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The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism
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  • Page extent: 882 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 1.35 kg

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521300070 | ISBN-10: 052130007X)




Index




Abbo of Fleury: 19, 122

abbreviatio (abbreviation): 55, 57, 58, 64, 449

   methods of: 48, 55

   and amplificatio: 48, 58

Abelard, Peter: 4, 21, 22, 536, 651

   Historia calamitatum: 543

Abrams, M. H.: 285

Abū ‘Ubayd al-Bakr⃞: 380

Acallam no Senórach: 303–4

accentus: 52

accessus ad auctores: 2, 52, 53, 102, 119–20, 123–5, 126, 128, 129, 136, 138–9, 146–7, 148, 150–2, 154, 157, 161, 162, 165, 166, 170, 182, 187, 190, 191, 192, 193, 197, 199, 203, 211, 225, 227, 285, 366–7, 369, 375, 378, 385, 404–5, 409, 412–14, 417, 418, 419, 492–3, 505, 509, 522, 529, 530, 566, 568, 578, 583, 586–7, 588, 594–8, 608, 609, 610, 677

   accessus ad satiricos: 225, 228

Accolti, Benedetto: 657

Accursius: 655

Achilles: 444, 684

Achilles Tatius: 673, 678, 685

Acro, Pseudo-: 127, 162

Adalbert of Samaria: 70

Adam de Suel: 365

Adams, Hazard: 1

Adebon: 334

Adela of Blois: 129

Ademar, Guilhem: 478

Adenet le Roi

   Berte aus grans piés: 449

   Cleomadés: 438

   Les Enfances Ogier: 449

‘Ad habendam materiam’: 88

adnominatio: 87

Ælfric: 19, 318–20, 322–3

   Catholic Homilies: 318–20

   Grammar: 316

   Latin Preface to Saints’ Lives: 318

   Old English Preface to Saint’s Lives: 319, 322

Æsir: 357

Aelred of Rievaulx: 441

aemulatio: 568

Aeschines Socraticus: 679

Aeschylus: 219

Aesop: 40, 104, 155, 173, 195, 375–7, 426, 436

affectus: 259, 272, 286, 655

   affective poetics: 157

   principalis affectio: 257, 259

Afonso Eanes do Coton: 497

Africa: 108

agens (author): 595–8

Agli, Peregrino: 646

Agliotti, Girolamo: 641

Aimeric, Ars lectoria: 122–3

Aiol: 440

Airec menman Uraird maic Coise: 306–8

Alan of Lille: 39, 139, 143, 159

   Anticlaudianus: 142–3, 144, 580, 589

   Liber parabolarum (attrib.): 39, 40, 158, 159

     Old French translation of: 370–1

   De planctu naturae: 141–2

   and Bernard Silvester: 140–4

Alberic of London: 136–7, 140

Alberic of Montecassino: 70

   Brevarium de dictamine: 70

   Flores rhetorici: 70

Alberti, Leon Battista: 619–20, 621, 622, 623, 624, 658, 663

   Della famiglia: 619, 620

   Della pittura: 619

   Grammatichetta: 619

Albert the Great, Saint: 269–70, 281, 655, 657

   De bono: 270

   Commentary on Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics: 281

   Commentary on Aristotle, Politics: 383

   Summa de creaturis: 242

Albert the Great, Pseudo-: 26

Albigensian Crusade: 473

Alcaeus: 622

Alcidus, Pseudo-: 652

Alcok, Simon: 88

Alcuin: 19, 111, 112, 113, 314, 324, 327

   De grammatica: 15, 38

Aldhelm: 19, 35, 110, 111, 313, 320

   Epistola: 111

   De metris: 111

Alegre, Francesc, Transformacions: 390–2

Alexander of Ashby: 87

Alexander of Hales: 8, 557

Alexander of Villa Dei: 27, 29, 153, 193

   Doctrinale: 27, 37, 66, 358–9

Alexander the Great: 212, 265, 334, 372, 382

Alexios Aristenos: 682

Alexios I Comnenos: 681

Al-Fārābī: 28, 167–71

   De scientiis: 168, 255

Alfonso X, King of Castile: 364, 497, 498, 500–7, 518

   Cantigas de Santa Maria: 497

     See also: Estoria de España, General estoria:

Alfonso de Guzmàn: 384

Alfonso of Jaén, Epistola solitarii ad reges: 246–7

Alfred, King of England: 317–18

   Preface to translation of Cura pastoralis: 319–20

   Proem to The Metres of Boethius: 323

   Translation of De consolatione philosophiae: 321, 364

Algazel (Al-Ghasali): 249

Alhazen (Al-Haytham), Perspectiva: 241

Alighieri, Dante: 1, 7, 8, 29, 40, 82, 127, 154, 204, 222, 234, 235, 274, 286, 364, 385, 406, 415–16, 419–20, 432, 468, 469, 470, 472, 476, 485, 515, 518, 528, 561–82, 590–611, 612–25, 627, 630, 631, 646, 648, 650, 651–3, 654, 662, 664

   commentaries on: 3, 6, 7, 215, 216, 232, 384, 508–11, 515, 517, 522, 590–609, 610–11, 615, 622, 623, 646, 650, 651, 658

   self-exegesis: 561–82

WORKS

   Commedia: 187, 207, 214–16, 231–3, 251–2, 274, 376, 403, 406, 415, 430, 435, 465, 561, 562, 563, 564, 571, 574–81, 583–9, 612–25, 651, 652

     figures in: Bacchus: 603;

     Capaneus: 603;

     Jove: 603;

     Lucifer: 599;

     Minos: 599;

     Narcissus: 599;

     Paolo and Francesca: 435;

     Vesta: 603;

     Vulcan: 603

     translation of: 384–7

   Il Convivio: 6, 401–2, 415, 420, 523, 562, 568–70, 571, 572, 573–4, 580, 582, 590, 618, 649

   Egloghe: 561

   Epistle to Can Grande della Scala: 231, 563, 580, 583–9, 591, 594–611, 650

   Monarchia: 562, 580, 650, 652

   Rime: 561, 615

   Vita Nova: 274, 415, 419–20, 465, 494, 523, 562, 563–8, 569, 570, 571, 572, 573–4, 575, 580, 582, 590

   De vulgari eloquentia: 215, 231, 403–4, 416, 562, 570–4, 581, 648, 649, 650

Alighieri, Jacopo: 216, 591

   Commentary on Inferno: 591, 594–611

Alighieri, Pietro: 232, 587

   Commentary on Commedia: 216, 384, 508, 517, 593, 594–611

Alithia: 155, 370

allegory: 35, 36, 37, 51, 77, 108, 114, 129, 131, 136, 140, 142, 160, 166, 195, 200, 205, 219, 320, 377–8, 391, 511, 517, 521, 522, 523, 535, 562, 569, 579–81, 583, 585, 586–7, 588–9, 591, 595, 597, 598–611, 617, 627–8, 631, 633, 634–47, 684–5

   figures and tropes as ‘transferred signs’ (Augustine): 36

   four levels of: 37

   of the poets: 204, 579–81, 586, 627, 630

   of the theologians: 204, 579–81, 586, 589, 627

   (and metaphor), theories of: 33–7

Allen, Judson B.: 3, 23, 147, 233, 285, 586

alliterative verse: 310–23, 325–7, 348

Allra kappa kvæð i: 534

Almqvist, Bo: 345, 352

Alton, E. H.: 138

Altus prosator: 299

Alvarez de Villasandino, Alfonso: 509, 511, 518

Ambrose, Saint: 100, 101

   De Caïn et Abel: 101

   De excessu Satyri: 101

   hymns of: 100

Ammanius, Alexandrinus: 637

amplificatio (amplification): 64, 86, 88, 90, 449

   and abbreviatio: 48, 58

   methods of: 48, 55, 57, 58

   modes of: 63–5

   synonyms for: 64

amour courtois: 555

Amra Coluinm Cille: 308–9

‘Ananimo Fiorentino’: 590, 594

‘Ananimo Latino’: 591

Anderson, David: 177, 213, 404

Anderson, William: 117

André de la Vigne: 460

Andrea Lancia: 216, 592

     See also: Ottimo commento:

Andreas Capellanus, De amore: 77, 189

Andreas-poet: 322

Andromache: 437

Adronikos, Kallimachos and Chrysorrhoé: 691

Andronikos II: 689

Aneirin: 334–8, 340, 341

Angela of Foligno: 246, 260, 264

angelology: 568

Angers, Cathedral School of: 80

Anglade, J.: 483

Anglo-Saxon: 17, 19, 310–23

   translation theory: 319–20

Anian II of St Asaph, Bishop: 557

‘Annals of Tigernach’: 305

Anne of Bohemia: 432

Anonymus ad Cuimnanum: 19, 300

Anonymous of St Gall: 115

Anselm of Laon: 126

Anselm, Pseudo-:

   Imago mundi: 524, 528

Antaeus: 367, 379, 389

antethema: 86

Antiovidianus: 187

Antiphon: 674

Antonio da Rho: 653, 655

   Apologia: 653

   De numero oratorio: 653

Aphthonius: 677

Apollo: 320, 377, 460, 537

Appollonius of Tyre: 440

   Old English translation of: 322

Apuleius: 649, 655, 664

Aquinas, Saint Thomas: 1, 174, 242, 247, 268, 269–70, 474, 631, 657

   Catena aurea: 268, 394

   Commentary on Aristotle’s De anima: 240, 242

   Commentary on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics: 281

   Quaestiones de veritate: 247

   Summa theologica: 242, 247, 270

Aquinas, Pseudo-: 87, 271, 272, 373

   Commentary on Boethius: 367

Arator: 39, 328

arbitrium lectoris: 182, 186

The Archpoet: 226

Arethas of Caesaraea: 676–7, 678

Arezzo: 593, 641

argumentum: 56, 130, 198, 199, 206

Argonauts: 35, 380

Argyropoulos, John: 657, 658

Arion: 439

Ariosto, Ludovico, Orlando furioso: 10

Aristides: 669–70, 674, 676, 679, 689

Aristophanes: 685

Aristotelianism: 145, 163, 218, 591, 630, 644

‘Aristotelian Prologue’: 52, 408, 415, 568

Aristotle: 1, 2, 7, 8, 10, 20, 24, 34, 52, 63, 90, 119, 146, 167–78, 217, 240–5, 255, 270, 284, 324, 332, 389, 417, 459, 500, 506, 520, 569, 600, 653, 654, 659, 662, 678, 687, 688, 689

   De anima: 24, 240

     commentaries on: 240, 242

   De divinatione per somnum: 243

   De interpretatione: 34

   De memoria et reminiscentia: 269

   Metaphysics: 270, 508, 627, 689

   Nichomachean Ethics: 170, 280–2, 520, 656

     commentaries on: 281

   Organon: 168, 175, 223, 506

   Poetics: 2, 34, 51, 163, 167–78, 209, 252–5

     commentaries on: 162, 171, 252–5

     translation of: 252, 403

   Politics: 655, 656

   Prior Analytics: 659

   Rhetoric: 34, 168, 171, 241, 255, 677

   De somniis: 243, 247, 248

   De sophisticis elenchis: 506

armas y letras: 507, 515, 522

Armes Prydein: 337

Armory, Frederic: 354

Arnaud de Mareuil: 81

Arnaut Daniel: 475, 476, 477, 478, 517

Arnaut de Tintignac: 493

Arnulf of Orléans: 44, 131, 138–9, 188, 192, 193, 199, 203, 213–14, 501

   Commentary on Lucan: 138

   Commentary on Metamorphoses: 138–9, 140, 194–8

   and Copenhagen commentary: 139

ars (art): 9, 16, 19, 663

   definition of: 42, 84

Ars ambrosiana: 19

Ars aregandi: 78

Ars asporii: 19

ars dictaminis: 24, 42, 43, 48, 50, 52, 60, 64, 68, 144, 521, 648, 649, 650, 654, 664

   dictamen: 68

   dictator(es): 68, 71, 72, 73, 74

   and humanism: 82–3

   in Bohemia: 79

   in England: 79–80

   in France and the Italian Golden Age: 73–8

     at Orléans: 73

   in Germany: 79

   in Italy:

     early Italian development of: 69–70

     Bolognese: 77–8, 79

     twelfth-century Italian: 70–2

   in Spain: 79

   the letter form:

     five divisions of: 71

     as literary form: 80–2

     love-letters: 80–2

   outside Italy after 1200: 78–80

   three kinds of language of: 52, 53, 55, 56

   and the vernacular: 78, 83

ars divina (poetry as): 509

ars grammatica: 16, 24, 44, 92, 550–1, 554

ars memorativa: 269, 272

ars metrica: 552, 554

ars notaria: 69

ars poetica (poetriae): 42, 43, 58, 59, 60, 61, 92, 93, 143, 147, 162, 176, 355, 453, 455, 509, 549, 562, 575

   literary implications of: 60–3

   relation to the vernacular: 66–7

ars praedicandi: 42, 43, 60, 64, 75, 90, 93, 205, 271–2, 408

   artistic structure of: 91

   definition of preaching: 92

   influence on poets: 92–6

   praedicator: 84

Arsenios, Patriarch: 690

L’Art d’amours: 375

Arte de trovar: 499–500

Arte mayor: 371–3

Arte menor: 372–3

Arthur, mythical king of Britain: 212, 441, 443, 464, 555, 556

artificial music: 454–5

Arundel, Thomas: 395

Ascensius, Josse Badius: 368

Ascoli, Albert R.: 585, 587

Asporius: 38

   Ars Asporii: 38

assimilatio: 167–78, 214, 252–4

astronomy: 568, 688–9

Athanasian Creed: 344

Athelstan, King: 351

Athis et Prophilias: 375

Atkins, J. W. H.: 1

Atkinson, J. Keith: 368

attributa negotio: 45

Aucassin et Nicolette: 279, 451

auctoritates (extracts from auctores): 7

Augustine, Saint: 5, 17–18, 22, 91, 100, 101, 109, 110, 125, 166, 177, 185, 203, 221, 241–3, 262, 268, 328, 417, 501, 568, 576, 580

   hermeneutics: 506

   on three types of vision (corporeal, spiritual, intellectual): 245–7

WORKS:

   De civitate Dei: 11, 137, 368, 381, 508, 607

   Confessions: 110, 506

     relation to the Aeneid: 100

     translation of: 382

     commentaries on: 382

   De dialectia: 18, 110

   De doctrina christiana: 5, 18, 36–7, 84, 375, 503, 576

   Epistula: 241, 242

   De Genesi ad litteram: 245, 246

   De magistro: 18, 506

   De musica: 298

   De ordine: 18

   Soliloquies: 303

   De trinitate: 333, 397

   De utilitate credendi: 102

Augustus, Emperor: 195, 413, 637

Aulus Gellius: 181, 185, 650, 655, 659, 661

Auraicept na nEces: 293, 299

Aurifaber, John: 26

autoexegesis: 415

Averroes: 2, 252–5

   ‘Middle Commentary’ on Aristotle’s Poetics: 2, 147, 148, 167, 169, 171–8, 207, 209–10, 216, 223, 231, 403

Averroism: 163

Avianus: 38, 120, 122, 153, 155, 157

Avicenna: 169, 170, 171, 241–2, 249, 253, 591

   Commentary on Aristotle’s Poetics: 171, 253

Avitus: 39

Avranches: 186

awdlau: 551

awen (inspiration): 336, 343, 556–7

Aye d’Avignon: 440

Babio: 228

Babylon: 377

Backes, Herbert, Hochzeit: 332

Bacon, Roger: 25, 29, 146, 161, 167, 169–71, 174, 193, 197

   Grammatica graeca: 25

   Moralis philosophia: 170

Baena, Juan Alfonso de: 507, 508, 509, 529

   Cancionero: 508–11

   Prologus Baenensis: 510–11

Baghdad: 675

Balbus, John. See: John Balbus of Genoa:

Baldr: 349

Baldwin of Viktring, Liber dictaminum: 79

Baldwin, Barry: 686

ballad: 517

Bandini, Domenico: 83, 651

Bangor: 550, 555

Banquet of Dun na nGedh: 305

Barański, Zygmunt G.: 583, 585

Barbaro, Ermalao: 642, 657, 659, 660, 661

   Epistulae: 657

Barbet, J.: 115, 135

Barcelona: 484

   Consistori: 484–5, 512

bardic:

   contentions: 554–7

   grammar: 342, 549–54

   ‘Grammatical Tracts’: 300

   ‘Syntactical Tracts’: 300

Bareiss, Karl-Heinz: 3, 585

Bargagli Stoffi-Mühlethaler, B.: 566

Barish, Jonas: 263

Barnabas of Reggio, De conservanda sanitate: 277

Barolini, Teodolinda: 568

Baron, Hans: 631, 633, 634

Barry, Peter: 2

Barthes, Roland: 41

Bartholomew of Bruges: 174

   Commentary on Hermann the German’s Averroistic Poetics: 255

Bartholomew the Englishman [Bartolomaeus Anglicus]: 203

   De proprietatibus rerum: 239–40, 242, 258–9, 410

     French translation of: 382

     See also: Trevisa, John:

Barzizza, Gasparino: 653, 661

Barzizza, Guiniforte, Commentary on Inferno: 609

Basil I: 672

Basil, Saint: 640, 641, 673, 675, 676

   De legendis gentilium libris: 508, 638, 639

Basil (the Great): 679

Basilakes, Nikephoros: 682, 685

   ‘Prologue’: 681

Baswell, Christopher: 3, 126, 149, 212

‘The Battle of the Trees’ (Welsh poem): 334

Baucis et Thraso: 228

Baudri of Bourgueil: 80–1, 129–30, 189, 282

Bäuml, Franz: 322

Baxandall, Michael: 654

De beata virgine rithmus diversimode coloratus (hymn in John of Garland’s Parisiana poetria): 58

Beaton, Roderick: 685, 686

Beatrice (in Dante): 420, 565, 567, 595, 601, 605, 607

Beatrice of Montferrat: 494

beauty: 55, 256

   in poetry: 45–6

   in sermons: 87

   three sources of: 47

Bec, Pierre: 477

Beccaria, Antonio: 642

   Orationes defensoriae: 642

Beck, Hans-Georg: 691

Bede, the Venerable: 19, 40, 64, 111, 212, 275–6, 318, 322, 396

   De arte metrica: 38

   De die iudicii: 38

   Historia ecclesiastica gentis anglorum: 313–14, 319

   De schematibus et tropis: 28, 37, 320

‘beginnings’ of texts: 48, 50

   artistic: 50

   kinds of: 55

     artificial: 53, 55

     natural: 21, 55

   and dispositio: 55

   and transitio: 50

Beltrami, Pietro G.: 477

Beltrán, Vicente: 498

Bembo, Pietro: 624–5, 648, 663

   Asolani: 664

   Prose della volgar lingua: 624, 663, 664–5

Bene of Florence: 27, 73–4, 77, 78

   Candelabrum: 74, 77, 578

   on cursus romanus: 74

   on cursus aureliensis: 74

Benedeit, Voyage de Saint Brandan: 422

Benedetto (Dante commentator): 594

Benedictine:

   Reform: 318, 320

   Rule: 324

Benedictines: 248, 266

Benediktsson, H.: 356

Benoît de Sainte-Maure: 202

   Roman de Troie: 382, 427, 429, 449, 457, 461

Benvenuto da Imola: 593, 594, 650

   Commentary on Dante: 216, 232, 253, 384, 508, 515, 517, 522, 594–611, 615, 650, 651

Beowulf: 311–13, 323, 326

   figures in:

     Grendel: 312

     Hrothgar: 312

Berenguer de Noya: 484, 512

   Mirall de trobar: 484, 491, 512

Bériou, N.: 91

Berisso, Marco: 566

Bernal de Bonaval: 498

Bernard de Gordon, Lilium medicinae: 282

Bernard Gui, Life of Aquinas: 268

Bernard of Chartres: 22, 23, 132, 140, 651

Bernard of Clairvaux: 268, 417, 609

Bernard of Cluny, De contemptu mundi: 227, 405

Bernard of Utrecht: 120, 136

   Commentary on Ecloga of ‘Theodulus’: 123–5, 156, 208, 225, 226

Bernard Silvester: 5, 44, 135, 137, 195, 215, 231

   Commentaries on Aeneid and Martianus Capella attrib. to: 135–6, 137, 139, 166, 224, 368

   Cosmographia: 140–1

   and Alan of Lille: 140–4

Bernart de Ventadorn: 473–4, 475, 482

Beroaldo, Filippo: 659, 663

   Commentary on Apuleius: 664

Beroul: 427

Berry, Duke de: 279, 432

Bersuire, Pierre: 6, 143, 160, 164, 199

   Ovidius moralizatus: 6, 193, 202–6, 263

   Reductorium morale: 203, 205, 384, 408

Bertran de Bar-sur-Aube:

   Aymeri de Narbonne: 444

   Girart de Vienne: 464

Bertran de Born: 490, 494

Bethada Naém nErenn: 304

Bible: 7, 77, 135, 136, 249, 256, 284, 380–1, 391, 578, 581

   difficulties in: 35

   and dreams/prophecy: 245–9, 253, 407

   four senses of: 4–7, 37, 88, 398–9

     See also: sensus:

   Latin Vulgate (Jerome): 393–400

   Old Testament prophets, style of: 682

   poetics and: 517

   Septuagint: 556

   study of: 84, 108

   translation of: 382

     translation of OT prophetic and wisdom literature: 384

     Wycliffite translation of: 392–400

     controversy over: 392–400

   Books of:

     Acts: 255, 265

     I Corinthians: 413

     II Corinthians: 246, 444, 516

     Deuteronomy: 109

     Ecclesiastes: 608

     Ecclesiasticus: 444

     Ephesians: 508

     Exodus: 245

     Ezechiel: 101

     Galatians: 408

     Genesis: 245, 326, 328, 386

     Gospels: 100, 248

     Matthew: 84, 248, 328, 388, 445

     Mark: 84

     John: 265

     Isaiah: 254

     Jeremiah: 608

     Job: 394

     Translation of: 332

     Jonah: 93, 422

     Judges: 36, 109

     Old Testament: 388

     Pentateuch: 388

     Proverbs: 124

     Psalter, psalms: 39, 76, 77, 92, 93, 412, 682–3

     Psalm 31: 505

     Psalm 138: 331

     Psalm 44, Old French translation of: 461

      commentary on psalms: 152, 683

      translation of: 332

     Revelation (St John’s Apocalypse): 118, 246, 256

     Romans: 200, 258, 259, 378, 408, 436, 441

     Song of Songs: 77, 124, 143, 212, 566

   figures in Bible:

     Baalim: 247

     Daniel: 407

     David: 107, 380, 452, 682–3

     Jacob: 407

     Jeremiah: 109

     Joseph: 407

     Judas: 281

     Moses: 245, 380

     Nebuchadnezzar: 315, 407

     Old Testament Prophets: 337

     Paul, Saint: 125, 159, 184, 186, 200, 202, 203, 219, 221, 246, 251, 255, 281, 436, 508, 673

     style of: 683

     Pharaoh: 245, 323

     Solomon: 109, 159

Biblia de Osuna: 384

biblical (patristic, Christian) exegesis: 4–7, 88, 102, 103, 123, 245–6, 363–4, 566

Billanovich, G.: 650

Billy, Dominique: 477

Biondo, Flavio: 618, 620, 621, 653, 654

   Italia illustrata: 654

   De Roma triumphante libri X: 654

   De verbis romanae locutionis: 654

Birkenmajer, A.: 520

Bischoff, Bernhard: 113, 126, 127, 128, 130

Black Book of Carmarthen: 334

Black Death: 279

Black, Robert: 3

Blancandin: 375

Blanche de Navarre: 440

Blanscheflor: 437

Bledhericus/Bledri ap Cadivor: 426

Blemmydes, Nikephoros: 686, 687

   Basilikos Andrias: 690–1

Bligger von Steinach: 537, 538, 541

Bliss, Alan: 325

Bloomfield, Morton W: 93

Blwchfardd: 340

Boas, M.: 126

Boccaccio, Giovanni: 1, 95, 150, 177, 219, 233, 234, 235, 276, 287, 402–4, 411, 416–17, 468, 469, 515, 518, 590, 593, 613, 614–15, 616, 620, 622, 624, 625, 626–33, 634, 635, 636, 640, 648, 650, 651, 652–3, 658, 662–5

   De casibus virorum: 223, 402

   Decameron: 279–80, 283–5, 411, 440, 445, 653, 662, 663, 665

   Epistule, 1: 650

   Esposizioni sopra la Comedia di Dante: 6, 215, 416, 593–611

   Fiammetta: 653, 663

   Il Filocolo: 663

   Il Filostrato: 82, 189

   Genealogia deorum gentilium: 1, 6, 62, 150, 180, 203, 213–14, 279, 368, 389–92, 416, 508, 514, 516, 517, 522, 627, 628–9, 630, 635, 636

   Teseida: 214, 217, 222, 404, 416–17

     Italian commentaries on: 404

     figures in: Arcita: 417

     Emilia: 417

     Palamon: 417

   Trattatello in laude di Dante: 614–15, 617, 627, 650, 651, 653

Boccaccio, ‘falso’: 594

Bochet, Jaquemon, Tiaudelet (translation of Ecloga of ‘Theodulus’): 369–70

Bodel, Jean, Chanson des Saisnes: 451, 464

Boethianism: 134, 141

Boethius: 112, 117, 119, 122, 132, 136, 137, 140, 141, 324, 445, 459, 468, 600, 626, 628, 649

   De arithmetica: 132

   Categories: 331

   De consolatione philosophiae: 39, 40, 108–9, 115, 131–2, 207–23, 379–80, 402, 420, 439, 450, 626

     commentaries on: 7, 115, 118–19, 208, 373–4

     first printing of: 373

     Lady Philosophy in: 401, 402, 420

     translations of: 331, 364–7, 373–4

     ‘Anonymous Verse-Prose’ translation: 373, 401

   De musica: 528

   Opuscula sacra: 132

     De trinitate, OHG translation of: 331

Boethius of Dacia: 249

   De somniis: 247–8

Bokenham, Osbern, Legendys of Hooly Wummen: 448

Boli, Todd: 587

Bologna: 48, 69, 70, 75, 195, 215, 590

Bonaccorso da Montemagno: 658

Bonagiunta da Lucca: 567

Bonaventure, Saint: 506

   Lignum vitae: 272

   In primum librum sententiarum: 184

   De reductione artium ad theologiam: 278

Bonaventure, Pseudo-:

   Ars concionandi: 85, 90

   Meditationes vitae Christi: 259

Boncompagno da Signa: 73, 77, 78, 270

   Cedrus: 77

   Palma: 77

   Rota Veneris: 77, 80, 81

Bond, Gerald A.: 282

Bonet, Honoré, The Tree of Battles: 272–3

Boniface, Saint, Aenigmata: 39

Book of Aneirin: 334

Book of Ballymote: 296, 299

Book of Courtesy: 470

Book of Leinster: 302–3

Book of Taliesin: 335–40

Borso d’Este: 621

Boscán Almogaver, Juan: 526, 529

Bossy, Michel-André: 479

Bostock, J. K.: 325

Botterill, Steven: 584

Botticelli, Sandro: 622

Bourgain, Pascale: 187

Bradwardine, Thomas:

   De causa Dei: 11

   De memoria artificiali: 273–4

Bragi Boddason the Old: 345

Brann, Ross: 496

Breatnach, Caoimhín: 307

Breatnach, Liam: 299

Breatnach, Pádraig A.: 294, 299, 300, 301

Breeze, Andrew: 557

Bretha Nemed: 292, 293–5, 296, 299

breuddwyd: 343

Breudwyt Ronabwy: 343, 344

brevitas: 71, 72, 662

Bridget of Sweden, Saint: 175, 246–7, 254

Britain, matter of: 464

Brito, Radulphus: 26

Bromwich, Rachel: 550

Brooks, Cleanth: 1

Brown, Catherine: 507

Brown-Grant, Rosalind: 3

Brownlee, Marina Scordilis: 506

Brugnoli, Giorgio: 102, 583, 584, 585, 587

Brunhölzl, Franz: 111

Bruni, Leonardo: 8, 392, 519, 616, 617, 618–19, 620, 622, 623, 624, 637–9, 643, 646, 648, 651–3, 654, 656–7, 658, 660, 661, 664

   Controversiae: 653

   Dialogi ad Petrum Paulum Histrum: 616, 617, 652–3

   History of the Florentine People: 620

   Letters: 637, 646, 652

   De studiis et litteris: 519, 637, 652

   Le Vite di Dante e di Petrarca: 508, 519, 618–19, 620, 651, 652, 653

Brydydd, Phylip: 341

Bryennios, Joseph, ‘On the Causes of Our Sufferings’: 690

Brynjólfur Sveinsson, Bishop: 349

Buck, August: 629, 633

Bueve de Hantone: 429

Bundy, M. W.: 244

Burgwinkle, William E.: 492

Buridan, Jean: 26, 169

   Commentary on Aristotle’s Nichomachean Ethics: 281

Burley, Walter: 26, 514

   Commentary on Aristotle’s Politics: 383

Burley, Walter, Pseudo-: 210

Burrow, J. A.: 447

Bursarii Ovidianorum: 188

Burton, Rosemary: 181

Butler, William: 395–8

Byrhtferth of Ramsey, Enchiridion: 320–2

Byzantine criticism: 669–92

   Comnenian Era of: 680–6

Byzantium: 10

El caballero Zifar: 501

cacosyntheton: 45

Caecilius of Calacte: 674

Cædmon: 313–14, 319

Caernarvonshire: 550

Caesar, Julius: 45, 265, 391, 400, 429, 650, 661

Calabrese, Michael: 192

Calavera, Ferrán Sánchez: 508

Calcidius: 131, 244

Calderini, Domizio: 661

Caldiera, Giovanni: 636

‘The Caldron of Poesy’: 300

Calila e Dimna: 501

Callimachus: 190

   Aetia: 193

Callus, Daniel A.: 169

Calmeta, Vincenzo: 663, 664

Camargo, Martin: 3, 68, 82

Cambridge: 470

Cameron, Alan: 102

Cancionero da Barrantes: 523–4

Cancionero da Biblioteca Nacional: 499

canon:

   of authors: 120

   of classical authors: 9

   Christian: 17, 18

   literary: 15, 17, 38, 459, 468, 519, 571

(anon.) Canon of St Martin of Liège, Vita of Juliana of Mont-Cornillon: 268

cantares: 517

cantigas d’amigo: 499

cantigas d’amor: 499

cantigas d’escarnho e maldizer: 497, 499

cantigas de seguir: 499

cantigas de vilaãos: 499

Canu Aneirin: 334, 336, 338

canzone (as form): 62

Caplan, Harry: 85, 269

Carbone, Ludovico: 621

Cardenal, Peire: 473

Cardiganshire: 550

Cardini, Roberto: 621, 646, 658

Carmarthen: 334

Carmarthenshire: 550

Carmina burana: 193

Carolingian period: 17, 19

Carruthers, Mary: 3, 264–5, 268, 269–70, 274

Cartagena, Alonso de: 507, 519–20, 521, 525, 654, 656

   Un tratado sobre la educación: 519

Carthage: 116, 646

Cartula (De contemptu mundi): 39, 158, 519

Cassian, Saint John, Collationes: 438

Cassiodorus: 17, 18, 108, 109, 110, 621, 651, 652

   Expositio psalmorum: 18, 110

   Institutiones: 18, 108

   De orthographia: 18

Castel, Jean: 459

Castelvetro, Ludovico: 2

Castiglione, Baldassare, Il Cortegiano: 529

Castile: 79

Castilian culture: 496

   Castilian as new lyric language: 513

   court lyric: 496–500, 512

   humanism: 507–32

Catalan (language): 482, 485, 491

Catalonia: 472, 490

Cátedra, Pedro M.: 513, 521

cathedral schools: 69, 73

Cath Muighe Rath (The Battle of Moira): 305

Cathoniana confectio: 519, 520

Cato: 40, 138, 155, 159, 161, 173, 185

     See also: Liber Catonianus:

Cato, Pseudo-: 39

Cato the Censor: 372

Cato of Utica: 372

‘Catunculus’: 122

causes, four: 596

   causa: 102, 119

     efficiens: 408

     intentionis: 195

     materialis: 597

     operis: 119–20

     propinqua: 598

     remota: 598

     scribendi: 375. See also: ‘Aristotelian Prologue’: 375

Cavalcanti, Guido: 515, 567, 573, 623

   ‘Donna mi prega’: 416, 591

Caxton, William:

   Aesop: 377

   Boece: 366

   Canterbury Tales: 470

   Le Morte Darthur: 436

   Reynard the Fox: 437

Cecchini, Enzo: 583

Cecco d’Ascoli: 515

Cecilia, Saint: 259

celeritas: 662

Cellach Úa Rúanada: 297

Cenn Fáelad: 308

Cercamon: 493

Cerquiglini-Toulet, J.: 452

‘Certame Coronario’: 619–20

Cerveri de Girona: 491, 492

Chailly, Jacques: 477

Chambers, Frank M.: 477, 489

Chanson d’Antioche: 443, 449

Chanson de Roland: 422

chansons de geste: 212, 440, 461, 464

Chapman, Janet A.: 92

characteres scripturae (three styles of writing): 212, 401

Charisius: 35

Charlemagne: 19, 111, 112, 286, 314, 327–32, 429, 440, 461, 464

Charles the Bald: 114, 422

Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor: 432

Charles IV, King of Bohemia: 79

Charles V, King of France: 248, 263, 364, 382–3, 396, 406

Charles VI, King of France: 156, 272

Charles VIII, King of France: 370

Charles d’Orléans: 82, 460

Chartier, Alain: 458, 459, 468

Chartres: 2, 146, 152, 179, 195

Chase, Colin: 312

Chastellain, Georges: 458, 459

The Chastising of God’s Children: 264

Chaucer, Geoffrey: 7, 30, 40, 46, 95, 148, 160, 250, 276, 287, 432, 447–8, 468–71

   Gavin Douglas’s critique of: 377–8

WORKS:

   The ABC: 61

   Boece: 208, 209, 365–7

   The Canterbury Tales: 43, 92, 94, 284–5, 433, 439, 440, 445, 448

     Clerk’s Tale: 445

     Knight’s Tale: 250, 434

     Manciple’s Tale: 40

     Merchant’s Tale: 250

     Miller’s Tale: 40, 434

     Monk’s Tale: 209, 402–3, 437

     Nun’s Priest’s Tale: 40, 273, 441

     Pardoner’s Tale: 93, 94–5

     Parson’s Tale: 93

     Prioress’s Tale: 40

     Retractions: 442

     Tale of Melibee: 446

     Tale of Sir Thopas: 463

     figures in the Tales: Arcite: 250

     Clerk: 449

     Host: 449, 463

     January: 250

     Knight: 284

     Manciple: 450

     Miller: 284

     Parson: 442, 462–3

     Reeve: 284

     Squire: 450

     Wife of Bath: 428

   Book of the Duchess: 439

   House of Fame: 40, 233–4, 251, 377, 428, 430, 464, 469

   Legend of Good Women: 192, 273, 377, 400, 424, 428, 432

     Alceste: 432

   Parlement of Foules: 430

   Treatise on the Astrolabe: 411

   Troilus and Criseyde: 82, 207, 215, 216, 426, 430, 434, 469

     figures in: Lollius: 469

     Pandarus: 446, 447

La Chevalerie de Judas Machabée: 461

La Chevalerie Ogier de Danemarche: 440

Chinca, Mark: 535, 539

Chiose Ambrosiane on Dante: 593

Chiose Cagliaritane on Dante: 593

Chiose Cassinesi on Dante: 593

Chiose Filippino on Dante: 594

Chiose Marciane on Dante: 593

Chiose Selmiane on Dante: 593

Choirosphaktes, Leo: 676

Choniates, Michael, Sôzomena: 682

Chora, Monastery of the: 689

Chortasmenos, John: 671, 690

Choumnos, Nikephoros: 687, 688–9

   Peri logôn: 688

   Pros tous dyscherainontas: 688

Chremes: 242

Chrétien de Troyes: 143, 374, 451, 470, 474

   Chevalier de la charrette: 432, 443, 464

   Cligés: 429, 442, 457, 464

   Erec: 143, 448, 464

Christine de Pizan: 181, 192, 412–14, 459, 468

WORKS:

   Advision Cristine: 468

   Cent ballades: 468

   Epistre au Dieu d’Amours: 427

   Epitre d’Othéa la déesse à Hector: 379

   Letter to Jean de Montreuil: 412

   Livre du chemin de long estude: 430, 468

   Livre de la cité des dames: 468

   Livre des trois vertus: 468

   and the querelle de la Rose: 468

Christus und die Samariterin: 331

chronicles: 460, 520

Chrysoloras, Manuel: 633, 654

Chrysostom, Saint John: 417, 679

Chrysostom, Pseudo-, Opus imperfectum: 394

chwedl: 343

Cian: 340

Cicero: 22, 44, 45, 49, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 60, 62, 99, 104, 105, 113, 177, 180, 233, 241, 371, 389, 391, 433, 436, 459, 520, 576, 613, 615, 624, 625, 648–9, 650, 651, 652, 653, 654, 655, 656, 659, 660, 661, 663, 664

WORKS:

   Academica: 649

   Brutus: 178, 618, 621, 653, 654, 660

   De finibus: 656

   De inventione: 58, 68, 78, 212, 508

   Letters to Atticus: 649, 658

   De officiis: 281, 515

   Orator: 576, 618, 649, 652, 653, 654, 660

   De oratore: 179, 517, 520, 527, 576, 618, 649, 653, 660

   Pro Archia: 627, 649

   De re publica: 104

   Somnium Scipionis: 406–7

   Tusculan Disputations: 372, 649, 658

   Verrine Speeches: 651

Cicero, Pseudo-:

   Rhetorica ad Herennium: 43, 46, 54, 60, 65, 66, 68, 164, 179, 269–71, 273, 495, 508, 650

     Villena’s translation of: 385

Ciceronianism: 163, 164, 177

Cináed ua Con Mind, Trefhocul: 299, 300

Cino da Pistoia: 561, 571, 572–3

Circe: 465

circumstantiae: 119, 283, 308–9, 409

Ciriaco d’Ancona: 635

Cithaeron, Mount: 544

Clanchy, M. T.: 315

Clark, Donald L.: 61

Claudian, De raptu Proserpinae: 122, 153, 157, 158, 159, 160, 179, 188, 661

clausula: 44

Cleanness: 92, 95

Cliges: 437, 441

Clio: 460

Cloetta, Wilhelm: 585

Clogan, Paul M.: 126

Clopper, Lawrence M.: 275

Cloud of Unknowing, The: 257–9, 434

Clunies Ross, Margaret: 353

Codoñer, C.: 109

Coleman, Joyce: 311

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor: 1

   Biographia literaria: 239

Collings, Lucy G.: 356, 357

Colocci, Angelo: 499

Cologne: 58

Colonna, Francesco, Hypnerotomachia Poliphili: 663

Columbanus: 110

comedy: 3, 53, 56, 117, 149, 198, 206, 207, 209, 211, 212, 215, 216, 221, 223–33, 253, 254, 403, 460, 515, 522, 577–8, 585–6, 595, 598

Comestor, Peter, Historia scholastica: 368

De commendatione cleri: 158

Commentum Brunsianum: 113, 116, 117

Commentum Monacense: 117

Comnena, Anna,:

   Alexiad: 690

compilatio: 9, 182–6

compilator: 201, 515, 523

compositio: 658

   vices of: 56

Conaire: 305, 306

concinnitas: 638

conclusio: 47, 71, 72

   methods of: 47, 49, 56

concordantia realis: 86, 92

concordantia verbalis: 92

concordantia vocalis: 86

confabulatio: 168

confirmatio: 86

Conley, Thomas: 3, 10

Conrad of Hirsau: 130, 152–3, 193, 224, 225

   Dialogus super auctores: 2, 119, 120, 125–6, 147, 161, 164, 234, 375

Conrad von Mure, Summa de arte prosandi: 79

Consistori del Gai Saber (Consistoire du Gai Savoir): 61, 483, 484

consonance: 51

Constantinople: 675, 678, 691

   fall of: 669

   sack of: 681, 686

Contini, Gianfranco: 563

contrafactum: 500

contrariety: 51

Contreni, John J.: 113, 115

convenientiae: 562

Coopland, G. W.: 273

Copeland, Rita: 3

   and Melville, Stephen: 148, 202, 204

Corbechon, Jean, translation of De proprietatibus rerum: 382

Cormeau, C.: 546

Corpus Christi, feast of: 264

Cortese, Paolo: 648, 659–61, 664

   De cardinalatu: 663

   De hominibus doctis: 659, 660, 662

Cortona: 593

Corvinus: 128

Coulson, Frank T.: 4, 195, 196, 197, 199, 231

Coulter, James A.: 101

Council of Constance: 594

Courcelle, Pierre: 101, 112

Court of Sapience, The: 415

Covington, M. A.: 26

Coxon, Sebastian: 533

Cranz, F. Edward: 118, 127

Craven, W. G.: 644

credulitas: 168, 172, 176

Crespo, Robert: 365, 401

Croesus: 377

Cropp, Glynnis: 365, 373

Crowcher, John: 366

Ctesias: 672

Cuhelyn Fardd: 342

Cumean Sibyl: 468

Cunedda: 334

Cupid: 404, 427, 432

cursus: 62, 63, 71, 74–5, 79, 80, 88, 584, 650, 652, 664

   romanus: 74

   aureliensis: 74

Curtius, Ernst Robert: 565, 585, 631

cyfrank: 343

Cyfres Beirdd y Tywysogion: 341–2

Cynan Garwyn: 335

Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr: 341

Cynewulf: 18–19, 316–17, 318, 323

   Elene: 316

   The Fates of the Apostles: 316

Cynfeirdd: 333–8, 341–2

Cynfelyn: 334

Cyprian, Saint: 100

cywyddau, cywydd: 340, 551, 554–5, 556, 557

Da Prati, P.: 632

Dafydd Benfras: 341

Dafydd ab Edmwnd: 554

Dafydd ap Gwilym: 342, 550, 554–5, 557

Dafydd Ddu Athro: 550–4

Dagenais, John: 3

Dahan, Gilbert: 3

Damen, Hermann: 542

d’Alverny, Marie-Thérèse: 139

d’Amico, J.: 625

Danäides: 202

Daniel: 314–16

Daniel, Arnaut: 573

Dante da Maiano: 561

Dardanus: 389

Dares Phrygius: 138, 424, 427

Dati, Agostino: 658

Dávalos, Ruy López: 374

Davidson, C.: 284

Davies, Sioned: 343

Davy, M. M.: 90

Deanesly, Margaret: 395, 398

de Angelis, Violetta: 126, 127

‘Debate of the Body and the Soul’ (Welsh poem): 339

De Bruyne, Edgar: 127, 539

Decembrio, Angelo, Politia literaria: 621, 635

Decembrio, Pier Candido: 515, 655, 656, 657

delectatio (pleasure, delight): 55, 128, 172, 174, 177, 185, 190, 221, 224, 231, 275–87, 303, 418, 436, 438

Delhaye, Philippe: 23

delivery (rhetorical): 54

   and memory: 49

Demats, Paule: 3, 103, 130, 131, 139, 195, 199

‘Demetrius’: 671, 677, 680

   Peri hermeneias: 671

Demosthenes: 669–70, 672, 679, 680, 682, 687, 688, 689

Denley, Peter: 632

Deor: 312–13

Der Marner: 543

Derrida, Jacques: 31

Deschamps, Eustache: 192, 454, 457, 465

   Art de dictier: 454–6, 458, 466

   Lay de Franchise: 432

descriptio: 45, 534, 535, 536

   intrinseca: 45

   superficialis: 45

De Smet, G.: 325

La Destruction de Rome: 451

Deyermond, Alan D.: 91

d’Heur, Jean-Marie: 498

Di Camillo, Ottavio: 513, 520

Diadochos, Damaskios, Mirabilia: 674

dialectic: 20, 64

Diana (Roman goddess): 6, 322

Díaz de Toledo, Pero: 521

Dictamen epithelamium: 79

Dictys Cretensis, Ephemeris belli Troiani: 425

Dieten, Jan-Louis van: 672

Dieter, Otto A.: 272

Dietmar von Eist: 546

Dietrich of Freiberg: 557

dignitas: 658

Diller, Aubrey: 672

Dinis I of Portugal: 497, 498

Dino del Garbo: 416, 591

Dio of Prusa: 673, 676

Diomedes: 31, 35

   Ars grammatica: 15, 33, 38

   De voce: 31

Dionisotti, Carlo: 625, 663

Dionysius, Pseudo-: 132, 255–7, 258–9, 261, 265

   The Celestial Hierarchy: 255–7, 258

     commentaries on: 256, 257

Dionysius de Burgo, Commentary on Valerius Maximus: 374

Dionysius of Halicarnassus: 669, 671, 675, 677, 678, 680, 689

   On Composition: 671

   On Demosthenes: 677

discretio spirituum: 246–8

dispositio: 48, 51, 54, 164, 448

   and beginning: 55

Disticha Catonis: 38, 39, 40, 120, 122, 153–5, 158, 181, 188, 243, 282, 331, 365, 369, 376, 407, 438, 444, 519

dit: 81

Dives et Pauper (Middle English text): 262

divisio, divisio textus: 523, 565, 590, 595, 596, 601, 603, 605, 606, 608, 609

Dolce, Ludovico: 577

Domenico da Prato: 617, 618, 620

Dominicans: 84, 94

Dominici, Giovanni: 632, 645, 657

   Lucula noctis: 632, 634

Domitian: 400

Domnall mac Muirchertaig: 306–7

Donaghey, Brian: 374

Donati, Forese: 561

Donatus, Aelius: 16, 19, 21, 28, 32, 35, 37, 101, 102–3, 356–9, 483, 501, 550, 655

   Ars grammatica: 16, 37, 38

    Ars maior: 33, 34, 37, 38, 357–9, 495

   Ars minor: 37, 38, 483

   Barbarismus: 28

   Commentaries on Virgil and Terence: 102

   De littera: 30

Donatus, Tiberius Claudius: 113

Doon de Maience: 464

Douglas, Gavin, translation (with commentary) of Aeneid: 368–9, 377–8

Doxapatres, John: 677, 685

Draesner, Ulrike: 533

dream vision: 249–52, 445

Droitture (figure in Christine de Pizan): 468

Dronke, Peter: 3, 131, 133, 134, 140, 584

Dryden, John: 470

Dumville, David N.: 340

Dunchad, Glossae in Martianum: 114

Dungal: 111

Duris of Samos: 674

Durmart le Gallois: 433, 449

Dutton, Paul E.: 132

dwned: 550

Dylan son of Wave: 334

Eanes do Vinhal: 499

Earp, Lawrence: 454

Eberhard the German: 58–9, 60

   Laborintus: 44, 58–9, 211, 543

Ecbasis captivi: 423

eclogue (genre): 156, 561–2, 612

Eddic (Old Norse) poetry: 348–60

Edward I, King of England: 80

Edwards, M. C.: 400

Efa ferch Maredudd: 344

Egan, Margarita: 492

Egidi, F.: 417

Egils saga Skallagrímssonar: 347

Eilhart von Oberge: 427

   Tristrant: 442

Einhard: 327–8

   Vita Caroli Magni: 327

Einion Offeiriad: 549–54

Eiximenis: 87

Elder Edda, Codex Regius of: 349

Elder, J. P.: 117, 118

elegantia: 638, 658

elegy (genre): 56, 63, 208, 212, 215, 230, 334–5, 517, 595, 598–611

‘Elegy for Cynaethwy’: 338

Elffin: 556

Elias of Winchester, Anglo-Norman translation of Disticha Catonis: 365

Elidir Sais: 341

elocutio: 64

eloquence: 517, 643

embellishment: 53

emendatio: 15

Empedocles: 518

enarratio: 15, 18, 23, 40, 146

   poetarum: 150, 558

Engel, Werner: 330

englynion: 333–4, 338, 341, 551

Enit: 437

Ennius: 122, 216, 220, 389, 649

epic: 207–23, 422

   Homeric: 312

Epistolae Karolini aevi: 324

epithalamium: 517

epithet: 45, 63

   definition of: 44

Erasmus, Desiderius: 7

Erec: 437

Ermolao Barbaro il Vecchio, Orationes contra poetas: 642

Ernst, Ulrich: 329

Eructavit (French translation of Psalm 44): 461–2

De eruditione religiosorum: 94

Eschez amoureux. See: Evrart de Conty:

Estevan da Guarda: 499

Estoria de España: 510

‘ethical poetic’: 3

ethics: 53, 62, 119, 161–78, 221, 226, 505–6, 520, 546, 572, 586

êthos: 669, 670, 688

Etruscan (language): 619–20

etymology: 522

Eudocia: 672

Eugenianos, Niketas:

   Drosilla and Charikles: 686

   Monody: 682

Eugenius of Toledo: 109, 110

Euhemerus: 389–90

eulogy (genre): 334, 552, 553, 554

Eunomios: 673

euphony: 514

Euridice: 452

Euripides: 216, 403, 678

Eusebius: 380, 525, 556, 673

   Alfonso de Madrigal as interpreter and translator of Eusebius-Jerome: 380, 388–90, 501

Eustathios: 670, 683–4

eutrapelia: 280–2, 283

Évangile de l’Enfance: 441

Everard, Anglo-Norman translation of Disticha Catonis: 365

Évrard of Béthune: 27, 501

   Graecismus: 25, 27, 37, 46, 58, 358–9, 376

Evrart de Conty

   Commentary on Eschez amoureux: 263, 285–6, 406–7, 417–18

   Le Livre des problèmes d’Aristote: 382–3, 406

Exantus: 377

De excidio Troiae: 202

excursus, literary, in Middle High German: 534–48

exegesis: 5–8, 145, 150, 194, 202, 222, 445, 447, 521, 562, 564, 569, 574, 576, 579, 589, 590, 608

   and rhetoric: 3

exemplum: 48, 50, 54, 56, 57, 64, 86, 265, 307, 408, 457, 640

Exeter Book: 310, 311, 312–13, 314–16

existimatio: 174

Exodus (Anglo-Saxon poem): 315

   –poet: 323

exordium: 55, 71, 72, 73

explanatio litterae: 32

expositio: 146, 363–421

Expositiones hymnorum: 151–2

expositor: 201

fabliau: 229, 231, 278–9, 287, 443, 504

fabula: 3, 56, 103, 104, 106, 109, 116, 129, 132, 138, 140, 198, 199, 206, 303, 322, 379, 391, 425, 627, 634

Facio, Bartolomeo: 655, 656

Faidit, Gaucelm: 494

Faral, Edmond: 44, 48, 50, 58, 60, 63, 93, 145

Faulhaber, Charles: 520

Faulkes, A.: 345, 352, 354

Featherstone, J.: 687

Fénice: 442

Ferddig, Afan: 341

Ferdinand and Isabella: 524

Fernagu: 440

Fernández de Velasco, Pedro: 519

Ferrante of Naples: 622

Ferrara: 621

Ferraù, G.: 654

Ferrer, Vicente: 521

Li Fet des Romains: 400

De Fhailsiugud Tána Bó Cúailnge: 308

Fichtenau, Heinrich: 111

Ficino, Marsilio: 622, 656, 657, 658, 660, 661

   Commentary on Plato: 646

   Commentary on Plotinus: 646

fictio: 569, 603, 609, 627

Field, Arthur: 657

figmenta: 634

figura: 381–2

figurative language: 394

figures: 59, 63

   of speech (flores verborum): see also: rhetoric, colours of: 63, 92, 551

     list of: 49

   of thought (flores sententiarum):

     list of: 49

   and tropes: 60, 64–5

Filelfo, Francesco: 635

   Epistolarum familarum libri: 635

La Fin d’Elias: 433

finis: 586, 595–8

First Grammatical Treatise (Icelandic): 29

Fisher, A.: 634

FitzGilbert, Constance: 422

Fletcher, Alan J.: 94

Fleury: 122

Florence: 279–80, 590, 592, 610, 615, 619, 621, 630, 637, 644, 656, 657, 661, 664

Florentine (language): 617, 622

Flores paradysii: 181, 182, 217

florilegia: 61, 113, 128, 179–86, 200, 209, 229

Florilegium angelicum: 179, 180, 181, 182

Florilegium gallicum: 179–81, 185, 186

Florilegium morale Oxoniense: 154

Florimont: 444

Florus: 650

Foerste, W.: 329

Foix, Count of: 467

Foliot, Gilbert: 91

Folque de Candie: 440

Folquet de Marselha: 494

Fontaine, Jacques: 100, 109

Foote, Peter: 356

forma: 595–8

   tractandi: 586, 597

   tractatus: 597

Fortuna: 206, 208, 210, 214, 218, 222, 600

Fortunatus, Venantius: 110

Foster, K.: 240, 241, 268

Fowler, Alastair: 402

Fox, D.: 286

Fraker, Charles: 509

Francesc Eiximenis: 271–2

Francesco da Barberino, Documenti d’amore: 416–17, 591

Francesco da Buti: 593, 594

   Commentary on the Commedia: 594–611

Francesco Conte di Carmagnola: 654

Francesco da Fiano: 8, 630–3, 640

   Contra ridiculos: 631

Francis, Saint: 246, 259

Franciscans: 84, 94

Frank, Istvan: 477

Frank, Roberta: 349, 352

Frauenlob: 542

Fray Lope del Monte: 508

Frederick II, Emperor: 76

Frederick Barbarossa: 548

Freidank: 547

friars: 181–6, 200

Friedrich von Hausen: 546

Friis-Jensen, Karsten: 127, 128, 162, 177

Froissart, Jean: 431, 455, 457, 466–8

   Chroniques: 266, 431, 467–8

   Dit dou Florin: 431, 467

   Joli buisson de Jonece: 467

   Roman de Méliador: 431, 467

   Temple d’honneur: 431

   Voyage en Béarn: 431, 467

Fromm, Hans: 535, 536, 544

Fronesis: 155

Fronsis: 460

Frontinus: 649

Froumond, Monk: 122

Fubini, R.: 625

Fulgentius: 107–8, 109, 110, 112, 115, 116, 121, 123, 132, 133, 135, 140, 203, 262, 368, 389

   Exposition of the Content of Virgil: 107, 108

   Mitologiae: 107–8, 121, 129, 134

     See also: Imagines Fulgencii:

Fulgentius, Pseudo-, Super Thebaiden: 137

Funaioli, Gino: 108

Furies: 430

Fychan, Simwnt, Pum Llyfr Kerddwriaeth: 554

Gaimar, Geoffrey, Estoire des Engleis: 422

gairdiugud: 304

Galen: 277

Galician-Portuguese: 496, 499

Galjena: 437

Gall, Saint: 122

Gallus, Thomas: 257–9

   Explanatio of The Mystical Theology: 257

   Extractio of The Celestial Hierarchy: 256

Galterius Anglicus. See: Walter of England:

Ganelon: 464

Ganz, Peter: 139, 196

Garcia Burgalês, Pero: 499

García de Santa Maria, Gonzalo: 371–3

García, Martín, Spanish translation of Disticha Catonis: 371

Garcilaso de la Vega: 526

Garin de Monglane: 464

Garin, E.: 624, 629, 632, 633, 637, 638, 639, 640, 644, 657, 659

Garzya, Antonio: 681

Gascon: 485

Gaston IV de Foix: 460

Gaston Phébus: 467

Gatien-Arnoult, A. F.: 483

Gaul: 661

Gaunt, Simon: 472, 476, 480, 534

Gautier de Coinci, Des Nonains de Nostre Dame de Soissons: 433, 436

Gawein: 437

Gaza, Teodoro: 660

genera dicendi: 561, 562, 573, 575, 576, 578, 586, 587

General estoria: 367, 380–2, 500–1, 510, 523

Gennrich, Friedrich: 489

Gentilis de Cingulo: 26

genus philosophiae: 595–8

Geoffrey of Eversley, Ars epistolaris ornatus: 79, 500

Geoffrey of Monmouth: 382

   Historia regum Britanniae: 337

   Vita Merlini: 337

Geoffrey of Vinsauf: 20, 43, 48–51, 58, 75, 79, 143, 159, 162, 231, 270, 448, 513

   ‘De clericis et rustico’: 228

   Documentum de arte versificandi: 43, 48, 50–1, 53, 163, 210

     manuscripts of: 50

     summary of: 50

     two versions of: 50

   Poetria nova: 20, 40, 43, 48, 50, 58, 59–60, 75, 145, 163, 164, 176–7, 211, 212, 220, 228, 271, 538, 543–4

     commentary on: 177

     manuscripts of: 43

     summary of: 48–9

   Summa de coloribus rhetoricis: 46, 48, 65

George of Pisidia: 678

George of Trebizond: 654

   Rhetorica: 654

Georgslied: 331

Gerald of Wales: 180, 337, 341

Geraldus de Piscario: 87

Gerbert: 122

Gerbert de Montreuil, Roman de la Violette: 438, 451

Geri d’Arezzo: 82–3

Gersh, Stephen: 104

Gerson, Jean: 192, 412–13, 519

Gertrude of Helfta: 11, 259

Gervaise, Bestiaire: 438

Gervase of Melkley: 51–2, 58

   Ars versificaria: 43, 51, 217

     summary of: 51–2

Gesta romanorum: 447

Geymonat, Mario: 108

‘Ghent Boethius’: 373

Ghisalberti, Fausto: 188, 189, 190, 194, 196

Ghosh, Kantik: 3

Gibson, S.: 158

Gilbert of Poitiers: 152

Gildas, De excidio: 339–40

Giles of Rome, De regimine principum: 185, 382, 520

Gilson, Étienne: 87

Giolito, Gabriele: 577

Giordano di Terracino: 77

Giovanni Baldo di Faenza: 636

   Tractatus: 636

Giovanni Gherardi da Prato: 617–18, 620

   Il Paradiso degli Alberti: 617

Giovanni da Serravalle, Commentary on Commedia: 594–611

Giovanni del Virgilio: 83, 195, 200, 215, 561–2, 588, 612

   Commentary on the Metamorphoses: 392

   Eclogues: 612

Giovanni di Capua: 77

Giovanni di San Gimignano, Summa de exemplis ac similitudinibus rerum: 272

Giovannino of Mantua: 254

Giraut de Borneil: 475, 479, 480, 481, 493

   style of: 480–1

Girolamo, Costanzo di: 474, 479

Glauche, Günter: 37, 113, 122, 127

gloss: 17, 19

   elaborating the: 369–83

   and text, translating: 364–9

Glykas, Michael, ‘From his Jail Cell’: 686

gnosticism: 115

Godden, Malcolm: 310

Godfrey de Bouillon: 282

Godman, Peter: 112

The Gododdin: 334–5, 336, 341

Golein, Jean, translation of De regimine principum: 382

Golias: 226

Gómez de Castro, Alvar: 512

Gómez Moreno, Angel: 517

Gómez Redondo, Fernando: 3

Gónzalez de Mendoza, Pero: 515

Gonzalo de Berceo: 463, 496

Goris, Mariken: 373

Gorni, Guglielmo: 561–82, 619

Gothic script: 514

Gottfried von Strassburg: 427, 430, 450, 534–45, 546, 547, 548

   Tristan: 250, 427, 434, 439, 534–45

Gottsched, Johann Christoph: 330

Gougaud, L.: 261

Governal: 426

Gower, John: 40, 228, 235, 434, 468, 470

   Confessio amantis: 400, 401–2, 405, 411–12, 417, 418–19, 430, 435, 436, 439, 445, 470

     Amans: 418–19

   Mirour de l’omme: 405

   Vox clamantis: 405

Grágás (Icelandic law code): 352

Gramadegau’r Penceirddiaid: 343, 549, 552

grammar and grammatica: 15–41, 43, 53, 59, 64, 75, 101, 102, 309, 359, 463, 520, 550, 606, 637, 639, 670

   authorities for: 17, 20

   Christian: 18, 19

   definition of: 15–16

   French theories: 75

   history and development of: 17–30

   Isidore’s model of: 18

   pedagogic texts: 25

   preceptive: 27

   precepts derived from: 51

   redefinition of: 20

   ‘speculative’ or modistic: 20, 21, 30, 53

     definition of: 20

     Bacon’s definition of: 25

   textual methodology of: 21

   theoretical: 20

   three main stages of: 17

     Late Roman: 17

     hybridisation of: 17

     Early medieval: 17–19

     Later medieval: 17, 20–30

   two complementary divisions of: 20

   universal: 24

   within the trivium: 16

   and modi locutionum: 23

   and rhetoric, influence of: 348

   and the school curriculum: 37–40, 150–60

Grammatical Treatises, Four (Icelandic): 353–9

Gratian, Decretum: 178, 184, 185, 416, 519, 557

Graziolo de’ Bambaglioli: 592

   Glosses on Inferno: 592, 594–611

Gréban, Arnoul: 458, 459

Green, Dennis, H.: 543

Greenfield, Concetta Carestia: 8, 167, 178, 629

Gregoras, Nikephoros:

   History: 690

   Phlorentius: 687

Gregory VII, Pope and Saint: 68

Gregory IX, Pope: 395

Gregory of Corinth: 683

Gregory of Nazianzus: 671, 676, 679, 680

Gregory of Nyssa: 673, 679

Gregory the Great, Pope and Saint: 4, 19, 261–2, 263, 265, 600

   Cura pastoralis: 84

     Anglo-Saxon translation of: 317

     Anglo-Saxon preface to: 319–20

   Epistola 11: 261

   Moralia in Job: 4

Grendler, Paul F.: 629

Grosseteste, Robert: 25, 166, 169, 257, 258, 281

   Commentary on The Celestial Hierarchy: 257

   Introitus: 169

Gruffudd ap Maredudd ap Dafydd: 340

Gruffudd Bola, translation of Athanasian Creed: 344

Gruffudd ap Cynan: 340

   Statute of: 554

Gruffydd, R. Geraint: 550

Grundlehner, Philip: 537

Gryg, Gruffudd: 554–5

Guarino da Verona: 635–6, 637–9, 640–1, 643, 654, 660

   Epistolario: 629, 638, 640, 641

Guarino, Battista: 638–9, 643

   De ordine docendi: 637

Gubernatis, Catherine E.: 255

Guido da Pisa: 587, 588, 592, 594–611

   Declaratio: 592

   Expositiones: 215, 588, 592

Guido delle Colonne, Historia destructionis Troiae: 265–6, 424, 427

Guido Faba: 77, 78

Guilhem IX: 474, 476, 480, 481

   ‘Ben vueill’: 474

Guillaume de Deguileville, Pèlerinage de la vie humaine: 251–2

Guillaume de Lorris: 407, 457

   See: Jean de Meun:

     See also: querelle de la Rose:

Guillaume de Machaut: 419, 432, 457, 460, 465–6, 468, 470, 518

   Fonteinne amoureuse: 466

   Jugement dou roy de Behaingne: 432

   Jugement dou roy de Navarre: 428, 466

   Prologue: 452–3, 466

   Remède de Fortune: 250, 453, 455

   Voir-Dit: 453–4, 466

Guillelmus de Thiegiis, Commentary on Metamorphoses: 196

Guillén de Segovia, Pero: 508

Guinevere: 435

Guinizelli, Guido: 517, 567, 573

Guittone d’Arezzo: 567

Guizzardo da Bologna, Commentary on Ecerinis: 220

Gundissalinus, Dominicus: 28, 167, 168

   De divisione philosophiae: 166

Gutun Owain: 554

Guðrúnarh⃞t: 350

Gwalchmai: 341

Gwallog: 335

Gwarchan Maeldderw: 334

Gwyddnau: 334

Gwynfardd Dyfed: 342

habitus: 62, 63, 67

Hadrian: 19

Hagendahl, H.: 100

hagiography: 422, 423, 440

Hainaut: 279

Hakenstil: 327

Hákon, Earl: 347

Hákon Hákonarson, King: 355

Háleygjatal: 350

Hall, Ralph G.: 584

Haller, R. S.: 286

Halliwell, Stephen: 172, 209

Hankins, James: 656, 657

Hann, Ingrid: 535

Hárbarð sjóð: 350

Hardie, Colin: 584

Hardison, O. B.: 1, 4, 173, 254

Harland, Richard: 2

Harpies: 644, 646

Harris, Joseph: 349

Hartmann von Aue: 537, 538–41, 546, 547

   Der arme Heinrich: 435

   Erec: 541, 546

   Gregorius: 441

   Iwein: 533

Harvey, Ruth E.: 474

Hassall, W. O.: 275

Háttalykill: 355

Haubrichs, Wolfgang: 325, 328, 329, 330, 331

Haug, Walter: 3, 538, 539, 543, 546

Hávamál: 350

Haycock, Marged: 339

Hebrew: 525

Hegesias: 674

Heinrich von Freiberg: 450

Heinrich von Morungen: 429, 465

Heinrich von Mügeln:

   Der meide kranz: 432

   translation of Valerius, Memorabilia: 374

Heinrich von Rugge: 546

Heinrich von dem Türlin: 547, 548

   Diu Crône: 534, 546

Heinrich von Veldeke: 533, 537, 538, 541–4, 546, 548

   Eneide: 81, 542

Heinzle, Joachim: 548

Heiric of Auxerre: 113, 117

   Collectanea: 113

heiti: 355

Heledd: 335

Heliand: 321, 324–5, 328–31

Helicon, Mount: 320, 465, 537

Helinand of Froidmont, Chronicon: 184, 185, 217, 368

Heliodorus: 678–9, 685

   Aethiopica: 679

     Chariclea (figure in): 679

Hellgardt, Ernst: 331

Helm, R: 108, 137

Hendregaredd MS: 340–1

hengerdd: 334

Henri d’Andeli: 20, 25

   Bataille du VII arts: 20, 25

Henry I, King of England: 422

Henry II, King of England: 342, 422

Henry III, King of England: 79

Henry, P. L.: 299

Henry of Francigena, Aurea gemma: 70

Henry of Hesse: 87

Henry of Isernia: 82

Henry (the Lion), Duke: 461

Henry of Settimella, Elegia: 75

Henryson, Robert:

   Aesop’s Fables: 286, 376–7, 426, 438, 447

   Orpheus and Eurydice: 376

Hensen, B.: 248

Herbert, Máire: 307, 309

Herbort von Fritzlar, Liet von Troye: 424, 449

Hercules: 156, 334, 367, 380, 388, 389, 390, 411

Hérenc, Baudet: 61

   Doctrinal de la seconde retorique: 457

heresy: 11

   and Bible translation: 392–400

Hermagoras of Temnos: 459

Hermann the German: 2, 252–5

   translation of Averroes’ commentary on Aristotle’s Poetics: 167, 171, 172, 231, 403

Hermogenes: 669–71, 675, 676, 677, 680, 682, 683, 685, 687, 689

   Peri ideôn: 671, 674

Hernando de Talavera: 91

   biographer of: 91

Hero and Leander: 202

Herodotus: 672

Herren, Michael: 110

Hesiod: 191

Hesse von Strassburg: 548

Hesychios: 673

Heusler, Andreas: 350

Hexter, Ralph: 3, 128, 204, 205

Higden, Ralph, Polychronicon: 266, 411

Hilarius: 80

Hilary, C. R.: 94

Hilbert, K.: 129

Hildebrand, Lay of: 326–8

Hilton, Walter, De adoracione ymaginum: 261–2

Hirsch, E. D., Jr.: 285, 286

Hisperica Famina: 110

Histoire de Philippe-Auguste: 462

historia: 53, 56, 198, 199, 206, 266, 322, 425, 460

Historia Brittonum: 340

Hoccleve, Thomas: 400

   Dialogue with a Friend: 431

   Regement of Princes: 447, 470

Hoffman, Werner: 326, 538

Hohenstaufen chancery: 82

Holcot, Robert:

   Commentary on Wisdom: 400

   Moralitates: 262

Hollander, Robert: 583, 585

Hollo, Kaarina: 299

Holmes, G.: 625, 645

Holtsmark, Anne: 356

Holtz, Louis: 19, 34, 101, 102, 109, 110

Homer: 6, 207, 213, 214, 215, 216, 313, 389, 427, 433, 469, 470, 520, 613, 614, 615, 622, 635, 682–4

   Iliad: 321, 389, 683–4

     Achilles: 683

     Agamemnon: 683

     Hector: 444

     Thersites: 684

     See also: Ilias Latina:

   Odyssey: 321, 389

     Ulysses: 389

homily:

   Lambeth: 85

   three parts of: 85

homoioteleuton: 650

honesta: 116

Honorius III, Pope: 76

Honorius ‘of Autun’: 21

   De anima exsilio et patria: 21

   Elucidarium: 557

Hopcyn ap Tomas: 335

Horace: 44, 45, 51, 53, 58, 62, 63, 109, 112, 120, 122, 160–78, 180, 185, 208, 211, 215, 224, 372–3, 381, 405, 459, 469, 576, 598, 603, 649, 658, 661, 664

   Ars poetica: 47, 51, 54, 71, 99, 116, 127–8, 148, 160–78, 179, 198, 207, 218, 225, 228, 230, 231, 232, 285, 372, 435, 448, 517, 576, 577, 585–6. Cited as Antiqua poetica: 44: 47, 51, 54, 71, 99, 116, 127–8, 148, 160–78, 179, 198, 207, 218, 225, 228, 230, 231, 232, 285, 372, 435, 448, 517, 576, 577, 585–6

     commentaries on: 127–8

      Anonymous Turicensis commentary on: 164, 166

      ‘Materia’ commentary on: 162, 163, 164, 177: 162, 163, 164, 177

   Epistles: 127, 128, 160, 516

   Odes: 58, 128, 165

   Satires: 127, 128, 161, 165, 224, 226

Hortis, Attilio: 280

Huber, Cristoph: 535, 538, 539

Hudson, Anne: 11, 393

Hue de Rotelande, Ipomedon: 449

Hug von Salza: 546

Hugh of Bologna, Rationes dictandi prosaice: 70, 72

Hugh of Cyprus: 517

Hugh of Fleury: 186

Hugh of St Victor: 21, 256, 259, 271, 417

   Didascalicon: 21, 186, 278

   De grammatica: 21

   De tribus maximis circumstantiis gestorum: 268–9

Hugo, Bishop of Sion: 331

Hugo von Trimberg: 143, 157, 158, 441, 543

   Registrum multorum auctorum: 143, 153–4, 187, 224, 534

   Der Renner: 534

Hugutio of Pisa: 28, 216, 230, 363, 655

   Magnae derivationes: 28, 182, 211, 218, 363, 397, 402

humanism: 81, 610

   advent of: 68

   Italian: 254, 513, 626–47

   nascent: 79

   revival of: 7

   in the Twelfth-Century Renaissance: 7

   and scholasticism: 7–9

Humbert of Romans: 94, 264

Humphries, S.: 240, 241

Hunbaut: 451

Hunt, R. W.: 2, 21, 27, 29, 138, 157, 363

Hunt, Tony: 3, 143, 212, 217, 223, 370

Hunter Blair, Peter: 111

Hurus, Paulus: 371–2

Husband’s Message, The: 315

Huws, Daniel: 334, 335, 340

Hyginus: 121

Hymiskviða: 350

hymns: 52

Iannucci, Amilcare A.: 568

Ibn ’Ezra, Moses: 496

Icarus: 599

iconoclastic controversy: 675

identity: 51

Idleness: 418

idolatry: 261, 263

Ieuan Llwyd: 340

Ilias latina: 38, 122, 515

     See also: Homer:

imagination: 3, 9, 147, 150, 171, 172, 239–74

   fors imaginatio: 248

   imaginative syllogism: 166, 171, 172, 194

   poetic: 254

   ymaginativa: 239

Imagines Fulgencii: 262

imitatio: 524, 568, 622

   composita (compound): 253

   simplex (simple): 253

Immram Curaig Máele Dúin (Voyage of Maél Dúin): 304

Imperial, Micer Francisco: 509, 511, 518

indulgences, petitions for: 47

ingenium: 62, 663

Íñigo López de Mendoza. See: Santillana, Marquis of:

Innocent III, Pope: 48, 76, 395

insomnium (nightmare): 244

Instructif de la seconde rhétorique: 459–61

integumentum (veil): 6, 131, 132–6, 140, 195, 202, 204, 205, 221, 224, 381, 386–7

intentio auctoris (author’s purpose): 53, 102, 119–20, 124, 130, 136, 138, 143, 146, 204

interpretatio: 363–421

invective: 206

inventio: 53, 54, 62, 64, 330, 509, 513, 528

   five species of: 54

Investiture conflict: 69, 73

Iolo Goch: 340

Irish Annals: 294

Irish Law, Old: 291

Irish poetic theory: 291–301

irony: 160, 176

Irvine, Martin: 3, 35, 40, 108, 110, 113

Isaeus: 674

Isidore of Seville: 17, 18–19, 21, 22, 23, 28, 36, 109–10, 111, 116, 120, 121, 164, 215, 216, 218, 221, 230, 303, 305, 306, 337, 495, 515, 517, 603, 621

   Etymologiae: 18, 19, 28, 32, 33, 36, 38, 109–10, 120, 130, 186, 207–10, 225, 229, 265, 322, 372, 425, 495, 508, 514, 523, 531

   De fide catholica contra Iudaeos: 328

   Theological Treatises: 324

   Versus in bibliotheca: 109

Isocrates: 672, 679, 682

Isopet de Lyon: 436

Italian (language): 571–2, 629

Italian vernacular love lyric: 567, 571

Italikos, Michael: 683

   Letter to Gregory Kamateros: 683

iudicium: 15

Ivo of Chartres: 651

Iwein: 437

Jackson, W. T. H.: 538

Jacob van Maerlant, Alexanders geesten: 368

Jacobus de Fusignano, Libellus artis praedicationis: 272

Jacobus de Voragine, Legenda aurea: 261

Jacopo della Lana: 588, 592, 594

   Commentary on Commedia: 216, 588, 594–611

Jacques de Vitry: 246

Jaime II of Aragon: 502

James I of Scotland: 470

   Kingis Quair: 470

Jan ze Streda: 649

Janot, Denis: 370–1

Jardin de plaisance: 460, 461

Jason: 202

Jaufré Rudel: 474

   Canzoniere: 494–5

Jaume March, Diccionari de Rims: 484

Jean de Chastelet, French translation of Disticha Catonis: 365

Jean de Condé: 279

Jean le Fèvre: 457, 466

Jean of Hautfuney: 186

Jean de Meun: 425, 457, 467, 468, 470

   Apology for Roman de la Rose: 228, 435

     See also: querelle de la Rose:

   Roman de la Rose: 6, 7, 131, 189, 202, 249–50, 402, 405, 406–7, 412–14, 418, 425, 450, 457, 458, 465, 518

     figures in:

     Amant: 250

     Faux Semblant: 457

     Nature: 249

   Translation of Boethius Consolatio: 202, 365–7, 373, 401

     Preface to: 363

Jeanroy, Alfred: 483, 495

Jeauneau, Edouard: 132

Jeffreys, Elizabeth: 681

Jeffreys, Michael: 685

Jennings, Margaret: 85

Jerome, Saint: 100, 101, 102, 109, 125, 185, 318, 322, 380, 392, 393, 395, 417, 436, 501, 525, 527, 578, 626

   Contra Rufinum: 102

   Epistulae: 102, 626

   In Ezech., Praef.: 101

     See also: Eusebius:

Joana of Aragon: 390

Joan de Castellnou: 484

   Compendi: 484

   Glosari: 484

Jofre de Foixà: 483, 486, 495, 512

   Doctrina de compondre dictats: 483, 489, 490, 491

   Regles de trobar: 483, 486, 502

Johannes de Caulibus (attrib.), Meditationes vitae Christi: 259

Johannes de Fayt, Tabula moralium: 210

Johannes von Tepl, Ackermann aus Böhmen: 262, 461

Johansson, Karl Gunnan: 354

John II Comnenos: 679, 682

John Balbus of Genoa, Catholicon: 28, 29, 33, 37, 211, 218, 230, 363

John de la Rochelle: 88

‘John of Bridlington’: 406

   prophecies of: 406

John of Cornwall: 29

   Speculum grammaticale: 29

John of Dacia: 26

John of Garland: 25, 46, 52–8, 62, 63, 64, 66, 79, 143–4, 153, 162, 193, 194–8, 381, 489

   Compendium grammatice: 15

   Dictionarius: 25

   Equivoca: 25

   Integumenta Ovidii: 7, 139–40, 194, 202, 501

   Morale scolarium (= Liber satiricum): 144, 227, 405

   Parisiana poetria: 43, 52–8, 59, 61, 67, 75, 143–4, 210, 230, 403, 489, 577

     accessus to: 53

     summary of: 54–8

     concept of wholeness in: 53–4

   Synonyma: 25

   De triumphis ecclesiae: 206

John of Hanville, Architrenius: 51, 137

John of Jandun: 26

John of Paris, De potestate regia et papali: 383

John of Salisbury: 20, 21, 73, 180, 265–6, 270, 651

   Metalogicon: 21, 22, 23, 132

     coniugatio rationis et verbi, in: 22

   Policraticus: 265

   model for grammatical studies: 22–3

   and the poets, read as: 23

   and the trivium: 22

John of San Gimignano, Summa de exemplis: 278

John of Sardis, Commentary on Aphthonius: 677

John of Stobniczy: 26

John of Wales: 87, 88, 146, 181, 262

   Ars praedicandi: 86, 87

John the Deacon, Life of St Gregory: 443

John Scotus Eriugena: 114–15, 118, 119, 120

   Annotationes: 114

   De divina praedestinatione: 114

   Periphyseon: 115

   Super ierarchiam: 115, 135

Johnston, Mark D.: 510, 514

Jones, Bobi: 555

Jones, J. T.: 549

Jones, T.: 340

Jonson, Ben: 61

Jónsson, F.: 354

‘Jordan’, Master: 24

   Commentary on Priscian minor: 24–5

     ‘phoneme theory’ in: 25

Jordanes, De origine actibusque Getarum: 326

Joseph of Exeter, Iliad: 137

Josephus, Flavius: 380, 525, 671

   Jewish Antiquities: 671

Joset, Jacques: 504

Josse, John: 26

Juan II of Castile: 510, 519

Juan de Aragon (King of Navarre): 385

Juan del Encina: 372, 507, 524

   Arte de poesía castellana: 527–9

Juan Gil de Zamora: 500

Juan Manuel: 501–4

   El conde Lucanor: 502–4

   Libro de las reglas de cómo se debe trobar: 502

   Libro de los estados: 502–4

Julian of Norwich: 446

Juliana of Mont-Cornillon: 268

Junius Manuscript: 312, 314–16

Junius ‘Philangyrius’ (‘Philagrius’): 108

Justinian: 416

Juvenal: 4, 39, 137, 180, 188, 224, 226, 227, 231, 405, 639, 640

Juvencus: 38, 100, 328, 333

   Evangelia: 38, 39, 100

Kaiserchronik: 423

Kallendorf, C.: 629

Kant, Immanuel: 286

katharsis: 173, 253

Kaulbach, Ernest: 252

Kay, Sarah: 474, 476, 480, 482

Kazhdan, Alexander: 691

Keating, Geoffrey, Forus feasa ar Éirinn: 305

Kellner, Beate: 535

Kelly, Douglas: 426

Kelly, H. A.: 3, 208, 211, 216, 225, 229, 230, 402, 584, 585

Kempe, Margery: 260, 430

Kennedy, William: 149

Kerrane, K: 1, 254

Kidd, I. G.: 291, 299

Kilwardby, Robert: 4, 21, 24

   De ortu scienciarum: 24

Kindermann, Udo: 3, 223, 228

Kleochares of Smyrlea: 674

klerwr: 552–3

klerwryaeth: 551, 552

Klingenberg, Heinz: 350

Koberger, Anton: 373

Köhler, Erich: 479

Kohut, Karl: 510, 519

Kolb, Herbert: 537

Kominis, Athanasios: 683

Konrad von Würzburg: 542

   Partonopier und Meliur: 436

   Trojanerkrieg: 424–5, 450, 465

Kleiber, Wolfgang: 329

Kristeller, Paul O.: 4, 8, 626

Krohn, Rüdiger: 544

Krömmelbein, Thomas: 354, 356

Kydones, Demetrios, Apologia: 690

   Monody: 690

Lachmann, Karl: 542

Lactantius: 99, 100, 101, 109, 164, 208, 229, 389, 416

   Institutiones: 99, 101, 103

Lactantius Placidus: 121, 130, 196

   and Statius: 126–7

lai: 62

Laistner, M. L. W.: 111

Lamprecht, Pfaffe, Alexander: 425

Lancelot: 435, 444, 462

Lancelot del Lac: 435

Landgraf, A.: 165

Landino, Cristoforo: 83, 368, 612, 620, 621–3, 646–7, 657–8, 660, 661, 662, 663, 664

