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Freedom and Religion in Kant and his Immediate Successors
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Index




Abel, J.F., 311–12

Abicht, J.H., 55–8, 66, 77, 83, 119, 206

   and Locke, 59

   and Reinhold, 313

   and Schmid, 58

   and Weishaupt, 58–9

   critique of Fichte, 289, 343

   critique of Kant, 55, 60, 314

   Hermias, 60

   reform of Kant, 59–60

abstraction

   and Fichte, 287

   and Jacobi, 138, 146

   and Reinhold, 248, 258, 287

action

   and Fichte, 241

   and Hegel, 294

   and Jacobi, 13

   and Kant, 164

   and Rehberg, 131–2

actual, the

   and Kant, 19

actuality

   and possibility, 18–21, 85, 141

Aenesidemus, see Schulze, G.E.

affection (Empfindung)

   and Fichte, 215–17, 219

afterlife

   and Kant, 9

   and Spalding, 9

agency

   and Jacobi, 14–15

   and Kant 14–15

   and Reinhold, 256

Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek, 37

Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, 37, 108, 117, 125, 126, 127, 207, 225, 289, 331

Allison, H.E., ix–x

Ameriks, K., ix, 306

Analogies of Experience, 72–3, 74, 174

anthropology, 65

Antinomy of Pure Reason, 153–5

appearance(s), 4

   and Kant, 19, 177–8

apperception, 57

   synthesis of, 71

   unity of, 71, 227

apprehension

   synthesis of, 71

Aquinas, Thomas, 6

   Summa Theologiae, 6

arbitrary choice ( Willkühr)

   and Fichte, 209, 221

   and Kant, 189, 191–2, 193, 259

   and Reinhold, 124

   and Wille, 205

atheism

   and Fichte, 10, 25, 242

   and Kant, 25

   and Reinhold, 256–7, 258, 262

   and Spinozism, 11

atheism dispute (Atheismusstreit), 242, 244

   and Jacobi, 242–3, 244

   and Reinhold, 242, 243–4

Athenaeum, 291

Aufklärung (see Enlightenment)

