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Making English Morals
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  • Page extent: 336 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.62 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 303.3/72/094209034
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: HN300.M6 R63 2004
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Social ethics--England--History--19th century
    • Social movements--England--History--19th century
    • Voluntarism--England--History--19th century
    • Social reformers--England--History--19th century
    • Moral development--England--History--19th century

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521833899 | ISBN-10: 0521833892)

Making English Morals
Cambridge University Press
0521833892 - Making English Morals - Voluntary Association and Moral Reform in England, 1787–1886 - by M. J. D. Roberts
Index



Index




Adderley, Charles B. (first baron Norton), 163

adultery, 30

African Civilisation Society, 172

Agency Committee, 132, 185

Ailesbury, Lord, 17

Allen, William

   and Bettering Society, 65

   and British and Foreign School Society, 70

   career of, 82–3, 121 n.98

   critic of poor law, 90

   and Prison Discipline Society, 105

   and Society for Suppression of Mendicity, 107

   and Spitalfields Soup Charity, 93

allotments, 154

Althorp, John Charles Spencer, Lord, 133

American War of Independence, 30, 35

Amiens, Peace of, 66, 74

Animal Cruelty Act (1835), 134, 187

Anti-Corn Law League, 157, 165–6, 185

anti-Jacobins, English, 61, 74, 82

antislavery, see slavery, campaign to abolish

Anti-Slavery Society

   branch network, 112–13

   leadership, 111–12

   methods of agitation, 132–3

   objects, 111

   social composition of membership, 112

anti-vaccination movement, 218 n.88

anti-vivisection movement, 218–21

apprenticeship, campaign against West Indian, 129, 133, 172, 184, 185

Arnold, Thomas, headmaster of Rugby, 225

Ashley, Lord, see Shaftesbury, earl of

Associate Institution, 160–2

Association for Preserving Liberty and Property, 61

Association for the Relief of the Manufacturing Poor, 73, 92, 93

Babylon, 183

   ‘Maiden Tribute of Modern’, 267, 271

Ballot Act (1872), 241, 282

bankers and banking, 83, 123, 180, 252, 284

Barnett, Revd Samuel, 249

Barrington, Shute, bishop of Salisbury, and of Durham, 18, 64, 76

Bedford, Peter, 105, 125, 207

Beer Act (1830), 116, 117, 195

Beer Act (1869), 195

begging, 104, 209

Bernard, Sir Thomas, 44, 72

   and Bettering Society, 64, 76

   career of, 78, 84

   critic of poor law, 90

   and principles of philanthropy, 91–2

   and Proclamation Society, 66

Bettering Society, see Society for Bettering the Condition of the Poor

Bevan, R. C. L., 180

Beveridge, William H., Lord, 12

Bishop Auckland, 258

Blackmore, Lt Thomas, RN, 200

Blackwell, Dr Elizabeth, 262

Bodichon, Barbara, 220

Bodkin, William H., 106, 138

Bolton, 151

Booth, Catherine, 267

Bosanquet, Charles B. P., 226

bourgeois public sphere

   defined, 13–14, 23

   evaluated, 15, 295–6, 297–8

Bowles, John, 70, 75, 81–3, 87

boy scout movement, 280–1

Bradford, 117, 151

Bradlaugh–Besant trial, 193

Brenton, Edward P., 156, 181–2

Bright, John, 246, 247

Brighton, 88, 251

Bristol, 204

British Association for the Promotion of Temperance, 151, 177, 184

British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 184

British and Foreign Bible Society, 71, 78, 97, 113, 115, 123

British and Foreign School Society, 70

British and Foreign Temperance Society

   branch network, 117 n.83

   leadership, 117

   objects, 117

   outflanked by teetotal temperance, 152

   social composition of membership, 150

British, Continental and General Federation for the Abolition of Government Regulation of Prostitution, 229, 253

British Medical Association, 219

British Society of Ladies for Promoting the Reformation of Female Prisoners, 130

British Temperance Advocate, 1

Broome, Revd Arthur, 110, 114, 135

brothels, suppression of, 74, 101, 160, 255, 273; see also Associate Institution; Central Vigilance Committee; Guardian Society; Society for the Suppression of Vice

