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Christianity and Genocide in Rwanda

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 (ISBN-13: 9780521191395)

Christianity and Genocide in Rwanda
Cambridge University Press
9780521191395 - Christianity and Genocide in Rwanda - By Timothy Longman
Index

Index

Abarokore Movement 92, 113–15, 145, 160, 196, 205, 224, 249, 265

colonial era 81

abazimu 36

Adventists

See Seventh Day Adventist Church

Africa Watch

See Human Rights Watch

African Rights 4, 5, 192

Agro-Pastoral and Artisanal Project of Kirinda

See PAPAKI

Akagera National Park 134

akazu 124, 136, 162–64, 166, 181, 185, 189

All Africa Conference of Churches 96, 100, 158, 192

Anglican Church

See Episcopal Church of Rwanda

animation 88, 91, 93, 126, 132, 133, 141, 143, 316

Annet, Pastor Henri 78

anti-Semitism 10

Appleby, Scott 314

APROSOMA

See Association for the Social Promotion of the Mass

ARBEF (Rwandan Association for the Well-Being of the Family) 113

Armenian genocide 12–13, 18

ARTC

See Rwandan Association of Christian Workers

Arusha Peace Accords 158, 178–83, 187–88, 192, 194, 268, 273, 275, 279

Association for the Social Promotion of the Mass (APROSOMA) 71, 72

Association of Volunteers for Peace (AVP) 142, 171

Association Rwandaise pour la Défense des Droits de la Personne et des Libertés Publiques

See Rwandan Association for the Defense of Human Rights and Public Liberties

Bagasora, Colonel Théoneste 180, 197

Bagogwe Tutsi 135, 136, 139, 169, 282

Bahutu Manifesto 71

Basic Ecclesial Communities (CEBs) 101–4, 191, 242, 261, 299, 308, 309, 312

Bayart, Jean-François 19, 310

Belgian Society of Protestant Missions in Congo

See SBMPC

Belgium

colonial rule of Rwanda 34, 38, 48–56, 58, 62, 75, 77, 78–81, 204, 210

criticism of the Habyarimana regime 166

in the War of October 136

Kayibanda visit to 67

killing of United Nations troops 188, 283

missionaries from

See Belgian Society of Protestant Missions in Congo

Rwandan independence from 64–73

Benebikira Sisters 68

Benedict XVI, Pope 321

Bergen, Doris 11, 196

Bethel missionaries 77, 78, 203

Bézy, Fernand 120

Bigirumwami, Mgr. Aloysius 68, 72, 74, 89

Biguhu Presbyterian parish 29, 193, 197, 201, 218, 220, 223, 236, 237, 240–66

genocide in 277–85, 288–89, 298, 300

Birambo 226, 228, 229, 241, 245, 273, 274, 277–81, 284, 288, 290, 294, 296

Boesak, Reverend Allen 16

Bonhoeffer, Dietrich 17

Bosnia, ethnic violence 13, 18

Brard, Father 46, 48, 97

Buganda 1, 4, 43

Bugesera region

massacres in 140, 169, 170, 173, 174, 179

Buhoma kingdom 34, 52

Bujumbura, Burundi 38, 71, 72, 180, 283

Bukunzi kingdom 34, 40, 51

Burundi

1972 ethnic massacres 14, 84

assassination of president 182, 183, 188, 273

churches in 15, 38, 42, 43, 79, 81

ethnic violence 84, 182, 188, 313

indigenous religion 37

refugees in Rwanda 85

Rwandan refugees in 83

Bushiru kingdom 34, 52, 124

Busozo kingdom 34, 52

Butare Catholic cathedral 103, 201, 234, 261

Butare Catholic diocese 105

Butare prefecture 201

Butare Presbyterian parish 263

Butare town 167, 177

Butare, Catholic Church in 7, 64, 103, 122, 201, 234, 261, 263, 299

Bwakira commune 205, 208, 219, 225, 227, 228, 239–41, 268, 271–73, 275, 278, 280, 284–86, 290, 291–95, 296

