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  • Page extent: 660 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 1.13 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 491.8
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: PG41 .S85 2006
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Slavic languages

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521223157 | ISBN-10: 0521223156)

The Slavic Languages

Cambridge University Press
9780521223157 - The Slavic Languages - by Roland Sussex and Paul Cubberley
Index


Index

Italic page numbers indicate presence of a table.

/ě/, see: vowels: jat′

/ъ/ /ь/, see: jers

/ǫ/, /ę/, see: vowels: nasal

abbreviated words 483, 484–490

abbreviations 17, 586

ablative 23

ablaut (apophony) 193

abstand 107, 544–547

Academy, see: national language: academy

accent 15–16

   see also: pitch (accent); stress

accusative, see: case

acronyms 217, 488–490

   see also: initialisms

active, see: participles; voice

acute 25

   see also: neo-acute; pitch

adaptation

   lexical 492

   phonological 492

   word formation 492

address 565–572

   asymmetrical/symmetrical 566

   nominal 568–571

   O address (3 Person) 568

   polite 569

   pronominal 565–568

   T/V address 327–328, 565–568

   titles 569–571

adjectives 310–312, 354

   attributive 349

   definite/indefinite 23, 41, 310, 423–424

   gradation 212

   long form 264–268, 265, 310

   modifiers 412–414

   nominalized 434, 441

   participial 395, 457–458

   possessive 311, 312, 313, 347, 390–391, 456–457

   post-nominal 349

   predicative 311, 395, 410

   pre-nominal 349

   qualitative 451, 457

   relative, relational 451, 455–457

   short/long 310, 454

   short form 263, 263–264, 310, 377

adjuncts see: predicative: attributives

adverbs 221, 355–356

   accompaniment 355

   cause 355

   degree 355

   de-numeral 468

   goal 355

   gradation 463–464

   manner 355

   place 355

   “relative” 388

   time 355

   T-/J-/K- adverbs 468–469

advertising, language of 495, 572

affixes 217

   see also: inflexion; prefixation; suffixes

agency, agent, see: constructions

agreement 325, 567

   gender 325

   grammatical 326–330

   hierarchy 329

   number 325, 326–330

   person 325, 326

   semantic 326–330

   see also: concord

akan′e 160, 161

   dissimilative 515

   non-dissimilative 515

   strong 161, 515

   see also: ekan′e; ikan′je; jakan′e; okan′e

Aktionsarten 446–447

   see also: aspect: procedurals

aktualizacija/passivizacija 495

allegro speech 556

allophones 168

   see also: phonemes

alphabet, see: Cyrillic; Glagolitic; Roman

alternations 192–193, 204

   adjective

      inflexion 209, 212, 268–269

      word formation 212

   adverb 212–213

   clusters 204

   combined vowel ∼ consonant 206–208

   compound 204

   consonant 201–206

      consonant ∼ zero 196, 205–206

      epenthetic /n/ 205

      liquids 206

      mutation, see: palatalization: replacive

      palatalization, see: palatalization

   diphthongs 208

   in noun paradigms:

      a/ja 257–258

      i 258–259

      o/jo 253–254

   in word formation 430–431

   length, see: vowel: processes: length

   noun

      in -anin 211

      inflexion 208–211, 209

      word formation 211–212

   pitch (accent), see: B/C/S

   pleophony 207, 211

   prefix + root/stem 192, 430

   root/stem + inflexion 192

   root/stem + suffix 192, 430–431

   secondary gender, see: gender

   stress, see: stress

   suppletion, see: suppletion

   verb

      inflexion 213, 285–286, 291–294, 300–301, 304–305

      word formation 214

   voice 205, 211, 212

   vowel 193–201

      length 197–198

      quality 199, 200–201

      tone 198

      vowel ∼ zero 194–197

analyticity, analytic languages 219, 554–555, 562–563

   see also: imperative; inflexion; synthetic

anaphora 390

   see also: pronouns

animacy, see: gender

Antae 63

anticipatory plural, see: number: plural

aorist, see: tense

apersonal, see: constructions

approximants 208

archaic, archaisms 551

archaization 546

articles

   definite/indefinite 227, 235

   oblique form 226–234

   post-posed:

      in Bulgarian/Macedonian 235, 251–252, 347, 357

      in North Russian 524

aspect 244, 342–346, 441–444, 483

   bi-aspectual 345, 443

   imperfective 342–346

   in Proto-Slavic 41

   perfective 342–346

   procedurals 344, 446–447

   with imperatives 363

   see also: inflexion; telic; tense

assimilation 168–171

   manner 171

   palatalization 171

   place 170–171

   progressive 170, 524

   regressive 168–170, 530

   voice 150, 168–170, 174–175, 192, 430

asyllabic roots 195

athematic, see: conjugation: modern

   see also: verbs

attributive, see: adjectives

augmentatives, see: suffixes

ausbau 107, 545, 546

autonomy, see: abstand

auxiliary 351


B/C/S 4, 316, 478–479, 595

   adjectives 310–312

   dialects 504–507, 508

      list 505–506

      čakavian 155, 506

      ekavian 15, 506

      ikavian 506

      (i)jekavian 190, 506

      kajkavian 190, 505

      morphology 507

      phonology 506–507

      štokavian 506

      Torlak 502, 507

      Zeta 507

   dictionaries 549–550

   in South Slavic 45

   pitch accent 189–191

   see also: Serbo-Croatian

Balkan linguistic features, Balkanisms 10, 44

   see also: Sprachbund

Balto-Slavic Hypothesis 21–24

Baudouin de Courtenay 13

be, see: conjugation: irregular; construction; copula; existence

Bečki dogovor, see: Vienna Literary Agreement

Belarus 5

Belarusian 5–6, 79, 87–89, 597

   dialects 514–517, 518

      list 514

      morphology 516–517

      phonology 515–516

   in East Slavic 53–54

   standard 514

Belgrade 73

Belorussia, see: Belarus

Belorussian, see: Belarusian

Bernolák, bernoláčtina 102–103

bi-aspectual, see: aspect

bibličtina 102

bilingualism 572–577

blend, blending 484

Boii 98

borrowing, see: lexical borrowing

Bosnia (Bosnia and Hercegovina) 75, 76

Bosnian 4, 75–76, 479

Bosnian Muslims, see Muslims

boundary, see: morpheme; syllable; word

Brugmann 22

Bulgarian 5, 10, 66, 479, 480, 486, 594

   dialects 510–513, 513

      list 510–511

      morphology 513

      phonology 511–513

   in South Slavic 45

Bulgars 66

Byzantine Empire, Byzantium 66


čakavian, čakavski, see: B/C/S: dialects

calques (loan translations) 485, 579–581

   mixed 494

cardinal numerals, see: numerals

case 333–342

   accusative 335–336

      accusative-genitive 337–339

      accusative + infinitive 378

   construction

      direct object 335

      direction 335

      time 335

      with prepositions 335–336

   dative 339

      attributive 339

      direction 339

      experiencer 410

      indirect object 339

      “interested person” 312–313, 371

      possession 312

      second dative 333

      with prepositions 339

   decline of 315

   genitive 336–339

      genitive-accusative 337–339

      and negation 336

      objective 331

      partitive (“second genitive”) 228, 337

      possession 336

      post-position 313

      time 336

      with prepositions 336–337

   in Proto-Slavic 40

   instrumental 339–340

      accompaniment 340–342

      in predicates 332, 334, 340

      instrument 339

      location 340

      with prepositions 340–342

   locative 340–342

      “second locative” 228, 342

   loss (in Blg/Mac) 219, 226–227, 229–231

   nominative 333

      in predicates 334

   oblique in Bulgarian/Macedonian 226, 256

   prepositional 228, 340

   vocative 226, 317, 334–335, 556

      in Bulgarian/Macedonian 227, 256

Cassubian, see: Kashubian

category of state, see: constructions: impersonal

Catholic, Catholicism 60, 74–75, 89, 91, 98–99, 569

Čech 98

cekanne in Belarusian 53

Chancery Language 65, 82

Church Slavonic 63–65, 67, 80, 81–83, 477–478, 480

   Croatian recension 74

   Euthymian recension 85

   features in Russian 50, 81

   Russian recension 68, 72, 480

   see also: Old Church Slavonic

circumflex (falling (non-rising) pitch) 25

   see also: pitch accent

clauses

   coordinate 371–374

   participial 350

   relative 349, 374–375, 383–386

      free relatives 350

   subordinate 350, 352–353, 374–389

clipping 484

   see also: combination: stump compounds; univerbacija

clitics 310, 315–318, 414–417

   host 415

   in B/C/S 415

   personal and reflexive pronouns 182–183, 218–219, 272, 273, 274, 408–409, 556–557