Brougham, Henry, 70, 120

Bruce, Henry A., 212

Brussels, 252, 267

Buckingham, James S., 150, 154, 175–6

Budd, Revd Henry, 80

Bunting, Percy, 228–30, 270

Bunting, Sarah Maclardie, 229

Burke, Edmund, 61, 298

Butler, Josephine

   career to 1880, 233–5

   on duties of rulers, 217

   and ‘Maiden Tribute’ agitation, 266–8, 269

   on medical profession, 214

   and National Vigilance Association, 230, 270

   and social purity movement, 228, 229, 251

   and Trades Union Congress, 217

   and Vigilance Association, 262

Buxton, Thomas Fowell

   and Antislavery Society, 110

   and Beer Act, 1830, 116

   career of, 121–3, 133, 171

   and Prison Discipline Society, 104

   and reform bill crisis, 115

   and [R]SPCA, 111, 114

   and Spitalfields Soup Society, 93

Cabbell, Benjamin Bond, 161

capital punishment, 32, 207

Capital Punishment Abolition Society, 207

Card, Nathaniel, 165, 166 n.81

Caroline, Queen, trial of, 108, 126

Carpenter, Mary, 163, 177–9, 232

Catholic Emancipation, 115

census of religious observance (1851), 203

Central Association for Stopping the Sale of Intoxicating Liquors on Sundays (CASSILS), 203

Central Vigilance Committee for the Repression of Immorality, 255–6, 270

Chadwick, Edwin, 158, 175, 176

Chalmers, Revd Thomas, 109 n.46, 175

Chamberlain, Joseph, 228, 275

Chant, Mrs Ormiston, 273 n.109

charity, concept of debated, 2, 91–2, 106–7, 137–8, 149, 226, 248

charity organisation, 65, 73, 210, 247–50, 275–6; see also Charity Organisation Society; Society for Bettering the Condition of the Poor; Society for the Suppression of Mendicity

Charity Organisation Society

   branch network, 211–12, 248

   critics, 238–9, 248

   leadership, 224, 226

   membership, 211

   objects, 209–11

   precedents for, 91

   and professionalisation of domestic visiting, 211–12, 237–8, 248, 276

   relations with poor law authorities, 211, 248, 275–6

Chartism, 148, 177, 182, 231

Children’s Friend Society, 155–6

Christian, The, 271

Christian Instruction Society, 118

Church of England

   Broad Church party in, 205, 211, 224, 226

   Evangelical party in, 35, 46, 67, 73, 87, 107, 138, 222–3

   High Church party in, 70, 145

Church of England Purity Society, 256, 257–8

Church of England Temperance Society, 202, 239, 277

civil society, 11–13, 294–8

Clapham sect, see Church of England, Evangelical party in; Wilberforce, William

Clarke, Anthony, 82, 87 n.99

Cobbe, Frances Power, 197, 220, 231–2

Cobbett, William, 5, 81, 83 n.85, 87

Cobden, Richard, 185

Colam, John, 220, 245

Coldbath Fields

    house of correction, 35, 57 n.155, 57 n.156

Colquhoun, Patrick, 26, 44, 65, 80–1

comforts, domestic, 100, 147, 155, 291

community, concepts of, 82, 89–90, 174, 202, 224–7, 274–5, 285, 294; see also neglect, concept of; sympathy, concept of

Constitutional Association, 109

consumption

   attitudes towards working-class luxury, 26, 60, 99, 100, 195–6, 279

   and cost of living, 64, 66, 195

Contagious Diseases Acts

   campaign to extend, 214–15

   campaign to repeal, 214–18, 242

   suspension of (1883) and repeal (1886), 253, 264, 272

Cooper, Daniel, 215

Coote, William A., 270, 273

Corn Laws, repeal of, 161, 164

Cowper-Temple, Georgiana, baroness Mount-Temple, 221

Cowper-Temple, William, first baron Mount-Temple, 227 n.115, 256

Crawford, William, 125, 140

crime

   statistics of, 32, 51, 101, 117, 148, 162, 194

   prosecution of, 40–1, 52–3, 187, 239

   See also societies for prosecution of felons

Criminal Law Amendment Act (1885)

