, 216, 217, 232

civil war (1918) 161–162, 201; legacy 167, 168, 172–174, 175, 198–199, 216, 218, 271

Clemenceau, Georges, French politician 127

Cneiff, Johan, scientist 48

Comecon 269

Committee for Finnish Affairs 78, 84–85, 87, 90; reconstituted 106

communism in Finland 114, 169, 170–171, 176, 177–178, 189, 218, 219, 273, 322

Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) 247–248, 249, 250, 265, 267–268

constitution: (1919) 164, 165, 168, 272, 283 (1999) 283–284, 301

Craucher, Minna, demi-mondaine 322

crusades, in northern Europe 4, 6–8, 16

currency 110

Cygnaeus, Uno, educationalist 87, 102

Czechoslovakia 168, 237, 238, 243, 262, 265

Daehn, Woldemar von, state-secretary 125

Daladier, Edouard, prime minister of France 213

Dalarna 4, 12, 17

Danielson, J. R., historian 125

Daugava, river 8

De poesi fennica 61, 66, 92

Denmark 6–8, 11, 12, 108, 212, 252, 261, 263, 264, 270

devaluation 289

Diet Act (1869) 108

Diet of Porvoo 60, 73–75, 77; interpretations of 75–76, 88–89

Diktonius, Elmer, poet 186

Donner, Kai, activist 165, 182

Dvina (northern), river 3

eastern Finland 22, 23, 24, 40, 43, 56, 59, 95, 150, 216, 256

economic integration in Europe 249, 254

economy 47–53, 109–110, 113, 289–299

education 25, 60, 66, 86–87, 102, 115, 118–119, 173, 186, 288, 294

Ehrenström, Johan, senator, planner of Imperial Helsinki 82, 91

Ehrensvärd, Augustin, military architect 44

Ehrnrooth, Casimir, state-secretary 125

Ehrström, Erik, academic 91

Eklund, Artur, athlete, politician 133

elections: parliamentary 158, 159, 163, 171, 173, 176, 178, 185, 195, 235, 238, 252, 257, 260, 261–262, 270, 284; presidential 165, 178, 195, 220, 234, 240, 249–250, 254, 255–260, 265–266, 267, 276, 284

Elizabeth, empress of Russia 43, 44, 65, 321

Elleman-Jensen, Uffe, Danish foreign minister 279

Enckell, Carl, foreign minister 236

Engel, Carl, architect 82

Englebrektsson, Englebrekt, rebel leader 12

Erik IX, king of Sweden 6, 7

Erik XIII, king of Sweden 11, 12, 26

Erik XIV, king of Sweden 28, 30, 37

Erikskrönikan, medieval rhyme-chronicle 8

Erkko, Eljas, foreign minister 206–207

Estlander, Carl, professor of modern literature 104, 133

Estonia 28, 116, 198, 232, 278; see also Baltic provinces, Baltic states

European Economic Community (EEC), European Union (EU) 254, 255, 302; and Finland 263–266, 269, 270, 279, 280–282, 303, 323

European Free Trade Area (EFTA) and Finnish membership 254, 255–256, 264, 278

Fagerholm, Karl-August, social democrat 250, 251, 252, 253, 254

famine 42, 47, 112–113

February manifesto (1899) 127, 129–130, 137

fennomani (Finnish-mindedness) 91–93, 96–98, 100, 120

fiefholding and service 9, 10, 11, 12, 13–16, 17, 33, 218, 242–243

financial institutions 133, 292–293

Finland

   as part of Sweden: definition 4; as a frontier country 16, 56–57; eastern frontier 9, 16, 30, 42, 65; frontier wars with Russia 13, 16–17; relationship to the kingdom of Sweden 19–20, 29, 43, 44, 46–47, 63, 65–66, 76; conscription system 31; occupied by Russian forces 43–44; fear of renewed war 70–71; as an issue in the riksdag 44, 58; Enlightenment in Finland 59–63; relationship with Imperial Russia 65, 72–73

   as Grand Duchy: and the Russian Empire 76–79, 83, 87–91, 106, 120–121, 122, 123–130; model for proposed Grand Duchy of Lithuania 78; capital moved to Helsinki 78, 84; separated from Sweden 83, 90, 94; autonomous government 84–88, 86–87, 89, 109–110; constitutional position 97, 107–108, 121, 123, 124–125, 138, 148; during Crimean War 102–104, 105; period of reform 1931 I; frontier regions 131; passive resistance 137, 138, 140–141, 142; in last years of Imperial rule 148, 151–152; during First World War 157–158

   as Republic: political instability 167, 179, 270; as a democracy 167–169; economic crises 181, 252, 269, 270, 279, 291–293; frontier security 191–192, 279; improving living standards 196; national culture 196; and the Soviet Union 203–206, 206–208, 240–242, 245–248, 277–279; and Germany 203; and Sweden 204, 206–207, 216; preserves its independence 242; and Nordic countries 261, 263, 278–279, 302; and economic integration 263–264; trade with the Soviet Union 268–269, 291

