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The Museum Establishment and Contemporary Art
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Details

  • Page extent: 284 pages
  • Size: 253 x 177 mm
  • Weight: 0.874 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 708.4
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: N2010 .D47 2006
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Art museums--France--Management--Social aspects
    • Art and society--France--History--20th century
    • Artists and museums--France--History--20th century
    • Boltanski, Christian,--1944---Influence
    • Messager, Annette,--1943---Influence

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521841092 | ISBN-10: 0521841097)




INDEX

Note: Page numbers in bold refer to figures.

abstract art, 47, 60, 156, 182, 183–184, 207, 224n78

Abstract Expressionism, American, 181, 182

abstraction, postwar French, 182

Academy, French. See also Ecole des Beaux-Arts

   long-term influence of, 40, 54

“Accident, L’” (Messager), 192, 193

activism, artistic, 24–27, 24–28, 28–29, 74, 211, 221n14. See also ateliers populaires; author, “death” of; Conceptual Art; Fluxus; graffiti, GRAV; Salon de la Jeune Peinture; Situationist International

   art education, critiques of (see art education)

   art market, critiques of (see art market)

   art museums, critiques of, 5, 6, 26, 29–30, 32–35, 38, 67–68, 117, 211

   collaborations, 48, 58–59, 62, 74–75

   documentation of, in 1968, 27

   and specialization, critiques of, 19, 27, 55, 59, 61, 62, 64, 67, 82–83, 99

activism, political, 6, 15, 211. See also May/June 1968 activism

   activist graphics, 100

   anti-Vietnam War, 3, 16, 19, 202

   artists involvement in (see activism, artistic)

Ad Hoc Women Artists Group, 16

advertising. See also mass media

   “before” and “after,” 151, 151–152, 152

   politics and, 78

   role in women’s magazines, 146, 151–152

   shared unconscious in, 194

   sources, 150

Affiches, 1968, 49–53, 55. See also atelier populaire at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris

affichistes, 116

Aillaud, Gilles

   and Expo ’72, 117

Alberro, Alexander

   Conceptual Art, 14–15

Album de photos de la Famille D., 1939–1964 (Boltanski), 99–100, 101, 108–109, 108–111, 112, 113, 113–115, 115

   criticism on, 108–109, 119–120

   exhibition traveling crate, 105, 105

   social status of D. Family, 229n46

   statement about, 109, 229n43

   viewer identification with, 109–110, 190–191

alternative exhibition spaces, 61, 68, 78–79, 196

Althusser, Louis, 12, 132, 232–233n17

amateur photographs, 188–190, 239n54

American Center for Students and Artists, Paris, 75, 80, 84, 226n5, n6

   Occupation des lieux, 75, 77

   Work in Progress, 84

American Embassy, Paris, 75

American museums, 16, 211

anarchists, 19, 48, 128–129

“Animation-Recherche-Confrontation” (ARC). See Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris

Annette Messager collectionneuse (exhibition), 155, 155–158, 234–235nn35–38

anonymous artwork, 27, 72

anonymous, black artists as, 212

anti-Semitism, 206

Archiv der Deutschen Abgeordneten (Boltanski), 1, 3

Archives (Boltanski), 1, 2, 11

   personal memorabilia in, 7, 8

Arman, 47, 182, 185, 204, 226n11. See also nouveaux réalistes/nouveau réalisme

Art Brut. See outsider art

art collectors, 122, 185

   conservatism of, 224n75

art collectors, American, 57

art, contemporary

   autonomy of, 24

   as critical and political instrument, 27–28

   decentralization of, 200

   and politics, intersection of, 78, 117, 200, 201, 202

   and school system, time-lag between, 54

art criticism, 10

   feminist, 153

   on gender vs. universality in art, 13–14, 164, 165, 194, 242n27

art education, 24–28, 33, 53. See also art history; Ecole des Arts Décoratifs; Ecole des Beaux-Arts; education; Gaudibert, Pierre

   academic traditionalism and, 36, 54, 55

   art market, relation to, 44, 53, 54, 56

   critiques of, 24–28, 32–35, 53–55, 61–64, 67, 158

   history of, 55

   and museums, 32–34, 174–175

   and popular culture, 36

   prize competitions, 54, 55–56

   reforms in, 55, 221n17

   and social control, 60, 64, 232n16

   and working class, 25, 33–35, 175

Art en France: Une Nouvelle Génération (Clair), 27–28, 29, 118–120

art galleries. See also art market; Galerie Gillespie-Laage; Galerie Iris Clert; Galerie J; Sonnabend Gallery (Paris); Templon Gallery

   and art establishment, 186

   boycotts of, 26

   closure during 1968 protests, 26, 28–29

   proliferation of, near Pompidou Center, 172–173

   and sales network, 200

art history, 54, 55, 160. See also Malraux, André

   without names, 106

Articulés-désarticulés (Messager), 2, 4, 5, 209–210

art institutions, 200–201. See also cultural institutions; museum(s)

   critique of, 60, 67–68, 104–105

   feminist critique of, 156

   reconstruction of, 19, 70

“Artist and Society, The” (Ragon), 44

“Artistes révoltés contre la politique totalitaire et technocratique des pouvoirs publics en matière d’art, Les” (tract), 229–230n49

artist residency programs (U.S.), 68

artists, French

   alliances with workers, 27

   career difficulties of, 57–60, 71–73

   contradictions between political critique and material needs, 68

   as ethnographers of themselves, 160, 162

   and exhibition venues, 41, 68, 117

   oppositional practice and, 79–80

artists, international, 41, 203, 204–205, 234n32

art market, 24, 54. See also art galleries; Fonds National d’Art Contemporain (FNAC); Fonds Régionaux d’Art Contemporain (FRACs); Moulin, Raymonde

   economic mechanisms of, 56–58

   expansion of, 201

   fiscal austerity and, 202

   inflation in ’80s, 200

   and mail art, 96

   museum influence on, 121–122, 173

   and nouveaux réalistes, 47

   operations, analyses of, 26–27, 71–72

   Pompidou Center, relation to, 68, 116, 122, 187

   public funding and, 238n52

   speculation in, 56–58

   state support of, 121

   women artists and, 158

art museums, critiques of. See activism, artistic; museum(s)

Art of Assemblage (exhibition), MOMA, NY, 238n43

art of the mentally ill. See “outsider art”

art, regional, 200

Arts Plastiques, Festival des, 225n92

art world. See also artists, French

   changes in power structures of, 24–28

   subversion vs. participation in, 82–83

art world activism. See activism, artistic

art world politics

   mystification in, 24, 36

assemblage, 83, 186, 227nn12–14, 238n43. See also nouveaux réalistes/nouveau réalisme

atelier populaire at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 26, 27, 34, 48–53, 59

   Affiches, 1968, 49–53, 55

   contesting market valuation of art, 59

   further influence of, 48, 58–59, 74–75

attributions, manipulation of, 64

auction, private, 97

audiovisual materials, 176

author, “death” of, 71, 78–79. See also Barthes, Roland; Boltanski, Christian; Foucault, Michel; Messager, Annette; Moulin, Raymonde