   verbal auxiliary 183

   see also: enclitics; particles; proclitics; stress

closed syllables, see: syllables

clusters

   acceptable/unacceptable 26, 27, 149

   alternations, see: alternations

   development 112, 149–150

   final 149, 174

   geminate 27, 150, 171–172, 186–187

   initial 127, 149–150

   kt and gt 29, 139

   simplification 20, 26, 27, 127, 149–150, 171–172, 175–176, 195–196, 206, 556

   tl and dl 149, 538

code-switching 497, 572

codification 86–87, 88, 105

cokan′e 516, 523

collectives, see: numerals, suffixes

colour terms, see: lexis

combination 428–429, 439–440, 458–459

   compounding 483–484

   direct 428, 440

   hyphenated 428, 439–440

   link-vowel 217, 428, 440

   stump compounds 217, 484–487

   truncation 217

   see also: acronyms; initialisms; lexis;  univerbacija

comitative, see: number: plural

commands 362

   see also: imperative

comment, see: topic and comment

   see also: FSP

Common Slavic 20

   see also: Proto-Slavic

Communism, Communist 11–12, 93, 108, 491, 494–497, 548, 564, 571–572, 583–584

   after Communism 108–109

comparative

   adjectives 461–462

   adverbs 463–464

   see also: comparison, degrees of; gradation

comparison, degrees of 348

compensation, compensatory length 130, 133, 152

complement 348, 349, 374, 380–383

   infinitival 374

complementizers 374, 380–381

   “as” 381

   da 376

   “in-order-that” 380–389

   question, see: indirection

   “that” 381–382

complex, see: sentence

compounds, compounding, see: combination

concord 318, 319–325

   case 319

   gender 319

   number 319

   see also: agreement

conditional 247, 297, 369–370

   in Bulgarian and Macedonian 370

   particles, see: particles

   past 297–298, 369–370

   see also: mood

conjoined subject: see subject

conjugation 278–308, 281

   class, classification

      in PSl 280, 282

      modern 280–282

         athematic 306, 308

         Class I 283

         Class II 283

         Class III 284

         Class IV 284

         Class V 284

         Class VI 282–283, 284

         Class VII 282, 283, 284

         irregular 307, 308

   see also: inflexion; suffixes; verbs

conjunction (syntactic) 375

conjunctions 220, 221

   adversative 372–374

   coordinating 371–372

   disjunctive 372–374

consonantal/vocalic language 112, 133–134

consonants

   alveolo-palatal 167

   aspirated voiced stops in PIE 22

   devoicing 150, 340

   epenthesis, epenthetic

      /l/ 140, 202

      /n/ 205

   glottal stop in Czech 176

   hard/soft 145, 165–166, 167–168, 516

   labialized velars in PIE 22

   length 186–187

   lenition 143

   mutation

      dentals 202–203

      labials 202

      velars 202–203

   see also: palatalization: replacive

   palatalization, see: palatalization

   palato-alveolars 167

   positionally soft 142–143

   post-alveolars 167

   prepalatalization 159

   prothetic 121–126, 176–177, 516

      /w-v/ 530, 534

      /n/ 272

   simplification, see: clusters

   sonorants 173–174

   syllabic, see: syllabic

   syllable-final 27

   vocalic, see: vocalic consonants

   voice 150

   word-final 27, 172–174

   see also: clusters; phonemes; vowels

Constantine (St. Cyril) 64, 66, 98

Constantinople 66, 67

constituent structure 405–406

constructions

   accusative + infinitive 379

   agent + infinitive 378

   agent + patient 395–396

   apersonal 368, 393, 419

   existential 410

   gerundival 401–402

   goal + infinitive 378–379

   impersonal 325, 393–398, 419

      category of state 404

      semantic classification 396–398

         backgrounded agent 398

         fitness/suitability 398

         inclination 398

         mental states 397

         natural phenomena 397

         obligation/duty 397

         physical states 396–397

         possibility/chance/permission 397

         regret 398

   indefinite personal 393

   infinitival 375–380

      heterosubject 379, 380

   negated be 394–395

   non-personal 390

   participial 400–401

      impersonal 377–378, 395

      past active 400–401

      past passive 401

      present active 400

      present passive 401

contraction 135–136, 524

controller 318, 330

conversion (religious) 80, 81, 90, 98–99

coordinate, coordination (of clauses or sentences) 371

   see also: clauses; conjunctions; sentence

coordination (of combined roots), see: combination

copula 325, 351, 353–354

   ellipsis 403–404

   zero 354

corpus planning 7

Counter-reformation 77

counting form, see: numerals

Croatian 3, 4, 74–75, 478–479

culture (of language) 550–551

Cyril, Saint, see: Constantine

Cyrillic 9, 15, 64, 73, 76, 80, 592

Czech 6, 98–101, 559–562, 599

   dialects 533–535, 536

      list 533

      morphology 535

      phonology 533–535

   hovorová čeština (Spoken Literary Czech) 559–562

   in West Slavic 57–58

   obecná čeština (Common Czech) 559–562

   spisovná čeština (Written Czech) 559–562

   Spoken Prague Czech 559

Czech Republic 8, 98, 101

Czech “umlaut”, see: přehláska

“Czechoslovak language” 6, 103

Czecho-Slovak language grouping 89


da, see: complementizers

Dalmatia, Dalmatians 74

dative, see: case

Dayton Accords 76

de-affrication 138, 139, 144

de-aspiration 22

declension

   adjective 267, 268, 268–269

   adjective/determiner 262–272

   hard/soft 200, 252

   noun

      in Proto-Slavic 248–249

      paradigms

         a/ja 231, 232, 257–258

         consonant 234, 259–262

         i 217, 232, 233, 258–259

         o/jo 217, 229, 230, 252–256

         u 231, 256

         u/v 233, 259

   pronoun 271–272

      in Proto-Slavic 218, 265, 269, 270, 273

      modern 218–219, 270, 271, 272, 274

   special adjective 269–271, 270, 271

definite/indefinite 357–358

   see also: adjectives; articles; constructions; definiteness; pronouns

definiteness 235, 357–358

   and word order 418–419

deictic, deixis 235, 347

   suffixes 235, 251–252, 347, 357

delabialization 22

deletion 402–403

   see also: pronouns

demonstrative, see: pronouns

deregulation 495

derivation 214–215, 423, 424

   diachronic/synchronic 429–430

de-Russification 495, 550

desinence, see: ending, inflexion

determinate motion, see: motion

determiners 269–271, 347–348

   non-concording 320

de-Turkification 491, 550

devoicing, see: assimilation, consonants

diacritics 16, 590–592

dialect 573–574

   revival 68, 70

   see also: koine; standardization

dialect chain 502

dialects,

   see each group or language

dictionary see: lexicography

diglossia 65, 83, 97, 501, 572–577

dignitas 545

diminutives 558–559

   see also: suffixes

diphthongs 25, 34–39, 136–137, 158

   falling/rising 34, 137

   in Russian dialects 523

   in Slovak 135

   phonemic/phonetic 155

   see also: monophthong(ization)

direct object, see: object

disjunction, disjunctive, see: conjunctions

dissimilation 171

dissimilative akan′e

   see: akan′e

distributed plural, see: number

distributional limitations, see: phonemes

double consonants, see: clusters: geminate

double object, see: pronouns

double pronoun + relative, see: pronouns

dual, see: number

dzekanne in Belarusian 53


East Slavic 5–6, 42, 46–54, 79–89, 486

   dialects 513–526

education 564

ekan′e 515

ekavian, ekavski, see: B/C/S: dialects

ellipsis 402–404

   see also: copula; pronouns

émigré 8–9, 577–585

emphasis 312, 315, 317, 413–414

   see also: intonation; word order

empty prefix, see: prefixes

   see also: aspect

enclitics 182–184, 359

   emphatic 317

   pronoun, see: clitics

   question 359

   see also: clitics; proclitics

ending, see: inflexion

end-stressed, see: stress: position in word

English 14, 495

enrichment, see: lexical enrichment

epenthesis, epenthetic 36, 205

   see also: alternations; consonants; prepositions

epicenes, see: gender

Ethnologue 6

Euthymian recension see: Church Slavonic

exclamations 220, 221

existence

   negated 394–395

   see also: case; constructions; negation

extension, see: lexical extension

external history 61–62


factitive verbs, see: verbs

falling (non-rising) pitch, see: pitch

   see also: circumflex; pitch-accent

feminine, see: gender

fill vowels 112, 114–115, 173–174, 195

fixed stress, see: stress: position in word

fleeting vowels, see: alternations: vowels: vowel ∼ zero

foreign sounds 164, 165, 492

forenames, see: names

free relative, see: clauses: relative

free stress, see: stress

French 14, 565

frequentative, see: verbs

fronting, fronted allophones

   see also: vowels: processes

Functional Sentence Perspective (FSP) 315, 417–420

future, see: tense

   see also: analyticity; aspect

future in the past, see: tense

future perfect, see: tense

FYR Macedonia, FYROM, see: Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of