Finland at war (1939–1945) 198, 208–214, 222–231, 233; battles 210; proposed Allied intervention 211–213, 213–214; Soviet peace terms 214; Finnish war aims 224, 225; public opinion 227; Finnish efforts to leave the war 227, 229–230; peace opposition 227; Ryti–Ribbentrop agreement 230; Soviet offensive 230–231; armistice 217, 231–232, 287

Finland, gulf of 2, 8, 18, 68, 224, 322

Finland Proper 4, 5, 8, 9, 13, 14, 18, 21, 29, 39

Finlandia, symphonic poem 130

‘finlandisation’ 245, 246, 267, 280

Finnish army: during the Swedish period 33, 45, 46, 53, 63–64, 68–70, 74, 76, 321; in the Grand Duchy 102, 128, 129, 137, 140; in independent Finland 161, 163, 165, 204, 232; during the Second World War 208, 222

Finnish Communist Party 145, 169, 171, 195, 234–238, 242, 243–244, 249, 250, 253, 258, 264, 265, 267, 270, 273, 315

Finnish Diet 89, 107, 108–109, 115, 122, 123, 127, 129, 142, 143, 147, 157, 321

Finnish language 98, 100, 101–102, 115–117, 134, 186, 300–301; chair of Finnish established 101, 102; restrictions on publication 101

Finnish Literature Society (SKS) 92, 94–96, 99, 116

Finnish Literature Society in Viipuri 95–96

Finnish nationalist movement 118–122, 144, 154, 156, 157, 166, 184–185, 248; and idea of greater Finland 201, 202, 229

Finnish office-holders 44–45, 53–55, 76

Finnish parliament (eduskunta) 143, 147, 149, 151–152, 157, 158–159, 160, 161, 163–165, 204, 221, 224, 235, 237, 240, 252, 253, 257, 266, 269, 281, 283, 289, 315

Finnish People's Commissariat (Red government of 1918) 162

Finnish People's Democratic Union (SKDL) 235, 236, 238, 252, 261, 262, 270–1, 277, 315 (from 1991, Union of the Left) 277, 315

Finnish Rural Party 270, 277, 298, 318

Finnish separatism 64, 106, 124

Finnish Social Democratic Party 144, 145, 146–147, 150, 158–161, 167, 171, 172, 178, 185, 194, 195, 216, 218, 224, 227, 235–237, 238, 250, 251–253, 254, 261, 262, 264, 266, 270, 277, 282, 284, 293, 315

Finnish Socialist Workers' Party 171–172

Finnmark 3, 188, 190, 202

Finns: as perceived by others 3, 39, 101, 125, 129; in Imperial Russia 82, 122; in Soviet Russia 202; in Sweden 22, 294, 298

Fleming, Klas, marshal of the realm 35

folk poetry 27–28

folkting (representative assembly for Swedish-speaking minority) 170

Forsman brothers (see Koskinen), Finnish nationalists 120

Forsskål, Peter, clergyman 59

frälse (tax-exempt providers of military services) 11, 14, 56

Fredrik I, king of Denmark 18, 28

Friedrich Karl of Hesse, chosen king of Finland (1918) 163, 164

Frost, Robert, historian 31

fundamental laws: 1772 Form of Government 123, 160, 164; 1789 Act of Union and Assurance 56, 108, 123

fur trade 27

Furuhjelm, Oscar, artist, 156

Gadd, Pehr, natural scientist 59, 66

Ganander, Kristfrid, clergyman 61

general strike (1956) 251

gentry (herrat) 16, 53, 70, 137, 144, 157, 188

Germany 158, 161, 203, 254, 258, 261, 279; and Finland in 1918 162–163, 199–200; and Sweden 204; and Finland during Second World War 13, 219–220, 221, 224, 242–243; West Germany and Finland 252

Gezelius, Johan (the elder), bishop of Turku 40

Gezelius, Johan (the younger), superintendant of Narva 41

Glinka, Fyodor, poet 93

Goering, Hermann, Nazi leader 203

Golitsyn, Anatoly, KGB agent, defector 259

Gorbachev, Mikhail, Soviet leader 278

Gotland 4, 7, 11, 18, 63

Gottlund, Carl, collector of folk poems 94

government of Finland: Imperial Senate 79, 84–85, 95, 102, 106, 108, 118, 120–121, 122, 123, 125–127, 137–138, 139, 140, 142, 143–144, 147, 151, 152, 157, 236, 271; during revolution of 1917–18 158–159, 160–163, 164, 194; Council of State 163–165, 168, 283–284; during war years 211, 213–214, 216–222, 227–229, 230; in post-war period 235–237, 251–252, 252–253, 261–262, 264, 277, 278–279, 284