   as applied to visual art creation, 59, 72–73

   in artistic biography, 9–11

authorship, critiques of, 91–92

autobiography, in artwork, 7, 9–11, 85–86, 118

   limits of historical retrieval, 9, 11, 73–74, 90–91, 93–94

Avant-après (“Before and After”) (Messager), 150–151, 151, 152

“Avant-garde clandestine, Une” (Clair), 120

avant-garde, French, 231n2

   competition within, 26, 28, 46, 48

   critical interpretation of, 208

   Expo ’72 exhibition, 116, 120

   museum elitism and, 117, 159

   and political control, 117

Barthes, Roland, 10, 230n53

   “Death of the Author, The,” 72

Bastille, Paris

   Opera at, 200

Bâtons roses (Boltanski), 84, 85

Baudrillard, Jean

   on Pompidou Center, 180

Bazin, André, 118

Beaubourg. See Pompidou Center

Beaubourg Foundation. See Georges Pompidou Art and Culture Foundation

beaux-arts tradition, 60, 160, 170. See also Ecole des Beaux-Arts

   in painting, 28, 47

Bensaïd, Daniel, 22

Bernstein, Michèle, 42

Bertholin, Jean-Marie, 120, 159–160

Biasini, Emile, 32

Bibliothèque Nationale, 200

biography, artistic. See autobiography, in artwork

biscuit boxes, 11, 93–95, 94, 95, 104–105, 228n26

Bissière, Roger, 53

black Americans

   history of, 212

Black Emergency Cultural Coalition (BECC), 16

Blanchot, Maurice, 118

Blistène, Bernard, 236n4

B.M.P.T. See Buren, Daniel; Mosset, Olivier; Parmentier, Michel; Toroni, Niele

Bois, Yve-Alain, 40

Boîte en valise (Duchamp), 103

Boîtes de biscuits (Boltanski), 93–95, 94, 95, 104, 105, 228n26

Boltanski, Christian, 6–7, 61, 108, 159, 186. See also Conceptual Art; Land Art; Mail Art; Occupation des lieux

   archives (see also works: Archives)

     auction of, 97–98

   and authorship, “death” of, 9, 10, 68, 70, 73, 98

   belongings, personal, illustrations of, 87–88, 88, 89

   biography

     contradictions in, 7, 9–10, 85–86, 118

     family background, 1, 9

     themes, 9, 73–74

   burial and exhumation, ideas of, 84, 85, 98

   career advancement, 85–86, 98–99, 186–187, 191

   childhood memories and themes, 1, 71, 73

   collaborative works, 74–79, 80–85, 81, 96–97

   criticism on, 27–28, 82–83, 84, 86, 99, 106–107, 108, 118–119, 212–214

   critique of museums, 83–84, 90–91, 99–100, 200

   curatorial distortions, 74, 99, 108, 200

   ethnographic display methods, 7, 11 (see also ethnographic museums; vitrines)

   exhibitions, 64–65, 186–187 (see also Documenta 5, Lessons of Darkness)

   and Expo ’72, 117, 196

   Holocaust, references to, in works, 1, 9, 212–214, 218–219n16, 219n20

   interpretations of universality in his work, 73–74, 110, 115, 165

   interviews with, 218–219n16, 219n17, 227n20, 230n59, 238n53, 239n54

   and Judaism, 219n17

   and Messager, Annette, 12, 66, 125, 192, 194–196

   and multiple identities, 12, 98–99 (see also identities)

   and outsider art, 102, 104

   and political action, 3, 67, 117

   and popular photography, 187–192, 239n54

   sales of work, 96, 122, 187

   works

     Album de photos de la Famille D., 19391964, 99–100, 101, 108–111, 112, 113, 113–115, 115, 190–191

     Archiv der Deutschen Abgeordneten, installation, 1999, 1, 3

     Archives, 2, 7, 8, 11

     Bâtons roses, 84, 85

     Boîtes de biscuits, 93–95, 94, 95, 104, 105

     Chambre ovale, La, 65, 66

     Concession à perpétuité, 80, 81, 82–83

     Essais de reconstitution, 122

     Exhibition Traveling Crate, 105

     Images modèles, 187–191, 188

     Lettre demandant de l’aide, 91–92, 93, 105, 227–228n24

     Lycée Chases, 9–10

     Maison manquante, La, 9–10

     Pièges, 95, 104, 122

     Recherche et présentation de tout ce qui reste de mon enfance 1944–1950, 86–91, 87, 88, 89, 104, 227n20

     Reconstitution des gestes, 105

     Repas, 83, 83–84

     62 Membres du Club Mickey en 1955, Les, 117, 122

     Vitrine(s) de référence, 7, 101, 102, 109, 117

   works, materials used

     mannequins, 80, 82

     mud balls, 83–84

     vitrines, 85–91, 94–99, 105

   writings and mail art

     on Boîtes de biscuits, 93

     on color photography, 239n58

     exhibition invitation, 106, 228n37

     letter to Szeeman, 104, 228n35

     Recherche et présentation de tout ce qui reste de mon enfance, 86–87, 227n20

     statement on D. Family album, Documenta 5 catalog, 109, 229n43

Boltanski, Luc, 132–134, 136

   institutional analyses by, 12, 219n21, 232n16

   works

     Photography: A Middle-Brow Art (contributor), 110, 188

     Prime Education et morale de classe, 132–133, 136

Bonheur, Le (film, Varda), 193

Bonnes Soirées (serial), 194

Bordaz, Robert, 237n33

Borgeaud, Bernard, 228n28

   criticism on Boltanski as “fanatic,” 98

   and Expo ’72, 117

Boulez, Pierre, 169, 236n3

Bourdieu, Pierre, 232n16

   on art education and class bias, 32–33, 34, 174–175, 231n10

   elitist emphasis, criticized for, 36, 175

   on museum visitors, social profile of, 32, 34

   on photography, and social class, 110–111, 114, 188

   surveys on museum attendance, 32–33, 179

   works

     Inheritors, The (with Jean-Claude Passeron), 231n10

     Love of Art, The, 32, 174–175

     Photography: A Middle-Brow Art, 110, 188

bourgeois society, 33–34, 35, 170

Bourse

   and art market, 56–57

boycotts

   of exhibitions, 26, 79–80

Boyer, Kathryn Ann, 222n39

Bozo, Dominique, 236n4

Brecht, George, 45

Broodthaers, Marcel, 103

Buchloh, Benjamin, 218n15, 226n9

Buren, Daniel, 61, 62, 64, 65, 226n11

   criticism on, 27–28

   Photo-souvenir: Buren, Mosset, Parmentier, Toroni, Manifestation no. 3, 66

   political activism, 67, 79, 117

   stripe paintings, 14

burial practices, French, 82

Bury, Pol, 116

Cabanne, Pierre, 222n34, 224n74, n75

Cahier de Couture (Lycée Marie Curie), 138, 139, 139

Cahiers du cinéma, Les ( journal), 10, 72

Cahiers du GRIF, Les ( journal), 131

camera clubs. See amateur photographs

Campement projet, Le (Le Gac), 62, 63

capitalism

   protests against, 3, 19, 26, 202

Capture of Speech, The (de Certeau), 38

Casati, Cesar, 237n29

Cassou, Jean, 39–40, 221–222n28

   Art and Confrontation, 217n9

Castel, Robert, 188–190

Cauchemar, Le (Messager), 192, 195

censorship, state, 49, 51

Center for Industrial Creation (CCI), 169, 174. See also Mathey, François

Centre National d’Art Contemporain (CNAC), 40

   Boltanski exhibition, 186, 196

Centre National d’Art et de Culture Georges Pompidou (Beaubourg), Paris. See Pompidou Center

Certeau, Michel de. See de Certeau, Michel

César, 116, 182, 185, 204. See also nouveaux réalistes/nouveau réalisme

Chaissac, Gaston, 204

Chamberlain, John, 183

Chambre ovale, La (Boltanski), 65, 66

Chases High School (Boltanski). See Lycée Chases

Chirac, Jacques, 202, 204, 205

   and Georges Pompidou legacy, 202–203, 240–241n11

Christian right (U.S.), 211

Christo, 204. See also nouveaux réalistes/nouveau réalisme

Chroniques de lart vivant ( journal), 106, 158, 164, 205, 208. See also Clair, Jean (Gérard Regnier)