Byumba prefecture 89, 144, 169, 178, 179, 271

Cardijn, Father Joseph 112

Caritas 103, 106, 122, 263

Catholic Church 4

and birth control 94

and President Habyarimana 82, 89, 91, 92, 124, 153, 184

and President Kayibanda 76–77, 82, 86

and the 1959 revolution 72, 76, 85, 86

and the Holocaust 11, 12

criticism of 154

economic development activities 105, 106, 113

in civil society 8, 22, 142

in colonial Rwanda 38–55, 58–73

in the democracy movement 8, 132, 138, 142

in the genocide 5–6, 189–90, 194–95, 197

lay movements 111–13

Liberation Theology 97, 100

Muvara scandal 96

pastoral letters 148–53, 155, 172–73, 184

reaction to ethnic violence 85, 171, 172–74, 185

response to the genocide 7–9, 191

structural changes in 101–4

CEBs

See Basic Ecclesial Communities


Center of Integrated Rural and Artisanal Teaching (CERAI) 209, 210, 243, 246, 277

Centre Christus, Kigali 142, 189, 322

Charismatic Renewal 112, 114, 155–57

Chazan, Naomi 314, 327

Christian League for the Defense of Human Rights in Rwanda (LICHREDHOR) 142, 171

Christian Missionary Society (CMS) 112

church

See Catholic Church, Episcopal Church, Free Methodist Church, Pentecostal Church, Presbyterian Church, Seventh Day Adventist Church, Union of Baptist Churches

Church Missionary Society (CMS) 79–81

civil society

and the genocide 318–19

Gramsci on 24, 25

in Eastern Europe 20–23

religious groups in 25–26

Classe, Mgr Leon 41, 46, 48, 49, 51–56, 62, 67, 75, 76

Cloward, Richard 315

Coalition for the Defense of the Republic (CDR) 139, 164–65, 168–72, 178–84, 187–88, 225, 268, 270–75, 278, 279, 285

coffee production 120

COJEM (Cooperative of Young Carpenters) 243, 246

Communautés Ecclesiales de Base

See Basic Ecclesial Communities (CEBs)

Contact Committee 138, 159, 184

corruption

church response to 149, 150, 154, 196

in opposition parties 177

in the churches 145, 213, 224, 234, 237, 297

in the government 122, 123, 125, 128, 129, 131, 141, 225, 236

Crummey, Donald 226

Cyahinda Catholic parish 5

Cyangugu prefecture 77, 121, 142

de Lacger, Louis 63, 65

de Lame, Danielle 203, 328

Decalo, Samuel 88

Dejemeppe, Father Arthur 67, 75

Delhove, Pastor David 204

democracy movement 8, 117, 118, 126–33, 137, 138, 140, 163, 176, 236, 260, 309

Democratic and Republican Youth

See JDR

Democratic Republic of Congo

See Zaire

Deprimoz, Mgr Laurent 67, 70

Des Forges, Alison 3, 35, 65, 124, 135, 168, 181, 183, 187, 190, 227, 281, 282, 291, 318

Dialogue 87, 141, 142, 171

East African Revival 113, 114

economic conditions in Rwanda 117–21

Ellis, Stephen 234

Englund, Harri 266

Episcopal Church of Rwanda (EER) 124, 159, 201, 234

and economic development 105, 106, 110

in the colonial era 79–81

leadership struggle 144, 145

medical services 104

response to the genocide 192

ethnic identity

anti-Tutsi violence 66, 72, 83, 85, 136, 151, 152, 169

discrimination against Tutsi 121, 135, 220, 233

origins of Hutu and Tutsi identities 35–36, 46, 59–66

Twa group 27, 35, 36, 58–62, 65, 76, 148, 253, 263, 308

Farmers and Animal Raisers Joining Together to Help Themselves (TWIBATURE) 245, 251, 255