Governor-General of Finland, office of 74, 78, 82, 85, 101, 106, 129

Granfelt, A. A., organiser in the national cause 116

gravis admodum, papal bull 6

Great Northern War 42

Green Party 318

Gregory IX, pope 4, 8

Grip, Bo Jonsson, nobleman 10

Grip, Nils Bosson, nobleman 17

Gripenberg, Bertel, poet 133, 170

Gromyko, Andrey, Soviet foreign minister 260

Gulag Archipelago 274

Gustav I Vasa, king of Sweden 17, 18, 26, 28, 37, 81

Gustav II Adolf, king of Sweden 29, 30, 38

Gustav III, king of Sweden 46, 57, 63, 68–70, 71, 84, 107, 164

Gustav IV Adolf, king of Sweden 71, 72

Guttorm, Hans Aslak, author 191

Gyllenstjerna, Nils, nobleman 14

Haartman, Lars von, senator 86, 109–110

Hagman, Lucina, teacher, political activist 131

Håkon, king of Norway 10

Halonen, Tarja, president 284

Häme: people 3, 4, 8, 26; region 9, 13, 18, 21, 23, 28, 34

Hämeenlinna 109

Hamina 52, 68, 79

Hanko peninsula 197, 206, 213, 215, 217

Hans, king of Sweden 13

‘Hats’, political party 43, 44, 46

Hecksher, Eli, historian 14

Heiden, Fyodor, governor-general 121, 128, 129

Helsinki conference on European security 267, 323

Helsinki: harbour 44, 203; town 3, 6, 46, 52, 109, 119, 127, 134, 140, 155, 162–163, 171, 172, 196, 208, 213, 235, 241, 273, 305; capital 81, 83, 186, 286; district 96, 300; in 1905 revolution 142–143, 146; university 184–185

Henry, bishop of Finland 6, 7

Herder, Johann, critic and poet 92

Herkepaeus, Anders, merchant 53

Herzen, Alexander, revolutionary 88

Hillilä, Kaarlo, agrarian 235

Hitler, Adolf, leader of Nazi Germany 205, 219, 221, 222, 230–231, 242

Holkeri, Harri, prime minister 278, 286

Holsti, Rudolf, foreign minister 203

homicides 56–57

Honka, Olavi, presidential candidate 256–257, 258, 260

Hungary 237, 243

hunting and fishing culture 2–3, 48–50

Hwasser, Israel, professor of medicine 88

Hyvärinen, Risto, diplomat 323

independence: idea of 64–65, 69, 157–159; declared 164; recognised by Soviet Russia 160–161, 199; recognised by allied powers 163

industry 50, 51–52, 110–112, 114, 187, 293–294

Ingman, Anders, professor of exegetics 100

Ingman, Lauri, prime minister and archbishop 173

Ingria 30, 41, 176

Ingrian people 226, 302

interest groups 289–290

interregional co-operation 302

Ivan III, grand duke of Muscovy 16

Jäätteenmäki, Anneli, prime minister 282, 284

Jäger soldiers 158, 161, 162, 163

Jägerhorn, Jan, soldier, separatist 68–70, 91

Jakobson, Max, diplomat 323

Jalvi, Pedar, author 190

Jäntti, Toivo, architect 26

January engagement (1940) 216

Joensuu 178

Johan III, king of Sweden 28, 35, 37

Johansson, Gustaf, archbishop of Finland 141

Jordanes, historian of the Goths 3

Juslenius, Daniel, professor, bishop of Skara 62, 65

Jussila, Osmo, historian 75, 139, 238, 243

Juteini, Jaakko, poet 98

Jutikkala, Eino, historian 48, 225

Jyväskylä 179

Kaila, Elmo, student activist 166

Kairamo, A. Oswald, botanist, businessman 133

Kajaani, J. F., historian 97

Käkisalmi 41, 79

Kalevala, national verse epic 92, 94, 95, 100, 131, 134

Kallio, Kyösti, president 177, 180, 195, 220

Kalm, Pehr, natural scientist 59, 61, 93

Karelia, Eastern 8, 100, 139, 166, 176, 193–195, 201, 302; as part of the Soviet state 198, 215; as object of Finnish interest 93–94, 153, 200–202; under Finnish occupation 224–225, 225–226, 230

Karelia, Northern (Finnish) 57

Karelian isthmus 9, 15, 16, 20, 21, 197, 208, 210, 211–213, 214, 230, 231, 263, 264–265, 287

Karelian people 3, 16, 20, 24, 26, 28, 93, 197

Kares, Kauko, Lapua leader 177

Karjalainen, Ahti, agrarian 251, 255, 256, 258–260, 262, 264, 266–267, 277, 296

Kärki, Niilo, student activist 166, 248

Karl IX, regent, later king of Sweden 28, 35–36, 37

Karl X, king of Sweden 30

Karl XI, king of Sweden 31, 42

Karl XII, king of Sweden 31, 42, 45

Karl Peter Ulrik, duke of Holstein 44, 321

Kastelholm, castle 14

Katkov, Mikhail, journalist 124

Kaurismäki, Aki, film-maker xvi

Keckman, Carl, lecturer in Finnish 95

Kekkonen, Urho, president 182, 184, 204, 229, 235, 236, 245–275, 276–277, 284, 323