Cincinnati Contemporary Art Center, Ohio, 242n28

Cinq Musées personnels (exhibition), 159–160

   catalog essay, 160, 162–163

Citroën workers

   strike, 49

Cixous, Hélène, 12

Clair, Jean (Gérard Regnier), 29, 100, 106, 108, 231n2, 241nn18–25, 242n26. See also Chroniques de lart vivant ( journal); Expo ’72

   attack on French cultural institutions, 205–206

   on the avant-garde, 28, 120

   Boltanski, criticism on, 106–108, 118–120, 208, 229n38, n39

   on Conceptual Art, 27, 28

   diagram on French art world, 29

   on Documenta 5, 106–108, 118

   on Expo ’72, 116–121

   Le Gac, criticism on, 106–108, 229n38, n39

   Made in France exhibition, criticism on, 204–205

   on national culture, 120, 206–208

   on photography, 118–120

   and politics, 27, 120, 205–208, 242n26

   works

     Art en France: Une Nouvelle Génération, 27–28, 118–120, 230n52, n56

     “Une Avant-garde clandestine,” 120, 230n58

class alliances, 27

class bias, 19, 25. See also Bourdieu, Pierre; education

Clayssen, Jacques, 230n59

CNAC. See Centre National d’Art Contemporain

Cobra (artists’ group), 223n47

Cohn-Bendit, Daniel, 22

collaboration, egalitarian. See activism, artistic

collective representations, reality in, 194

collectors. See art collectors

Collin, Françoise, 234n34

colonial wars, 31

commemorative events (1990s), 203

Commission on Reforming Instruction in the Visual Arts. See Ecole des Beaux-Arts

commodity culture, 168

communists, 19, 48, 128–129

Conceptual Art (Alberro and Stimson), 14–15, 16

Conceptual Art and artists, 226n8, 227n15. See also Boltanski, Christian; Buren, Daniel; institutional critique; Le Gac, Jean; Messager, Annette; Pane, Gina

   and activism, 60–70

   co-optation of, 14–15

   critical interpretations of, 27, 28, 218n15, 226n8, 227n15

   in England and United States, 79

   and political activism, 9, 14, 27, 61, 67–68

   politics, 14, 15

Concession à perpétuité (Boltanski, Le Gac, Pane), 80, 81, 82–83

Conkelton, Sheryl, 219n22

Conseil Artistique des Musées Nationaux

   acquisitions policy, 40

conservatism, cultural, 211

Constructivism, 181

consumerism, 76. See also Lefebvre, Henri

   consumer culture, wastefulness of, 141–142, 186

   passivity of, 42, 43

contemporary artists

   and exclusionary museum practices, 41

copyright law, 10

Cordier, Daniel, 56, 224n75, n78

   and Expo ’72, 116

Cottington, Laura, 234n34

Coupole, La, 43, 45

creativity, revolutionary, 42, 43–44, 128

Crocrodrome (installation, Luginbühl, de Saint-Phalle, Tinguely), 178–179, 179

Crow, Tom

   Rise of the Sixties, The, 14, 15, 16

C.R.S. state security police, 21, 44, 49, 50, 51–52, 67, 69

Cueff, Alain, 241n15, n17

   Made in France exhibit, criticism on, 204–205

“Cuisson des aliments, La” (Messager), 142–143, 143, 144

cultural institutions. See also art institutions; museum(s)

   critiques of, 26–28, 67–68

   development of social consciousness, 2

   exclusion of public from, 36

cultural policy, contemporary. See also Lang, Jack

   ’68 agenda and, 17–18, 153–154, 199–200

“Cultural World and Art Education, The” (Gaudibert), 54

culture, “death” of, 180

culture, popular, 30–31, 48, 49, 52, 168, 174, 181. See also mass media

curators, 74, 99. See also Pompidou Center

   and Boltanski, Christian, 108, 212–215

   Documenta 5, 99, 122

   Documenta 11, 209

    Expo ’72, 116–117

    and Messager, Annette, 155–157, 158–164

curriculum. See art education; education

Dadaism, 181, 183, 238n43–44

Dagen, Philippe, 218n12

Daily Gestures (Messager). See Gestes quotidiens, Les

Daily Timetable for the Ménagère (Ginette Mathiot and Nelly de Lamaze, Manuel déducation ménagère), 135

Dallier, Aline, 157, 234n34, 236n33

dealer-critic system. See also art galleries; art market; curators

   and speculation, 56–58

“Death of the Author, The” (Barthes), 72. See also author, “death” of

de Benoist, Alain, 206

Debord, Guy, 42

Debré, Michel, 23

de Certeau, Michel, 24, 234n29

   universal culture, critique of, 38, 163

de Gaulle, Charles, 3, 16, 29–30

   dissolution of National Assembly, 20, 23

   economic stabilization plan, 20

   Gaullism, 19

   neo-Gaullism, 202

   reelection of, 24

Degottex, Jean, 116

de Lamaze, Nelly, 135

“De LArt en France à Made in France” (Clair), 206, 241–242nn21–26

Délégation aux Arts Plastiques, Paris, 241n20

de Menil, Dominique, 185

democracy, cultural, 29–30, 170, 187, 197, 212, 215

   Malraux’s vision of, 31–32, 197

   in 1970s, 170, 187

Département des Aigles (Broodthaers), 103

dérive. See Situationist International

DeRoo, Rebecca J., 229n46

de Saint-Phalle, Niki, 47, 116, 182, 185, 204

   Crocrodrome, 178–179, 179

de Staël, Nicolas, 204

D. Family Album (Boltanski). See Album de photos de la Famille D., 1939–1964

Direction des Arts Plastiques, 40

discipline

   Foucault on, 232–233n17

Dispersion à lamiable (private auction), 97

   invitation to, 97

Distel, Herbert, 103

Documenta 5, Kassel, Germany, 98, 99–109, 115, 228n29. See also Szeeman, Harald

   themes of, 100

   criticism on, 118, 119

   history of, 228n29

   validation of artists’ works, 122

Documenta 11, Kassel, Germany

   goals of exhibition, 1–2

   sociological and political themes, 209

documentation

   of art world activism, 1968, 27

domestic labor. See also feminism; home economics; Mouvement de Libération des Femmes; women’s magazines; “women’s work”

   critiques of, 141, 234n29

   culture of, 142–143

   “Homemaker’s Timetable, The,” 131, 135

   “Housework is work,” 131

   modernization of, 142, 146

   paradox of, and differing interpretations, 140–146

   state regulation of, 132–134

   undervaluation of, 131–132, 156

Dorival, Bernard, 40

d’Ornano, Michel, 183

Dreyfus-Armand, Geneviève, 231n10

Dubuffet, Jean, 102, 204

Duchamp, Marcel, 171, 238n42, n43

   Boîte en valise, 103, 105

   retrospective, Pompidou Center, 183

Duchen, Claire, 233n23

Dufrêne, Bernadette, 236n3

Dufrêne, François, 116

“Du Musée imaginaire à l’imaginaire muséal” (Clair), 106–107

Dupuis, Sylvie, 194

Durand, Michel, 229n46

Ecole de Paris (School of Paris), 40, 181, 222–223n39

Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, 25

Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. See also beaux-arts tradition

   and atelier populaire, 48, 49–53, 55

   Commission on Reforming Instruction in the Visual Arts, 1968, 34–35

   conservative influence and outdated teaching, 25, 60, 224n75

   occupations (sit-ins), 19, 25, 44, 55, 75

ecomuseums, 196–197. See also ethnographic museums; provincial museums

economics. See also art market; consumerism; domestic labor

   Fordism, 233n23

   and globalization, 2

   and government cultural spending, 202, 236n11

   inflation of art market, 200

   national arts budgets, 54

   and social organization, 42

education. See also art education; Bourdieu, Pierre

   class bias, 231n10

   curriculum, divided, 130–131, 157–158

   curriculum for women, 129, 130–144

   demands for reform, 3–5, 19, 131

   history of, 33

   home economics, 130–132, 140

   pre-baccalaureate, 130

   textbooks, gender roles in, 232n12

   tracking by gender and class, 130–131

Eliel, Carol S., 218n13, 219n22, 220n25, 231n8

elitism, 26

   in museum policy, imposition on public, 28, 35, 175

Elle (magazine), 13, 144, 151

Enwezor, Okwui, 209. See also Documenta 11, Kassel, Germany

Erró, 117

Eschapasse, Maurice, 116

Essais de reconstitution (Boltanski), 122

ethnographic museums, 37, 104, 105, 159, 160. See also ecomuseums

   display cases, 7, 11, 37, 102, 106, 155, 158 (see also vitrines)