Gaj 73

geminates, see: clusters

gender 235–241, 489

   animacy 238

      “honorary” animate 238

   common 236

   epicenes 236, 329

   hierarchy 328

   in dialects 524

   in Proto-Slavic 41

   masculine personal 239, 322

   neuter 241

   numerals 240–241

   primary 236–237

   proportions 237–238

   secondary 238, 239–240, 262–263, 277–278, 325, 337, 339

   sex 236–237

   see also: agreement

genitive, see: case

German 14

Germanic 14, 24–25

gerund 305–308

   past (perfective) 306–308

   present (imperfective) 305–306

   see also: participle

Glagolitic 64, 74, 80, 592

globalization 572

glottal stop, see: consonants

glottometric analysis 474

government 330–333

   adjectival 332

   prepositional 332

   verbal 330–331

   with copulae 332

gradation 459–462

   analytic 460, 464

   prefixation 459–460, 464

   synthetic 460–462, 464

   see also: adjectives; adverbs; comparison

grammatical relations, marking 404–405

Great Poland, see: Wielkopolska

Great Russian, see: Russian


hard sign 590

hard/soft declension, see: declension

hard/soft opposition, see: consonants

head, nominal 348–350

   see also: phrases

Hercegovina 75

   see also: Bosnia and Hercegovina

hiatus 136, 176

historic present, see: tense: present

historical revival 106

historicity 545–546

hovorová čeština, see: Czech

Hus, Hussitism 99

hypocoristics, see: diminutives

hypothetical, see: mood


idiom 311

ijekavian, (i)jekavski, see: B/C/S: dialects: jekavian

ikan′e 160, 515

ikavian, ikavski, see: B/C/S: dialects

Illyrian

   language 74

   movement 108

   Province 74, 78

imperative 246–247, 299–301, 318, 362–367

   analytic 362–367

   as historic present, see: tense: present: historic

   conditional 365, 367

   expressed by infinitive 247

   expressing conditions, see: conditional

   impersonal 365

   in Proto-Slavic 41, 299

   negative 344, 366–367

   periphrastic 363–364

   polite 364, 364–365

   see also: commands; mood

imperfect, see: tense

imperfective, see: aspect

impersonal, see: constructions; verbs

indeclinable 319, 492

   nouns 250, 334

indeterminate motion, see: motion

indirect commands, see: indirection

indirect object, see: case: dative

indirect questions, see: indirection

indirection (indirect speech) 399

   see also: commands; questions

Indo-European 1, 12, 14, 21, 473–474

Indo-Europeans 19

infinitive 10, 283–284, 348, 349, 350, 352

   as subject 334

   constructions 375–380

   ending 283

   goal 378–379

   in impersonals 247

   in Proto-Slavic 41

   vestigial (in Bulgarian) 284, 366–367, 376

   see also: imperative; mood

inflexion

   categories 222

   see also: conjugation; declension; suffixes; relevant parts of speech

initialisms 488–490

inserted vowel, see: fill vowels

instrumental, see: case

interference

   grammatical 581

   lexical 579–581

   phonological 583

   word order 582–583

interjection 220, 221

inter(lingual/dialectal) comprehension 58–59, 162, 502, 503, 506, 514, 527, 536

internationalisms 480

Internet 474, 572

interrogative, see: pronouns; questions

intervocalic /j/, see: contraction

intonation

   sentence 178

   word or phrase 358

invariant parts of speech 220–221

Iranian(s) 24

Islam 75–76

iterative, see: verbs


j, effect of, see: palatalization by [j]