Fatton, Robert 233


Fein, Helen 4, 15, 17, 168, 170

FIDH (International Federation of Human Rights Leagues) 16

First Republic

See Kayibanda, President Grégoire

First World War 12, 13, 42, 48, 51, 78, 112, 203

Free Methodist Church 81, 107, 159, 185, 191, 201

Gahini Episcopal parish 79, 80

Gakwaya, Father Straton 115

Gatabazi, Félician 178, 187

Gatwa, Tharcisse 87, 115, 142

Gautier, Mary 22

Genocide Convention (Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide of 1948) 305

genocide of Tutsi, 1994 186–89, 190, 192–93, 193–98

and the churches 189–90, 190–92, 318–19, 320–23

in Biguhu 197, 278–84

in Kirinda 197, 280–84

Germany

colonial rule of Rwanda 42

Holocaust 11, 15

Gikongoro prefecture 79, 282, 285, 288

Gikongoro Prefecture 6, 85, 87, 143, 157, 194, 204, 210, 225, 241, 258, 283, 284, 288, 289, 291

Gisaka kingdom 40, 41, 51, 52, 68, 77, 79

Gisenyi prefecture 85, 87, 120, 121, 124, 139, 144, 169, 171, 173, 174, 179, 184, 189, 195, 270, 272, 282, 296

Gishwati Forest Reserve 135, 136

Gishyita commune 178, 270, 271, 281

Gitarama prefecture 72, 79, 84, 89, 121, 124, 191, 192, 204, 206, 210, 211, 219, 224, 241, 285, 290, 291, 296

Gitera, Joseph 71, 73

Gitwe Adventist parish 78, 204, 290

Gourevitch, Philip 193, 194

Gramsci, Antonio 23, 24, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 260, 300, 319

Gravel, Pierre Bettez 37

Groupe Scolaire d’Astrida 64, 68, 70

Habyarimana, President Juvénal

MRND 25

hamitic hypothesis 42–44

Hamitic hypothesis 60, 61

Harroy, Jean-Paul, Vice-Governor for Ruanda-Urundi 69

Hirschman, Albert O. 147

Hirth, Monsignor Jean-Joseph 39–41, 45, 47, 48, 51, 115

Holocaust 11–12, 15, 17, 303, 305, 306, 332

Human Rights Watch 3, 5, 16, 27, 166, 168, 181, 182, 268, 303

Huntington, Samuel 22, 265

Hutu

See ethnic identity

Hutu Manifesto

See Bahutu Manifesto

Hutu Power 183, 185, 189, 270, 274–76, 278, 279, 281, 282, 285, 291

ICCO 207

Impuzamugambi militia 164

inama z’imirenge

See Basic Ecclesial Communities (CEBs)