   poststructuralist and postcolonial critiques of, 38

ethnography, 30, 90

ethnology

   and history, study of, 38

everyday life, 223n44. See also Boltanski, Luc; Lefebvre, Henri; Messager, Annette

   alternative view of art, based on, 35, 39–49, 51–60, 129–130

   and artistic practice, 7, 41, 168, 183, 186

   and museums, 7, 37–38, 39, 41–49, 51–60, 167–169, 173

   oppression in, 42

   politics of, 13, 125–130, 152–153, 164–165, 178

Everyday Life in the Modern World (Lefebvre), 41–42, 76

exhibition catalogs

   Pompidou Center, 176

   as surrogate object, 84

exhibition spaces

   alternative, 61, 68, 78–79, 196

exhibitions, feminist, 196

exhibitions, traveling, 122, 172

   Exhibition Traveling Crate (Boltanski), 105

Expo ’72, 12 Ans d’art contemporain en France, 98, 115–122, 196

   curators’ selections, 116–117

   and political protest, 17, 117, 119, 203

   themes, 116–117

family album. See Album de photos de la Famille D.

family history, 110, 111, 113, 114

family photographs, 1, 7, 9, 214, 218n11, 230n53. See also photography

FAP. See Front des Artistes Plasticiens

fascism, 207, 242n26

Féminie-dialogue (exhibition), 196

femininity

   media images of, 192

   in work of Messager, 12, 210

feminism. See also Mouvement de Libération des Femmes; gender issues

   art criticism, 129, 153

   debates on societal roles, 152–153

   demands on museums, 6–7, 125, 211

   literary theorists and women artists, comparative visibility of, 236n53

   and universalism, 17

   in work of Messager, recasting of ’68 and, 12, 67, 125

feminist exhibitions, 196. See also Messager, Annette

Festival des Arts Plastiques, 225n32, 225n92, 231n4

Fête de la musique

   and spirit of ’68, 201–202

Feuilleton, Le (Messager), 192–194, 193, 195, 195

fiches cuisine (recipe cards), 144, 156

Figaro, Le (newspaper), 194

Filliou, Robert, 45, 47. See also Fluxus; mail art

films, 82

   Vie impossible de Christian Boltanski, La, 65

Finley, Karen, 242n28

Fisher, Joel, 159–160

Flay, Jennifer, 227–228n24, n25

Fleck, John, 242n28

Fluxus, 45–47

   alternative sites and, 53

   manifesto, 45–46

FNAC. See Fonds National d’Art Contemporain

Fonds National d’Art Contemporain (FNAC), 121, 122

Fonds Régionaux d’Art Contemporain (FRACs), 200–201, 240n3

Foucault, Michel, 97, 132, 232n16

   on authorship, 10, 71

   on discipline and punishment, 232–233n17

   how institutions shape individual subjectivity, 12

   “What Is an Author?”, 71, 72

FRACs. See Fonds Régionaux d’Art Contemporain

Francis, Sam, 204

Frascina, Francis, 220n31

fraud

   in art market, 57–58

Frauen Machen Kunst (exhibition), 196

French academic tradition. See Academy, French

French government. See also Chirac, Jacques; de Gaulle, Charles; Giscard d’Estaing, Valéry; Mitterrand, François; Pompidou, Georges

   and arts budget, 158

   concessions to protesters, 23–24

   cultural policies, 200–206

   Guy, Michel (Minister of Culture), 171–172

   National Assembly, dissolution of, 20

   rally in support of, May 30, 1968, 23, 23

   regional arts administration, 200

French history, reinterpretation of, 3, 19, 202

French revolution, 16

Fromanger, Gérard, 48

Front des Artistes Plasticiens (FAP), 117, 229–230n49

Front National, 205–206

Galerie Gillespie-Laage, 187, 192, 194

Galerie Iris Clert, 47

Galerie J, 64

Galerie Magers, Bonn, Germany, 196

Galerie Nationale du Jeu de Paume, 39

   Georges Pompidou, Homme de culture (exhibition), 203

galleries. See art galleries

games, collective, 43

Garb, Tamar, 219n17

Garcia Rossi, Horacio, 43

Garrard, Mary, 220n29

Gasiorowski, Gérard, 117, 120

Gassiot-Talabot, Gérald, 228n29

Gatellier, Gilbert, 227nn12–14, n16, n18, n21

   criticism on Boltanski, as “fanatic,” 98

   criticism on Concession à perpétuité, 82–83

   criticism on Recherche et présentation, 90–91, 227n21

Gaudibert, Pierre. See also Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris

   on art education, 41, 54, 56, 224n75

Geismar, Alan, 22

gender issues

   and art criticism, 13–14, 153, 157–158, 164, 165, 194

   feminist movement and, 17, 129

Génération (publication) (Hamon and Rotman), 202

genius, concept of, 9, 27

gentrification, 170–171

Georges Pompidou Art and Culture Foundation, 185

Georges Pompidou, Homme de culture (exhibition), 203

Gestes quotidiens, Les (Messager), 146, 147, 148

Gillespie-Laage Gallery. See Galerie Gillespie-Laage

Giscard d’Estaing, Valéry, 165

Golan, Romy, 182, 238n40

Goldstein, Ann, 226n8

government. See French government

graffiti, 26

   anti-consumerist, 43

   Situationist-inspired, 43

GRAV, 43–44, 47, 48, 61, 67, 116

   alternative sites and, 53

   members, 43, 45

   Une Journée dans la rue (project), 43, 45

Guerilla Art Action Group, 16

Guerilla Girls (U.S.), 211

Guggenheim Museum (New York), 204

Gumpert, Lynn, 217n2

   on Boltanski exhibit, Lessons of Darkness, 9, 212–213

   on Holocaust influences, 1, 9, 212–214, 217n2

Guy, Michel (Minister of Culture), 171–172

Hains, Raymond, 116, 185, 204

Hamon, Hervé, 202

Hantaï, Simon, 117

happenings, permanent, 44

Harrison, Charles, 218n15, 226n8

Havana, Cuba

   public art and revolution, 44

Helms, Jesse, 242n28

history. See also art history

   collective, 5–6, 123

   feminine identity in, 13

   frozen in time, 217n2

   Jewish, 219n17

   museum presentation of, 7, 8, 11, 103

   personal, 2, 3, 114, 119

   post-1968 decade, 214

   retrieval from, 11

   shared, 30

   specificity of, 210

history, family. See family history

history, French, reinterpretation of. See French history, reinterpretation of

history, Holocaust. See Holocaust

history of education. See education

Hitchcock, Alfred

   movies and posters, 192

Holocaust, 1, 9. See also Boltanski, Christian; Gumpert, Lynn

   repressed history of, 212–214, 219n20

   works, difficulties in interpretation of, 213–214

   works, spectator and, 217n2

Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, D.C.