jakan′e 161, 523

Jakobson 11, 214–215, 333

jargon 495, 564

   see also: slang

jat′, see: vowels: types

jekavian, jekavski, see: B/C/S: dialects

jers 33, 38, 537

   and stress 114

   strong/weak 112

   ‘strong’ position 112–114, 113

   ‘tense’ position 114

   ‘weak’ position, loss 111–115

   see also: vowels

Jugoslavia, see: Yugoslavia

juncture, see: word: boundary

j-words, see: k-/j-words


k-/j-words 374–375

   see also: pronouns: interrogative; questions; relative

kajkavian, kajkavski, see: B/C/S: dialects

Karadžić 73, 189

Kashubian 6, 97, 531–532

   dialects 532

   standard 97

kaszubienie 532

kinship terms, see: lexis, suffixes

Književni dogovor, see: Vienna Literary Agreement

koine 103, 106, 108

Kralice Bible 99, 102


labial plus l′ 137, 140–142, 202

   see also: consonants; epenthesis

Lachian, Lakhian 6, 101

   see also: Czech: dialects

language institutes 548

language-nation 107–108

language planning 472

language policy 472

language revival 70, 100–101

language status 3, 544–547

Law of Rising Sonority, see: sonority

Lekhitic 89, 97

length, see: consonants; vowel quantity

Lenin 84

lexical borrowing 478, 490–492

   French 492

   German 491–492

   Greek 491

   Latin 491

   Turkic 480, 491

lexical enrichment 472

lexical extension 480, 579–581

lexical innovation 483–490

   external resources 490–494

   indigenous resources 483–490

lexical interference, see: interference

lexical purification 472

lexical root, see: root

lexical specialization 482

lexicalization 562

lexicography 12, 472

lexicology 12, 472–473, 549

lexis

   B/C/S 478–479

   body parts 473

   coexistent strata 477–480

      Church Slavonic and Russian 477–478

      Russian and Turkish 480

      Slavic and non-Slavic 475–476, 478–479

   colour terms 474

   common Slavic 473–474

      retention 474–475

   Indo-European 24, 473–474

   kinship terms 474

   months, names of 475–476

limitations on distribution, see: phonemes

lingua communis (lingua franca) 79, 84, 559, 562, 575

link-vowel, see: combination

literacy 107, 564

literary language 6, 7, 61–68

   see also: national language; standard language

loan-words, see: lexical borrowing

locative, see: case

long-form adjectives, see: adjectives

Lower Sorbian, see: Sorbian

l-participle, see: participles

Lusatia, Lusatian 93

   see also: Sorbian


Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of 5, 71–79

Macedonian 5, 10, 69–71, 595

   dialects 70, 507–510, 511

      list 508

      morphology 510

      phonology 509–510

   in South Slavic 45

Maɫopolska 91

   see also: Polish: dialects

marked(ness) 333, 343, 345

Marxism–Leninism 490, 549

masculine personal, see: gender

Matice 548

Mazovianism, mazurzenie 530

Meillet 22

metaphor 483

metathesis 36, 37–38

   see also: alternations

Methodius 64, 66, 98

middle (voice), see: voice

Miklosich 10

Minsk 514

mixed paradigms, see: paradigms

mobile stress, see: stress

mobile vowels, see: alternations: vowels: vowel ∼ zero

modifiers 319–320, 411, 557–558

   adjective, see: adjective

   concording 322–323

   degree 412–414

   phrasal 319–320

   with pronouns 320

monocentricity 547

monophthongization 34–39

   see also: diphthongs

Montenegrin 4

months: Julian names 475

   Slavic names 475

mood 246–248

   conditional, see: conditional

   hypothetical 247

   imperative, see: imperative

   infinitive, see: infinitive

   optative 247, 366

   renarrative 247–248, 298, 298, 344

   subjunctive 41, 247

Moravia 64

   see also: Czech: dialects

Moravian mission, see: Constantine

morpheme

   boundary 17

morphological category, class 220–221, 278–280

morphophonological alternations, see: alternations

Moscow 80, 81

motion

   assisted/natural 482–483

   determinate/indeterminate 443–444, 482–483

   verbs 482–483

multilingualism 574

multiple dialect model, see: standardization

Muslims, Muslimani 76

mutation, see: palatalization: replacive


names

   forenames 569

   patronymics 569, 570–571

   proper 313, 314–315, 435

   surnames 456

nasal, see: vowels see also: consonants

nasalization, see: vowels: processes

natio 61, 105

national language 12, 472, 500, 501, 504–505, 576

   academy 495

   see also: standard language; standardization

negation 360

   constituent 361

   double 361–362

   see also: case: genitive

negative, see: particles, pronouns

neo-acute 133–134, 153

   see also: pitch

neologisms 483

neuter, see: gender

neutral prefix, see: prefixes

new rising pitch, see: neo-acute

nominal address, see: address

nominal predicate, see: predicate

nominalization 487

nominalized adjectives, see: adjectives

nominative, see: case

non-dissimilative akan′e, see: akan′e

non-permutability 310

norm 105–106, 497

norma 545

Nostratic 12

nouns

   deverbal (Cz) 256

   in Proto-Slavic 248–249

   non-inflecting, see: indeclinable

   predicative 395, 411, 414

   see also: declension; word formation

noun phrases, see: phrases

number 222–226, 477–478

   distributive 467–468

   dual

      declension 224–226

   in Proto-Slavic 40–41

   plural

      anticipatory/comitative 389–390

      distributed 223

      generalized 223–224

   singular

      generic 223

   see also: agreement; pluralia tantum; singularia tantum

number form, counting form, see: numerals

numeral classifiers 314–315

numeral phrases 348

numerals 273–278, 313, 314–315, 320–325, 348, 394

   approximation 467

   cardinal 274–278, 275, 314, 465–466

   collective 23, 278, 314, 467

   counting form in Blg/Mac 240, 324

   ordinal 278, 314, 466–467

   paucal 225, 323


O address, see: address

obecná čeština, see: Czech

object 315, 348

   direct 351–352

   double, see: pronouns

   genitive, see: case

   indirect, see: dative

   prepositional 352

   second 333

oblique cases, see: case

oblique definite article, see: articles

okan′e 522

   see also: akan′e

Old Church Slavonic 2, 63–65, 310, 592, 593

   see also: Church Slavonic

Old Moscow Norm 84, 554

open syllables, see: syllables

optative, see: mood

ordinal numerals, see: numerals

Orthodox Church, Orthodoxy 9, 60, 72–74, 478

orthography 590, 592–599

   and morphophonology 215–216

Ottoman rule 68

OV, see: word order

OVS, see: word order


palatalization 15, 165–168, 172, 199–200

   additive 201–202

   of velars 29–32, 138–139, 530

      First (PV1) 29–30

      Second (PV2) 30–31, 193

      Third (progressive) (PV3) 31–32

   replacive (“mutation”) 202–203, 211, 212, 213

   see also: assimilation

palatalization by [ j] 28–29, 139–140

pan-Slav, pan-Slavic movement, Pan-Slavism 78, 108

paradigms 248–308

   defective 250–251

   levelling 227–228, 231–234, 249–250

   mixed 251–252

   see also: conjugation; declension

participles

   active 23

   adverbial (gerund), see: gerund

   l-participle 325

      alternations 195–196, 206

      form 115, 301–303

      in conditionals 369–370, 400–401

      in imperative 365–366

   past active 301

   past passive 303–305

   predicative 304–305

   present active 301

   present passive 303

particles 183–184, 220, 315

   conditional 184

   conversation 556

   emphatic 316–317

   emphatic-contrastive 317

   enclitic 358–359

   future 289

   imperative 363

   negative 444

   question 183

   sentence-initial 359

   vocative 184

Partitions of Poland, see Poland

partitive genitive, see: case: genitive

passive 368–369

   morphological 368

   see also: reflexive; voice

past tense, see: tense

patria 61, 105

patronymics 434–435

   see also: names; suffixes

paucal, see: numerals

pejorative, see: suffixes

penultimate, see: stress

perfect tense, see: tense

perfective, see: aspect

periphrastic, see: imperative

permutability 310

person 241–242

personal pronoun, see: pronoun

phonemes

   inventories:

      consonants 163, 163–166

      vowels 154, 156, 159

   limitations on distribution 129, 165, 167–177

phonemic/phonetic diphthongs, see: diphthongs

phonetic word, see: word

phonetics 17, 166–167

phonotactics 155, 167–177

phrases

   noun 347–350

   prepositional 349, 354, 377

   verb 350–356

PIE, see: Proto-Indo-European

pitch

   rising ∼ non-rising (in PSl) 153

   and stress shifts 151

   see also: acute; circumflex; neo-acute; tone

pitch accent 177–178, 187

pleophony (polnoglasie) 9, 36, 153

   see also: alternations

Pleteršnik 189

pluperfect, see: tense

plural, see: number

pluralia tantum 224, 314, 467

   see also: number

pluricentric, pluricentricity 70, 76, 547

Polabian 98

Poland

   Partitions 92–93

Polish 6, 14, 90–93, 477–478, 598

   dialects 528–532, 532

      list 529–530

      morphology 531

      phonology 530–531

   in West Slavic 56

polite address, see: address

politeness

   and plural 223

polnoglasie, see: pleophony

Pomeranian 97

positionally soft consonants, see: consonants

possession 312–313, 370–371

   adjective, see: adjectives

   dative, see: case: dative

   inalienable 370

   pronoun, see: pronouns

   “reflexive” 390

postfix 218–219

   see also: suffixes; pronouns: reflexive

post-nominal modifiers 313

post-posed definite article, see: articles

post-tonic position, see: vowels

pragmatics 417–420

predicate 311, 350–356

   adjectival 311

   attributes 333

   nominal 311

predicative

   adjective, see: adjectives

   attributives 356

   impersonal, see: constructions

   instrumental, see: case

   nouns, nominals, see: nouns

prefixation 425–426

   adjectives 452–453

   and aspect 426

   grammatical 426, 444–445

   nouns 431

   semantic 425–426, 445–446

   verbs 444–447

prefixation+suffixation 429–430, 440–441, 453

prefixes 217

   “empty”, neutral 444–445

přehláska (Czech “umlaut”) 129, 200–201

prepalatalization, see: consonants

prepositional, see: case

prepositions 220, 221, 316, 330

   compound 221

   epenthetic 362

   stressed 316

prepositional object, see: object

prepositional phrases, see: phrases

present tense, see: tense

prestige language/variant 546–547

pretonic, see: vowels: position in word

primary gender, see: gender

pro-adverbs 468–469

procedurals, see: aspect

proclitics 181–182, 315–316

   see also: clitics; enclitics

progressive assimilation, see: assimilation

Progressive (3rd) Palatalization of the Velars see: palatalization

pronominal address, see: address

pronouns 349–350, 389–391

   clitic, see: clitics

   deictic, see: deictic

   demonstrative 269–271, 270, 271

   double object 350–356, 408, 409

   dummy 388

   indefinite 470–471

   interrogative 269, 269, 270, 468–469

   negative 469–470

   omission, see: ellipsis

   personal 312

      1–2 person 272–273, 273, 274

      3 person 271–272

   possessive 312, 390–391

   proclitic 408

   reduplicated 408–409

   reflexive 266, 274, 448

      clitic 391

      “strong” non-clitic 392

   relative 383–389, 469

      double pronoun 386–389

   specific 470–471

   strong 392

   T-/K-/J- pronouns 385

prostorečie 553

Protestant, Protestantism 100, 569

prothesis, prothetic, see: consonants; vowels

Proto-Indo-European 21

Proto-Slavic 2, 19–20, 25–42, 110, 338

   break-up 20, 42–59

   early phonological system 19–21, 26

   late consonant system 137, 137–148

   late phonological system 39–40, 40

   late vowel system 111

   morphology 40–41

      nominal 40–41

      verbal 41

   suprasegmental features 39

pseudo-passive, see: voice

purification 68

   see also: lexical purification

purism 550–551

push–pull phonological change 134

PV1, see: palatalization

PV2, see: palatalization

PV3, see: palatalization


qualitative adjectives, see: adjectives

quality, see: vowel quality

quantifiers 320–325, 347, 394

quantity changes, see: vowel quantity

quasi-copulative verbs, see: verbs

questions 358–360

   constituent 358

   indirect 399

   information 360

   k-/j- words 360

   particles 183, 358–359

   question-word, see: pronouns: interrogative

   tag 360

   Wh- 360

   Yes/no 317, 358–360


raising, see: vowels: processes

razgovornaja reč′ 556–559

recension, see: Church Slavonic

reduced vowels, see: jers

reduction, see: vowels: processes

reflexive 368, 391–392

   see also: pronouns; verbs; voice

Reformation 77, 94, 107

regressive, see: assimilation

regressive assimilation, see: assimilation

regularization 555, 562

relative (relational) adjectives, see: adjectives

relative pronouns, see: pronouns

renarrative, see: mood

replacive, see: palatalization

Republika Srpska 76

revival, see: historical revival; language revival