inama-remezo

See Basic Ecclesial Communities

India

communal violence in 306, 313

indigenous religion 36–38

Inkotanyi

See Rwandan Patriotic Front

Institut Presbytérien de Kirinda

See Presbyterian Institute of Kirinda

Institute of Agricultural Sciences of Rwanda (ISAR) 207

Interahamwe militia 164, 165, 171, 172, 186, 292, 295, 322

International Commission of Inquiry 166

International Federation of Human Rights Leagues

See FIDH

intore warriors 42


Islam

in Bosnia-Herzegovina 13

in India 18

in Kosovo 14

in Lebanon 18

in Rwanda 4, 74, 196

in Turkey 12

Iwacu Center 26, 113, 127, 131, 142, 257, 258

JDR (Democratic and Republican Youth) 227, 229, 231

Jean-Paul II, Pope 7, 149, 320

visit to Rwanda 133

Jehovah’s Witnesses 92

Jesuits 142, 189, 322

Johanssen, Pastor Ernst 78

John XXIII, Pope 112

Johnston, Harry 43

Josephite Brothers 68

Kabasha, Burgomaster Tharcisse 218–19, 221, 225, 228, 271–73, 285, 290, 292

Kabgayi, Catholic diocese 51, 55, 70, 71, 74, 89, 153, 191, 289, 296

Kaduha Catholic parish 6, 194

Kagame, Father Alexis 63

Kagame, Paul 134

Kalibushi, Bishop Wenceslas 153, 174, 184, 186, 189

Kalibwami, Justin 39, 50, 68, 74, 92

Kampanga Catholic parish 201, 234, 298

Kamweya, André 188

Kandt, Richard 41, 51

Kanyarushoki, Pierre-Claver 180

Karamaga, André 87, 95, 96, 115

Kavaruganda, Joseph 188

Kayibanda, President Grégoire 67, 70–75, 82, 83, 86–89, 97, 121, 124, 128, 137, 168, 180, 235, 270

as president 83–85

Kayiranga, Jean-François 6

Kayishema, Prefect Clément 280, 282

Kayove commune 282

Kazinga, Agathe, Madame Habyarimana 124

Kenya 1, 2, 4, 104, 113, 128, 214, 321

Kibari kingdom 34

Kibeho

apparitions of the Virgin Mary at 31, 114, 145, 150, 155, 156, 157, 159, 176, 191

Kibilira commune

massacre of Bagogwe Tutsi 135, 151, 174, 179

Kibogoro Free Methodist parish 81

Kibungo prefecture 95, 158, 190, 195

Kibuye prefecture 1, 5, 29, 89, 121, 122, 143, 153, 167, 169, 171, 173, 178, 179, 184, 194, 195, 201, 204–7, 210, 225, 228, 229, 240, 241, 258, 268, 270–72, 276, 279, 280–83, 285, 293, 294, 296

Kiga people 37, 38

Kigali 3, 6, 72, 89, 103, 113, 131, 136, 142, 165, 179, 185, 187–90, 194, 204, 207, 214, 217, 219, 226, 257, 277, 279, 283–84, 292, 322

Kigali-Rural prefecture 179, 271

Kigeme Episcopal parish 79, 81

Kimonyo, Jean-Paul 271

Kinigi commune 234, 298

Kinyaga 35, 36

Kinyamateka

in the colonial era 70, 74

in the democracy movement 8, 132, 141, 171, 174, 184

in the First Republic 86

Kirinda Hospital 210, 218

Kirinda Presbyterian parish 29, 197, 201, 203–37, 240, 241, 242, 246–47, 249, 257, 260, 262, 264, 265, 266, 269–76, 306, 318