   Tower of Life installation, 1

Holz, Hans Hein, 108–109, 110

home economics, 130–132, 140, 158, 233n23. See also domestic labor; “women’s work”

Honnef, Klaus, 239n56

   on Messager, feminine aesthetic of, 193–194

housekeeping. See domestic labor

housework. See domestic labor

Hughes, Holly, 242n28

Hulten, Pontus, 169, 183, 236n3, 238n43, n45

   catalog essay, Paris-New York exhibition, 183–184, 238n44

   criticism on Tinguely, 183–184

   exhibition strategies, 178–180, 181–183

humanism, 26, 30–31, 162, 210. See also Malraux, André

iconoclasm, 121

Identité/Identifications (exhibition), 239n54, n59

identities

   mythic and fictional, 65, 73, 94, 119

   representations of, 9–11, 12, 98, 219n18

Images modèles (“Model Images”) (Boltanski), 187–191, 188, 189

individual expression, art as highest form of, 86

individualism, rhetoric of, 212

“individuality of the artist” (theme, Expo ’72), 116–117

“individual mythologies” (theme, Documenta 5), 99–100, 102, 106–107

industrial aesthetics, 173

Inheritors, The (Passeron and Bourdieu), 231n10

installations. See also Boltanski, Christian; Land Art; Le Gac, Jean; Messager, Annette; Pane, Gina

   Bâtons roses (Boltanski), 84, 85

   Concession à perpétuité (Boltanski, Le Gac, Pane), 80, 81, 82–83

   Crocrodrome (Luginbühl, de Saint-Phalle, Tinguely), 178–179, 179

   Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, D.C., 1

   Pompidou Center, 178–179, 179

   Reichstag building, Berlin, Germany, 1, 3

Institut d’Art et Archéologie, 55

Institute for Musical Research (IRCAM), 169, 174. See also Boulez, Pierre

institutional analysis, 12

institutional critique, 99, 104–105

   and Conceptual Art, 14, 28, 67–68

   politics of, 14–15

Institut National de Recherche Pédagogique, Rouen, France, 13, 139

interactive art experiences, 36–37, 43, 178

internationalism, 182–186, 205–208

   reaction against, in France, 206–208

Intox vient à domicile, L’ (poster), 51

Jacob, Mary Jane, 212, 217n1

Jeu de Paume (museum). See Galerie Nationale du Jeu de Paume

Jeunes Artistes à Paris (exhibition), 80, 83–84

“Job Market in Painting, The” (student tract), 57–58, 224–225n79

Johns, Jasper, 183

Johnson, Ray, 45, 47. See also Fluxus; mail art

Jouffroy, Alain, 92

Journée dans la rue, Une (project, GRAV), 43, 45

Journiac, Michel

   and Expo ’72, 117

   Occupation des lieux, participation in, 75–76, 77

Jungblut, Guy, 239n58

Kandinsky, Nina, 183

kinetic art, 116

Klein, Yves, 47, 116

Kovachevich, Thomas, 159

Kracauer, Siegfried, 212–213

Krisis ( journal), 206, 241n20

“Kritische Theorie des ästhetischen Zeichens” (Holz), 108–109

Kudo, Tetsumi

   Occupation des lieux, participation in, 75–76, 77

Künstlerinnen International (exhibition), 196

labor, creative, 27

labor, domestic. See domestic labor

labor, manual, 27

Lacan, Jacques, 118

Lainé, Pascal

   on domestic artisanship, 142–143, 144, 146, 233–234n24, n27

Land Art, 79, 80, 81

   landscape interventions, 62

Lang, Jack (Minister of Culture), 200, 201, 202. See also Fonds Régionaux d’Art Contemporain (FRACs)

Lascault, Gilbert

   Chroniques de lart vivant essay on Messager, 164, 235n52

   Cinq Musées personnels (exhibition and catalog essay), 158, 159–165, 235nn46–48, n50, n51

   on Documenta 5, 239n41

Latin Quarter

   demonstrations (May 6 and 13, 1968), 20, 22

   graffiti, 43

   happenings and revolutionary events, 43

   police violence, 3, 19–20, 21, 22, 24, 44

“Lavage, Le” (“Laundry”) (Messager), 131–132, 133

Lebeer, Irmeline, 228n30, n31

Lebovics, Herman

   on Malraux and Chirac, cultural policies of, 31, 202, 221n15, 240n1, n18

Lefebvre, Henri, 41–42, 45, 49, 52, 78, 223n44, n45

   on consumerism and mass media, 146, 149–151, 198

   Everyday Life in the Modern World, 76, 126

   politics of the everyday, theory of, 13, 127–128, 178

Le Gac, Jean, 61, 67, 120

   Bâches, 80

   Campement projet, Le, 63

   career, 61–62

   Concession à perpétuité, 80, 81, 82–83

   criticism on, 27–28

   exhibitions in provincial museums, 105–106

   and Expo ’72, 117

   invitation essay, 106, 228n37

   Occupation des lieux, participation in, 75–76, 77

Legrand, Claire, 228n36

Lemoine, Marianne, 239n2

Lemoine, Serge, 116, 239n64

Le Parc, Julio, 43, 45

Lessons of Darkness (exhibition), 9, 209, 212–213, 217n1

Lettre demandant de l’aide (Boltanski), 91–92, 93, 227–228n24

Lévêque, Jean-Jacques, 239n60

   poster text for Occupation des lieux, 75–76, 77

Lévi-Strauss, Claude, 144

lieux de mémoire (Nora), 5

Lippard, Lucy, 226n8, 227n15

literary criticism, 10

loans for exhibitions

   facilitated by FRACs, 201

Louvre Museum, Paris. See Musée du Louvre

Love of Art, The (Bourdieu), 32

Ludwig, Peter, 122

Luginbühl, Bernard

   Crocrodrome, 178–179, 179

Lycée Chases (Boltanski), 9–10

Maciunas, George

   Fluxus manifesto, 45–46

Made in France (exhibition), 203–206, 205

   surrounding controversy on, 205–208

Maglione, Milvia, 153

   Many Hours of Work (wall hanging), 153

mail art, 47, 62

   booklet, Boltanski, 86

   Lettre demandant de l’aide (Boltanski), 91–92, 93, 227–228n24

   museum installations of, 96, 104

   as relic, 91

Maison de la Culture, Caen, 65

Maison des Beaux-Arts, 48

Maison des Jeunes, Charençon, 64

Maison manquante, La (Boltanski), 9–10, 213

maisons de la culture, 221n18, 222n30. See also Malraux, André

   anti-elitist position, 175

   directors’ response to criticisms, 35–36

   Villeurbanne resolution, 35

Malassis (political art group), 117

Malraux, André, 23, 73, 124, 160, 200–201, 221n18

   cultural policy, 29–32, 34, 35

   photography as a cultural medium, 36, 124, 162, 174

   works

     Musée imaginaire, Le, 30

     Voix du silence, Les, 160, 235n46

Manuel déducation ménagère (Ginette Mathiot and Nelly de Lamaze), 135

Many Hours of Work (Maglione), 153

Maoists, 19

Mapplethorpe, Robert, 242n28

Marcadé, Bernard, 218n13, 220n25

Marcel Duchamp exhibition, Pompidou Center, 171. See also Duchamp, Marcel; Pompidou Center

March, 1968 activism, Nanterre, 19

Marie-Claire (magazine), 13, 151

Marmer, Nancy, 219n18

   on Beaubourg development, 172, 240n1, n3

“Marshall Plan,” aesthetic, 185, 238n51

Marsh, Georgia, 219n17

Marxism, 26, 42, 126

Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, MD, 211–212

mass media. See also advertising; culture, popular; Situationist International

   and everyday life, 185–186

   and Pompidou Center, 174, 177–180

   as tool of oppression, 197

mass-media images, in artwork, 187–192, 239n54

Mathey, François, 40, 116, 169, 228n29, 236n3. See also Musée des Arts Décoratifs

Mathiot, Ginette, 135

Matisse, Henri, 204

Ma Vie pratique (“My Practical Life”) (notebook, Messager), 132, 133, 134–140, 136, 137, 146