Revolution, Russian 84, 483, 484–490, 499–500, 552, 563–565

rheme, see: topic and comment

Rhythmic Law, see: Slovak

rising pitch, see: acute; pitch

rising sonority, see: sonority

Roman alphabet, script 9, 15, 73, 74, 76

Romance languages 14

Romantic Movement 94, 108

root 217

   implementation/exploitation 480–483

   lexical 481–482

   productivity 480

root-combination, see: combination

rounding, see: vowels: processes

ruki (iurk) rule 23, 24

Rusnak, see: Rusyn

Russian 5, 14, 81–84, 109, 477–478, 490, 552–559, 575–577, 596

   dialects 521–526, 526

      list 521–522

      morphology 524–525

      phonology 522–524

      syntax 525–526

   “Great Russian” 5

Russian nationalism 500

Russianization 477

Russification 84, 576

Russkij jazyk i sovetskoe obščestvo 552

Rusyn 6, 8–9

   see also: Ukrainian: dialects

Ruthenian 5, 84, 85, 88


sandhi, see: word

Sarmatian 24, 24–25

satem languages 21

Saxon Lusatian 6

second dative, see: case

second locative, see: case

second object, see: object

second (partitive) genitive, see: case

Second South Slavic Influence 82

secondary gender, see: gender

secondary stress, see: stress

semantic agreement 555

semantic change 483

semi-copulative verbs, see: verbs

semivowels 34

sentence

   complex 371

   simple 347–356

   subjectless 325

   types, see: commands; questions see also: clauses

Serbian 4, 72–74, 478–479

Serbian-Croatian 4, 73–74

Serbo-Croatian 8, 504–505

short-form adjectives, see: adjectives

simplification of clusters, see: clusters

single principal dialect model, see: standardization

singularia tantum 223

   see also: number

Skopje 71

slang 472–473

   see also: jargon

Slavic 1, 2

Slavic-Serbian 72

Slavization, Slavizing 101, 476–477, 496

Slavonic 1

Slavophiles and Westernizers 83

Slavs

   prehistory 19–21

Slovak 6, 101–105, 599

   codification 105

   dialects 535–541, 541

      list 536

      morphology 539–540

      phonology 537–539

   in West Slavic 58

   Rhythmic Law 152, 155, 188, 197

Slovakia, Slovak Republic 8, 98

Slovene, see: Slovenian

Slovenian 4, 76–79, 479, 596

   adjectives 310–312

   dialects 502–504, 505

      list 503

      morphology 503, 504

      phonology 503–504

   in South Slavic 45

   standard 77, 503, 504

   tonal/non-tonal variants 16, 151, 187, 503

Slovincian 97–98

slovoizmenenie 309

   see also: inflexion

slovoobrazovanie 309

   see also: word formation

slovosočetanie 309

   see also: phrases

sociolectal variation, see: variation

sociolinguistics 544

Sofia 69, 510

soft sign 590

sonority

   Law of Rising Sonority in Proto-Slavic 26, 149

Sorabe 6

   see also: Sorbian

Sorbian 6, 93–97, 109, 551–552, 598

   dialects 527–528, 529

      list 528

      morphology 528

      phonology 528

   in West Slavic 56–57

   standard 95–96

South Slavic 4–5, 42, 43–46, 62–79, 487

   dialects 502

South Slavs 60

Soviet Union 500

special adjective declension, see: declension

specific pronouns, see: pronouns

spelling pronunciation 554

spisovná čeština, see: Czech

Spoken Literary Czech, see: Czech

Spoken Prague Czech, see: Czech

spoken standard 551–563

Sprachbund 10

Stalin 11, 80, 84

standard language 95–96, 97, 472

   models 77

standardization 68, 96, 100–101, 545, 547–550, 549

   multiple dialect model 106

   purification model 106–107

   revived historical model 106

   single principal dialect model 106

stative verbs, see: verbs

status planning 547

stem 219, 282–283, 442–444

   one-stem verb, see: verbs

stem-stressed, see: stress: position in word

štokavian, štokavski, see: B/C/S: dialects

stress 15–16, 25, 151, 177, 178–186, 316

   alternation 198–199

   clitics, see: clitics

      stressed 182

   effects 132

   fixed 151–152, 179–184

   free 15, 184–186

   intensity 132

   lexical irregularities 179–181

   mobile 15, 25, 152, 184, 185–186, 198–199, 315

   position in word

      antepenult, antepenultimate 15

      final, word-final 178

      fixed 16, 509

         fixed-end 25, 185

         fixed-stem 184

      initial, word-initial 16, 25

      penult, penultimate 16

      prefix 185

      suffix 185

   regularization 554

   relative strength 152, 159, 179

   retraction in B/C/S 151, 153, 189, 190

   secondary 179, 181

   shift 133

   stressless, unstressed words 315

   see also: accent; pitch accent; vowels

strong akan′e, see: akan′e

stump compounds, see: combination

Štúr, štúrovčina 103

sub-division, sub-groups of Slavic 42–43

subject 325

   conjoined 324–325, 328

subjectless sentence, see: sentence

subjunctive, see: mood

subordinate clauses, see: clauses

subordination (of combined roots)