Kemi 190, 321

Kennedy, J. F., president of the United States 259, 261

Kepplerus, Alexander, burgomaster of Loviisa 59

Kerensky, Alexander, leader of Russian provisional government 159

KGB and Finland 247–248, 249, 251, 257, 259, 265

Khrushchev, Nikita, Soviet leader 250, 254, 255–256, 260–261, 263

Kianto, Ilmari, novelist 157

Kilpi, O. K., economist 131

Kilpi, Volter, author 171, 173

Kivi, Alexis, novelist xvi, 99

Kivimäki, T. M., wartime minister to Berlin 220

Klick, Karl, soldier, separatist 73

Knorring, Bogdan von, general 74

Knutsson, Tyrgils, founder of Viipuri 154

Koivisto, Mauno, president 263, 276–278, 283, 284

Kökar 18

Kokkola 52, 102, 103, 119

Kollontay, Alexandra, feminist revolutionary 135

Korsholm, castle 10

Korsimo, Arvo, agrarian 251

Koskinen, Yrjö, Finnish nationalist leader, historian 36, 37, 117, 118, 119, 120–121, 134, 135, 138–139, 242, 280

Kosola, Vihtori, Lapua leader 177, 180

Kosygin, Aleksey, Soviet leader 263, 266, 268

Kothen, Casimir von, senator 86, 87, 119, 122

Kriedl, Gottlieb, master papermaker 111

Kristoffer of Bavaria, king of Sweden 10

Kuolajärvi 190

Kuopio 100

Kurck, Arvid, bishop of Turku 26

Kurjensaari, Matti, author 196

Kuropatkin, A. N., minister of war 3, 128, 129

Kuusamo 41

Kuusi, Pekka, social theorist 271

Kuusinen, Hertta, communist 237, 238

Kuusinen, Otto, communist, head of Terijoki government 145, 147, 159–160, 171, 198, 207, 208, 215, 235, 237, 243

labour movement 135–137, 144–145, 157, 171, 172, 174, 243

Ladoga, lake 2, 3, 6, 8, 24, 30, 79, 123, 210, 215

Laestadius, Lars, religious revivalist 189

Lagus, Elias, clergyman 41

Lalli, peasant and slayer of bishop Henry 6, 7

land tenure 55–56, 113, 154–156, 222–231; reforms 174, 187; ownership 187, 298–299

landscape of Finland 1, 2, 18–20

Langenskiöld, Fabian, senator 107

language legislation 118, 121–122, 138, 186

Lapland 188–191; see also Sami people

Lappeenranta 79

Lapua 174–176

Lapua movement 167, 174–184, 194, 195, 235

Laqueur, Walter, political commentator 245

Latvia 188; see also Baltic provinces, Baltic states

Laurbecchius, Petrus, bishop of Viipuri 41

law and justice 10

Laxman, Erik, natural scientist 93

League of Finnishness 248

League of Nations 191, 203–204, 211

Leino, Yrjö, communist minister of the interior 234–238, 243, 274

Leinonen, Artturi, journalist 180

Lenin, V. I., Soviet leader 192, 199

Leningrad 197, 205, 215, 224, 226, 229 (see also St Petersburg, Petrograd)

Leskinen, Väinö, social democrat 16, 251, 253, 262, 323

Liikala note 68–69

Liinamaa, Keijo, national arbitrator 269

Lilius, Carl-Gustaf, artist 274

Lindegren, Yrjö, architect 241

Linder, Constantin, state-secretary 143

Linkomies, Edwin, prime minister 227, 234

Linna, Väinö, novelist 323

Linnaeus, Carl, botanist 61

Lipponen, Paavo, prime minister 280, 284

Liv people 8

Lizelius, Anders, clergyman 61

Lönnrot, Elias, compiler of the Kalevala 94–95, 99, 100, 322

Lotta Svärd auxiliaries 212, 217

Loviisa 52, 59

Lübeck 18, 26

Lund, archbishopric 6

Lutheran church in Finland xvi, 25–26, 40–42, 83–84, 113–115, 141, 173, 271, 304

Madsen, Rolef, royal agent in Finland 17

Magnus Eriksson, king of Sweden 9, 10

Magnus Ladulås, king of Sweden 4, 9

Magnus, Johannes, exiled prelate and historian 25

Magnus, Olaus, bishop of Turku 26

Magnus, Olaus, historian 5, 21, 25, 27

Malmberg, Lauri, commander of the defence corps 166, 179

Manner, Kullervo, communist 145

Mannerheim line 210, 213, 215

Mannerheim, Carl Gustaf, president, marshal of Finland 161, 162, 163–166, 182, 201, 203, 206, 207, 208, 211, 213, 214, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222–226, 227, 228, 230–231, 234, 236, 239

