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Economic Autonomy and Democracy
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 (ISBN-13: 9780511217906 | ISBN-10: 0511217900)




Index

Africa, 168–170

alternative sources of information, 49–50, 62, 71–81, 220–222, 224–225

   advertising in, 72, 74, 148

   availability of, 79–81

   coverage by, 79–81

   definition of, 71–72, 222

   funding of, 71–72, 148, 224–225

   government harassment, 71–76

   impact of on other components of democracy, 49–50, 57

   measurement of, 62, 220–222

   national media, 222

   organizational capacity of, 38

   self-censorship, 71, 76–77

Americas, 168, 170–171, 182–183

arrests, 28–29, 166–167

ballot counting violations, 120–121

ballot tampering, 117–121

ballot violations, 117–121

Bellin, Eva, 4–5, 36, 169

business, see economic autonomy, business’s impact on; Russia, business’s impact on economic autonomy; Samara oblast, small business; Ul’ianovsk oblast, small business

campaign donors, 147, 148

campaign expenditures, 108

campaigning, see right of political leaders to compete for support

campaign violations

   by candidates, 107–109

   by government officials, 105–107, 109

campaign workers, 103–104, 109

candidates, see eligibility for public office, candidates; free and fair elections, winners and losers

capitalism and democracy, 2–4

capitalism and democratic rights, see

     capitalism and democracy

capitalist development and democratization, see capitalism

     and democracy

   class, role of, 4–5

   socioeconomic groups, role of, 4–5

Central Asian culture, 16–17, 40, 101–102, 107, 125, 128

China, 169

civic institutions, 57–58

civil freedoms, 57–58

civil liberties, 57–58

clan, 16, 40, 101–102, 107, 125, 128

communist countries, 168–169

components of democracy, 45, 62–67, 177–179, 181–182

   electoral components, 57

   importance of, 56–59

   as an influence on hybrid regimes, 177–179

   interaction among, 48–59, 59, 135–137, 177–179

   liberal components, 57–58

   ordering of, 57–59

   weighting of, 57–59

   see also alternative sources of information; eligibility for public office; free and fair elections; freedom of expression; freedom to form and join organizations; institutions for making government policies depend on voters’ preferences; right of political leaders to compete for support; right to vote

courts, 74–75, 129

culture, 16–17, 40, 101–102, 107, 125–128

Dahl, Robert, 2–4, 44–47, 59–61, 179–181

democracy

   and Central Asian culture, 16–17, 40, 101–102, 107, 125, 128

   contestation, 45, 60–61, 179–181

   and culture, 16–17, 40, 102, 107, 128

   definitions of, 44–47; Robert Dahl’s, 44–47, 59–61

   in the “East,” 172–173

   and economic development, 19, 171

   and market reform, 182–183

   measurement of, 17–20, 59–68, 185, 200, 220–230

   operationalization of, 17–20, 59–68, 185, 200, 220-230

   participation, 45, 60–61, 179–181

   in postcommunist countries, 172–173

   and poverty, 36–37

   promotion of, 181–183, 212–217

   in the “South,” 172–173

   uneven development of, 5–10, 196–199

   see also capitalism and democracy; democratic consolidation; democratic transition; democratization

democratic consolidation, 34–35, 41–42; see also democracy; democratization

democratic development, see democracy; democratic consolidation; democratic transition and democratization

democratic transition, 34–35, 41–42; see also democracy; democratization

democratization, 34–35

   elites and masses, role of, 42–43

   state and society, role of, 43

   structure and agency, role of, 42

   subnational, 5–10, 41–42

   territorial dimensions of, 41–42, 208–209

   theories of, 4, 6–7, 36–37, 42–43

   third wave, 174

   see also democracy; democratic consolidation; democratic transition

economic autonomy, 28–43, 138–173

   in Africa, 168, 169–170

   in the Americas, 168–169, 170–171

   border restrictions’ impact on, 165–166

   business’s impact on, 164–165

   center–periphery relations’ impact on, 166–168

   in China, 169

   in communist countries, 168–169

   definition of, 1

   and democracy, 33–35, 182–183; causal direction of relationship, 163

   and democratic consolidation, 34–35

   and democratic transition, 34–35

   of doctors, 30, 141–142, 143, 145

   and elites and masses, 42–43

   employment as a source of, 29–31, 140–145

   employment level’s relationship to, 33

   of entrepreneurs, 30, 141

   environmental economic autonomy, 29, 31–34, 144–147, 149–164; exports as a source of, 151–152, 158–159, 161; financial success as a source of, 32, 33, 150–151; foreign investment as a source of, 152; impact on democracy, 29; impact on government harassment, 29, 34; impact on individual decision making, 29, 33; market access as a source of, 150–151, 158–159; private ownership’s relationship to, 32–33; private property’s relationship to, 32–33; pro-market policies as a source of, 153–154; sources of, 31–33, 145–147, 150–154, 158–159, 161; trade as a source of, 150–152, 158–159