   post-enactment debate on, 268–9

   pre-enactment debate on, 263–8

   provisions of, 268

Criminal Law Amendment Act (1912), 273

Cropper, James, 113, 127–8, 285

Crossley, Frank, 270

Cruelty to Animals Act (1876), 219, 220

Daily News (London), 215

Dartmouth, George Legge, third earl of, 79

Darwinism, 197, 226, 279

Director of Public Prosecutions, office of, 187

disestablishment, Irish Church (1869), 210, 241

Dissent, militant, 172, 202, 223

District Visiting Society, 118 n.91

Dolben, Sir William, 40

domestic visiting, 93, 108, 139, 151, 178, 235–9; see also Charity Organisation Society; evangelicalism and woman’s mission; gender roles

drinking

   statistics of liquor consumption, 32, 99, 116–17, 195

   venues, commercialisation of, 99, 117

   venues, regulation of opening hours, 167, 203

Dunlop, John, 152 n.28, 158, 164, 175

Dyer, Alfred, 252–3, 259, 272

East India Company, 78

Edinburgh Review, 87

education, elementary, 69–70, 196, 207

Education Act (1870), 212, 228

elections, general, 241 (1868); 217, 241 (1874); 246, 253 (1880); 272 (1885); 272 (1886); 274 (1895)