Mannerheim, Carl, senator 64, 73, 78, 86

Mäntsälä, attempted revolt 179, 182

Margareta, queen, architect of the Union of Kalmar 10, 11, 12, 14

Marshall aid programme 240

Martha association 131, 136

Masku 18

Mechelin, Leo, senator, professor of jurisprudence 75, 120, 127, 138, 143, 147, 151

medieval Land Law 10

Melartin, Erik, archbishop 87, 95

Mennander, Karl, natural scientist 61

Menshikov, Alexander, governor-general 85, 102, 106, 109

Meri, Veijo, novelist 323

migration 294

Mikkeli 228

military service law: (1878) 124; (1901) 137, 140, 142

Milyutin, D. A., minister of war 124

Molotov, V. M., Soviet foreign minister 204, 205, 219, 222, 249

Montgomery, Robert, chief law officer 121

Mörne, Arvid, poet 134

Moscow 171; see also Soviet Union

Münster, Sebastian, cosmographer 5

Murmansk 193

Muscovy, state 13, 30, 41

Naantali 53

Napoleon I, emperor of France 72, 78

National Coalition (conservatives) 185, 250, 252, 254, 262, 271, 277, 319

national identity: forged in war 37; scholarly interest in 60–63, 66–67, 91–96, 97; and public opinion 106, 303–305; images of 7, 122, 130, 187, 279–280, 288, 299

NATO 254, 258, 261, 280

Nesselius, Israel, professor at the university in Turku 43

Neumann, Hugo, engineer 111

neutrality 103, 117, 123, 204, 259, 260, 261, 262, 267, 281

Nicholas I, emperor of Russia 87, 94, 102, 123

Nicholas II, emperor of Russia 127, 128, 138, 151

‘night-frost crisis’ (1958) 253–254

Niklisson, Dan, medieval governor of the Finnish lands 9, 195

Niukkanen, Juho, minister of defence 206

Nokia company 288, 303

Norby, Sören, military commander 17, 18

Nordek (Nordic economic agreement) 263–264

Nordic Council 240–242, 278

Nordic nuclear-free zone 278, 323

Nordström, J. J., professor of jurisprudence 89

Norrland 4

northern Finland 150, 172

Norway, 11, 148, 188, 190, 202, 212, 213, 219, 261, 264, 282, 301

‘note crisis’ (1961) 257–261, 259

Nottbeck family, industrialists 135

Nousiainen 7

November manifesto (1905) 143

Novgorod 16, 17

Novgorod, principality 3, 6, 9, 13

Novosibirsk, meeting in 260–261

Nurmio, Heikki, composer 201

Obolensky, Ivan, governor-general 143

‘official nationalism’ 94

oil crisis (1973) 268

Olav, king of Norway 11

Olavinlinna, castle 20

Old Finn party 138, 141, 150, 151, 236, 316

Olonets 93, 195, 226

Olsson, Hagar, author 186

Olympic games 196, 217, 240, 241

Onega, lake 2, 3, 6, 8

Onerva, L., author 173

Order of the Sword Brothers in Livonia (from 1237, part of the Teutonic Order) 8, 9, 16, 321

Ordin, Kesar, historian and polemicist 75, 124

Oreshek (Pähkinäsaari, Nöteborg), peace treaty 9

Orthodox church 3, 4, 8, 41–42, 153

Oslo declaration (1935) 203

Ostrobothnia region xvi, 10, 13, 20, 21, 27, 34, 35, 37, 38, 40, 42, 46, 50, 51, 52, 56, 71, 73, 83, 99, 102, 103, 119, 133, 150, 162, 174–176, 180, 300

Oulu 52, 103, 190, 210, 220

Oulu river 50

Oulujärvi, lake 21

Paasikivi, J. K., president 206–207, 220, 228, 229, 231, 234, 236, 239, 240–242, 249, 250–251, 280

Paasikivi–Kekkonen foreign policy doctrine 194, 246, 260, 270, 271, 272, 275, 278, 281, 304

Paasio, Pertti, foreign minister 278

Paasio, Rafael, prime minister 262, 269, 276

Paavolainen, Olavi, author 322

Paimio sanatorium 241

Pakkala, Teuvo, author 134

Palme, Olof, Swedish prime minister 267

Paris, university 25, 26

Parliament Act (1906) 136, 147, 315

Patriotic People's Movement (IKL) 183, 184, 195, 227, 232, 248

Paul I, emperor of Russia 79

peasant unrest 34–36, 70

Pekkala, Mauno, prime minister 235, 236

people (kansa) as a concept 90, 118, 135

Peter I, emperor of Russia 42, 79, 154

Petrograd 160–161, 165; see also St Petersburg, Leningrad

Petsamo 190, 193, 232; nickel mines 217, 220

Piae cantiones 27

Pietarsaari 52, 186

Pihkala, Lauri, activist 176, 239

Plehve, V. K., state-secretary 127, 138, 141

Podgorny, Nikolay, president of the Soviet Union 268

Poland: kingdom of 78, 88; republic 168, 188, 203, 205, 242; revolt (1863) 105, 107, 118, 120