genocide in 278–88, 289–96, 297, 300

mission history 77–79, 203–4

Kosovo 13, 14

kubandwa

See underLyangombe and Nyabingi

kubohoza 164, 167, 177, 227, 273


Lake Kivu 77, 81, 215, 218, 270

Lavigerie, Cardinal Charles 39, 50, 55, 67, 185

Lebanon

ethnic violence in 306

Lebanon, religious violence 18

Legion of Mary 112

Lemarchand, René 35, 64, 69, 71, 72, 74, 84, 87, 182, 313

Lemkin, Raphael 305

Leo XIII, Pope 98

Lewin, Moshe 21

Liberal Party (PL) 137, 138, 163, 171, 177, 188

Liberation Theology 97–101

LICHREDHOR

See Christian League for the Defense of Human Rights in Rwanda

Ligue Chrétienne de Défense des Droits de l’Homme au Rwanda

See Christian League for the Defense of Human Rights in Rwanda

Linden, Ian 8, 9, 39, 47, 49, 50, 55, 67, 68, 74, 76

Locatelli, Antonia 174

Logiest, Colonel Guy 73

Lyangombe religious practice 37

Mabanza commune 281

Mahame, Chrysologue 142

Maindron, Gabriel 31, 145, 146

Malawi 266

Mamdani, Mahmood 247

Maquet, Jaques J. 76

Mathieu, Ngirira 130

Mayuya, Colonel Stanislas 125

Mbandiwimfura, Dépgratias 68

Mbembe, Achile 9

Mfizi, Christophe 164

Mibirizi Catholic parish 39

Misago, Bishop Augustin 145, 155, 157, 158

Mobutu, Sese Sekou 16

Monga, Celestin 22, 23, 265

Mortehan, Georges, Belgian Resident 52, 62

MRND (National Revolutionary Movement for Development) 88, 89, 93, 126, 127, 129, 132, 137–39, 143, 145, 153, 158, 159, 163–66, 168, 169, 171, 177–80, 182, 183, 187, 190, 225, 227–29, 231, 258, 268, 270–74, 276, 278, 282

Mugesera, Antoine 131

Mugesera, Léon 179

Mugonero Adventist parish 194

Muhutu Social Movement (MSM) 71, 72

Muko commune 258, 282, 283, 288, 291

Mulindahabi, Calliope 70

Munyeshaka, Father Wenceslas 194

Munyeshyaka, Father Wenceslas 6

Muramba Catholic parish 174, 189, 195

Murunda Catholic parish 280

Musange commune 288

Musebeya commune 288

Museveni, President Yoweri 134

Musinga, King Yuhi V 33, 38, 40, 41, 49, 51, 53–55, 62, 77, 78, 80, 203

Muslims

See Islam

Muvara, Father Felicien 96

Mwanangu, Father Evode 189

Mwendo commune 228, 240, 241, 258, 259, 267, 268, 269, 271, 278–80, 282–86, 288, 289, 296, 298

National Committee of Development (CND) 6, 133, 137

National Office for Population

See ONAPO

National Revolutionary Movement for Development

See MRND

National Rwandan Union

See UNAR

National University of Rwanda (NUR) 85, 125, 131

Ndadaye, President Melchior 182–85, 273–75

Ndadye, President Melchior 182


Ndahayo, Claver 71

Ndahimana, Etienne 142

Ndandari, Bishop Justin 144, 145

Ndasingwa, Landoald 188

Ndegwa, Stephen 128, 319

Ndera, minor seminar of Kigali 195

Ndorwa 37

Nduga 34, 47

new religious movements, suppression of 92

Newbury, Catharine 35, 36, 122

Ngoma Catholic parish 7, 197

Ngoma commune 234

Niyitegeka, Sister Félicitas 195

Niyonzima, Maximilien 70

Nkezabera, Father Augustin 195

Nkiramacumu, Dominique 142

Nkurikiye, Edouard 6

Northern Ireland

communal violence in 306

Nsengiyaremye, Prime Minister Dismas 138, 139, 163, 171, 180, 181

Nsengiyumva, Archbishop Vincent 89, 96, 142, 153, 184, 309

Nsengiyumva, Bishop Thadée 8, 153, 155

Nsengiyumva, Bishop Thadée 186

Nsengiyumva, Thadée, Bishop of Kabgayi 154

Nsengiyumva, Vincent 89, 153

Nshamihigo, Archbishop Augustin 144, 145, 185, 191, 192

Nshimyimana, Enos 142

Ntakirutimana, Elizaphan 5, 194

Ntaryamira, President Cyprien 188

Ntezimana, Emmanuel 7, 104, 125, 304, 322

Nyabarongo River 179, 203, 205, 230, 231, 241, 285, 290

Nyabingi religious practice 37, 80, 92

Nyakizu commune 5, 192

Nyandwe, Father Robert 6

Nyandwi, Father Robert 194, 230

Nyange Catholic Parish 6

Nyantango 203

Nyanza, royal capital 39, 42, 53, 55, 72, 77, 78, 204

Nyundo, Catholic diocese 8, 39, 40, 68, 74, 87, 89, 153, 154, 174, 184, 189, 203

Nzamurambaho, Frédéric 188

Nzitabakuze, Jean Bosco 130

ONAPO (National Office for Population) 94, 113

OPROVIA 208

Pagès, Father Albert 63, 65

PAPAKI (Agro-Pastoral and Artisanal Project of Kirinda) 207, 208, 212, 215, 220, 231, 235