   see also: combination

suffixation 427–428

   adjectives 453–459

   grammatical 447–448

   nouns 431–439

   secondary imperfective 449

   semantic 449–450

   verbs 447–450

suffixes 218, 422–423

   abstract 432–433

   agentive 433–434, 435

   animals 436

   augmentative 427–428, 438–439, 458, 558

   collective 436–437

   derivational 218

   diminutive 427–428, 437–439, 450, 458

   inflexional, ending 218

   iterative 449–450

   kinship 434

   nationality 434

   -n- 454–455

   objects 435–436

   patronymic 434–435

   pejorative 558

   persons 433–435

   places 436

   post-inflexional 218

   see also: postfix

   semelfactive 449

   -sk- 455–456

   thematic vowel 218, 283–284, 286

superlative, see: gradation

supine 41, 308, 352

suppletion

   comparative adjectives 462

   comparative adverbs 464

   nouns 208

   verbs 450–451

suprasegmental features 25, 39, 132–135, 151–153, 177–191

surnames, see: names

SVO, see: word order

syllabic harmony 27–28, 142

syllabic /□/, /□/ 35, 146–148, 156–157, 512, 534

   in Proto-Slavic 38–39

   see also: vocalic consonants

syllable-final consonants, see: consonants

syllables

   boundary 30, 150

   closed, closing 112, 130–132

   Open Syllable Law in Proto-Slavic 26

   opening 27

   structure in Proto-Slavic 26–27

symbols 592

syncretization, syncretism 226, 228

synharmony, see: syllabic harmony

syntactic agreement 555

syntactic construction types, see: constructions

syntactic relations 318–342

syntactic word, see: word

syntax in Proto-Slavic 41–42

synthetic 219

   see also: analytic


T-/J- words, see: adverbs; pronouns

T/V address, see: address

technolect 564

telic/atelic (constructions, verbs) 244, 344, 483

tense 242–244

   aorist 11–12, 293–294, 294

      sigmatic 293

      2nd sigmatic 293

   future

      complex 289

      simplex 288

   future in the past 290

   future perfect 290

   imperfect 10, 291–293

      forms 221, 292

   in Proto-Slavic 41

   past (simplex) 291

   perfect 295–296

   pluperfect 296–297

   present 284–287, 285

      historic 344, 367

      perfective 344–345

   sequence of tenses 399

thematic vowel, see: suffixes

theme/rheme 417–420

Third Rome 65, 490

time, expressions of, see: case

Tito 8, 79

tone 16, 25, 153, 189–191

   see also: pitch; pitch-accent

topic and comment 417–420

   see also: word order

topicalization 582

transcription 15

transfer, see: interference: lexical

transitive/intransitive, see: verbs

translation 17

transliteration 15, 590

Turkic 480

T-words, see: pronouns

   see also: constructions

Ukrainian 5, 84–87, 597

   dialects 517–521, 522

      list 518–519

      morphology 520–521

      phonology 519–520

   in East Slavic 51–53

umlaut, see: přehláska (Czech umlaut)

unacceptable clusters, see: clusters

underlying form 214–215

uninterruptability 310

univerbacija 487–488, 558–559

   see also: clipping; combination

unstressed, see: stress

Upper Sorbian, see: Sorbian

USSR, see: Soviet Union


V address, see: address

V-complement, see: complement; word order

variation, sociolectal 563

velars

   palatalization, see: palatalization

   soft 167

Veliko Tărnovo 66, 68

verb phrases, see: phrases

verbs 351

   change of state, acquisitive 449

   factitive 449

   frequentative, iterative 449–450

   impersonal 393–394

   one-stem description 214–215, 282, 283

   quasi-copulative 353

   reflexive 448, 450

   semelfactive 449

   semi-copulative 353

   stative 449

   telic 344

   transitive/intransitive 351–352

   used impersonally 394

   see also: auxiliary; conjugation; copula; prefixation; suffixation

verbs of motion, see: motion

vernacularization 105, 476–477

vestigial infinitive, see: infinitive

Vienna Literary Agreement 73, 75

virile, see: gender

vitality 546

VO, see: word order

vocalic consonants 22

   see also: syllabic consonants

vocalic language, see consonantal language

vocative, see: case

vocative reinforcers 184

   see also: particles

voice 245–246

   in Proto-Slavic 41

   middle 448

   passive 245

   pseudo-passive 368–369

   reflexive 245–246, 368

voice assimilation, see: assimilation

voiced/voiceless consonants, see: consonants: voice

vowel ∼ zero, see: alternations

vowel quality

   by position in the word 162

   changes 23, 127–135

vowel quantity 177, 187–189

   changes 27–28, 33, 33–34, 134–135, 152–153

vowels

   initial in Proto-Slavic 119–126

   processes

      alternations, see: alternations

      backing 129–130, 132

      denasalization 116–117, 162

      fronting 128–130, 162

      insertion, see: fill vowels

         see also: alternations: vowel ∼ zero

      length, lengthening 16, 197–198

         see also: vowel quantity: changes

      loss, see: jers

      nasalization 34–35

      raising 128–130, 132

      reduction 33, 160–161, 177

      rounding 32–33

   types

      /i-y/ 127–128

      jat′ 33, 118–121

      jers, see: jers

      long/short, see: vowel quantity

      nasal 34–35, 115–117, 530

      prothetic 121–126, 127

      reduced, see: jers

      rounded/unrounded 35, 156, 156

      stressed/unstressed 158, 159–162, 160, 512, 515

         post-tonic 178, 187, 575

         pre-tonic 515

   see also: phonemes; stress

VS, see: word order

Vuk Karadžić, see: Karadžić


Wackernagel position 315, 414, 557

Warsaw, Warszawa 91

Wendish, see: Sorbian

   see also: Antae

West Slavic 6–8, 42, 54–58, 89–105, 487

   dialects 526–543

White Russian 5, 88

   see also: Belarusian

White Ruthenian 88

   see also: Belarusian

Wh-words, see: pronouns: interrogative

Wielkopolska 90

Windisch, Windish 6

   see also: Sorbian

word 404–417

   boundary 130–132

   non-inflecting 220–221

   phonetic 181, 315

   sandhi (juncture) 174, 530, 535

   shape 217–219, 422–423

   syntactic 309–310

word-class

   closed 310

   open 310

   syntactic 310–318

word-final clusters, see: clusters: final

word-final consonants, see: consonants

word formation

   adjectives 451–462

   adverbs 462–464

   nouns 431

   numerals 465–468

   pronouns/determiners 468–471

   verbs 441–451

   see also: alternations

word-initial vowels, see: vowels

word order 318–319

   adjectives 412–414

   conventional 406–417

   OV 316

   OVS 316, 407

   SVO 315, 406–411

   variation 419

   V-complement 409–410

   VO 407, 409–410

   VS 409

   see also: interference; topic and comment

word-stress, see: stress

written standard 107, 551–563


Yugoslavia 63

   Federal Republic of 4

   Republic of 4, 8, 62, 71, 79, 574–575


Zagreb 73

zero

   copula 354

   desinence, ending 228

   suffix 426, 433, 453

   see also: alternations


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