Ellenborough, lord chief justice, 85, 87

evangelicalism

   and domestic ideal, 121, 123–5, 196

   and leisure, 223

   and millennialism, 62, 115, 271

   and moral reform, 6, 46–7, 291–2

   and sin, 46–7, 291

   and woman’s mission, 129–30, 139, 202, 234, 235–6

   See also Church of England, Evangelical party in; Protestantism, pan-evangelical

factory work, campaign to control conditions of, 146

Farrar, Revd Frederic W., canon of Westminster, 229

Female Aid Society, 200

Female Mission to the Fallen, 200

Female Society for the Relief of British Negro Slaves, 130

Fitzwilliam, William Wentworth-Fitzwilliam, fourth earl, 18, 25, 33, 38

Foucault, Michel, 56

Fowler, R. N., MP, 256

free trade, limits of debated, 42–3, 167, 292–3

Fremantle, Hon. and Revd William H., 211

French wars (1793–1815), impacts of, 59–61

Fry, Elizabeth, 123, 130–1, 139–41

gambling, 67, 280, 286; see also lotteries

gender roles, 2, 28–30, 62–3, 100, 131–2, 146–7, 178

   and professional qualification, 205, 225, 236–7, 263

George, Henry, 254

Gillett, George, 252, 259

Gladstone, William E., 206, 241, 252, 282

Glasgow, 117, 280

Glasse, Revd Dr Samuel, 34, 35, 40, 43, 48, 57 n.155

Gompertz, Lewis, 114, 115, 135

Gordon Riots, 32, 33

Goschen Minute (1869), 211, 275

Gospel Purity Association, 259, 266, 270

Great Exhibition (1851), 167

Green, Thomas H., 226

Grosvenor, Lord Robert (first baron Ebury), 161, 180–1, 188

Guardian Society

   and law enforcement, 102

   membership, 102

   objects, 101–2

   and reclamation of prostitutes, 102–3

Guilds of Help, 276

Gurney, Joseph John, 123, 124, 172

Gurney, Priscilla, 112

Gurney, Revd William, 75 n.62

Habermas, Jürgen, 13–14

   Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The, 13, 22, 295

Habitual Criminals Act (1869), 208

Hanbury, Cornelius, 83 n.85, 105

Harcourt, Sir William, 264, 267, 272

Harrison, Brian

   and history of moral reform voluntarism, 8–9

   Drink and the Victorians, 7, 8 n.20

Haskell, Thomas L., 11

Health of Towns Association, 158

Hey, William, 37, 38, 44, 50

Heyrick, Elizabeth, 130–1

Hill, Octavia, 212, 249

Hoare, Henry, 83

Hoare, Samuel III, 104, 123

Hoare, William H., 102 n.16

Hoggan, Dr George, 220

Hopkins, Jane Ellice, 251, 257–8, 261, 265, 270, 271

   ‘Ellice Hopkins Act’, 253, 260

Howard Association, 207–9, 224, 276–7

Howard, John, 34, 41

Hughes, Thomas, 225

Hull, 203

Humanitarian League, 277

Hume, Joseph, MP, 106, 136

Indian Mutiny, 199

informers, use of, 53, 86–7

Irish Home Rule bill (1886), 247, 272, 274

Jarrett, Rebecca, 267

Jeffries case, 267

Jevons, William Stanley, 243

Jordan, River, 223

juvenile delinquency, 103, 162–3, 178

Kenyon, George, second baron, 115

Labouchere, John, 180

labour market

   fluctuations in, 20, 65, 146, 149, 254

   national integration of, 284

   post-1850 stabilisation of, 195

   post-war strains in, 32, 101

   seasonal variation in, 108, 249, 250 n.14

   See also wage levels

Labourers’ Friend Society

   links with other associations, 154, 155

   objects and supporters, 153–5

Ladies’ Associations for the Care of Friendless Girls, 251, 270

Ladies’ National Association for the Repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts (LNA), 216–17, 234, 242, 270

Ladies’ Sanitary Association, 206

Lancaster, Joseph, 69

Law, G. H., bishop of Bath and Wells, 153

laws of settlement, 35, 149; see also poor law

Lawson, Sir Wilfrid, 213, 247, 274

Leeds

   middle-class voluntarism in, 9

   Proclamation Society links, 52

   temperance in, 151, 177

Lees, Frederic R., 177–8, 242

leisure

   and commercial entertainment, 145, 147–8, 195, 279, 284

   and public order, 27–8

   and ‘rational recreation’, 147, 154, 189, 203

   and work ethic, 196, 285–6

liberalism

   managerial, 144

   disciplinary, 212, 239

Liberation Society, 185, 198, 227

liberty, limits of debated, 137, 189–91, 214, 234, 239–40

Licensing Act (1872), 195, 212–13

Lichfield, Thomas Anson, second earl of, 210, 256

Lightfoot, J. B., bishop of Durham, 258

literacy, attitudes towards, 28, 69, 97, 110, 169, 197

literature

   popular, 28, 69, 169, 279

   indecent, 28–9, 52, 68, 109, 170

Liverpool

   child abuse in, 260

   Sunday observance in, 116

   workhouse, 233

Liverpool Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, 260

Livesey, Joseph, 150, 151, 173–4

Loch, Charles S., 212, 226–7, 247, 249, 276

London

   begging in, 104, 209

   drunkenness in, 279 n.132

   grand jury of City of, 19

   policing in, 66, 135–6; see also Sunday trading riots, 1855

   poor relief in, 209, 225; see also Marylebone workhouse

   prostitution in, 99, 160, 200, 255, 273

   provincial suspicion of, 37, 73, 76, 127

   temperance in, 152

   voluntary association in, 120, 249, 285

London City Mission, 159, 162

London Committee for the Suppression of Traffic in English Girls, 253, 255, 266

London Female Preventive and Reformatory Institution, 201

London School Board, 223, 224, 225, 229

London Society for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery, see Anti-Slavery Society

London Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, 222, 260–1; see also National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children