PARMEHUTU, Party of the Movement for Hutu Emancipation 72–74, 83, 137

Parratt, John 100

Patrimonialism in the churches 90

Paul VI, Pope 98, 157

Pawa

See Hutu Power

PDC

See Christian Democratic Party

Pentecostal Church 81, 114, 159, 176, 191, 196, 224, 234, 320

Perraudin, Mgr André 70, 72, 74, 76, 89, 112, 189

Piven, Frances Fox 315

Pottier, Johan 263

Presbyterian Church in Rwanda (EPR) 29, 185

Abarokore Movement 160

and civil society 113

and economic development 106

and the Habyarimana regime 89

democratization of 309

ethnic discrimination in 96

in Biguhu

See Biguhu Presbyterian parish

in civil society 142, 175

in Kirinda

See Kirinda Presbyterian parish

mission history 59, 77–79, 104

response to1973 violence 87

response to genocide 191


Presbyterian Institute of Kirinda (IPK) 209, 210, 212–15, 217–20, 223, 225, 226, 231, 247, 271, 272, 274, 276, 279, 283, 285, 288, 290, 297

Presidential Guard 3

Projet Agro-Pastorale et Artisanal de Kirinda

See PAPAKI

Prunier, Gerard 3, 124, 133, 136, 180, 186

PSD

See Social Democratic Party

Radio-Television Libre des Milles Collines

See RTLM

Radoli, Sister Agatha 9

Rambura Catholic parish 189

Ratzinger, Cardinal Joseph

See Benedict XVI

Red Cross 196, 274

Reformed Church of Belgium 243

regional favoritism 85, 121

Remera Presbyterian parish 77, 78, 204, 217

Republican Democratic Movement (MDR) 83, 137–39, 164, 171, 177–83, 187, 188, 224, 225, 227–30, 268, 270–276, 278, 281, 282

Reyntjens, Filip 35, 66, 83, 139, 166, 179, 180, 188

Rocogoza, Faustin 188

Roman Catholic Church

See Catholic Church

RTLM (Free Radio-Television of the Thousand Hills) 181, 183, 186, 191, 279, 282

Rubengera Presbyterian parish 77, 78, 204, 217, 281

Rubwejanga, Bishop Frédéric 95, 158

Rudahigwa, King Mutara III 55, 68, 75

death of 72

Rugasira, Father Ananie 195

Ruhengeri prefecture 89, 121, 122, 124, 131, 139, 165, 169, 178, 179, 201, 234, 271, 272, 296, 298

Ruhengeri town 125

Ruhumuliza, Jonathan 192

Rukoma Catholic parish 189

Rutayisire, Paul 4, 39, 40, 44, 45, 48, 52, 55, 64

Rutsiro commune 270, 271, 277, 280, 282

Ruzindana, Bishop Joseph 89

Rwabugiri, King Kigeri IV 34, 36, 38, 45, 62

Rwamatamu commune 178, 270, 271

Rwanda Council of Churches 158, 159

Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) 135

Rwandan Association for the Defense of Human Rights and Public Liberties (ADL) 142, 171

Rwandan Association for the Well-Being of the Family

See ARBEF

Rwandan Association of Christian Workers (ARTC) 184

Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA) 134, 135, 136

Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) 6, 134, 135, 138, 139, 147, 150, 151, 152, 158, 159, 161, 165, 168–69, 172, 175, 178–81, 182–83, 184, 185, 187, 188, 191, 192, 194, 232, 282, 283, 291, 306, 312, 317, 319

fears of, in Kirinda 271–76, 279, 294–96

Rwaza Catholic parish 39, 40, 41, 47, 203

Rwigyema, Major-General Fred 134

Saul, John 23

Save Catholic parish 39, 46, 48, 71, 102–4, 123, 177, 201, 233, 234, 298, 299

SBMPC, Belgian Society of Protestant Missions in Congo 78, 79, 80, 204, 210

School of Nursing Sciences of Kirinda (ESI) 210, 211, 219, 220, 228, 231, 269, 271, 283, 284, 286, 287