   and Kant, xii

   religion of the, 193

authority, religious

   and Kant, 201

autonomy

   and Kant, 164

Baggesen, J.I., 342

Bardili, C.B., 265, 269, 330, 340

Beck, S., 75, 269

belief

   and faith, 79

   and Kant, 183

   ecclesiastical, 200–1

Berlin Academy, 125

Berliner, the, 77

Berlinische Monatsschrift, 37, 152

Bonnet, C., 46

Born, F.G., 60, 312

Breazeale, D., 338

categorical imperative, 168–9, 172, 213

categories

   and ‘I think’, 75

   and Jacobi, 82

   and Kant, 18

   and things, 172

   and Weishaupt, 53

   application of, 74, 173, 174

   of the understanding, 69–70, 72–4

causa sui, 22, 184

causality, 121

   and Kant, 20, 22, 154, 156–7, 159, 176, 178–9

   and Reinhold, 209

   and Spinoza, 142

   category of, 72

Christianity

   and Kant, 186

   and popular philosophy, 38

church

   and Kant, 200, 201, 202

Church Universal, 200

Cicero, 326

cognition

   and faith, 78

   and Reinhold, 95–6

‘common sense’, 41, 96

   and Hegel, 296

   and Jacobi, 87, 89–90

   and Kant, 48

   and Mendelssohn, 48, 87, 89, 91

   and philosophy, 41

   and popular philosophy, 48

   and Reid, 89

   and Reinhold, 89, 235

‘common sense’ philosophy, 77

   and popular philosophy, 9, 47–8

community

   and Fichte, 239

compatibilism, 157

   and Kant, 159

concept(s), 71

   and classical metaphysics, 36

   and Kant, 36

   and Reinhold, 100

   and sensations, 36, 68

   and Weishaupt, 45

   speculative, 247, 249

conscience

   and Reinhold, 253–4

consciousness

   and Reinhold, 93, 101–2

   ‘clear’ and ‘distinct’, 95

corpus mysticum, 19

creation

   and Leibniz, 109–10

Creuzer, L., 205–6, 207

   and Schmid, 207

‘critical ignorance’, 121

Critique of Reason, 301

   destabilizing effects of, 10

   novelty of, 34

   problems with, 161–2, 325

   response to, 5, 29, 32

Crusius, C.A., 40, 42, 43, 304

Dennett, D., 325

Descartes, R., 22, 43, 45, 50, 97, 320

   and Fichte, 276–7, 278, 279

desire

   and Fichte, 215, 216–17, 218, 219, 221, 274

determinism

   and Creuzer, 206

   and Schleiermacher, 292

   and Ulrich, 112–13, 114, 142–3

Dilthey, W., 292

dogmatism, 227

   and Fichte, 224–5

doubt, 276, 277

   and Reinhold, 253

duty

   and Kant, 164, 165

   and religion, 201–2

   sui generis, 199

Eberhard, J.A., 41, 49, 292, 341

eclecticism

   and popular philosophy, 41, 42, 43–4

   and system, 43

education

   and popular philosophy, 299

   and Reinhold, 300

elementary philosophy

   and Abicht, 55–6

   and Reinhold, 56

empiricism, 41 (see also Purism, Kantian)

   and judgment, 69

   and popular philosophy, 9

   British, 262

   classical, 74, 80

   Locke’s, 45, 50, 52, 53–4, 59

Enlightenment, the, 37, 65, 66, 276, 279, 292, 296, 297

   and Fichte, 7, 215

   and Hegel, xi

   and Kant, 4–5

   and popular philosophy, 37

   view of humans, 2

ens perfectissimum, 109, 110

ens realissimum, 109, 110

entia rationis (see noumena)

eudaimonism, 7, 131, 292

   and Fichte, 217

   and Gebhard, 207

   and Kant, 330

   Kant’s critique of, 3

evil

   and Kant, 129, 187–91, 192–4, 198

   propensity to, 189, 190, 191

evil genius, 276–7, 278, 279

existentialism, 7

experience, 80

   aesthetic, 171

   and Fichte, 222–3, 334, 335

   and Jacobi, 82, 86–7, 238

   and Kant, 68, 69–75, 155

   and Leibniz, 32

   and Reinhold, 96–7, 246, 286

   and Schmid, 71

extension

   and Spinoza, 143–4

fact of consciousness, 91, 92, 233, 235, 296

   and Fichte, 218–19

   and Gebhard, 224

   and Reinhold, 246–7, 261

fact of reason, 167

   and freedom, 167

faith

   and Abicht, 289

   and Enlightenment, 26, 297, 298

   and Fichte, 233, 236, 238, 250, 251, 280, 287–8

   and Hegel, 294

   and Jacobi, 13, 78, 149, 237–8, 250, 251

   and Kant, 10, 26–7, 36–7

   and knowledge, 25–6

   and Lessing, 26

   and reason, 34–5

   and Reinhold, 248, 250, 251–2, 253–4, 257

   in Kant’s system, 30

   seeking understanding ( fides qaerens intellectum), 33–5, 36

fall, the, 192

fatalism

   and Ulrich, 114

   and Weishaupt, 53–4, 105, 114, 275

   empirical, 206–7

   intelligible, 245

Feder, J.G.H., 41, 49, 308, 312

feeling(s)

   and Abicht, 56–7, 58–9, 60

   and Enlightenment, 55

   and Fichte, 219–20, 221, 230, 343

   and interest of reason, 76

   and Jacobi, 338

   and Kant, 55

   and moral conduct, 169–70

   and Weishaupt, 59

Fichte, J.G., 1, 58, 66, 76, 84, 118, 126, 133, 140, 150, 162, 205, 271

   and Jacobi, 215, 237–9, 257, 280–1

   and Kant, 28, 30–1, 213–14, 215, 222, 226, 229–31, 233, 236, 277, 285, 289–90

   and Rehberg, 240–1

   as Jacobin, 240

   Critique of All Revelation, 209, 210–12, 215, 230, 240, 241, 298

   critique of Creuzer, 208–9, 223–4

   critique of Gebhard, 208, 223, 224

   critique of Kant, 209, 221, 278

   critique of Reinhold, 209, 221, 223–4

   defense of Kant and Reinhold, 208

   dispute with Schmid, 207–8, 223, 224–5, 233, 330–1

   System of Ethics, 239

   The Vocation of Humankind, 1, 7, 30, 272–83, 285, 288, 293

   Wissenschaftslehre, 205, 210, 215, 225, 226, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 245, 253, 258, 263, 267, 270, 280