   in Europe, 168–169, 170

   and financial supporters of activism, 147–149

   generalizability of, 5, 10–11, 43, 168–173

   kryshas’ impact on, 147

   in Latin America, 168–169, 170–171

   as a link between capitalism and democracy, 4

   market reform as a source of, 182–183

   in the Middle East, 168, 169–170

   of pensioners, 30–31

   personal economic autonomy, 28–31, 140–145; calculation of, 29–30, 143–145; impact on democracy, 28–29; impact on self-censorship, 28–29; sources of, 29–31, 140–145

   in postcommunist countries, 168

   private ownership’s relationship to, 32–33

   private property’s relationship to, 32–33

   as a product of capitalism, 4, 149–150

   promotion of, 182–183

   of retirees, 30–31

   sources of, 29–33, 140–147, 150–154, 158–159, 161

   and state and society, 43

   and structure and agency, 42

   of unemployed people, 30–31

economic development, 13–16, 19, 20, 21–24, 171

economic monopolies, see state economic monopolies

economic reprisals, see government harassment

election observers, 57–58, 89, 120–121, 136

elections, see eligibility for public office; free and fair elections; right of political leaders to compete for support; right to vote

electoral campaigns, see right of political leaders to compete for support

electoral commissions, 89, 93, 96, 105, 117–119, 121, 136

electoral races, see right of political leaders to compete for support

eligibility for public office, 52–53, 93–102, 223, 226–227

   candidates, 97–102; age, 99, 100, 101, 102; clan, 101–102; Communist Party membership, 101; economic autonomy of, 142–143; education, 99, 100, 101; employment, 99, 100, 101, 116–127; ethnicity, 101; fake candidates, 97; gender, 99, 100, 101; government service, 101; number of, 98–99, 229; political party membership, 99, 101

   government harassment, 93–96

   impact of on other components of democracy, 52–53, 57

   law about, 202–204

   measurement of, 63–64, 227

   nominations, 99, 100, 101

   organizational capacity of candidates, 39, 40

   registration, 96

   self-censorship, 97

ethnicity, 40–41, 101, 123–125

Europe, 168–169, 170

family voting, 118–119

federalism, 12, 167–168, 208–209

formal institutions, 202–208

free and fair elections, 54, 119–128, 229, 230

   ballot-counting violations, 120–121

   government harassment, 121

   impact of on other components of democracy, 54, 56–57

   measurement of, 66–67

   results: acceptance of, 121–122; percentage won by, 123, 229

   winners and losers, 123–128; access to government resources, 123, 124; age, 123–124, 125–126; clan, 125–128; education, 124, 126–127; employment, 124, 125, 126–127; ethnicity, 125; gender, 125; nominations, 125; notables, 123, 124

freedom of assembly, see freedom to form and join organizations

freedom of association, see freedom to form and join organizations

freedom of expression, 52, 110–116, 227–230

   contact with government officials, 110–114, 227–228

   government harassment, 110, 114

   impact of on other components of democracy, 52–53, 57

   letters to the editor, 114

   measurement of, 65, 228–230

   protests, 114–116, 228–230

   requests to government officials, 110–111

   self-censorship, 110

freedom to form and join organizations, 50–52, 57, 81–93, 222–223, 226

   activities of organizations, 87–93, 226

   economic autonomy of organizations’ leaders, 140–142

   government harassment, 81–84

   impact of on other components of democracy, 50–52, 57

   measurement of, 63, 222–223

   number of organizations, 86–87, 226

   organizational capacity of organizations, 38–39

   registration, 85–86

   self-censorship, 82, 84–85

free press, see alternative sources of information

free speech, see freedom of expression

gift-giving during campaigns, 107–108

government harassment, 28–29, 32, 60–61, 134

   of campaign workers, 103–104, 109

   of candidates, 93–96, 103–104, 109

   of independent media, 71–76

   of political organizations, 81–84

   types of, 28

government interference, see government harassment

government punishments, see government harassment

government responsiveness, see institutions for making government policies depend on voters’ preferences

government violence, 28–29

governors, see institutions for making government policies depend on votes’ preferences, regional executives; Kyrgyzstan, regions, executives; Russia, regions, executives