London Society for the Protection of Young Females, 159–60

Lord’s Day Observance Society

   and law enforcement, 188

   membership, income and branch statistics, 119

   objects, 117–18

   and petitioning, 134, 184, 188

   religious and social composition of leadership, 118–19

lotteries, 67 n.32

Macaulay, Thomas Babington, Lord, 62, 193

Macaulay, Zachary, 87, 87 n.99, 110

MacGregor, John (‘Rob Roy’), 169, 196, 223–4

magdalenism, 201; see also prostitutes, reclamation of

Magee, William Connor, bishop of Peterborough, and archbishop of York, 214

magistrates

   clerical, 43

   metropolitan police, 66, 85; see also Colquhoun, Patrick

Mainwaring, William, 35, 39

Malthus, Thomas Robert, 65, 99, 181, 291

Manchester, 259

   Manchester–Liverpool railway, 116

Mandeville, Bernard, Fable of the Bees, The, 25

Manning, Henry, Cardinal, 270

Martin, Matthew, 92

Martin, Richard, MP, 113

Marx, Karl, 5, 8

Marylebone workhouse, 64, 156, 181

Maurice, Frederick Denison, 226

Mayne, Miss, 169

Mearns, Revd Andrew, Bitter Cry of Outcast London, The, 254, 270

Methodism, Wesleyan, 113, 188, 229, 270

Metropolitan Police Act (1829), 98

Metropolitan Police Act (1839), 166

Miall, Edward, 172

Middlesex Justices Act (1792), 66

Middleton, Sir Charles (first Lord Barham), 35, 39

Midnight Meeting Movement, 200–2, 205, 216

Mill, John Stuart, 189–90, 197, 216

Minors’ Protection Joint Committee, 265–6

Mitchell, Charles T., 266

moderate Calvinism, 47

Montagu, Basil, 105, 114

moral reform

   and citizenship, 31, 152, 167, 197, 206, 243–4, 275, 292–3

   defined, 1–3

   and environment, 22, 105, 154, 191, 201, 286–7, 291; see also comforts, domestic; leisure and ‘rational recreation’

   historiography, 4–14

   impact assessed, 293–4

   and law enforcement, 48–9, 134–7, 189–91, 213–14, 230, 240, 265, 269, 291

   and professionalisation, 43–4, 80–1, 92, 125, 140, 176–9, 236, 276, 278, 287–8

   and work discipline, 4–7, 138, 195, 208, 285–6, 290

moral reform tradition, 142, 272, 287–9

Moral Reform Union, 262–3, 270

More, Hannah, 64

   and Cheap Repository Tracts, 69

Morgan, R. C., 259

Morris, R. J., 9–10

Muswell Hill brigade, 230

National Anti-Gambling League, 280

National Association for the Promotion of Social Science; see Social Science Association

National Association for the Repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts (NARCDA), 215, 216

National Council for Civil Liberties, 277 n.123

National Council of Voluntary Organisations, 283 n.144

national efficiency, debate on, 280, 284

National Reformatory Union, 164

National Society for the Education of the Poor in the Principles of the Established Church, 71

National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, 229, 277–8

National Society for the Promotion of Social Purity, 218 n.87

National Sunday League, 189

National Temperance Society, 152

National Vigilance Association

   branch network, 271

   and electoral mobilisation, 272–3

   and law enforcement, 272–3

   leadership, 270

   objects, 270

   social composition of membership, 270 n.99

neglect, concept of, 103, 122, 162

New British and Foreign Temperance Society, 152

New Poor Law, see poor law, Act of 1834

Newman, Francis W., 215

newspaper press

   provincial, 241

   Sunday, 68, 100, 118

Noel, Hon. and Revd Baptist, 201

Nonconformists

   and attitude to state authority, 140, 167, 191, 228, 230, 251

   Nonconformist conscience, the, 228, 230

   See also: Dissent, militant; Protestantism, pan-evangelical; Methodism, Wesleyan

Normanby, Constantine Phipps, first marquess of, 158

North London Sunday Rest Association, 189

Northern Counties League for the Repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts, 216–17, 227

Obscene Publications Act (1857), 200

Old Testament, 20, 62, 74, 167, 228, 291

Pall Mall Gazette, 267

Palmerston, Henry John Temple, third viscount, 193, 199, 221

Paris, 164, 228, 251

Parkhurst prison for juveniles, 156

Paul, Sir George O., 35, 39

Peek, Francis, 208, 224, 229, 270 n.100

Peel, Sir Robert, first baronet, 76, 84

Pellatt, Apsley, MP, 179 n.123

Penal Reform League, 277

Peterloo massacre, 108, 126, 139

petitioning, parliamentary, 36 n.73, 132 (antislavery); 184–5 (temperance, Sunday observance); 240 (CD Acts repeal, UKA); 266 (social purity)

