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Voting Radical Right in Western Europe
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 (ISBN-13: 9780511138164 | ISBN-10: 0511138164)




Voting Radical Right in Western Europe

The economic and political conditions that have led to the rise of radical right parties exist in similar form and intensity all over Europe. Yet, radical right parties have only been successful in a few countries. In Germany, the Republikaner’s less than 2% of the vote is much lower than the National Front’s high of 15% and the Freedom Party’s 27% of the vote in national legislative elections. Why do such a small percentage of voters choose the radical right in Germany? Why is the radical right winning more seats in Austria than in France and Germany? The main argument in this book is that radical right parties will have difficulty attracting voters and winning seats in electoral systems that encourage strategic voting and/or strategic coordination by the mainstream parties. The analysis demonstrates that electoral systems and party strategy play a key role in the success of the radical right.

Terri E. Givens is a professor in the government department at the University of Texas at Austin. She has held fellowships from the Ford Foundation and the European Union Center at the University of Washington. She has conducted extensive research in Europe, particularly in France, Germany, Austria, and Denmark. Her articles have appeared in Comparative Political Studies, the Policy Studies Journal, and Comparative European Politics. She is an active member of the American Political Science Association, the European Union Studies Association, and the Council for European Studies.





Voting Radical Right in Western Europe

   TERRI E. GIVENS
   University of Texas at Austin





CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo

Cambridge University Press
40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA

www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521851343

© Terri E. Givens 2005

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception
and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2005

Printed in the United States of America

A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library.

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication data

Givens, Terri E., 1964–
Voting radical right in Western Europe / Terri E. Givens.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-521-85134-3 (hardback)
1. Elections – European Union countries. 2. Voting – European Union countries.
3. Right-wing extremists – European Union countries. 4. Political parties – European
Union countries. I. Title.
JN45.G57    2005
324.2′13′094–dc22    2005000122

ISBN-13 978-0-521-85134-3 hardback
ISBN-10 0-521-85134-3 hardback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for
the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or
third-party Internet Web sites referred to in this publication
and does not guarantee that any content on such
Web sites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.





Contents

Acknowledgments  page vii
1   Introduction 1
2   The Radical Right 18
3   Who Votes for the Radical Right? 44
4   Immigration, Unemployment, and the Vote for the Radical Right 68
5   Coalitions and Strategic Voting: A Model 87
6   Coalitions and Strategic Voting: Analysis 99
7   Extending the Model: Denmark 133
8   Conclusion 150
References  157
Data Sources  169
Party Documents  173
Index  175




Acknowledgments

This book has been in process for many years, and there is no possible way I can thank everyone who had a hand in getting it to this point. However, I will make an attempt to briefly thank many of the people who have been instrumental in getting this project published. I’ll begin by thanking my colleagues from my years at UCLA for their input on the project in its early stages, particularly Miriam Golden, Ron Rogowski, and Jim Denardo. I also would like to thank my colleagues at the University of Washington, particularly Adam Luedtke, Steve Hanson, and Margaret Levi, for their comments and advice.

   A variety of scholars have provided guidance and support for this project. I thank Jeannette Money, Gary Freeman, Martin Schain, and the rest of the “immigration mafia” for their help over the years. Thanks to Neal Beck for technical assistance and to Kathleen Bawn and Jrgen Falter for providing some of the data for Chapter 4. Thanks also to Frank Lee Wilson for his assistance on Chapter 4.

   Funding for this research was provided by the Center for German and European Studies and the Comparative Immigration and Integration program at UC Berkeley. My work in Denmark was supported by the European Union Center at the University of Washington. Patrick Weil of Centre d’tude des Politiques d’Immigration, d’Intgration et de la Citoyennet (Center for the Study of the Politics of Immigration, Integration and Citizenship) provided access to the library at Science-Po and office space during one of my stays in Paris. I am particularly grateful to the Max-Planck-Institut fr Gesellschaftsforschung in Cologne, Germany, where I was able to perfect Chapters 5 and 6.

   My European research could not have been successful without the help of scholars and students I met during my travels. I cannot mention them all here, but the resources of the Konrad Adenauer and Friedrich Ebert foundations were critical to my German research. Wolfgang Meixner, Peter Ulram, and Fritz Plasser were very helpful in Austria. In Denmark I received much assistance from the faculty of the Political Science Department at the University of Aarhus. Thanks to Frank Petrikowski and Pierre Martin for their assistance with my research and for their friendship.

   Many people I met in my travels not only offered assistance with my research but also opened the doors of their homes. I thank the following people for their kind hospitality: the Bosc and Franco families, Kevin and Elisabeth Widrow, Tina Stausberg and Michael Ptsch, Klaus Brandenburg and Kirstin Neu, Pierre Martin, Frank Petrikowski, and Lilly Weber.

   My family has been a major source of support during my years in graduate school. My parents, Rocelious and Leora Givens, gave me a strong foundation that allowed me to succeed in my academic pursuits. I dedicate this book in memory of my father. My sisters Marsha, Sharon, Rhonda, and Brenda were there with emotional support, and the occasional kick in the pants, when needed.

   Thanks to Lewis Bateman at Cambridge University Press for his advice and help in getting to the final product.

   Two of my greatest joys in life joined us on this planet while this manuscript was in preparation. Andrew and Brandon have brought more love and laughter into my life than I ever thought possible. Last, but most definitely not least, Michael Scott has been my main source of inspiration and love. He suffered along with me during the hard times and was my biggest fan during the good times. I can never thank him enough – but I’m happy to spend the rest of my life showing my gratitude.





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