Polvinen, Tuomo, historian 130

population 27, 55, 56, 57, 86, 112, 286–288, 294, 295, 296, 300

Pori 179

Porkkala base 232, 240, 250

Porovsky, Lev, panslavist 93

Porthan, Henrik, historian 59, 61, 64, 65, 66, 70, 92

Porvoo 17, 25, 60

Posse, Knut, commander of Viipuri castle 15

poverty 47–50, 99, 112–113

Prague, university 26

president of the republic, office of 168, 282–283, 283–284

press: in Finland 98, 100, 103, 106, 117, 120, 122, 130, 137, 138, 144, 183, 262, 274, 275; in Sweden 117, 169, 185, 230, 266, 267; in the Soviet Union 203, 251, 254, 262, 274

Progressive Party 185, 195, 316, 320; (from 1951, Finnish People's Party) 317; (from 1965, Liberal People's Party) 317

prohibition 16, 154, 156, 191–193

Proto-Finnish language 2

Punainen viiva (The Red Line) 157

puukkojunkkarit (knife-fighters) xvi, 321

Raahe 103

railway construction 109

Raittiuden Ystävät temperance society 116

Ramsay, Henrik, businessman, foreign minister 227

Rangell, Jukka, prime minister 227, 228, 234

Rauma 25

Rauthelius, Johannes, student of the university in Turku 62

red guards 145, 146, 159, 161

Red manifesto (1905) 142

‘red Olympics’ 217

refugee minorities, immigrants 301, 304

Regnard, Jean, dramatist 48, 321

Rehbinder, Robert, state-secretary 78, 80, 90, 123

Rehn, Elisabeth, presidential candidate 282

Relander, Lauri, president 180

religious orders (Franciscan, Dominican) 18, 321

religious revivalism 99–100, 322

Rentola, Kimmo, historian 235

Renvall, Heikki, social reformer 135

resettlement of refugees 216, 287, 289, 296

revolution: (1905) 25, 142–146; (1917) 148, 158

Rhyzelius, Anders, clergyman 65

Ribbentrop, Joachim von, German foreign minister 205, 220, 222, 230, 242

Rissanen, Otto, farmer 115

Rokassovsky, Platon, governor-general 107

Roma people 301

Rothovius, Isak, bishop of Turku 40

Rovaniemi 190

Royal Finnish Economic Society 66

Rumyantsov, Nikolay, foreign minister 72

Runeberg, Johan, poet 98, 99, 112, 122, 134, 156

Ruotsalainen, Paavo, farmer, religious leader 99, 322

Rusk, Dean, secretary of state 259

Russia 301; see Soviet Union

Russian Empire 71–72, 83, 87, 103; policy towards Finland 83–84, 128, 151–152; defence of western borders 124, 128; Imperial State Council 151–152; State Duma 151–152

Russian language: attempts to augment its teaching in Finland 101, 122; made an official language in Finland 129, 137, 141