May/June 1968 activism, 19–20, 20, 22, 24, 44. See also activism, artistic; activism, political; ateliers populaires; education; museum(s)

   art world, effects on power structure of, 24–28

   barricades, 6, 19, 67, 220n5

   cultural institutions and, 15–16

   cultural politics of, 218n10

   demonstrations, 3, 20, 22

   nostalgia for, 202

   occupations (sit-ins), 25, 75

   police violence, 3, 22

   students, involvement in, 3, 19, 21, 22, 41, 43, 67

   women, involvement in, 13, 19, 67, 128, 225nn90–91, n93

   workers, involvement in, 3–4, 20, 22, 23, 27, 49, 50, 217n4

May Revolution. See May/June 1968 activism

media wall project (Pompidou Center), 176–177

Mes Collections d’expressions et d’attitudes diverses (Messager), 149, 150, 150

Messager, Annette, 61, 204. See also Conceptual Art; education; feminism; Mouvement de Libération des Femmes; women artists; women’s magazines

   artistic background and career, 66–67, 153–155, 165, 187, 231n1

   and art work, political activism of, 3, 15–16, 67, 70, 208–209

   and authorship, “death” of, 12

   and Boltanski, Christian, 12, 66, 125, 192, 194–196

   criticism on, 12–14, 153, 164, 242n27

   curriculum, critique of, 140, 144, 157–158

   diaries, fictional, 125, 160

   documentation of daily activities, 13, 125–126, 130, 164

   ethnographic display methods, 155, 158

   everyday, imeages of, 6–7, 125, 153, 164 (see also everyday life)

   exhibitions, 153

     Annette Messager collectionneuse, 155, 155–158

     Cinq Musées personnels, 159–160, 161, 163–165

     compared with Boltanski, 194–196

     Documenta 6, Kassel, Germany, 187

     Galerie Gillespie-Laage, 187, 192

     Venice Biennial, 1976, 187

   exploration of gender differences and mass culture, 192

   “feminine” materials and themes, 12, 13, 164, 192, 193–194, 210

   and feminism, 67, 153

   institutional critique, 15, 67–68, 69, 156, 200

   mass culture references, 150, 186, 192

   rejection of painting tradition, 67, 225n93

   on the ’68 revolution (interview), 225nn90–91, n93

   universality and, 218n13, 242n27 (see also art criticism)

   works

     “Accident, L’,” 192, 193

     Articulés-désarticulés, 2, 4, 5, 209–210

     Avant-après, 150–151, 151, 152

     Cahiers and Albums collections, 127

     “Cauchemar, Le,” 192, 195

     “Cuisson des aliments, La,” 142–143, 143, 144

     Feuilleton, Le, 192–194, 193, 195, 195

     Gestes quotidiens, Les, 146, 147, 148

     Lavage, Le, 131–132, 133

     Mariage de Mademoiselle Annette Messager, Le, 161

     Ma Vie pratique, 132, 133, 134–140, 136, 137, 144, 146

     Mes Collections d’expressions et d’attitudes diverses, 149, 150, 150

     Mes Travaux d’aiguille, 138–140, 140, 141

     Mon Livre de cuisine, 144, 145

     “Peau-rôle-hygiène, La,” 134–138, 136

     Pensionnaires, Les, 160, 161

     Tortures volontaires, Les, 151–152, 153, 154

     Untitled Drawing, 1968, 67, 69

   works, gender specificity of, 13–14, 157–158, 164–165, 194

Mes Travaux daiguille (“My Needlework”) (notebook, Messager), 138–140, 140, 141

Metken, Günter, 227–228n24, n25; 239n2

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 16

Mickey Mouse Club photographs. See 62 Membres du Club Mickey en 1955, Les (Boltanski)

Miller, Tim, 242n28

Millet, Catherine, 227n22

   on Boltanski’s mail art, 91

   perception of Boltanski as “sentimental,” 98

   review of Boîtes de biscuits, 93–94

Minimalist Art, 54, 60, 116, 182

Mining the Museum (Wilson), 211

Ministry of Cultural Affairs, France, 31. See also Guy, Michel; Lang, Jack; Malraux, André

Miralda, Antoni

   participation in Occupation des lieux, 75–76, 77

Missing House, The (Boltanski). See Maison manquante, La

Mitterrand, François

   grands projets, 200, 202

MLF. See Mouvement de Libération des Femmes

MNAM. See Musée National d’Art Moderne

Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden, 178–180. See also Hulten, Pontus

Mollard, Claude, 170, 171, 174, 175, 236n6, 237n20

MOMA. See Museum of Modern Art, New York

Mon Livre de cuisine (“My Cookbook”) (Messager), 144

monochrome painting, 116

Monory, Jacques, 117, 120

Morellet, François, 43

Mosset, Olivier, 62, 64

   Photo-souvenir: Buren, Mosset, Parmentier, Toroni, Manifestation no. 3, 66

Moulin, Raymonde, 84

   on art market, economics of, 56, 58

   on arts funding and the art market, 238n52, 240n3

   “Living without Selling,” 71–72

Mouvement de Libération des Femmes (MLF), 13, 128, 129, 131, 231n7. See also feminism

   on school curriculum (girls’ education), 19

movie posters, 192

multiculturalism

   and museums, 6, 209–210

Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 26, 64, 196. See also Gaudibert, Pierre; Pagé, Suzanne

   “Animation-Recherche-Confrontation” (ARC), 41, 54

   Annette Messager collectionneuse (exhibition), 155, 155–158

   formation of, 40, 41

Musée de Grenoble, 159

Musée de l’Homme, 37, 90, 107, 227n21. See also ethnographic museums

Musée des Arts Décoratifs, 40–41, 66

Musée du Louvre, 121, 167

   opening to the citizenry, 5

   pyramid, 200

Musée du Luxembourg, 39–40

Musée imaginaire, Le (Malraux), 30

Musée National d’Art Moderne (MNAM), 26, 39, 169. See also Cassou, Jean; Dorival, Bernard; Hulten, Pontus; Viatte, Germain

   administration of, 39, 40

   closure of (1968 protests), 26, 28–29

   controversy over new acquisitions and sponsorship, 185

   “internationalism,” 182–186, 205–208

   Made in France exhibition, 203–206, 205

   at Palais de Tokyo (1960s), 39, 172, 187

   Paris-New York exhibition, 182, 182–186, 183

   at Pompidou Center, 169, 172, 174, 180–186, 196–197, 203–206

   reinstallation of collections, 203

musées classés, 171

musées contrôlés, 171

museology, history of, 37

museum audiences

   broadening of, 7, 15, 30, 35, 45, 72–74, 154, 165, 174

   and cultural patrimony, 5–6, 31, 221n17

   and democratization,32, 191, 199, 201, 209, 212

   and Documenta, 5 100, 102, 103, 114–115

   and ethnography, 36, 38, 162–163

   and Fluxus, 46–47

   and mass media, 192

   and Occupation des lieux, 74–78

   and participatory viewing, 78

   and photography, 221n16

   and Pompidou Center, 6, 168, 174, 175, 178–181, 184–187, 197

   response to conceptual exhibitions, 1, 3, 73, 79, 84, 102, 123, 162, 191

   response to feminist exhibitions and women’s issues, 125–126, 154, 156, 192, 194

   and shared experiences, 196–197, 210–211

museum cafés, 168

museum commissions, 178–179, 179

museum-dealer-press conglomeration

   and narrowing of artist participation, 172–173

Museum of Modern Art, New York (MOMA), 16, 238n43

museum(s), 211. See also art institutions; Bourdieu, Pierre; cultural institutions; ethnographic museums; headings beginning with “Musée” or “Museum of ”; maisons de la culture; museum audiences; Palais de Tokyo; Pompidou Center; Whitney Museum of American Art

   and accessibility, 7, 168, 170, 175

   and class bias, 30, 32, 34, 158, 174–175

   and concept of universality, 8, 26, 30, 32, 35, 125, 158, 161–162, 196, 199, 209, 211

   and contemporary art acquisitions, 39–40

   conventions and authority of, 103

   critiques of, 5, 6, 26, 29–30, 32–35, 38, 67–68, 79, 117, 126, 157–158, 168, 185, 206, 211

   democratization of, 9, 18, 28–29, 167–171, 180, 181, 196–197, 212

   economic role of, 122

   elitism and inaccessibility of, 6, 28, 34–36, 126, 175

   exclusion of contemporary artists, 41

   history of, 217n8

   government centralization of, in France, 16

   “museums by artists” (Documenta 5), 102–103

   and national culture, 6, 158, 199–202

   patrimony, 29, 31, 32, 34, 39, 124

   political mission of, 3, 15–16, 17–18, 167, 206

   role in historical upheavals, 217n8

   and social diversity, 5–6, 32, 33, 199, 209

   as symbol of national identity, 15–16, 167

museums, American, 16, 211

Museum Waldau, Bern, Switzerland, 102, 228n34

My Collection of Various Expressions and Attitudes (Messager). See Mes Collections d’expressions et d’attitudes diverses

Mythologies quotidiennes (exhibition), 228n29

Nanterre campus, University of Paris. See Paris, University of

“narcissistic individualism,” 202

National Endowment for the Arts (U.S.), 226n8, 242n28

“nationalist” art, advocacy of, 205, 207–208

NEA. See National Endowment for the Arts (U.S.)