Flatt, J.F., 26, 49

   Letters Concerning the Moral Ground of Knowledge of Religion, 49

Forberg, F.K., 242

formalism

   and Fichte, 297, 298

   and Kant, 53, 55, 84, 171–6, 297

Free Masonry, 37, 44

   and Reinhold, 263, 265

freedom, 16, 108

   and Creuzer, 330

   and Fichte, 208, 212–15, 216, 218, 221, 251, 274, 281–2, 284

   and God’s omnipotence, 109–12

   and Jacobi, 12, 105, 142–3, 144–5, 148–9

   and Kant, 6, 14, 29, 30, 117, 118, 154, 155, 158, 179, 180, 184, 194, 195, 198, 203, 304, 328

   and Leibniz, 110, 111

   and medieval theology, 111

   and Rehberg, 132, 328

   and Reinhold, 106, 122, 123, 124, 141, 246, 247, 248, 249–50, 255–6

   and Spinoza, 141–2

   and Ulrich, 112, 113–14, 141, 142

   and Weishaupt, 105

   comparative, 121, 130

French Revolution, 125, 240, 263, 264

Fries, Jakob Friedrich, 1, 78, 269

   as popular philosopher, 335

Garve, C.J., 49, 308, 326, 339

Gebhard, F.H., 207, 330

   and Fichte, 331

   and Kant, 207

God, 80, 108–10

   and Fichte, 210–11, 251, 259, 277, 288

   and freedom, 2–3

   and Herder, 239

   and Jacobi, 15, 25, 148, 239, 251, 268

   and Kant, xi, 181–2, 183, 187, 195, 196, 197, 199, 203, 240

   and moral law, 211–12

   and Reinhold, 252, 254, 256, 286

   and Schmid, 61

   and Spalding, 8

   and Spinoza, 85, 138, 139–40

   belief in, 251

   in medieval theology, 111

   proofs of existence, 85–6, 302

Goethe, J.W., 3, 11, 12, 128, 185, 272

   and Jacobi, 13, 23, 150, 303

   Prometheus, 2, 3, 11, 24, 27

good, the

   and Spalding, 8

   Kant and the highest, 182, 183, 292

   perfect, 135

good principle, 198

goodness

   human, 188

guilt, 275

Hammann, G.H., 240

   and Jacobi, 316

Hannover school, 125

happiness

   and Abicht, 60

   and Enlightenment, 297

   and Fichte, 217, 224, 251, 298

   and Hegel, 297

   and Jacobi, 251

   and Kant, 3–4, 135, 182, 183–4, 314, 328

   and Rehberg, 328

   and Reinhold, 251

   and Spalding, 8

   and Ulrich, 114

   and virtue, 182, 183

   and Weishaupt, 46, 59, 313

Hegel, G.W.F., 76, 237, 262, 271, 328

   and Fichte, 221, 272, 342

   and Jacobi, 293

   and Krug, 306

   and Reinhold, 259, 261, 296, 318

   and Schelling, 311, 344

   and Schulze, 311

   as social educator, 300

   critique of Fichte, 293–5, 296–8

   critique of Jacobi, 298

   critique of Kant, 294–5, 296–7

   critique of popular philosophy, 37

   Faith and Knowledge, 293

   Logic, x

   Phenomenology of Spirit, x, 311, 318, 342

Heine, H., xii

hen kai pan, 13

Herder, J.G., 108, 140, 149

heteronomy, 180

Heydenreich, K.H., 304

history

   and Fichte, 65

   and Hegel, 65

   and Kant, 6, 22, 27, 214

   and Mendelssohn, 13

   and philosophy, 65

   and Reinhold, 65

   and system, 6

Holbach, P.H. d’, 46

Holy Will, 180, 182, 187, 284

homo noumenon

   and homo phaenomenon, 5, 64, 179–80, 283, 284

human nature

   and Kant, 186, 190–1

humanism, 1–3, 12

   and Fichte, 220, 292

   and Jacobi, 11–12

   and Kant, 3–5, 10, 12

   and Spalding, 106

humanity well pleasing to God, 196, 197

Humboldt, W. von, 317, 342

Hume, David, 71, 80, 81, 84, 88–9

   and Jacobi, 79–81, 82–3, 84

   critique of Locke and Leibniz, 40

Hunter, Ian, xii, 304

‘I’, the

   and Abicht, 289

   and Fichte, 281, 344

   and Schmid, 121

‘I think’, 71, 72, 73, 75–6, 166, 171, 174

   and Fichte, 229, 277–8

idealism, 288

   and Fichte, 223, 224–5, 264, 285

   and Hegel, 295, 296

   and Kant, 175, 176

   and Reinhold, 237, 244, 269

   and Schmid, 290

   and Schulze, 311

   critical, x

   fundamental thesis of, 35

   post-Kantian, x

   Romantic, 272

   transcendental, 52, 82

Identity Philosophy, 300

ignorance

   critical, 18

Illuminati, 38, 44, 66, 226, 263

   and Reinhold, 263–4

   and Weishaupt, 263

imaginary constructs, 64

imagination, 70

impulse (Trieb)