Philanthropic Society, 55

Pitt, William (the Younger), 31, 38

Pitt, William Morton, 40

Place, Francis, 70

pledging of parliamentary candidates, 184, 185

police, metropolitan: see London, policing in

Police Act (1856), 186, 194

police reform, 32–3, 98, 194

Pontefract, 18, 216

poor law

   Act of 1834, 98, 134, 148, 149

   rate levels, 32, 35, 64, 98, 101, 117

   reform campaigns, 35, 90–1, 98–9, 249

   workhouses, conditions in, 205, 206

   See also Marylebone workhouse; laws of settlement

Pope, Samuel, 166 n.81, 189–90, 242

population

   growth rates, 22, 24–5, 98, 146, 193

   patterns of distribution, 24, 98

   See also urbanisation

Porteus, Beilby, bishop of Chester, and of London, 18, 35, 50

Preston, 150, 174

printers and publishers, 84, 170, 174, 293

Prison Discipline Society

   leadership, 104–5

   and legislation, 134

   and methods of reclamation, 139–40

   objects, 103–4, 105–6

prison reform, 34–5, 109, 139–41, 207–9, 276–7

Prisons Act (1835), 134, 140

privacy, domestic, 89, 100, 234, 260, 269

Proclamation Society

   branch networks, 36–7

   and law enforcement, 52–4

   leadership, 40

   and legislation, 51–2

   links with other associations, 34–6, 71 n.47, 74

   membership and social composition, 33, 66

   objects, 17, 37

   and prison reform, 54, 56–8

   religious composition, 45–6

proclamations against vice and immorality, royal, 17, 21, 37, 116

professions and professionalisation, 2, 80–1, 144, 176, 220, 226–7; see also evangelicalism and woman’s mission; gender roles; moral reform and professionalisation

prostitutes

   as free moral agents, 160, 216, 269 n.94

   juvenile, 159, 252–3, 263

   reclamation of, 102–3, 201, 218, 251

   See also Associate Institution; Guardian Society; London, prostitution in; victimhood, identification of

Protestant Alliance, 169

Protestant Association, 201

Protestantism, pan-evangelical, 62, 70, 97, 144, 162, 164, 168, 198, 201, 255, 280

psychology, associationist, 55–6, 88

Public Health Act (1848), 158

Pure Literature Society, 169

puritanism, 33–4, 45, 74, 95, 296

   revolt against, 145, 196, 279

Pusey, Hon. Philip, 79 n.76

Putnam, Robert D., Bowling Alone, 288 n.158, 295, 296–7

Quakers

   and antislavery, 35, 112

   and CD Acts repeal, 216

   and prison reform, 104, 207

   and social purity, 252

   and temperance, 152

Radstock, Admiral Lord, 79

Ragged School Union, 162, 169

Raikes, Robert, 34, 39, 44, 48

Ratcliff Highway murders, 102

Reform Act (1832), 143

Reform Act (1867), 206, 221

Reform Act (1884), 282

reformatories, juvenile, 163, 173, 178–9, 204

Reformatory and Refuge Union, 163

registration, electoral, 184, 185

Rescue Society; see Society for the Rescue of Young Women and Children

Reynolds’ Newspaper, 180

Ricardo, David, 106

Rivington, Charles, 84

Romilly, Sir Samuel, 105

Rosebery, Archibald Primrose, fifth earl of, 263, 264

royal commissions

   as form of public inquiry, 144, 274

   specific, 159 (children’s employment in mines, 1842), 219 (vivisection, 1875), 233 (operation of CD Acts, 1871), 276 (poor laws, 1905–9)