“NEA 4,” 242n28

Neue Galerie, 100, 102–103

New Left, 15

new realism. See nouveaux réalistes/nouveau réalisme

New York School

   imposition of, on Europeans, 56

Nightmare (Messager). See Cauchemar, Le

Nora, Pierre

   on collective memory and identity (lieux de mémoire), 5

Nous deux (serial), 194

nouveaux réalistes/nouveau réalisme, 47–48, 52, 204. See also Arman; Christo; de Saint-Phalle, Niki; Hains, Raymond; Klein, Yves; Restany, Pierre; Spoerri, Daniel

   and Expo ’72, 116

   in Made in France exhibition, 204

   in Paris-New York exhibition, 182, 182–185, 238n47

Nuridsany, Michel

   criticism on Messager, sources in mass culture, 194, 240nn67–69

objets témoins, 37

Occupation des lieux (collaborative project), 75–80, 77

occupations (sit-ins), 19, 25, 75, 229n5

Odéon theater. See Théâtre de l’Odéon

Oldenburg, Claes, 103

Ono, Yoko, 45

Op Art, 116

Opera at the Bastille, 200

oppression

   women’s (see Mouvement de Libération des Femmes)

“origins and singularity” (theme, Made in France exhibition), 204

O.R.T.F. See Radio Diffusion-Télévision Française, Office de

“outsider art,” 102, 104, 107

Pacquement, Alfred, 116, 238n47

Pagé, Suzanne, 155–157, 196, 228n26, 230–231n60. See also Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris

   attempts to purchase Messager’s work for museum, 156, 234–235nn35–38

Paik, Nam June, 45

painting, tradition of. See also Ecole des Beaux-Arts

   rejection of, 62, 67, 225n93

Palais de Tokyo

   Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris at, 40, 41

   Musée National d’Art Moderne (MNAM) at, 39, 172, 187

Palais Galliera

   Jeunes Artistes à Paris at, 83–84

Pane, Gina, 61, 67

   career, 62

   criticism on, 27–28

   and Expo ’72, 117

   works

     Concession à perpétuité, 80, 81, 82–83

     Occupation des lieux, participation in, 75–76, 77

     Pierres déplacées, Vallée de l’Orco (Italie), 64, 65

Parent, Béatrice, 217n2, 223n61, 234n33

Paris Biennial, 61, 64, 80, 158–159, 226n11

   protests, 159

Paris-New York exhibition, Pompidou Center, 182–186, 183

   expense of, 171

   critiques of, 185–186

Paris, University of

   Nanterre campus, 19, 41

   Sorbonne, 19, 21, 43

   student/administration clashes, 19

Parmentier, Michel, 62, 64

   criticism on, 27–28

   Photo-souvenir: Buren, Mosset, Parmentier, Toroni, Manifestation no. 3, 66

Parti Socialiste Unifié (PSU), 172–173

Passeron, Jean-Claude

   Inheritors, The (with Pierre Bourdieu), 231n10

patrimony, 28–29, 31–32, 34, 39, 114, 120, 121, 124, 208

“Peau-rôle-hygiène, La” (Messager), 134–138, 136, 233n21

Peemans-Poullet, Hedwige

   on arts ménagers, 234n28

Pensionnaires, Les (Messager), 160

Petit Journal, Le (museum guides), 176

philosophy

   of everyday life (see Lefebvre, Henri)

photography, 30, 105. See also family photographs

   and accession of memories, 1, 7, 9, 212–213

   amateur, 188–190, 239n54

   as documentation, 43

   as indirect reflection of experience, 213

   and landscape interventions, 62

   signification of, 111, 113–114, 230n59

   and social class, 188–191, 229n46

Photography: A Middle-Brow Art (Bourdieu, Pierre), 110

photonovels, 192

photorealism, 100, 117

Photo-souvenir: Buren, Mosset, Parmentier, Toroni, Manifestation no. 3, 66

Piano, Renzo, 169, 171. See also Pompidou Center

   on media wall, 177

Picasso Museum, Paris, 240n18

pièges, 95

Pierre, José, 228n25

   response to Boltanski’s mail art, 92, 98

Pierres déplacées, Vallée de l’Orco (Pane), 62, 64, 65

Poinsot, Jean-Marc, 160, 226n4

   on Boltanski, 91, 98, 227n23

Police s’affiche aux Beaux-Arts, La (poster), 52, 55

police violence, 19–20, 21, 22, 44. See also C.R.S.

Police vous parle, La (poster), 51, 52

politics. See also activism, artistic; activism, political; French government; May/June 1968 activism

   institutional vs. external, 15

   political figuration, 117

   political transformation, 42, 172–173

   propaganda, 100

Pollock, Jackson, 185

Pompidou Center, 68, 165, 169. See also musée National d’Art Moderne; museum audiences; Piano, Renzo; Pompidou, Georges; Rogers, Richard

   acquisitions, 181, 187

   architectural committee, 236n2

   architecture and industrial aesthetic of, 169, 173, 182

   attendance statistics, 171, 180

   budget controversies, 169–171

   collection of post–WW II American art, 185, 207

   construction of, 6, 17, 167–168

   curators, 205, 237n23

   development of, 17, 122

   as entertainment center, 177–180

   establishment of, 116, 167, 203

   as information center, 176–177

   installations

     Crocrodrome, 178–179, 179

   location of, 170

   and marketing networks, 173

   media wall proposal, 177, 237n29

   and 1968 protests, 116, 168, 197

   objections to, 173–174, 203

   programming, 174–175

   publications, 176

   Rendezvous exhibition, 204

   as symbol, 197

Pompidou, Georges, 168, 170, 202–203, 236n6. See also Pompidou Center

   and cultural policy, 153

   and Expo ’72, 116, 117

   and 1968 activism, 16

Pompidou, Claude, 183

Pop Art, 53, 60, 116, 168, 175, 181

   in Paris-New York exhibition, 182, 182, 238n43, n47

Pop artists, American, 53, 54, 183

popular culture. See culture, popular

popular education and popular culture movements, 31

Popular Front, 31, 201, 220n5

“Popular Studio ‘Yes,’ Bourgeois Studio ‘No’” (manifesto), 59

posters, 48, 192, 226n6. See also Affiches

   collaborations, 49, 59, 75

   collection of, 59–60

   differing purposes of, 78

   for fund raising, 59

   politics vs. advertising, 78

   silk-screen, 48

poster workshops. See atelier populaire at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris

Poulot, Dominique, 240n73

Pouvoir culturel, Le (Cabanne), 222n34, 224n75

pre-baccalaureate education, 130

“prettiness”

   media clichés of, 192

Prime Education et morale de classe (Boltanski, Luc), 232n16, 233n17, n18

Prix de Rome, 54

prize competitions

   in art education, 54, 55–56

Proust, Marcel, 118, 119

provincial museums, 105, 171

PSU. See Parti Socialiste Unifié

public library (BPI), Paris, 169, 174, 176. See also Seguin, Jean-Pierre

“Questioning Reality – Image Worlds Today.” See Documenta 5

Radio Diffusion-Télévision Française, Office de, 51

radio, short-wave, 27

Ragon, Michel, 44, 45, 226n11

Ranelagh theater, Paris, 65

Rauschenberg, Robert, 53–54, 183

Raysse, Marcel, 185

“readymades” (Duchamp), 183, 184, 238n44

“reality of representation” (theme, Documenta 5), 100

“reality of the represented” (theme, Documenta 5), 100, 102

Recanati, Michel, 22

Recherche et présentation de tout ce qui reste de mon enfance 1944–1950 (Boltanski), 86–91, 87, 88, 89

   displays of, 96, 105

   introductory explanation, 86–87, 227n20

   Jean Clair on, 118–119

Reconstitution des gestes (Boltanski), 105

Red Room for Vietnam (exhibition), 26

Regnier, Gérard. See Clair, Jean

Reichstag building, Berlin, Germany, 1, 11

Renault Flins (poster), 50

Renault workers’ strike, 49

Rendezvous (exhibition), 204

Repas (Boltanski), 83–84

Restany, Pierre, 47, 92, 184–185, 221n14, 223n58

   catalog essay, Paris-New York exhibition, 184–185, 238n43

Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Bonn, Germany, 193

Rigby, Brian, 224n66, 238n37

Rivers, Larry, 185

Rivet, Paul, 37

Rivière, Georges Henri, 37

Robert Mapplethorpe: The Perfect Moment (exhibition), 242n28

Rogers, Richard, 169, 171, 177–178. See also Pompidou Center

Romanticism, new, 118–119, 120, 230n58

Rorimer, Anne, 218n15, 226n8

Ross, Kristin, 217n4; 220n2, n10; 223n44, 236n8

   on Lefebvre, 223n44, n46

   on everyday life, 223n44, 233n23

   on May ’68 commemoration, 202

Rotman, Patrick, 202

Rottner, Nadja, 210, 218n14, 242n27

RPR Party, 202

Saint-Phalle, Niki de. See de Saint-Phalle, Niki

Salon de la Jeune Peinture, 48, 62, 64, 99–100

   and ateliers populaires, 26, 220n9

Sauvageot, Jacques, 22

Schnapper, Dominique, 188, 190

Schneider, Pierre

   criticism of Pompidou Center, 174, 237n20

   on Paris-New York exhibition, American artists in, 185

School of Paris. See Ecole de Paris

Secrétariat de la Condition Féminine, 232n12

Seguin, Jean-Pierre, 169, 176, 236n3

self-destructing machines (Tinguely), 179

Semin, Didier, 219n18

September 11, 2001 attacks, 1

“Serials, The” (Messager). See Feuilleton, Le

Sherman, Cindy, 234n32

sit-ins (occupations), 19, 25, 75, 229n5

Situationist International, 42–43, 48, 49, 52, 223n47. See also Lefebvre, Henri

62 Membres du Club Mickey en 1955, Les (Boltanski), 117, 122

Sobrino, Francesco, 43

Socialist government, France, 1980s

   cultural expenditures, 200, 202

   street festivals, sponsorship of, 201–202

Socialist party, 201

“Soft Art et les femmes, Le” (Dallier), 157

soft sculpture

   Messager, 2, 4, 210

Sois jeune et tais-toi (poster), 51, 53

Solomon-Godeau, Abigail, 219n20

Sonnabend Gallery (Paris), 122, 186, 187

Sorbonne, 21, 43. See also Paris, University of

Soto, Jesús Raphaël, 116

Soutif, Daniel, 219n18

“space and color” (theme, Made in France exhibition), 204

specialization, elitist. See activism, artistic

Spoerri, Daniel, 204

Stein, Joel, 43

Stimson, Blake, 16

   Conceptual Art, 14–15

street audiences, 46–47, 74–78

strikes and protests

   May/June, 1968, 3, 19–20, 23–24, 27, 49

   Renault workers, 49

student uprising (Latin Quarter, May 1968). See May/June 1968 activism

subjectivity, artistic

   critique of, 86, 91–92

Surrealism, 181

Szeeman, Harald, 100, 102

   letter from Boltanski, 104, 228n35

taboos, transgressions of, 82

tachisme, 184, 238n44

Templon Gallery, 93, 228n26

   purchases, 122

Temps modernes, Les (periodical), 232n12

Théâtre de l’Odéon

   student occupation of, 19, 44

théâtres populaires, 35, 222n30

Third Republic

   educational policies, 157–158

tin boxes. See biscuit boxes

Tinguely, Jean, 116, 182, 185

   project statement, 179

   works

     Crocrodrome, 178–179, 179

     Méta-matic no. 19, 45, 183, 183–184, 238n44

Toroni, Niele, 54, 62

   Photo-souvenir: Buren, Mosset, Parmentier, Toroni, Manifestation no. 3, 66

Tortures volontaires, Les (Messager), 151–152, 153, 154

Tower of Life (installation, Holocaust Museum, Washington, D.C.), 1

“transformation of the object” (theme, Made in France exhibition), 204

transformation, political, 172–173

   in everyday life, 42

Travailleurs Unis (French and Immigrant Workers United) (poster), 50

traveling exhibitions, 171–172

Trocadéro, 37

Tronche, Anne, 225n88

Trotskyists, 19

Twentieth-Century Museum (Distel), 103

UNEF (national students’ union), 22

unemployment

   and gender, 130–131

   and political unrest, 20

United States

   domination of international art scene, 168

   museum policy in, 211

university. See art education; education; Paris, University of

university system

   decentralization, democratization, and modernization, 23–24

Untitled Film Stills (Sherman), 234n32

Utopie et féminisme (exhibition), 196

vandalism, 121

Vaneigem, Raoul, 42, 222n28

Varda, Agnes

   Bonheur, Le, 193

Vautier, Ben, 45, 47. See also Fluxus; mail art

Venice Biennial, 1964, 53–54

   1968 boycott of, 80

Vermès, Philippe, 224n79

Viallat, Claude, 117, 204

Viatte, Germain, 203–204, 205. See also Musée National d’Art Moderne (MNAM)

Vichy government, 31

Vie impossible de Christian Boltanski, La, 65

Vietnam War, 3, 16, 19, 202

Villeglé, Jacques de la, 116

Villeurbanne resolution, 35

violence, representations of, 209–210

vitrines, 11, 37, 85–91, 94–99, 159, 160, 228n34. See also ethnographic museums

   in ethnographic museums, 7, 11, 37, 102, 106

   as institution of art, 97, 104, 155

Vitrines de pièges (Boltanski), 122

Vitrine(s) de référence (Boltanski), 96, 101, 102, 109, 117

Voix du silence, Les (Malraux), 160, 235n47

WAR. See Women Artists in Revolution

Warhol, Andy, 183, 185

Weber, Max, 34

Western memory, collective, 30

“What Is an Author?” (Foucault), 72

“Where are the women?” (poem), 128

Whitney Museum of American Art

   1969 protests at, 16

Wilson, Fred, 211

Wilson, Sarah, 223n39

women

   and body modification, 151–152

   media clichés and, 192

   violence against, 210

women artists. See also de Saint-Phalle, Niki; feminism; Messager, Annette; Mouvement de Libération des Femmes (MLF); Pane, Gina

   exhibitions, 125–126, 154, 156, 192, 194, 196

   and museum acquisitions, 240n3

   museum exposure and, 240n70

Women Artists in Revolution (WAR), 16

Women’s Liberation Movement. See Mouvement de Libération des Femmes (MLF)

women’s magazines, 13, 233n23

   and promotion of household skills, 142

   role of advertising, 146, 151–152

   sources in, 67

Women, Students, and Artists for Black Liberation (WSABAL), 16

“women’s work”

   feminist interpretations of, 157–158

   reevaluation of, 140–142, 153–154

worker insurrection

   and intellectuals’ involvement, in France and Italy, 217n4

working class

   state acculturation of, 132, 170, 174–175 (see also class bias)

Work in Progress (exhibition), 84

World War II, 9

   cultural situation in postwar France, 31–32, 201

   effect on museums, 39

WSABAL. See Women, Students, and Artists for Black Liberation

xenophobia, 205–208, 241n26

   art-world responses to, 206, 240n20

Yvaral, Jean-Pierre, 43


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