   and Fichte, 216, 219

   and reason, 217

incentive (Triebfeder), 169–70

individual, the, 2–3

   and Enlightenment, 283

   and Fichte, 275–6, 278, 284–5

   and Jacobi, 12–15, 239, 245, 246, 267–8

   and Kant, 5, 16, 27, 73, 160, 162, 174–5, 192, 194–5, 198, 202, 278, 283, 328

   and Mendelssohn, 13

   and popular philosophers, 73, 283, 299

   and Reinhold, 337–8

   and Schmid, 53–4

   and system, 6

   and Weishaupt, 53–4

   concrete, 65, 66, 72

   dual nature of, 5

individuality

   of things, 45–6

infinite and finite

   and Reinhold, 255, 256

intellect

   and medieval theology, 34

interest

   and Kant, 169–70

intuition

   faculty of, 177

   sensible, ix

intuition, intellectual

   and Fichte, 213

   and Hegel, 345

   and Kant, 22–3, 36, 213

irrationality

   and Jacobi, 79, 105, 316

   and Kant, 26, 30, 204

   of human situation, 194

Jacobi, F.H., xi, 10–12, 27, 54, 58, 77, 92, 105, 116, 118, 125, 126, 204, 278, 292, 299

   and Hume, 316

   and Kant, 265, 270

   and Kant reception, 11

   and Leibniz, 90, 105, 144

   and Spinoza, 84, 105, 137–8, 139–42, 143–7, 239

   common ground with Kant, 14–15, 85–6

   critique of Enlightenment, 11–12, 14

   critique of Fichte, 25, 28, 265–8, 285–6

   critique of Herder, 143, 150

   critique of Kant, 14, 15, 17, 18, 25, 77, 82–3, 84, 86–7, 91, 243, 267, 299

   critique of popular philosophers, 37, 38

   critique of Rehberg, 136, 324

   David Hume on Faith or Idealism and Realism, a Dialogue, 77–91, 93, 95, 97, 105, 125, 137, 144, 147, 150, 151, 238, 239, 244, 268

   his project, 29

   religious concerns, 24–5

Jena theologians, 25, 156, 313

   and Kant, 27, 270, 328

Jesuits, 37

Jesus, 201

Judaism, 201

judgment

   and experience, 68, 69–70, 73

   and Kant, 166

   of experience, 82

jurists

   and Kant, xii, 306, 326

Kant, I. (see also Critique of Reason)

   and critical ignorance, 25, 176

   and dogmatists, 173–4

   and Locke, 62

   and ‘transcendental story’, ix–x, xi, 29, 30, 194–5

   as empiricist, 74

   as metaphysical thinker, x, xi, 20–1, 133, 134, 160

   as phenomenologist, 75

   Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View, 186

   critique of Fichte, 269–70

   critique of his moral vision, 164, 171

   Critique of Judgment, 295, 329, 345

   Critique of Practical Reason, 23, 126, 127, 137, 154, 164, 165–6, 169, 182, 185, 328, 329

   Critique of Pure Reason, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 16, 29, 67, 70, 73, 76, 77, 86, 118, 134, 153, 166, 173, 182, 328, 329, 339

   critique of Reinhold, 124, 205

   Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, 164

   his Copernican revolution, 28

   his Übergang, 173

   immodesty, 35, 185

   Metaphysics of Morals, 173, 205, 326

   modesty, 20, 153, 176, 304

   originality, 158, 163

   practical postulates, 191–2

   Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, 67

   psychological model, 64

   psychologizing of, 50

   reception of, x, 14

   Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, 152–3, 193, 195, 198, 201, 202, 203, 328