Russian nationalism, 153

Russian Provisional Government 158, 159

Russian revolutionary movement 141, 146, 147, 157, 158

Russian support for Finnish separatism 43, 69–70

Russian, or ‘Old’ Finland 79–80, 80–83, 95, 122, 123, 154

Russo-Swedish war: (1788–90) 68–70; (1808–09) 71, 83, 102

rusthollari (providers of military services allowed tax reliefs) 31

Rybachy peninsula 215

Ryti, Risto, president 211, 214, 219, 220–221, 224, 227, 228, 230, 234, 320

Saarikoski, Pentti, poet 288

Saarinen, Aarne, communist 218

Saarinen, Eliel, architect 241

Saimaa canal 216, 256, 263

Saimaa-Päijänne lake system 51, 109

Salla enclave 215

Salminen, Esko, professor 274

Salolainen, Pertti, EU negotiator 280

Salomaa, Erkki, communist 218

Samarin, Yuri, historian, polemicist 125

Sami (Lapp) people 2, 3, 16, 21, 36, 41, 188, 190–191, 301

Satakunta region 10, 18, 20, 21, 179

Savo dialect 94

Savo region 16, 20, 21, 26, 28, 34, 41, 57, 70, 73, 99, 100, 112, 115, 122

Savonenkov, Grigori, member of the allied control commission 232

Savonlinna 68, 79

Scarin, Algot, historian 5

Schauman, August, journalist 1912

Schauman, Eugen, student 141

Scheel, Påvel, dean of Turku 27

Schweitzer, Robert, historian 128

Schybergson, M. G., historian 6

Scott, John, American journalist 233

sea-routes in the Baltic 3–4

Seinäjoki 179

Seitsemän veljestä (The Seven Brothers) 99

settlement 2–3, 10, 18–23, 36, 188

Seyn, Frans, governor-general 151, 157

shipbuilding 52–53

Sibelius, Jean, composer 130, 155

Sigismund Vasa, king of Poland 28, 35, 37

Sinebrychoff, Nikolai, brewer 101

Sippola 131

Sirola, Yrjö, communist 145, 161

Sjögren, Anders, ethnologist 93

Skåne 63

Skog, Emil, leader of social democratic opposition movement 251

Skytte, Gerhard, medieval governor of the ‘Eastland’ 9

Småland 59

Snellman, Johan, philosopher, senator 89, 97, 100, 102, 104, 109, 117–118, 120–121, 130, 139, 242, 280

social and political elites: in the Grand Duchy 85–86, 90–91, 106, 120, 123, 133, 144, 147, 157, 203; in independent Finland 166–167, 171, 272, 280, 303

social classes: clergy 39–40, 115, 147–148, 157; nobility 16, 17, 33–34, 37–38, 121; mercantile classes 46; peasantry 23–24, 98–99, 120, 156, 187–188; working class 135, 300

Society for Peace and Friendship between Finland and the USSR 218

Society for Popular Enlightenment 116

Södergran, Edith, poet 322

Sohlman, August, newspaper editor 117

Sorsa, Kalevi, prime minister 264, 292, 298

Sortavala 213

Soviet Union 178, 195, 218, 322; and Terijoki government 197–199, 211; policy towards Finland (1918–39) 200, 202, 204; during Second World War 207; and Finland during Second World War 211, 219, 221–222, 229–230; and Finland after 1944 16, 234, 243, 252–253, 254–255, 256, 260–261, 262–263, 264–265; collapse of 245, 272, 279, 291

Soviet–Finnish mutual assistance treaty (1939) 197

Soviet–Finnish non-aggression treaty (1932) 203, 208

Speransky, Mikhail, adviser to Alexander I 74, 78, 80

Spöring, Herman, mineralogist 61

Sprengtporten, Göran, soldier, separatist 63–65, 66, 69, 70, 72, 73–74, 91

St Petersburg 80–82, 98, 109, 129, 142, 155, 188; Academy of Sciences 93; military district 128; see also Petrograd, Leningrad

St Pierre, Bernardin de, author 48

Ståhlberg, Kaarlo, president 164, 165, 166, 178, 179, 195

Stålarm, Arvid, military commander 35

Stalin, J. V., Soviet leader 10, 195, 199, 202, 204, 205, 206, 207–208, 210, 214, 226, 228, 238, 239, 240, 242

state (valtio) as a concept 89–90, 271–272

state-secretary for Finland, office of 74, 78, 82, 85, 129

Stead, W. T., journalist, 127

Steinheil, Fabian, governor-general 76, 85

Stiernkors, Magnus, bishop of Turku 15, 16, 26

Stjernwall, Carl, governor of Viipuri 80, 90

Stockholm 17–18, 27, 39, 94

‘Stockholm bloodbath’ 17

Strauss, Franz-Josef, West German politician 245

student radicalism 271, 273

Sture, Sten (the Elder), regent of Sweden 13, 16

Sture, Sten (the Younger), regent of Sweden 17

suffrage reform 142, 143

Sukselainen, V. J., agrarian 254, 257

Sulkunen, Irma, historian 94

Suslov, Mikhail, member of the central committee of the CPSU 267, 268, 274

Suurpää, Laurentius, bishop of Turku 26

Suursaari island 68, 205, 215

Sveaborg fortress 44, 71, 81, 146, 147

Svinhufvud, Pehr, president 9, 144, 151, 160–161, 163, 177, 178–181, 182, 195, 200, 220, 322

Sweden 31, 71, 261, 267, 301; medieval kingdom 4, 6–9, 10, 184–185; administrative institutions 9–10, 12, 35–36, 98; crown and nobility 11–12, 12–13, 37–38; and Finland 12–13, 37, 38; riksdag 12, 45–46, 68, 108; as a great power 30–31, 39, 62; in the eighteenth century 45, 46, 63; and Grand Duchy of Finland 88–89, 102, 105–106; and the Republic of Finland 191, 196, 202, 219, 227, 231–232, 256; during Second World War 211–213, 221; and economic integration 264, 281, 282, 291

Swedish language in Finland 98, 120, 131–134, 169–170, 227

Swedish language minority in Finland 96, 97, 100, 119, 121–122, 134, 184, 185–187, 300–301

Swedish liberal-constitutionalist party 138

Swedish People's Party 133, 147, 150, 156, 170, 185, 191, 224, 227, 229, 282, 319

Sysmä 44

Tacitus, historian 3

Taivalkoski 49

Tallinn 8, 27

Tampere 135, 136, 137, 142, 162

Tanner, Väinö, social democratic leader 11, 194, 195, 211, 214, 218, 220, 234, 240, 243, 251–252, 253, 254, 261