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

   and child protection, 260

   and ‘Christian principles’, 115

   income and membership, 114 n.71, 245

   leadership, 114

   and legislation, 134, 218–19

   objects, 111, 113

   and policing, 135–6, 187–8

Russell, George W. E., MP, 270, 272

Salisbury, Robert Cecil, third marquess of, 265

Salt, Henry, 277

Salvation Army, 259, 267, 270

Saturday Review, 241

Scott, Benjamin, 252

select committees, parliamentary, 104; (mendicity); 150 (drunkenness); 253, 263, 265 (protection of young girls)

sensibility, culture of, 29, 83

Shaen, William

   and anti-vivisection, 220

   and Associate Institution, 161

   career of, 230–1

   and CD Acts repeal movement, 216, 218

Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, seventh earl of

   and anti-vivisection movement, 220

   career of, 182–3, 221–2

   and Charity Organisation Society, 238

   on child cruelty, 260

   and Criminal Law Amendment bill, 264

   death of, 289 n.160

   and Indian Mutiny, 199

   and Mines Act, 1842, 159

   mobbed in 1856, 189

   and paternalism, 155

   and ragged schools, 162

   relationship with Lord Palmerston, 199

   and social purity, 256

   on woman’s mission, 236

Sheridan, Richard B., 29

Shore, John, first Lord Teignmouth, 78–9

Shoreditch, 74

sin, expiation of as motive, 2, 41–3, 62

   individual, 41, 129, 219, 226, 287

   collective, 20, 47, 74, 118, 181, 182, 187, 200, 217, 234, 271

slave trade, abolition campaign, 17, 35–6, 112

slavery

   rhetoric of, 133, 146 n.9, 233, 250, 252, 292

   campaign to abolish, 112–13, 132–3, 184–6

   See also Agency Committee; Anti-Slavery Society

Smith, Adam, 26 n.34, 27, 43, 127, 291

Smith, Samuel, MP, 254, 260

Smith, Revd Sydney, 87

Smith, Theophilus, 200, 201

Social Purity Alliance, 251, 261

social purity movement, 250–63, 265–71, 272–4

Social Science Association, 198–9, 208, 214, 225, 241, 283, 296

societies for prosecution of felons, 41, 187

Societies for the Reformation of Manners, 20–2, 255

Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade, 36

Society for Bettering the Condition of the Poor

   branch networks, 75–6

   ladies’ committee, 76 n.67

   leadership, 64–5

   objects, 63–5

   social composition of membership, 64, 76

Society for Improving the Condition of the Labouring Classes, 155

Society for Promoting the Employment of Women, 206

Society for Promoting the External Observance of the Lord’s Day, 75, 87 n.99

Society for the Diffusion of Knowledge on the Punishment of Death, 105, 105 n.31

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 120

Society for the Improvement of the Condition of Factory Children, 146

Society for the Rescue of Young Women and Children, 200, 215, 216, 224

Society for the Suppression of Juvenile Vagrancy, see Children’s Friend Society

Society for the Suppression of Mendicity

   branch network, 108

   critics, 107, 137–8, 156

   leadership, 106

   and legislation, 134

   membership, 108

   objects, 103–4

   and policing, 134–6, 187

   and New Poor Law, 149

Society for the Suppression of Vice

   branch network, 77

   critics, 73–4, 87–8, 136

   and law enforcement, 85–9

   leadership, 67, 73

   and legislation, 134, 200

   membership and income, 74, 75, 109, 170 n.100

   objects, 67–8, 102, 109, 113

   religious composition, 73–4, 115

   social composition of membership, 76–7

Spitalfields

   philanthropy in, 121

   Soup Society, 65, 93

Stamford (Lincs.), 187–8

Stanley, Edward Henry, Lord (from 1869 fifteenth earl of Derby), 189–90, 247

Stansfeld, James

   and anti-vivisection, 220

   and Associate Institution, 161

   and CD Acts repeal movement, 218, 242, 253

   on drawbacks of democracy, 254

   and Muswell Hill brigade, 230

   and social purity, 251

Stead, William T., 267–9, 270–1, 289 n.160

Stephen, James Fitzjames, 199

Stuart, James, 251, 270

Sturge, Eliza, 129

Sturge, Joseph, 128–9, 172–3, 293

Sturges Bourne, William, 106, 138

Suffield, Edward Harbord, third baron, 110, 126–7

Sunday observance, 21, 47–8, 62, 68, 100, 118, 166–7, 239 n.153, 279

   Dissenters and, 118

   See also Sunday trading riots

Sunday schools, 48, 68, 280

Sunday School Society, 34

Sunday trading riots (1855), 168, 188–9

sympathy, concept of, 103, 125, 291

Tait, Archibald Campbell, bishop of London, and archbishop of Canterbury, 210, 225