   vision of the universe, 283–4

   “What Does It Mean to Orient Oneself in Thinking?”, 87

Kierkegaard, S., 327, 329

Kingdom of Ends, 168, 180

Kingdom of God

   and Kant, 196, 200

knowledge

   and Fichte, 213, 273, 282

   and Jacobi, 79

   and Kant, 17, 20–1, 35–6, 226, 277

   and Leibniz, 47

   and Locke, 47

   and Reinhold, 227–8

   and Weishaupt, 46

   of transcendant objects, 76

   representational theory of, 35

Köppen, F., 345

Kraus, C.J., 108

   critique of Ulrich, 117–18, 320

Kritisches Journal der Philosophie, 299, 345

Krug, W.T., 37, 262, 298

   as popular philosopher, 335

Kuehn, M., xi, 307, 326

La Vopa, A.J., 336

language

   Fichte on religious, 285

   Kant on moral, 21

Lavater, J.K., 79, 245, 251, 252–3, 257, 286

Law, the

   and Fichte, 208, 210, 213

   and inclinations, 170

   and Jacobi, 267

   and Kant, 3–4, 129–30, 133, 165, 167, 173, 174, 197

   and Rehberg, 130–1

   and Schmid, 119–20

   idea of, 118

Leibniz, G.W., 50, 84, 87, 95, 98, 103, 108, 117, 139, 262

   ideal of universal harmony, 60

   Monadology, 104

   Theodicy, 141

Lessing, G.E., 11, 13, 27, 54, 85, 105, 107, 140, 149, 242, 243, 256

life

   and Fichte, 223

Locke, J., 16, 41, 45, 50, 71, 97, 98, 102

   and popular philosophy, 39, 47, 50

   Essay on Human Understanding, 47

logic

   formal, 27

   transcendental, 17, 40

   Transcendental, 62, 64, 65, 73, 261

Luther, M., 259

Maimon, S.

   critique of Kant, 98

   critique of Reinhold, 98–9, 318

Marx, K., 327

materialism, 46

mathematics, 98

   and Kant, 165–6

maxim, 168, 169, 188

meaning

   and Fichte, 290

   and Kant, 20

mechanism

   and Jacobi, 142, 145

Meckenstock, G., 344

Meiners, C., 41

Mendelssohn, M., 10, 85, 86, 106, 143, 243, 281

   and German philosophy, 43

   and Jacobi, 11, 14, 77, 78, 87, 137, 140, 141

   and Kant, 12, 27, 302, 303, 304

metaphysics

   and Fichte, 260–1

   and Kant, 32–3, 64, 158, 178, 184–5, 195

   and Rehberg, 125, 128–9

   dissatisfaction of, x

   dogmatic, 32

   rationalistic, 34

   scholastic, 84, 90, 140

method

   transcendental, 59

   phenomenological, 83

Michaelis, C.F., 331

mind

   and Abicht, 60

   and Fichte, 222

   and Leibniz, 61, 63–5, 97

   and Locke, 62

   and Schmid, 51, 61, 64

   and Weishaupt, 64

morality

   and Fichte, 282

   and Gebhard, 207

   and Kant, 30, 129–30, 157, 160, 162–71

   and principle of non-contradiction, 131

   and Reinhold, 122–4

   and Schmid, 119–22

moral life, 60

   and Abicht, 57–8

   and Hegel, 293–5

   and Kant, 23–4, 283–4

   and Reinhold, 246

Moses, 201

mystery

   holy, 203–4

myth

   and Fichte, 260

   and human nature, 34

naturalism

   and Fichte, 262

   and Kant, 262

   and popular philosophers, 262

   and Schmid, 120–2

   ethical, 14–15

nature

   and Fichte, 228, 229–30, 259, 273–5, 282, 290, 299

   and Hegel, 261, 262, 293–4, 295

   and idealism, 35, 175

   and Kant, 3, 18, 23, 168–9, 173, 175, 299

   and moral law, 3, 164, 168, 170, 171

   and popular philosophers, 2

   and Reinhold, 256, 261, 296

   ethical state of, 198–9

   juridical state of, 198

necessity

   and Ulrich, 112–13

Neue allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek, 288

Nietzsche, Friedrich, 301

nominalism

   and Kant, 306

normativity

   and Fichte, 259, 287

   and Reinhold, 286–7

noumena (see also world), 4–5, 33, 63, 64

   and phenomena, 74

object

   and Hume, 296

   and Kant, 17, 18–19, 35, 177, 178

   and Kantian Purism, 50, 51

   and Locke, 296

   and Weishaupt, 53

   of experience in general, 69–70

obligation

   and Ulrich, 113–14

optimism

   and Rehberg, 324

order

   Spalding and universal, 8–9

other, the

   and Fichte, 220, 231

   and Jacobi, 268

Otto, J.P.C., 342

‘ought’, the

   and Kant, 157

pantheism

   and Herder, 239

   and Schleiermacher, 292

People of God

   and Kant, 199, 200, 201, 202

phenomena (see also noumena)