Tartu, university 80

Tavast, Magnus, bishop of Turku 12, 26

Tavaststjerna, Karl, author 135

Tavinsalmi 18

tax-paying peasantry 14

Teheran conference (1943) 228

Tengström, Jakob, bishop, later archbishop of Turku 73, 83, 95

Tengström, Johan, professor of philosophy 91

Tengström, Robert, philosopher 97

Terijoki government 197–199, 207, 208, 215

Thaden, Edward, historian 123

Thomas, bishop of Finland 8

Tokoi, Oskari, trade unionist, senator 158

Topelius, Zachris (Zacharias), author 97–98, 104, 122, 156

Tornio 16, 264

towns in Finland 52, 186

trade 51–52, 58, 110, 112, 187, 202, 249, 254–255, 289

trade unions 176, 177, 202, 216, 238, 289, 290

treaty of friendship, co-operation, and mutual assistance (FCMA, 1948) 238, 239–240, 252, 254, 255, 258, 262, 264, 272, 277–279

treaty of Hamina (1809) 77–78, 83

treaty of Moscow (1940) 215–216

treaty of Paris (1947) 237, 256, 258, 279

treaty of Tartu (1920) 163, 190, 193, 202

treaty of Tilsit (1807) 72

Tsokkinen family 189

Tuderus, Gabriel, clergyman 321

Turku: bishopric 7, 8, 13, 16, 25; town 13, 17, 18, 20, 36, 39, 46, 52, 81, 121, 162, 172, 186, 300; castle 9, 35; high court 10, 38, 45; academic circles in 65, 66–67, 92, 95; universities 184

Tyynilä, Markku, historian 84

Union of Kalmar 11, 13, 18, 26, 28

United Nations 239, 240

United States: Finnish emigrants in 22, 145, 188, 322; and Finland 224, 227, 228, 230, 233–234, 238–239, 240, 249, 258, 259

university: in Turku 38, 45, 59–61, 62, 88, 89, 91, 92; transferred to Helsinki 80; Imperial Alexander university 86, 89, 95, 102, 106, 133; and the issue of finnicisation 166, 169, 184–185

Uppland 18, 19

Uppsala, archbishopric 6

Upton, Anthony, historian 242

Utsjoki 190

Uusimaa 10

Uvarov, Sergey, minister for education 94

Vaasa 52, 162, 177, 186, 220

Valdemar Atterdag, king of Denmark 10, 11

valtalaki (enabling law, 1917) 158–159, 160

Värmland 20, 22

Vasili III, grand duke of Moscovy 16

Västergötland 19

Väyrynen, Paavo, foreign minister 278, 281

Vehviläinen, Olli, historian 229

Vennamo, Veikko, leader of Rural Party 270, 277, 298, 323

Verkko, Veli, sociologist 54

Verla 111

Vientirauha (strike-breaking organisation) 176–177

Viiala 136

Viipuri: castle 9, 10, 15, 16, 17, 42; town 25, 40, 52, 60, 79, 82, 88, 95, 98, 109, 121, 146, 154, 161–162, 211, 213, 230, 321; grammar school 95; province 79, 80; bay 213, 215

Vilkuna, Kustaa, professor 251

Virolainen, Johannes, agrarian 253, 262, 277

Vladimirov, Viktor, KGB agent 251

Voionmaa, Väinö, social democrat 171

Voroshilov, Klimenti, commander of the Soviet armed forces 210, 231

Walden, Rudolf, industrialist, minister of defence 220

Walleen, Carl, chief law officer, 90

Wallenius, Kurt, Lapua leader 179, 190

war veterans' organisations 218

war-guilt trials 194, 228, 234, 248

Weissenberg, Alexander von, chief law officer 127

Weizsäcker, Ernst von, state-secretary of the German foreign ministry 219

Westermarck committee on agriculture 296–297

western Finland 4, 23, 24, 40, 43, 56, 59

White Sea 1, 3, 21, 188, 224

Wickman, Albin, politician 229

Wikman, K. R., ethnographer 133

wilderness (erämaa) 20–21, 21–23, 97

Winterton, Paul, British journalist 233–234

Witting, Rolf, foreign minister 221, 224, 227

women in public life 284

Workers' and Small Farmers' Socialist Union (TPSL) 253, 262

Wrede, Rabbe, senator 147, 170

Wright, Viktor von, manfacturer and reformer 135

Wuolijoki, Väinö, social democrat 156

Yartsev, Boris, Soviet diplomatic agent 204–205

Ylikangas, Heikki, historian 58

Young Finn party 138, 150, 151, 316

Yrjö-Koskinen, Aarne, diplomat 203

Zakrevsky, Arseny, governor-general 85

Zhdanov, Andrey, chairman of allied control commission 232–233, 237, 238, 243

Zilliacus, Konni, journalist 141

Zschokke, Heinrich, German author 96


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