Talbot, James Beard, 159

Tallack, William, 207, 209, 277, 287

temperance movement, 116–17, 150–2, 165–8, 202–4, 212–13, 246–7, 274–5

Test and Corporation Acts, 45, 97

   repeal of, 127

Thomasson, J. P., 270

Thompson, Edward P., 4

Thompson, F. M. L., 279

Times, The, 138, 189

toleration, religious, 20, 172, 296

Trades Union Congress, 218

transportation, penal, 163, 207, 209

Turner, Revd Sydney, 163, 176 n.116

Twining, Louisa, 204, 225

Unitarianism, 131, 160, 163, 179, 209, 216, 230–2, 261

United Kingdom Alliance

   critics, 243

   and electoral mobilisation, 202, 241–2, 274

   income and membership statistics, 167, 203, 205, 213 n.72

   leadership, 165–6

   and legislation, 168, 177, 212–13

   and Liberal Party, 213, 241–2, 246–7, 274

   links with Anti-Corn Law League, 165–6

   objects, 165, 166

urbanisation

   patterns of, 194

   and moral reform anxiety, 26, 194, 224

   and rural nostalgia, 48, 154

Vagrant Acts, 134

victimhood, identification of, 146, 148, 156, 200, 205, 217, 219, 235

Victoria, Queen, 219, 245

Victoria Street Society for the Protection of Animals from Vivisection, 220

Vigilance Association for the Defence of Personal Rights, 217, 224, 251, 254, 261–2, 265, 269

voluntary association

   advantages and disadvantages of, 23–4

   and impact of professionalisation, 288

   and middle-class identity, 3–4, 9–10

   and participant citizenship, 288 n.158

   and social capital, 295–8

   tradition of in English-speaking world, 3–4 n.5

   and wartime mobilisation, 61, 71, 94

   See also women and voluntary action

wage levels, 26–7, 60, 195, 279; see also labour market

Walmsley, Sir Joshua, MP, 189

Walpole, Horace, 30

Warr, George C. W., 251

Watson, Joshua, 82

Waugh, Benjamin, 228–9, 270, 271

Webb, Sidney and Beatrice, 5–6

Webb-Peploe, Revd H.W., 256, 270

White Cross Army, 258

Wiener, Martin J., 287

Wilberforce, William

   and Antislavery Society, 110

   and Association for Relief of Manufacturing Poor, 73

   and Bettering Society, 64

   on charitable giving, 91

   on cities and morals, 26

   conversion of, 41–2, 46

   death of, 171

   on divine mercy, 124

   family status of, 39

   on female volunteer activism, 129

   historical reputation, 4, 6

   and Proclamation Society, 17–18, 25, 38

   public career of, 78, 122

   and reform of criminal law, 44

   and [R]SPCA, 114

   and slave trade abolition, 35

   and Society for Suppression of Mendicity, 138

   and Sunday school movement, 34

   and Vice Society, 87

Wilkinson, William Martin, 210, 212

Williams, Thomas, 53

Wilson, Revd Daniel, 119, 125 n.112

Wilson, Henry J., 216, 227–8, 233

Wilson, Joseph, 119

Windham, William, 63 n.16

Windsor Castle, Sunday work at, 89

women

   and the bourgeois public sphere, 296

   and petitioning, 129, 132, 184, 240

   and public speaking, 178, 185, 242

   and voluntary action, 129–30, 205–6

   See also domestic visiting; evangelicalism and woman’s mission; gender roles; professions and professionalisation

Wookey, James, 259

Woolcott Browne, Mrs S., 262

Workhouse Visiting Society, 204–6

Wyvill, Revd Christopher, 31, 38

Youthful Offenders Act (1854), 163

Yorkshire, 18, 37–8

Zouch, Revd Henry, 26, 27, 38, 40, 43, 44





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