   and Kant, 74

phenomenology

   of the genesis of experience, 94

   of the genesis of the self, 76

   of the mind, 59

Philonenko, Alexis, 338

philosophy

   and Jacobi, 13, 147, 149, 244, 265

   and Fichte, 236, 238, 258–9, 334, 335

   and Reinhold, 227, 228, 235, 247, 249–50, 254–7, 258, 286

   practical, 257

Pietism

   and Kant, 30

Pistorius, W. F., 49, 328

Platonism, 185

Plattner, E., 41, 102, 309

pleasure

   and Fichte, 217

Pope, A., 185

popular philosophy, xi, 28, 59, 77, 78, 107, 262

   and critics, 37–8

   and Fichte, 222–3, 236

   and Hegel, 262, 296

   and Jacobi, 29, 244, 268

   and Kant, 48, 50, 62–3, 64

   and Leibniz, 39, 47, 52

   and Reinhold, 29, 38–41, 42–4, 47, 102, 225, 244, 262, 269, 286

   its mistake, 222

   nature of, 38

   origins of, 41

   tension in, 2–3

possibility

   and Kant, 18–19, 21

   in moral context, 19–20

poststructuralists, 7

predispositions

   and Kant, 188–9

principium compositionis

   and principium generationis, 85

principle

   of contradiction, 39, 43

   of morality, 166–7

   of sufficient reason, 114, 118, 124–5, 137, 206, 208

psychology

   and Abicht, 55

   and Fichte, 222

   and Kant, 169

   and popular philosophy, 62, 63

Purism, Kantian, 64, 72

   and Empiricism, 50–2

rationalism, 41, 45, 74

rationality

   and Fichte, 220

realism, 86, 175, 277

   and Kant, 176

reality

   and Kant, 6, 20

   and Reinhold, 255

reason

   and Fichte, 211, 220–1, 223, 236, 239, 259, 260, 268, 291

   and Jacobi, 15, 27, 88–9, 146–7, 243, 268

   and Kant, 4, 15, 17, 33, 34–5, 116, 165–6, 170–1, 172, 204, 226–7, 236

   and Rehberg, 126–7

   and Reinhold, 27, 122, 123, 127, 233–5, 236, 247, 254–5, 264, 300

   and Schelling, 331–2

   and Schmid, 51

   and Spalding, 30

   artificial use of, 227, 228, 231–2, 233–5, 247, 250, 255

   natural use of, 227, 255

recognition, 70, 71

reductionism

   and Kant, 159–60

reflection, philosophical

   and Fichte, 250, 266–7

   and Jacobi, 336

   and Reinhold, 247, 248–50, 251–3, 254, 255–6, 257, 260–2, 337

Rehberg, W.R., 156, 158, 290

   and Herder, 322

   and Jacobi, 151

   and Leibniz, 126, 322–3

   and Reinhold, 126–7, 323

   and Schelling, 322

   and Spinoza, 127–9, 140, 323

   Cato, 125

   Concerning the Relation of Metaphysics to Religion, 126

   conservative tendencies, 324

   critique of, 136

Reid, T., 84, 144

   and Jacobi, 88–9, 316–17

Reimarus, J.A.H., 41, 312, 320

Reinhold, K.L., xi, 77, 132, 221

   and Bardili, 340

   and Fichte, 102, 215, 218–19, 222, 225–6, 228, 234–5, 247, 253, 257, 258, 261, 262, 286–7

   and Jacobi, 245, 246, 252, 256, 257, 264–5

   and Kant, 4, 12–13, 14, 42, 50, 193, 205, 206, 226–7, 229, 262

   and Leibniz, 101

   and Michaelis, 331

   and Schmid, 122, 127, 135–6, 143

   and Weishaupt, 66

   as mediator, 28, 106, 243–4, 257

   as quietist, 264

   as realist, 296

   Concerning the Paradoxes of the Most Recent Philosophy, 244, 245, 250, 251, 253, 256, 258, 261, 262