human rights organizations, see freedom to form and join organizations

hybrid regimes, 174–183

   causes of, 175–179

   contestation in, 179–181

   definition of, 174

   number of worldwide, 174

   participation in, 179–181

imprisonment, 28–29, 166–167

independent media, see alternative sources of information

institutions, 202–209

institutions for making government policies depend on voters’ preferences, 54, 56, 57, 67, 128–134, 230

   kenesh (council): effectiveness of, 129; functions of, 129–130; relative influence of, 129

   measurement of, 67, 230

   regional executives, 128

   regional judiciary, 74–75; relative influence of, 129

   regional legislatures, 130; effectiveness of, 129; functions of, 129–130; relative influence of, 129; operation of, 130–133

   responsiveness, 134

interests, 4, 35–36

international influences

   organizations, 215–216

   promotion of democracy, 212–217

jail, 28–29, 166–167

judiciary, 74–75, 129

kenesh, see institutions for making government policies depend on voters’ preferences, kenesh; Kyrgyzstan, regions, kenesh

Kyrgyzstan

   border restrictions’ impact on economic autonomy, 165–166

   center–periphery relations, 167–168, 208–209

   democracy, 11–12; and culture, 16–17, 40, 101–102, 107, 125, 128; measurement of, in the regions, 18, 59–68, 185–196, 198, 218–219; national government support for, 11–12, 167; in the regions, 196, 198; uneven development of, 18, 196–198

   economic development level, 13–16

   national parliament, 13

   natural resources, 15–16

   nomadism, 13–15

   reforms in the Soviet era, 11

   regions: divisions among, 25; executives, 13, 128; kenesh (council), 13, 129–130

   unitary system of government, 12–13, 167–168

   Zhogorku Kenesh, 13

Latin America, 168, 170–171, 182–183

laws, 202–208

leadership, 209–212

   Communist Party membership, 211–212

   political party membership, 210–211

   support for democracy, 209–210

   turnover, 212

   understanding of democracy, 209

legislatures, see institutions for making government policies depend on voters’ preferences, kenesh; institutions for making government policies depend on voters’ preferences, regional legislatures; Kyrgyzstan, regions, kenesh; Russia, regions, legislatures

liberties, 57–58

Lindblom, Charles, 2–3, 165

market reform, 182–183

markets, 150–151, 157–159, 182–183

Middle East, 168, 169–170

mobilizing structures, 37–41

Moore, Barrington, 2, 5, 36, 170

multiple voting, 118–119

Naryn oblast

   alternative sources of information in, 70, 71, 75, 76, 81, 148, 224

   democracy in, 134–137

   description of, 22–25, 26

   economic autonomy, 157–162

   economic development level, 24

   economic policy, 162

   economy, 24, 157–162

   eligibility for public office in, 93–96, 97–99, 101–102

   ethnic composition, 24, 25

   exports, 159–160, 162

   foreign investment, 160, 161–162

   free and fair elections in, 119–122, 124–125, 128

   freedom of expression in, 110–114, 116, 227–228

   freedom to form and join organizations in, 81–87, 141–142, 226

   institutions for making government policies depend on voters’ preferences in, 128–130

   location, 25, 26

   organizational capacity in, 38–41

   population density, 24

   population size, 24

   privatization, 162

   right of political leaders to compete for support in, 95, 102–105, 107–109, 143, 148

   right to vote in, 117–119

   service sector, 160

   territory size, 24

   trade, 159–162

   urbanization, 24

networks, 37–41

newspapers, see alternative sources of information

NGOs, see freedom to form and join organizations

nongovernmental organizations, see freedom to form and join organizations

organizational capacity, 4, 37–41

Osh oblast

   alternative sources of information in, 70, 71–72, 75–76, 77–81, 147, 148, 225

   democracy in, 137

   description of, 22–26

   economic autonomy, 157–162

   economic development level, 24

   economic policy, 162

   economy, 24, 157–162

   eligibility for public office in, 93, 95, 96, 98, 101–102, 143

   ethnic composition, 24, 25

   exports, 158–162

   foreign investment, 160, 161, 162

   free and fair elections in, 119–122, 124–125, 128

   freedom of expression in, 111–114, 116, 227–228

   freedom to form and join organizations in, 81–93, 140–141, 148, 226

   institutions for making government policies depend on voters’ preferences in, 128–130, 134

   location, 25

   organizational capacity in, 38–41

   population density, 24

   population size, 24

   privatization, 162

   right of political leaders to compete for support in, 95, 102, 104–105, 107–109, 143, 148