Scott, James 222, 234, 235, 309, 315

Sebununguri, Bishop Adonia 89, 144, 145


Second Vatican Council 98, 99, 101, 112

Second World War 11, 15, 66, 67, 69, 74, 97, 305, 321

Sells, Michael 13

Service for Rural Development in Biguhu (SDRB) 244–46, 250, 251, 256–58, 289

Seventh Day Adventist Church 4, 5, 59, 78, 79, 93, 159, 174, 194, 204, 224, 234, 290, 299

Shamukiga, Charles 188

Shyanda commune 121, 241

Shyembe hill 204, 205, 209–11, 215, 219, 226–28, 231, 272, 274, 285, 286, 291, 295

Shyogwe Episcopal parish 79

Sibomana, Father André 7, 8, 128, 129, 132, 141, 142, 174, 253

Siegmund-Schultze, Friedrich 17

Sirven, Pierre 106

Social Democratic Party (PDC) 139

Social Democratic Party (PSD) 137–39, 164, 177–80, 183, 187, 188, 193, 257, 275, 281

Society of Jesus

See Jesuits

Society of Missionaries of Africa

See White Fathers

Speke, John Hanning 43

Sri Lanka

ethnic violence in 168, 306

Ste. Famille Catholic parish 194

Straus, Scott 186

Sudan 2, 18, 306

Swiss Reformed Church 243

Tanzania 14, 37, 88, 104, 113

ter Haar, Gerrie 234

Theunis, Guy 90, 95, 142

Trafipro consumers’ cooperative 70, 113

Tripp, Aili 314

Tutsi

See ethnic identity

Tutu, Archbishop Desmond 16

Twa

See ethnic identity

Twagiramungu, Faustin 181, 182, 183, 187, 188, 275, 281

Twagirayesu, Pastor Michel 89, 96, 113, 158–60, 185, 217, 218, 220, 222, 225, 270, 279, 283–87, 292, 300, 309

TWIBATURE

See Farmers and Animal Raisers Joining Together to Help Themselves

ubuhake cattle clientship 35, 44, 69, 71

uburetwa forced labor 36, 65, 123

ubutaka land clientship 35

umuganda 88, 91, 93, 122, 123, 126, 132, 133, 143, 170, 225, 236, 316

UNAMIR

See United Nations Assistance Mission to Rwanda

UNAR (National Rwandan Union) 72, 73, 74, 84, 181

Union of Baptist Churches in Rwanda (UEBR) 81, 107, 160, 185, 201

United Church of Belgium 244

United Nations Assistance Mission to Rwanda (UNAMIR) 187, 188, 283

Uwilingiyimana, Prime Minister Agathe 181, 182, 183, 187, 188

Vail, Leroy 59

Van Hoyweghen, Saskia 9

van Kleist-Schmenzin, Ewald 17

Vansina, Jan 34, 35, 65, 75, 76

War of October 133, 136, 141, 147, 148, 150, 158, 165, 168, 178, 269

White Fathers 27, 39, 40, 44, 49, 50

in colonial Rwanda 48–57, 58–73, 115, 203

in the democracy movement 165, 166, 171

Wiesel, Elie 303

Witte, John 265, 316

World Council of Churches 7, 100

Xaverian Movement 112


Young Christian Workers (JOC) 67, 107, 112

Yugoslavia, former

ethnic violence in 306

Zaire

Anglican Church 144

Catholic Church 14, 102

ethnic violence in 16

government exile in 3

in the War of October 136

indigenous religion 37

Rwandan refugees in 296

Zaza Catholic parish 39, 40, 41

Zero Network 164, 166, 169




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