   Contributions, 122

   critique of, 91–2, 93

   critique of Fichte, 233–4, 249, 286, 287–8

   critique of Jacobi, 247–8

   critique of Kant, 43, 91, 95, 227, 320

   critique of Weishaupt, 263, 308

   Essay of a New Theory of the Human Faculty of Representation, 91, 92, 94, 96, 97, 98, 99, 103, 107

   his project, 29

   Kantian Letters, 122, 123, 127, 143

   Letter to I.C. Lavater and J.G. Fichte Regarding Faith in God, 245, 257

   Negotiations Regarding the Fundamental Concepts and First Principles of Morality, 263, 264

   The Foundation of Philosophical Knowledge, 47

Reinhold–Schmid controversy

   and Fichte, 152

religion, 6

   and Enlightenment, 16

   and Fichte, 210, 211, 241

   and Jacobi, 16

   and Kant, xi, 16, 187, 200, 201, 211, 240

   and philosophy, 252

   and Rehberg, 129, 136, 240–1

   and Reinhold, 16, 25

   and Schmid, 62

   and Spalding, 7

   in Kant’s system, 7

repentance

   and Fichte, 275

representation(s), 39, 68

   and feeling, 56–7

   and Fichte, 215–16, 221, 281

   and Jacobi, 80–1, 83

   and Kant, 36

   and Locke, 39–40, 94

   and Mendelssohn, 94

   and popular philosophy, 41

   and Reinhold, 42, 56, 91–3, 94–5, 99–102, 320

   form and material of, 100–1

   innate, 39

   reflective, 73

   unity of, 72

reproduction

   synthesis of, 70

respect

   Fichte and feeling of, 219, 220–1

responsibility

   and Fichte, 217

   and Kant, 157, 163, 164

revelation

   and Fichte, 210, 211, 212, 213

Richter, J-P., 285

   and Fichte, 291

Rousseau, J-J., 157

salto mortale, 13, 14, 149, 303

satisfaction ( Glück)

   and Fichte, 217

Schelling, F.W.J., 150, 237, 269, 272, 291, 300

   and Fichte, 341

   critique of Fichte, 292

Schlegel, A.W., 291

Schleiermacher, F., 78, 269, 310, 341, 342

   as popular philosopher, 335

   critique of Fichte, 291–2

Schmid, C.C.E., 25, 52, 55, 66, 83, 123, 130, 132, 141, 206, 208, 292

   and Kant, 205

   critique of Fichte, 289–90

   Philosophische Dogmatik, 61

scholasticism, 45, 64, 163

Schultz, J., 29, 74, 75, 76, 84, 91, 174

   and the self, 73

   Elucidations of Professor Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason, 67–8

   review of Critique of Pure Reason, 68–72

Schulze, G.E./Aenesidemus, 210

   Aenesidemus, 49

   and Abicht, 59

   critique of Kant, 49, 56, 103

   critique of Reinhold, 103, 318

Schütz, C.G., 323

Schwärmerei, 78, 79, 128, 135, 136

science

   and Jacobi, 103

   and Kant, 161–2

   and Reinhold, 42, 245–6

   and Schmid, 61

   and Weishaupt, 46

Scriptures, 191

‘self’, the, 80–1

   and Fichte, 221, 229, 230–1, 232–3

self-determination

   and Fichte, 218

Selle, C.G., 41, 312

sensation(s), 70, 102–3

   and concepts, 68, 96

   and Kant, 62, 102–3, 233

   and Locke, 87

   and Maimon, 97–8

   and Reid, 88, 104, 317

   and Weishaupt, 104

sense(s), 91

   and experience, 84

   and feelings, 76

   and Kant, 62, 75

   impressions, 39

sensibility

   and Fichte, 216, 220

   and Kant, 169, 172

   and Schmid, 50, 51

Shaftesbury, Lord, 43

sin, 109

   and Fichte, 259–60

   and Hegel, 260

   and Kant, 193, 195, 197, 259

   and Leibniz, 110–11

skepticism, 35, 41, 227

   and Hume, 40, 41, 45, 48, 87, 88, 103, 105

   and Jacobi, 80

   and Kant, 176

   and Maimon, 98, 103

   and Rehberg, 136, 151

   and Weishaupt, 46

skeptics, the, 52

Smith, A., 330

solipsism, 53, 58

‘Son of God’

   and Kant, 196, 197, 198

soul

   and Abicht, 56

   and Weishaupt, 45, 46

space

   and Kant, 154–5, 177, 327

   and Spinoza, 138, 139

Spalding, J.J., 1, 7–10, 27, 33, 125, 158, 275, 276, 277, 299

   and Fichte, 30–1, 272, 273

   and Kant, 9–10, 30

speculation ( see reflection, philosophical)