   right to vote in, 117–119

   service sector, 159–161

   territory size, 24

   trade, 158–162

   urbanization, 24

political opportunity structures, 201–202

political participation, theories of, 35–38, 42, 43

political parties, see freedom to form and join organizations

press, the, see alternative sources of information

press freedom, see alternative sources of information

private ownership, 32–33

private property, 32–33

privatization, 32–33

protests, 114–116, 228–230

radio, see alternative sources of information

resource mobilization, 36–37

resources, 4, 36–37

right of political leaders to compete for support, 53–54, 55, 95, 102–109, 223, 226, 227

   campaign donors, 147–148

   campaign expenditures, 108

   campaign violations by candidates, 107–109

   campaign violations by government officials, 105–107, 109

   campaign workers, 103–104, 109

   economic autonomy of candidates, 142–143

   gift-giving during campaigns, 107–108

   government harassment, 95, 103–104, 109

   government influence in campaigns, 105–107

   government resources in campaigns, 105–107

   impact of on other components of democracy, 53–54, 55

   law about, 202–203, 205–208

   measurement of, 64–65, 223, 226, 227

   organizational capacity of candidates, 39–41

   paying for media coverage in campaigns, 108–109

   self-censorship, 104, 109

right to vote, 54, 55, 117–119, 227

   ballot violations, 117–119

   family voting, 118–119

   government harassment, 117

   impact of on other components of democracy, 54, 55

   measurement of, 66, 227

   multiple voting, 118–119

Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, 2, 5, 36, 170

Russia

   business’s impact on economic autonomy, 164–165

   center–periphery relations, 167–168, 208–209

   democracy, 11–12; measurement of, in the regions, 18, 59–68, 185–200, 218–219; national government support for, 11–12, 166–167; in the regions, 197, 199; study of, 9–10; uneven development of, 5–6, 9–10, 18, 197, 199

   economic development level, 13, 14, 15

   federalism, 12, 167

   natural resources, 15

   reforms in the Soviet era, 11

   regions: executives, 12, 128; legislatures, 12, 129–133; studies of, 9–10

Samara oblast

   alternative sources of information in, 70–72, 76, 77, 79–81, 147, 148, 224

   democracy in, 137

   description of, 20–22

   economic autonomy, 150–154, 155–157

   economic development level, 20, 21

   economic policy, 153–154

   economy, 20, 21, 150–154, 155–157

   eligibility for public office in, 93, 95–96, 98–101, 142, 203, 204

   ethnic composition, 20, 21

   exports, 151, 152

   foreign investment, 152

   free and fair elections in, 119–122, 123–124, 126–127

   freedom of expression in, 111–115, 227–228

   freedom to form and join organizations in, 81–85, 87–93, 140–141, 226

   history, 20, 22

   institutions for making government policies depend on voters’ preferences in, 128–132, 133

   location, 20

   migration, 156

   organizational capacity in, 38–40

   population density, 21

   population size, 21

   privatization, 157

   right of political leaders to compete for support in, 95, 102, 104–109, 142, 147–148, 205–208, 229

   right to vote in, 117, 119

   small business, 157

   territory size, 21

   urbanization, 21

self-censorship, 29, 60–61, 71, 76–77, 82, 84–85, 97, 104, 109, 110, 134

   definition of, 29

social capital, 37–41

social networks, 37–41

state economic monopolies, 163–164, 172–173, 177

   impact on democratic rights, 5

   as an influence on hybrid regimes, 177

   and market reform, 183

state media, 77–79, 221

state violence, 28–29

Stephens, Evelyne Huber, 2, 5, 36, 170

Stephens, John D., 2, 5, 36, 170

Ul’ianovsk oblast

   alternative sources of information in, 70, 71, 72–75, 76–77, 81, 145–146, 148, 224, 225

   democracy in, 134–137

   description, 20, 21, 22

   economic autonomy, 150–157

   economic development level, 20, 21

   economic policy, 154–156

   economy, 20, 21, 150–157

   eligibility for public office in, 93–102, 142–143, 203–204

   ethnic composition, 20, 21

   exports, 151–152

   foreign investment, 152–153

   free and fair elections in, 119–124, 126–128

   freedom of expression in, 111–115, 227–228

   freedom to form and join organizations in, 81–87, 141–142, 226

   history, 20, 22

   institutions for making government policies depend on voters’ preferences in, 128–130, 132–133

   location, 20, 22

   migration, 156

   organizational capacity, 38–40

   population density, 21

   population size, 21

   privatization, 157

   right of political leaders to compete for support in, 95, 102–105, 107, 109, 142–143, 147–148, 203, 205–208, 229

   right to vote in, 117–119

   small business, 157

   territory size, 21

   urbanization, 21

unitary systems of government, 12–13, 167–168, 208–209

violence, 28–29

voting, see right to vote

workplace harassment, see government harassment

Zhogorku Kenesh, 13


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