Spinoza, B. de., 10, 22, 54, 90, 108, 115, 116, 131, 266, 278, 292

   and Fichte, 267

   and Kant, 21–2, 31, 129

Spinoza dispute, 11–14, 106, 242–3

   and Descartes, 143–4, 145

   and Jacobi, 10–12, 13–14, 87

   and Kant, 12, 27, 243

   and Leibniz, 140–1, 143–4

Spinozism, 10

   and Herder, 150

   and Lessing, 11

   and Rehberg, 125, 126

Starck, J.A., 37, 38

state

   Kant on juridico-civil, 199, 200

Steno, Bishop Nicholaus, 117

   critique of Leibniz, 112

Strawson, P.F., ix, x

Stroud, B., x

subject, 53

   and Hume, 296

   and Kant, 4, 50, 52, 175, 179–81

   and Locke, 296

   and popular philosophy, 50

   and Weishaupt, 52

   concrete, 63

   logical, 65, 66

   of experience, 71

‘subjective interest of reason’, 76

subjectivism

   and Jacobi, 78

   and Kant, 52

   and Schmid, 52

subjectivity

   and Fichte, 277–8, 287

   and Jacobi, 80

substance, 128, 129, 138, 266

sympathy (Wohlwollen), 207

system

   and Kant, 9–10, 18, 19

   and popular philosophy, 42, 43

   and Reinhold, 42

   and Spalding, 7

Tathandlung, 210, 222, 228, 229, 231, 235, 296

   and ‘I think’, 228

   and Reinhold, 247, 250, 261

   as a myth, 236

Tatsache, 210, 222, 296

   and Abicht, 55, 56

   and Reinhold, 247

teleology

   of nature, 21–2, 295

Teutscher Merkur, 122, 126, 132, 340

theology

   and Fichte, 210

   and metaphysics, 33, 34

   and Schleiermacher, 344

thing-in-itself, ix, x, 4, 134

   and appearance, 70, 176

   and Fichte, 223, 231, 236, 288

   and Jacobi, 16, 18

   and Kant, 16–18, 19, 20, 75, 160, 176, 230, 231, 283–4

   and morality, 159

   and popular philosophy, 49

   and Reinhold, 93–4, 97, 99–100

   and Schmid, 52

   and Schulze, 16

   and substance, 129

   as meaningless, 74

things

   and Fichte, 282

Thomasius, C., 42, 304

thought

   and Fichte, 259

Tiedeman D., 41, 343

Tittel, G.A., 314

time

   and Kant, 115, 154–5, 177, 327

transcendance

   and Fichte, 214

transcendental deduction, 73, 74, 75, 95, 134

   Schultz’s presentation of, 70–2

Trapp, E.C., 330

truth

   and idealism, 35

   and Reinhold, 43, 94

Ulrich, J.A.H., 49, 108, 112–18, 120, 123, 124, 130, 156, 157, 161, 206, 292, 310

   and Kant, 114–15, 310

   and Leibniz, 114

   critique of Kant, 114, 115–16

   Eleutheriology, or Of Human Freedom and Necessity, 108, 122

   misunderstanding of Kant, 116, 193

unconditional, the

   and Jacobi, 147–8

understanding, 71, 75, 78

   and Schmid, 51

vocation, human

   and Weishaupt, 104

volition (Wollen)

   and Fichte, 215, 216, 218, 221, 222, 224

Voltaire, F-M. A. de, 207, 297

Weishaupt, A., 44–7, 66, 83, 104, 139, 226, 228, 264, 283, 292

   and Fichte, 273

   and Leibniz, 47, 104–5

   and Locke, 47

   and Schmid, 58–9

   as popular philosopher, 44

   Concerning Materialism and Idealism, 44

   critique of Kant, 52–3, 54

Wieland, C.M., 340

will (see also Holy Will)

   and Abicht, 57, 60

   and Fichte, 209, 211, 274

   and Kant, 164, 169–70

   and moral law, 211–13

   and Reinhold, 123–4, 127

   and Schelling, 332

   and Schmid, 290

wisdom

   and Kant, 24

Wolff, C., 42, 43, 102, 262

world(s)

   and self, 72

   and Weishaupt, 45–6

   Jacobi and external, 81–2, 83

   Kant and intelligible, 21, 22

   noumenal and phenomenal, 134–5

   possible, 44

   two worlds view, 5, 6

Young Hegelians, 212


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