   Commentary on the Commedia: 610–11, 622, 623, 646, 658

   Disputationes camaldulenses: 622, 646

   Formulari di epistole: 622

   Prolusione petrarchesca: 621, 622, 658

   translation of Pliny the Elder: 622

   translation of Sforziade: 622

   Xandra: 621

Langland, William: 235

   Piers Plowman: 92, 95, 252, 407, 438, 442, 447, 463, 464

     Ymaginatif in: 252

Langosch, Karl: 143, 328

Lanza, A.: 616, 617

Lapidge, Michael: 110, 310, 311

Lapithes, Georgios: 687

Lateran Council, Fourth: 145

Latin Quarter: 52

Latini, Brunetto: 82, 609

   Livre dou trésor: 410, 455

   Rettorica: 78

   Sommetta ad amaestramento di componere volgarmente lettere (attrib.): 78

Laurent de Premierfait, translation of Decameron: 279, 280

Laus Pisonis: 180

Lausberg, Heinrich: 65

Law, Vivien: 300, 495

lay literacy: 507, 521

Lebor na hUidre: 302

lectio: 15, 18, 21, 23, 30, 32, 40, 145, 178, 267

Léglu, Catherine: 474, 477

Legrand, Jacques:

   Archiloge Sophie: 456

   Sophilogium: 456

Lehmann, Paul: 38, 349

Lejeune, Rita: 474

Leonardi, Claudio: 115, 118

Leonello d’Este: 621, 635

Lerner, R. E.: 90

Leto, Pomponio: 660

Lewis, Henry: 344

Lewis, Saunders: 552, 556, 557

Leyland, John: 29–30

Leys d’Amors: 61, 283, 483–4, 486–9, 490–2, 495, 513

Liber Catonianus: 126, 153–5, 159, 369

Liber facetus (inc. ‘Moribus et vita’) See: Ovid, Pseudo-:

Liber floretus or facetus: 39, 158–9, 160

Liber hymnorum: 299

libri naturales: 24, 25

Libro de Alexandre: 382, 496

Libro de Apolonio: 496

Licet mundus varia: 223

Life of St Ledger, The (early French): 422

light metaphysics: 569

literal interpretation and sense: 521, 598–611

littera: 30, 32

Liutbert, Archbishop of Mainz: 329–31

Livy: 99, 576, 614, 650, 651, 660, 662

   Ab urbe condita: 368

Ljubarskij, Iakov: 678

Llanrug: 550

Lloyd-Jones, John: 337

Lloyd-Morgan, Ceridwen: 344

Llwyd, Gruffudd: 557

Llywarch: 335

Llywelyn ab y Moel: 556

Llywelyn ap Gruffudd: 340

Llywelyn ap Gwilym: 550

Llywelyn ap Iorwerth: 341

locus: 119

Lodi: 618

logic: 9, 62, 88, 161, 168–78, 239, 520

logos: 22

Lokasenna: 350

Lollardy: 263–4, 284

   and translation of the Bible: 394–400

Lombards: 111, 254

‘Longinus’: 1, 671, 677, 678, 680

   Peri hypsous (‘On the Sublime’): 671

Lönnroth, Lars: 275

López Estrada, Francisco, Las poéticas: 510

López de Mendoza, Iñigo. See: Santillana, Marquis of: 514, 520

Lorenzo de’ Medici: 612, 617, 620, 622, 623–5, 662, 663

   Comento de’ miei sonetti: 623

Lotharingian, anonymous translation of Disticha Catonis: 365

Louis IX: 182

Louis the German: 328, 422

Lourenço: 497

Louvain: 470

Lovati, Lovato: 82, 217, 218, 220

Love (personification): 466, 470

Love, Nicholas, The Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus Christ: 260

Lubac, Henri de: 5

Lucan: 23, 39, 108, 109, 112, 120, 122, 124, 125, 198, 205, 207, 212, 215, 216, 220, 222, 224, 372, 469, 531

   Pharsalia [De bello civili]: 39, 120, 125, 126, 164, 213, 379, 524, 543

     commentary on: 137–8, 400

     Tegernsee accessus on: 211

     Spanish translation of: 367

   and Statius: 126–7

Lucia: 595

Lucian: 677

Lucidarius: 461, 462

Lucretius: 111, 195

   De rerum natura: 113, 124

Ludolfo, Master, Summa dictaminum: 79

Ludovico il Mori: 622

Ludwigslied: 324–8, 331

Luis de Averçó: 484

   Torcimany: 484

La Lumière as lais: 408

Lupus of Ferrières: 113

Lydgate, John: 260–1, 264, 470

   Fall of Princes: 432, 437, 448

   Pilgrimage of the Life of Man: 444

   Siege of Thebes: 446, 448

   Troy Book: 425

lyric: 63, 283, 287, 422, 472

Lysias: 679

mabinogi: 343

Mac Cana, Proinsias: 343

MacNeill, Eion: 294

Macpherson, Ian: 502

Macho, Julien: 377

Macrobius: 104–6, 107, 108, 115, 123, 132, 133, 134, 135, 138, 195, 244–5, 303, 445, 602, 655, 661

   Commentary on Somnium Scipionis: 104, 105, 113, 244, 249, 406–7

     subsequent medieval commentary on: 104, 105

   Saturnalia: 104, 105–6

Madrigal, Alfonso de: 5, 388–90, 521–2

Maecenas: 128, 372

Maeldderw: 334

Máel Mílscothach: 306–7

Maelgwn: 556

Maelgwn Gwynedd: 340

Maffei, Timoteo: 641–2, 643

   In sanctam rusticitatem: 641

Maggi, Vincenzo: 254

Magnús the Good, King: 351

Magoun, Francis P., Jr.: 329

Mai, Cardinal Angelo: 121

Maillet (?), Thomas, translation of Parabolae: 370

Makin, Peter: 479

Makrembolites, Eustathios, Ismene and Ismenias: 686

Malakes, Euthymios, Encomium: 682

Malatesta, Carlo: 633

Malcovati, Enrica: 126

Malory, Thomas, Le Morte d’Arthur: 437

Malsachanus: 19

Manasses, Konstantinos:

   Aristandros and Kallithea: 686

   Oratio: 682

Mancini, Augusto: 127, 584

Manegold of Lautenbach: 131, 139

   Commentary on Ovid: 130

Manetti, Gianozzo: 620

Mannyng, Robert:

   Chronicle: 463

   Handlynge Synne: 434, 442

Mantua: 617, 633

Manuel I Comnenos: 682, 685, 686

Manuel II Palaiologos: 687

Manuel de Lando, Ferrán: 509

Manutius, Aldus: 664

Map, Walter, Dissuasio Valerii ad Rufinum: 227

Maramauro, Guglielmo: 590

Marbod of Rennes: 80

Marcabru: 474, 475, 476, 477, 481, 493

   ‘D’aiso laus Dieu’: 474

   ‘Estornel, cueill ta volada’: 474

Marchesi, C.: 118

Mariani, Ferminia: 113, 117, 118

Marie de Champagne: 432

Marie de France, Lais: 129, 375, 438

Marie d’Oignies: 246, 260

Mark, King: 426

Marquis of Montferrat: 494

Mars: 404

Marshall, John H.: 472, 477, 488, 489, 495

Marsilius of Padua: 218

   Defensor pacis: 383

Martellotti, G.: 650

Marti, Bernart: 477

Marti, Berthe M.: 126

Martial: 159

   Epigrammaton: 372

Martianus Capella: 5, 22, 107, 108, 109, 117, 121, 122, 133, 137, 140, 141, 197, 324

   De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii: 106–7, 114–15, 135

     commentary on: 117, 118, 134–6

     translation of: 331

Martín de Avila: 390

Martín González de Lucena: 384

Martin of Dacia: 26

Martin of Laon: 113, 114

Martin Soares: 497

Martin the Humane: 512

Martinelli, Bruno: 584

Massa, Eugenio: 171

materia: 53, 218, 222, 226, 426, 505, 509

   materia predicabilis: 181

matiere: 443, 465

Matonis, A. T. E.: 554, 556

Matthew of Linköping: 175–7, 210, 231, 254

   Poetria: 254

Matthew of Vendôme: 44–8, 51, 58, 61, 62, 64, 65, 75, 80, 81, 143, 162, 448

   Ars versificatoria: 43, 44–8, 59, 163, 211, 225, 229, 543, 577

   Milo: 228

   Thobiadis: 39, 40, 158, 159, 180

Matzel, Klaus: 328

Maurice de Sully: 94

Mauropous: 685

Maximian: 122, 157, 158

   Elegies: 156, 160, 203, 229

Mazzoni, Francesco: 583, 584, 592, 605

McEvoy, James: 169

McKenzie, Donald F.: 233

McKinley, Kathryn L.: 192, 198

McLaughlin, M. L.: 614, 625

McManus, Damian: 296, 299, 301

McQuade, J. S.: 257

McWilliam, G. H.: 440, 445

Méchoulan, Éric: 458

Mechthild von Magdeburg, Das fliessende Licht der Gottheit: 409–10

Medea: 242

Meek, M. E.: 266

Mehtonen, Päivi: 206

Meilyr Awenydd of Gwent: 337

Meilyr Brydydd: 341

Meiser, C.: 130

Meissburger, Gerhard: 328

Melpomene: 206

memorial lay: 351

memory: 3, 9, 49, 53, 54, 55, 60, 239–74, 505, 565

   artificiosa memoria: 270

   memorativa: 239

   oral: 52

   and delivery: 49

Mena, Juan de: 508, 511, 512–14, 523, 524, 525, 528

   Coronación: 515, 525

     commentary on: 521, 530

   El laberinto de Fortuna: 523, 524, 525, 529–32

Menander Rhetor: 228, 671

Meneghetti, Maria Luisa: 474

Mengaldo, Pier Vincenzo: 562, 586

Menut, A. D.: 382

Merke, Thomas, De moderno dictamine: 80

Merrix, Robert P.: 94

Merula, Giorgio: 660

metaphor: 132, 358, 394

   definition of (Aristotle): 34

   definition of (Donatus): 35

   and allegory, theories of: 33–7

methonomia: 45

Metochites, Theodore: 687, 688–90

   Epistasia kai Krisis: 669–70, 690

   Logoi: 689

   Miscellanies: 689, 690

metre: 254, 509, 517

   Four Irish Metrical Tracts: 294, 295–9

Meulengracht Sørensen, Preben: 346, 352

Meuvaert, P.: 406

Meyer, Heinz: 329

Meyer, P.: 440

Míadshlechta: 294–5

Michael III: 672

Michael VIII Palaiologos: 687, 689

Michel of Marbais: 26

Middle English Stanzaic Life of Christ: 425

Miguel Prendes, Sol: 511

Milan: 590, 657

Miller, Paul: 224, 405

Milone, Luigi: 479

Milton, John, Prolusions: 61

mimesis: 252

Minerva: 460

Minis, Cola: 543

Minnebrief: 81

Minnesang: 429, 538, 544–5, 547

Minnis, Alastair J.: 3, 52, 212, 226, 228, 229, 366, 377, 405

   and Scott, A. B., Medieval Literary Theory: 150, 152, 153, 155, 161, 165, 166, 167, 172, 173, 175, 188, 189, 190, 191, 210, 211, 213, 215, 216, 220, 221, 222, 224, 225, 226, 231, 232, 234, 253, 255, 256, 263, 413, 564, 568, 586, 587

Minucius Felix: 99, 109

   Octavius: 99

Miquel of Barcelona: 390

modus agendi: 53, 54–5, 61, 150, 152, 154, 164, 165, 166, 179, 203, 214, 219, 221

modus commutandi: 66

modus dicendi: 124

modus loquendi: 133

Mohammed: 575

Molinet, Jean: 61

   Art de rhétorique: 458–9

Molinier, Guilhem: 61, 512

Mölk, Ulrich: 479

Momma, H.: 321, 323

Mongols: 690

Monk of Montaudan: 475

Monson, Don A.: 495

Montecassino: 70, 593

Moore, Edward: 585

Moorish Conquest: 514

Moos, Peter von: 126

morality play: 460

Morenzoni, F.: 85

Morici, M.: 635

Moriz von Craûn: 429

morphology: 525

La Mort Aymeri de Narbonne: 461

Moschopoulos, Manuel: 687

Moss, Ann: 206

Mouzalon, Patriarch: 681

Mroczkowski, P.: 95

Mühlethaler, Jean-Claude: 456

Müller, Karl Friedrich: 538

Müller-Kleimann, Sigrid: 538

Mullett, Margaret: 681

Mum and the Sothsegger: 405

Munk Olsen, Birger: 4, 113

Murphy, Gerard: 297, 298, 299

Murphy, James J.: 2, 59, 65, 68, 85, 87, 408, 507

Murrin, Michael: 103

Muses: 404, 430–1, 522, 537, 614

Muspilli: 324, 326

Mussato, Albertino: 8, 82, 217–20, 221, 222, 232, 235, 626, 654

   Ecerinis: 217, 220

   Evidentia tragediarum Senece: 218

   Vita et mores L.A. Senece: 218–20

mutation: 51

Myrddin: 333–8, 341–2

mystery play: 460

mystical theology: 257

myth: 108, 132–3, 134, 389

   See also: integumentum:

mythographers: 116, 130. See also: Vatican Mythographers: 116, 130

   Neoplatonic: 108

   Stoic: 108

mythography: 106, 131, 133, 135, 137, 195, 196, 197, 198, 202, 205, 220, 222, 263, 390, 456

   arbitrariness of: 142

mythology: 99, 106, 121, 127

mythos: 114, 115

Naples: 524, 590, 594

Nardi, Bruno: 584, 585

narratio: 56, 71, 72, 130

   three kinds of: 56

narrative prose: 302–9

Nasti, Paola: 566, 587

natural music: 454–5

Nature: 452, 466, 467

Navarre: 432

Nebrija, Antonio de: 500, 507, 524–7, 529

   Gramática de la lengua castellana: 525–7

Nectanabus of Egypt: 377

Nederman, C. J.: 265

Negri, Francesco: 83

Neidhart: 445

Nellmann, Eberhard: 538, 539

neologisms: 77

Neoplatonism. See: Platonic tradition:

Nepaulsingh, C. I.: 509

Nequam, Alexander: 20, 25, 158, 212, 217

   Commentary on Martianus Capella: 142

   Commentary on ‘Theodulus’: 156

   Corregationes Promethei: 61

   De naturis rerum: 193

   Novus Avianus: 155

   Sacerdos ad altare: 138, 223

Nero, Roman Emperor: 403, 429

New Criticism: 313

Nibelungenlied: 423

Nicaean Exile: 686

Niccoli, Niccolò: 616, 652

Niccolò di Francesco della Luna: 619

Niccolò de’ Rossi: 591

Nicholas V (Pope): 636, 637, 641

Nicholas of Guilford: 442

Nicholas of Lyre: 5, 392–4, 399, 521

   on Old Testament: 392

   Postilla litteralis: 393, 502, 521

     translation of: 384

Nicholas of Prato: 220

Nidyard, Adam: 29

níð vísur: 351

Niketas David: 675–6

   Encomium of Gregory of Nazianzus: 676

   Life of Patriarch Ignatius: 675

nominalism: 26

Nordal, Guð rún: 354, 359

Notker Labeo See: Notker of St Gall:

Notker of St Gall (Notker Teutonicus, Notker Labeo): 122, 331–2

   Commentary and translation of Psalter: 332, 423

   Translation of Aristotle: 332

   Translation of Boethius, Categories: 331

   Translation of Boethius, Consolatio: 331, 364

   Translation of Boethius, De sancta trinitate: 331

   Translation of Disticha Catonis: 331

   Translation of Job: 332

   Translation of Martianus Capella: 331

   Translation of Principia arithmeticae: 332

   Translation of Terence, Andria: 331

   Translation of Virgil, Bucolics: 331

Notker Teutonicus. See: Notker of St Gall:

Il novellino: 283

Núñez, Hernán: 523, 524, 529–32

   Las trezientas del famosíssimo poeta Juan de Mena con glosa: 529–32

Ó Carragáin, Eamonn: 321

Ó Cuív, Brian: 301

Ó Dálaigh family: 300

Ó Dálaigh, Golfraidh Fionn: 301

Ó hAodha, Donncha: 296, 298

Ó Macháin, Pádraig: 301

obscurus (stylus): 77

Occitan: 10, 43, 61, 77, 81, 82, 283, 417, 472, 485, 495, 496, 526, 622

   at court of Alfonso X: 497, 498–9

   grammars: 473

   Occitan-Catalan rhyming dictionary: 508

   Occitan-Catalan tradition: 513

Octavian: 386

octo auctores: 158

Oculus pastoralis: 78

Oddaverjan: 350

Oddrúnargrátr: 350

Odo of Picardy: 156

Ogilvy, J. D. A.: 275

Ognibene della Scola: 641–2

   De vita religiosa et monastica: 641

Ohly, Friedrich: 539

Okken, Lambertus: 536, 538, 543

Oenone: 437

Oliver: 429, 440

Ólsen, Björn M.: 356

Olson, Glending: 3, 168, 278, 280, 285

Ong, Walter: 183

Onulf of Speyer, Colores rhetorici: 46

oraculum (oracular dream): 244

orality: 42, 518

oratio: 52

   six parts of: 55, 58

ordinatio: 179, 182, 183, 186

ordo: 659

   artificialis: 48, 124, 176, 213, 544

   naturalis: 48, 176, 544

Oresme, Nicole: 382–3, 396

   De causis mirabilium: 248–9

   translation of Aristotle:

     Le Livre de éthiques: 281, 382–3

     Le Livre de politiques: 382–3

     Le Livre de yconomiques: 383

     Le Livre du ciel et du monde: 383

Orgain Cathrach Maíl Milscothaigh: 306–7

Organon: 255

Origen: 525

Orléans: 44, 58, 81, 111, 145, 146, 179–81, 192, 195, 197, 200

ornata difficultas: 50

ornata facilitas: 50

Orosius: 649

   Historiae adversum paganos: 116, 313

     Old English translation of: 313, 321–2

Orpheus: 156, 439, 452, 518, 537, 544

orthography: 512, 525

Osgood, Charles: 1

Ospital d’amours: 468

Otfrid of Weißenburg: 328–32

   Evangelienbuch: 328–31

Óð inn: 345, 353

Otis, Brooks: 130

Ottimo commento: 590, 592, 594–611

Otto II: 450

Otto of Freising: 138

Ovid: 3, 4, 39, 40, 51, 108, 109, 112, 125, 128–30, 131, 138–40, 149, 153, 155, 157, 158, 165, 166, 173, 176, 178, 179, 180, 181, 185, 186–206, 207, 215, 216, 228, 285, 358, 385, 411–14, 427, 428, 439, 459, 465, 467, 468, 469, 501, 531, 555, 622, 633, 634, 639

WORKS:

   Amores: 129, 211, 285

     Corinna: 189

   Ars amatoria: 122, 125, 128, 187–90, 193, 195, 250, 412–14, 505

     French adaptations of: 374–5

   Epistulae ex Ponto: 129, 190

   Heroides: 80, 129, 166, 180, 191–3, 202, 505

   Ibis: 190

   Medea (lost): 210, 403

   Metamorphoses: 122, 125, 129–31, 138–40, 147, 148, 155, 160, 187, 191, 192, 193–206, 220, 222, 231, 263, 369–70, 378–9, 381–2, 384, 501: 122, 125, 129–31, 138–40, 147, 148, 155, 160, 187, 191, 192, 193–206, 220, 222, 231, 263, 369–70, 378–9, 381–2, 384, 501

     commentary on: 7, 139, 194–8, 505

     Vulgate commentary on: 179, 197–8, 231

     figures in: Achelous: 379

     Ariadne: 192

     Atlas: 196

     Cadmus: 196

     Io: 381–2

     Latona: 320

     translations of: 390–2

   Remedia amoris: 153, 154, 160, 187–90, 412–14

   Tristia: 190

Ovid, Pseudo-::

   Liber facetus (inc. ‘Moribus et vita’): 158, 193

   De vetula: 196–7, 233, 412, 505

Ovide moralisé: 6, 143, 160, 193, 200–2, 203, 378–9, 436

Owain Cyfeiliog: 341

Owen, Morfydd E.: 341, 342

The Owl and the Nightingale: 61, 438, 441, 442

Oxford: 52, 79, 80, 88, 91, 169, 392, 470, 556

   disputations at: 394–5

Pablo de Santa María: 521

Pace of Ferrara:

   Commentary on Geoffrey of Vinsauf, Poetria nova: 177

   Evidentia Ecerinis: 220

Pachymeres, Georgios: 687

Padarn, Saint: 333

Padoan, Giorgio: 584

Padua: 217–20, 634

Page, Christopher: 479

Palafox, Eloísa: 503

Palamite controversy: 690

palliata: 117

Palmer, Nigel F.: 262, 373

Palmer, Thomas: 395–8

Palmieri, Matteo: 618, 619, 620, 658, 663

   Libro della vita civile: 519, 618, 639, 662

Pamphilus: 154, 158, 160, 180, 189, 192, 228–9, 505

panegyric: 179, 552, 555

Panfilo (in Boccaccio’s Decameron): 279

Pantin, W. A.: 282

Paolazzi, Carlo: 583, 614

Papias: 27, 402, 603

   Ars grammatica: 27

   Elementarium (=Vocabulista): 27, 33, 208, 225

parabola: 627

Paraskeve, Life of Saint: 681

Paratore, Ettore: 584

Paris: 44, 48, 52, 58, 61, 84, 88, 91, 145–6, 174–5, 179, 181, 182, 203, 254

Paris Bible: 245

Paris, Gaston: 422

Parisian quaestio on the nature of poetry: 255

Parmeno: 242

Parnassus, Mount: 430

pars philosophie: 53

Partonopeu de Blois: 436, 438

Passalacqua, Marina: 38

Pasternack, Carol Braun: 312, 316

pastoral: 56, 612

Paterson, Linda: 474, 477, 479

Patience: 92, 93–4, 95

Patrick, Saint: 293, 303–4

Patterson, Lee: 6

Patterson, Warner F.: 61

Pattison, Walter T.: 534

Patzlaff, Rainer: 330

Paul of Perugia: 177

Paul the Deacon: 111, 327

Pavia: 70

Pearsall, Derek: 43

Pecock, Reginald: 260

   Repressor: 260, 264

   Rewle of Crysten Religioun: 446

Pedro de Mendoza: 515

Pedro de Portugal: 516

   Sátira de infelice e felice vida: 521

Peire d’Alvernhe: 474, 475, 477, 493

   Cantari d’agestz trobadors: 534

   Literary ‘review’: 475, 534

   ‘Rossinhol en son repaire’: 474

Peire de Valeira: 493

Peire Vidal: 487

Peirol: 475

Pellegrin, Elisabeth: 113

Penelope: 437

Pépin, Jean: 579

Perceval: 441, 444

Percy, Thomas, Reliques: 312

Pérez de Guzmán, Fernán: 523

Pérez Priego, M. A.: 522

pericope (prescribed biblical passage): 85

Peripatetics: 265

Pero d’Ambroa: 499

Pero da Ponte: 497, 498, 499

Pero Mafaldo: 497

Perotti, Carmelo: 661

Persius: 39, 109, 120, 122, 127, 180, 224, 226, 231, 405, 524

persona: 119, 400, 418

   personae attributa: 45

     See also: characteres scripturae:

perspicuitas: 539

Pertile, Lino: 587

Peta of Isolella: 27

petitio: 71, 72

Peter, Master: 246

Peter, Prior: 246

Peter Auriol: 254

Peter Cantor, Verbum abbreviatum: 180

Peter Damian: 68, 69

Peter Helias: 20, 27, 28, 30

   Summa super Priscianum: 20, 363

Peter Lombard: 557

   Sententiarum libri quatuor: 178, 184, 557, 617

Peter of Abano: 383

Peter of Blois: 68, 73, 180, 441, 651

Peter of Blois, Pseudo-, Libellus de arte dictandi: 73

Peter of Cornwall: 91

Peter of Limoges, De oculo morali: 241

Peter of Pisa: 111, 327

Petit Pont, school of: 25

Petrarch, Francis: 10, 83, 177, 180, 232, 233, 234, 235, 432, 468, 469, 470, 518, 528, 612–16, 617, 619, 620, 622, 624, 625, 626–33, 635, 636, 640, 648–56, 657, 658, 662, 664, 665

   Africa: 11, 203, 615, 625, 629, 634, 650

   Canzoniere: 612

   Collatio laureationis: 627

   Le familiari: 613, 614, 615, 623, 627, 632, 649

   Invectiva: 508, 516, 627, 651, 652

   Lettere senili: 613, 615, 627, 631, 649

   Secretum: 652

   Trionfi: 612, 629

   De viris illustribus: 616, 651

Petronius: 180

Petruslied: 330

Pétursson, E. G.: 354

Philes, Manuel: 687

Philip the Fair, king of France: 365

Philippe de Beaumanoir, La Manekine: 438, 461

Philippe de Remi: 81

Philippe de Vitry: 457

   Ars nova: 42

Philoponus: 674

Phoenix, The: 315, 322

phonetic theory: 25, 31

Photios: 669–75, 678, 682, 683

   Bibliotecha (= Myriobiblôn): 672–5, 676

     discussion of style in: 673–4

Physiologus: 324

Picard translation/commentary on Boethius, Consolatio: 368

Piccolomini, Enea Silvio (Pope Pius II): 639–41, 643, 654

   Historia de duobus amantibus: 82

Pico della Mirandola, Giovan Francesco: 243, 663

   De imaginatione: 243

Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni: 8, 657, 659, 663

Picone, Michelangelo: 567, 568, 579

Pierce the Ploughman’s Crede: 447

Pierre d’Abernon of Fetcham: 408

Pierre de Beauvais, Bestiaire: 462

Pierre Col: 413–14

Pierre de Hurion: 459

Pierre de la Cépède, Paris et Vienne: 444

pietas: 101

Pietro Andrea de’Bassi: 404

Pietro della Vigna: 77, 80

Pinborg, Jan: 26

Pindar: 661, 684

Pio, G. B.: 663

Piper, P.: 122

Piramus, Denis, Life of St Edmund: 438

Pisa: 590

Pisano, Lorenzo:

   De amore: 657

   Dialogi quinque: 657

Pisistratus: 623

Pius II. See: Piccolomini, Enea Silvio:

planctus: 179

Planudes, Maximos: 687

Plato: 104, 105, 108, 131–3, 177, 240–1, 243–5, 389, 433, 609, 626, 628, 664, 688, 689

WORKS:

   Phaedrus: 244, 637, 688

   Philebus: 240

   Republic: 104, 244, 626

   Timaeus: 131–3, 138, 140, 244

     use of myth in: 406

     commentary on: 646

Platonic tradition and Neoplatonism: 2, 31, 101, 103, 104, 105, 109, 110, 114, 115, 130, 132, 134, 135, 136, 139, 166, 177, 448, 629, 635, 646–7, 658, 660, 663

Plautus: 122, 230, 639, 644, 649, 650

   Amphitryo: 228

Plautus, Pseudo-, Querolus: 228

pleas for glory: 47

Pliny the Elder: 531, 605, 650, 661

Plotinus: 646

Plutarch: 651

   Lives: 653

   Moralia: 687

Plutarch, Pseudo-: 674, 675

Poème moral: 440

poeta platonicus: 130

poetry: 23, 391, 550, 551–4

   as scientia: 514

   as theology: 8

   definition of: 516

   embellishment of: 56

   in education: 637–41

   nature of: 255

   poetic debate: 561–2

   poetic theory: 160–78

   poetic theology: 8

   study of within ethics: 23

   three levels of: 517

   three kinds of: 56

   and blame: 253–4, 351

   and encomium/praise: 245–9, 253–4, 351

   and humanism: 8, 10

   and public roles: 292–5

   and scholasticism: 8, 9, 10

   and types of poet: 291–5

Poggio Bracciolini: 616, 651, 652, 654, 655, 657, 658, 660, 661

   De avaritia: 644–5

Poitiers: 472

Polak, Emil: 68

Polemon: 679

Polenton, Sicco: 635, 653, 654, 660

   Scriptorum illustrium . . .: 635, 653, 654

Poliziano, Angelo: 612, 617, 620, 623–5, 648, 656, 657, 658–61, 663, 664

   Epistulae: 659

   Lamia: 659

   Miscellanea: 659

Pollman, Leo: 479

Pompeius, Commentum artis Donati: 38

Pompey: 138

Pomponius Mela: 531

Pomposa: 217

Pontano, Giovanni: 660, 661–2, 664

   Actius: 661

   Aegidius: 662

   Antonius: 661

   De aspiratione: 661

   Charon: 661

   Dialoghi: 661

Porphyry: 119

Posidonius: 299

postillatio: 88

Potvin, Claudine: 509, 510

Praedicacio est’: 87, 92

Pratt, Robert A.: 95

preaching. See: ars praedicandi:

prelegens/prelectio: 23

Preminger, A.: 1, 254

presentation of thanks: 47

Primas, Hugh: 226

Priscian: 4, 19, 20, 21, 24–5, 27, 28, 32, 39, 115, 116, 356–9, 363, 501, 550, 551, 650, 655

   Institutions: 18, 20, 28, 31, 37, 40, 357

Priscian Maior. See: Priscian, Institutions:

Prise d’Orange: 464

Proba: 102

processus: 86

Prodromus, Theodore: 681, 682, 685

   Rodanthe and Dosikles: 686

Propertius: 180, 622

prophecy: 245–9, 253, 340, 405–7

proprietas: 638

prosametron: 68

prose:

   definition of: 54

   word order in: 56

prosody: 525

Prosper: 38

   Epigramata: 38, 40

Protestantism: 9

prothema: 86, 89, 90

   analogue to: 94

Provençal. See: Occitan:

Provençal, Neo-: 571–2, 574

Provence: 75

proverbium: 45, 93

Prudentius: 39, 156, 159, 180, 328, 524

   Contra Symmachum: 100

   Psychomachia: 39, 40, 100

prydyd: 552–3

Prydydd y Moch: 336

prydydyaeth: 551, 552

Przychocki, G.: 2, 188

Psellos, Michael: 678–80, 683

   discussion of style: 679–80

WORKS:

   Charaktêres paterôn: 679–80

   discussion of style: 679–80

   Encomium to Mauropous: 680

   Logos: 679

   Peri rhêtorikês: 678

   Peri synthêkês tôn tou logou merôn: 678

Pseustis: 155, 370

psychology of perception: 286

pulpit oratory: 85

Pum Llyfr Kerddwriaeth: 554

punctuation: 512

Pütrich, Jakob, von Reichertshausen, Ehrenbrief: 534

Puttenham, George: 471

Pythagoras: 518

Quadlbauer, Franz: 585, 586

Quadri, Riccardo: 113

quadrivium: 456, 569, 687

quadruplex sensus: 594–611. See also: Bible, four senses of: 594–611

quaestio: 119, 271

   theological: 11

Quain, E. A.: 2

qualitas: 124

Queimado, Ruy: 499

querelle de la Rose: 3, 250, 402, 412, 468

Queste del Saint Graal: 143

Quinn, Judy: 350

Quint, D.: 616

Quintilian: 22, 23, 46, 150, 241, 459, 528, 576, 654, 655, 659, 661, 664

   Institutio oratoria: 22, 179, 576, 577, 637–8, 649

     elocutio, doctrine of: 539

     prelegens/prelectio, definition of: 23

Quinzes signes du jugement dernier: 440

Rabanus Maurus: 113, 152, 203, 205, 329

   De clericorum institutione: 15

Rabelais, François: 280, 644

Raccolta aragonese: 623

Raffaele di Pornassio, De consonantia nature et gratie: 637

Ragnar⃞k: 349

Raimbaut d’Aurenga: 81, 474, 476, 477, 479

   style of: 480–1

Raimbaut de Vaqueiras: 491, 494

Raimon de Cornet: 484

   Doctrinal de trobar: 484

Raimon de Miraval: 477

Raimon Vidal: 472, 473, 482, 484–6, 512, 515

   ‘Abrils issia’: 473

   Razos de trobar: 472, 482, 485, 486, 499

Ralph of Beauvais: 20, 21, 39, 138

   Glose super Donatum: 21

   Liber Tytan: 21

Ralph of Longchamp: 142

Ramus, Peter: 7

Rand, E. K.: 113, 116, 117

Ranke, F.: 535

Raoul Ardent, Speculum universale: 267

Raoul de Houdenc, Meraugis de Portlesguez: 433, 463

Raoul de Presles:

   Translation of parts of Bible: 382

   Translation of De civitate Dei: 382

Raoulaina, Theodora: 687

Raschellà, Fabrizio: 356

ratio: 634

razos: 509, 565

realism: 26

recapitulation: 47

Recio, Roxana: 520

Red Book of Hergest: 335–6, 340

Reeve, M. D.: 116, 127

Règles de la seconde rhétorique: 456–7, 466

Regnaud Le Queux: 460

Reims: 122

Reinbot von Durne, Der heilige Georg: 450

Reinmar: 542, 544, 546

Remigius of Auxerre: 19, 117–19, 124, 127, 365, 366

   influence of: 120–2

   Commentary on Boethius: 118–19, 208

   Commentary on Donatus: 32

   Commentary on Martianus: 117, 118

   Commentary on Persius: 117–18

   Commentary on Terence: 117, 118

Renart, Jean: 494

   L’Escoufle: 440

   Roman de la Rose ou de Guillaume de Dôle: 451

Renaud, Count of Boulogne: 462

René d’Anjou: 459

   Livre du cuer d’amours espris: 468

Renier of Saint-Trond, Commentary on Boethius: 373

renovatio: 112, 650

reportator: 89

representatio: 254

Reynke de vos: 415, 437

Reynolds, B.: 274

Reynolds, L. D.: 113

Reynolds, Susan: 310

Reynolds, Suzanne: 3, 127, 146, 148, 149, 223

Rhakendytes, Joseph: 687

rhetoric: 53, 59, 64, 70, 92, 100, 102, 169, 170–1, 174–5, 176, 177, 219, 223, 520, 523, 670, 676, 678, 688

   apparatus: 321

   attributes of persons: 45, 57

   Ciceronian: 3

     Ciceronian canon of invention: 58

   colours of: 46–7, 55, 57, 70, 72, 77, 450, 456, 538, 564, 579

     colours of thought: 56–7

     colours of words: 56

     parallelism between colours, schemes and tropes: 46

     types of colours: 48–9

   epideictic: 253

     genres, medieval: 59

   precepts derived from: 51

   and exegesis: 3

   and grammar: 348

     See also: seconde rhétor:

rhyme: 529. See also: vernacular, rhyme: 529

Rhys ap Gruffudd, Prince: 342

Rhys ap Gruffydd, Sir: 550

Rhys Goch Eryre: 556–7

Ricci, P. G.: 614

Richard de Fournival: 146, 181, 197, 233

   Bestiaires d’amours: 242

Richard of Hambury: 29

Richard of St Victor: 259, 417

   Benjamin minor: 256

   Liber exceptionum: 186

Richard of Thetford: 88

Richard, Thomas, edition of Walton’s Boethius: 373

Richars li Biaus: 444

Richter, Michael: 294

Rickert, Edith: 40

Ricklin, Thomas: 583

Rico, Francisco: 502

Ridevall, John, Fulgentius metaforalis: 203, 262

Rieger, Dietmar: 477

Rigaut de Berbezilh: 493

Rigg, A. G.: 145

Rinuccini, Alamanno: 657

   Lettere ed orazioni: 657

Rinuccini, Cino: 618, 620, 653

   Invettiva: 616–17, 651, 653

Rinuccio da Castiglione of Arezzo: 377

Riou, Yves-François: 109, 116

Riquier, Guiraut: 492, 497–8

   Declaratio: 497–8

   Supplicatio: 497–8, 509

rithmica: 57

rithmus, art of: 57–8

   application to hymn writing: 57

   consonance of: 57

   definition of: 57

   origins of: 57

Rizzo, S.: 649

Robathan, Dorothy: 118, 127

Robert de Blois, Beaudous: 443, 461

Robert of Basevorn: 88

   Forma praedicandi: 88, 89, 408

Robert of Naples: 517

Robortello, Francesco: 254

Roberts, Brynley F.: 343

Robertson, D.W., Jr.: 6–7

   Preface to Chaucer: 6, 286

Robey, David: 634

Robin Hood: 442

R⃞gnvaldr, Earl of Orkney: 355

Roland: 429, 440, 556

Rolle, Richard, Melos amoris: 11

Rollinson, Philip: 35

Roman d’Alexander: 382, 433, 445

Roman d’Eneas: 81, 212

Roman de la Poire: 81

Roman de Renard: 423

Roman de Renart: 439

Roman de Thèbes: 382, 433, 445

Roman de Tristan: 81

Roman du Châtelain de Couci et de la dame Fayel: 81

romance: 287, 460, 517, 520, 685

Rome: 48, 107, 116, 127, 390, 400, 654, 656, 661

   matter of: 464

Roncaglia, Aurelio: 474, 478, 479

Ronconi, G.: 632, 638, 642, 644

Ross, W. O.: 87, 89, 92

Rossi, L. C.: 599, 600

Rossi, Luciano: 474

rota Virgilii: 517, 612

Roth, Dorothea: 87

Rouse, Mary: 265

Rouse, R. H.: 116, 138

Routledge, Michael: 473

Rowland, Jenny: 343

Roy, Bruno: 4

Royaumount: 182

Rudel, Jaufre: 494

Rudolf von Ems: 544, 546–8

   Barlaam und Josaphat: 441

   Alexander: 534, 544, 546–8

   Willehalm von Orlens: 534, 548

Ruhe, Ernstpeter: 81

Ruiz, Juan: 7, 501, 504–7

   Libro de buen amor: 92, 93, 412, 504–7

ruminatio: 314, 323 444

Ruodlieb: 423

Russell, Paul: 343, 551

Russell, P. E.: 520

Ryan, William Granger: 261

Sabbadini, Remigio: 117, 629

Sabellico, Marcantonio: 661, 664

   De latinae linguae reparatione: 661

Sacchetti, Franco, Trecentonovelle: 280

Saeculi noni auctoris in Boetii commentarius: 118, 119

Sáenz-Badillos, Ángel: 496

saga: 346, 347–8

Saint Albans: 199

Saintsbury, George: 1, 2, 3

Salamanca: 412, 524

Sallust: 122, 400, 651, 661, 662

Salut d’amour: 81

Salutati, Coluccio: 82, 177–8, 219, 233, 254, 615, 616, 617, 625, 630–3, 634, 635, 637, 640, 642, 643, 644, 646, 650–3, 654, 660, 661, 664, 665

   Epistolario: 615, 630–3, 634, 650–1, 652

   De fato et fortuna: 615

   De laboribus Herculis: 178, 630–3, 636, 646

   De nobilitate legum: 632

   De seculo et religione: 632

salutationes: 56, 71, 72, 80

Sambin, Paolo: 77

Sampson, Thomas: 80

Sanchez, Afonso: 499

Sánchez Cantón, F. J.:

Sancho IV: 502

Sandkühler, Bruno: 3

Sanford, Eva M.: 127, 138

Santillana, Marquis of: 385, 507, 511–12, 513, 514–19, 520, 522, 528

   Carta a doña Violante de Prades: 515

   Comedieta de Ponza: 515

   Proemio e carta al condestable don Pedro de Portugal: 514, 516–19

   Proverbios: 514–15

     glosses on: 521

Santoro, M.: 623

Sargent, M. G.: 260

satire: 3, 53, 149, 165, 206, 212, 223–33, 253, 292, 340, 404–5, 515, 552, 553, 554, 557, 577, 595, 598–611, 686

Saturn: 6

Savonarola, Girolamo: 243, 254

Sawicki, Stanislaw: 539

Scala, Bartolomeo: 659

Scéla Mucce: 305, 306–8

schemes:

   list of seventeen: 46

   parallelism with colours of rhetoric: 46

Schiff, Mario: 522

Schindel, U.: 102

Schlee, F.: 117

Schneyer, J. B.: 90

Scholarios, Gennadius: 690

scholasticism: 3, 8, 254, 284–5, 409, 411, 610

   and humanism: 7–9

Scholia in Dionysii Thracis: 670

Schulze, Ursula: 535

Schweikle, Günther: 533

scientia interpretandi: 15

scientia sermocinalis: 24–30

Scipio Africanus: 116, 249

scop: 311–13

Scott, A. B. See: Minnis, Alastair:

Scowcroft, R. Mark: 308

seconde rhétorique (‘Second Rhetoric’): 61, 455–61

Secretum secretorum: 277

Sedulius: 38, 100, 113, 156, 524

   Carmen paschale: 38, 39, 40, 100

Sedulius Scottus:

   Collectanea: 113

   In Donati artem maiorem: 32, 303

Segni, Bernardo: 254

Seidenspinner-Núñez, Dayle: 504

Seigel, Jerrold: 615, 616, 656

selection: 53

sen, sens: 443, 461, 465

Seneca: 51, 82, 113, 146, 161, 180, 181, 185, 193, 210, 215, 216–23, 224, 413, 459, 520, 650, 651, 653, 656, 659

     Seneca ethicus: 217

     Seneca tragicus: 217

   Epistulae ad Lucilium: 515

   Hercules furens: 218, 221

Seneca the Elder, Controversiae: 620

sensus apologeticus: 595

sensus communis: 239

sensus historicus: 595

sensus metaphoricus: 595

sentence: 445–7, 448, 462, 470

sententia: 48, 113, 243, 270, 573, 638

   sententia melior: 66

Sequence of Saint Eulalia: 422

Serafico, Antonio: 657

Sergius, De littera: 32

Serglige Con Culainn: 305, 306–7

Seriacopi, Massimo: 590

sermo historialis: 89

sermo humilis: 578, 579

sermons:

   audience of: 90–1

   collections: 89, 91

   ‘Kentish’: 85

   language of: 91

   ‘scholastic’: 85, 87, 88

     beginning of: 92

     principles of: 86–7

   written record of: 89–90

   Wycliffite: 85

Serra, Giovanni: 655

Serravalle, Giovanni Bertoldi da: 609

Servius: 17, 19, 102, 108, 109, 110, 115, 116, 119, 120, 121, 123, 124, 126, 139, 213, 368, 401, 655

   De centum metris: 298

   Virgil commentaries: 103–4, 133, 135

     In Aen. VI, Praef.: 104

     treatment of Virgil in: 103–4

   influence on later commentaries: 127

Setaioli, Aldo: 104

Seutonius: 102

Ševčenko, I.: 687, 688

Seven Liberal Arts: 59, 106, 112

Sex auctores: 153. See also: Liber Catonianus:

Seznec, J.: 629, 644

Shain, C. E.: 95

Shakespeare, William: 223

Shapiro, Marianne: 476

Sherman, C. R.: 382

Sick Man of Abercuawg: 335

Sidney, Sir Philip, Apology for Poetry: 2, 471

Siewert, Klaus: 122, 127

Sigebert of Gembloux, Chronicon: 368

Siger of Courtrai: 26

Sigfússon, Sæmundr: 349

Sikeliotes, John: 685

   Commentary on Hermogenes: 677

Silk, E. T.: 118, 119

similiter cadens: 526

similitudines: 51

   rerum: 269

   verborum: 269

Simms, Katharine: 300

Simon of Dacia: 26

Simon de Hesdin, translation of Valerius Maximus: 382

Simonides: 216

Simplicius: 268

Sims-Williams, Patrick: 291, 308

Sinnreich-Levi, D. M.: 454

Siôn Cent: 556–7

Sirens: 320

sirventes: 490, 497

Sozomeno of Pistoia: 196

Skaldic (Old Norse) poetry: 348–60

   Christian: 359

Skeat, W. W.: 319

Skelton, John: 470

   Garlande of Laurell: 470

Skene, W. F.: 333

Skizenos: 682

Skúli, Duke: 355

Slavs: 675

Smalley, Beryl: 5, 262

Smarr, J. L.: 280, 283

Snorrason, Oddr, Saga of King Óláfr Tryggvason: 347

Socrates: 609

Soissons: 433

somnium (enigmatic dream): 244

Sonderegger, Stefan: 331

Sopatros: 673, 680

Sophocles: 219, 220

Sorbonne: 146, 181, 197

Sordamor: 437

Sordello: 606

Southern, R. W.: 7, 8–9

Sowell, Madison U.: 584

Sozomeno da Pistoia:

   Commentary on Metamorphoses: 196

Spearing, A. C.: 91

Spence, Sarah: 476, 477, 479

Speyer, Walter, Libellus scholasticus: 122

Stackmann, Karl: 374

Statius: 39, 109, 112, 122, 159, 188, 207, 211, 212, 214, 215, 216, 220, 222, 224, 382, 385, 469, 531, 659

   commentary on: 124

     ‘Autor iste’ commentary: 213

     ‘In principio’ commentary: 213

   and Lucan: 126–7

WORKS:

   Achilleid: 39, 126, 153, 158, 213, 214

     Compendium on: 214

   Sylvae: 212

   Thebaid: 39, 125, 126, 131–2, 213–14, 416

Steblin-Kamenskij, M. I.: 352

Stefano, Frate: 594

Stein, Peter K.: 535, 536, 537

Steiner, A.: 185

Steinhoff, Hans-Hugo: 538

Steinhöwel, Heinrich, fable collection of: 377

Stein⃞orr, Skáldskaparmál: 352

Stengel, Edmund: 422

Stephen of Bourbon, Tractatus de diversis materiis predicabilibus: 265

Stewart, H. F.: 118

Stock, Brian: 2

Stoicism: 101, 103, 109, 265

   Stoic rhetoric: 34

Strabo, Walafrid: 113, 530, 531

Strassburg Oaths: 422

Strode, Ralph: 434

structural coherence: 509

studium: 516

Sturluson, Snorri: 327

   Edda (‘Poetics’): 345, 347, 349–50, 358

     Háttatal: 347, 349, 350–1, 355

     Skáldskaparmál: 347, 349, 352, 355

     medieval manuscripts of: 354

   Gylfaginning: 351, 355

Stutz, Elfriede: 329

style: 54, 58, 62, 673–4, 679–80

   Gregorian: 56

   Hilarian: 56

   homily-like: 89

   Isidorian: 56

   levels of: 51, 72, 73, 76, 77, 82, 212, 215, 503, 515, 570, 575, 578, 579

   obscurus stylus: 77

   ornaments of: 48–9, 51

   stilus rhetoricus: 76–7, 82

   Tullian: 56

subdivisio: 86

subiectum: 586, 588, 595–8

Suchomski, Joachim: 285

Suero Eanes: 497

Suetonius: 400

Sulpicius Severus: 100, 441

Suntrup, Rudolf: 330

Sutherland, Dorothy R.: 482

Sverrir of Norway, King: 346–7

Swebelinus, Albertus: 26

Swanton, M.: 317

Switten, Margaret: 479, 488

Sylvius, Aeneas. See: Piccolomini, Enea Silvio (Pius II):

Symeon the Metaphrast: 680, 683

Symphosius: 39

   Aenigmata: 39

Taavitsainen, Irma: 374

Tacitus:

   Dialogus: 659

   Germania: 328

   Histories: 292

     Veleda: 292

Tacuinum sanitatis: 277

Táin Bó Cúailnge: 302–3, 305–6, 308

Talice da Ricaldone, Stefano: 593

   Commentary on the Commedia: 594–611

Taliesin: 333–8, 340–2, 556

   ‘Appeasement of Urien’: 338

Tarrant, Richard J.: 130

Tartars: 206

Tatian, Gospel harmony: 324, 331

Tavoni, Mirko: 621

Taylor, Barry: 503

Taylor, J. H.: 245

techné: 42

telos: 678

Tempier, Bishop Stephen: 248

tempus: 119

tenções: 497, 499

tenzone: 561

Terence: 116–17, 122, 124, 230, 231, 585, 587, 639, 640, 644

   commentaries on: 116–17

   Andria: 331

Terramagnino da Pisa: 483

   Doctrina d’Acort: 483

Tertullian: 99, 109

teuluwr: 553

teuluwryaeth: 551, 552

textual criticism: 524

Thadleček: 262

theatrica: 278

Thebes: 380, 400

thema:

   definition of: 85

   divisio extra: 85

   divisio intra: 85

   divisio thematis: 85–6, 89

     definition of: 92

     radix sermonis: 85

   introductio thematis: 86, 89, 95

   nature and function of: 89

   and artes praedicandi: 93

‘Theodolus’. See: ‘Theodulus’:

Theodontius: 390

Theodore: 19

Theodorus of Antioch: 674

Theodulf of Orléans: 111, 112, 129

‘Theodulus’: 38, 188

   Ecloga: 38, 121–2, 123–5, 153, 155–6, 158, 160, 369–70

     See also: Bernard of Utrecht; Bochet, Jaquemon; Nequam, Alexander:

Theophilus: 672

Theophylaktos of Ohrid: 683

Theopompus: 672, 674

Theseus: 192

Thessalonike: 684

Thierry of Chartres: 501

Thobiadis. See: Matthew of Vendôme:

Thomas, Tristan: 426–7, 439

Thomas of Chobham: 87, 271–2, 278, 281

   Summa de arte praedicandi: 85, 271, 275–7

Thomas of Erfurt: 26

   Grammatica speculativa: 26

Thomas of Hanney: 29

   Memoriale iuniorum: 29

Thomas of Ireland, Manipulus florum: 181, 265

Thomas of Tuderto: 87

Thomas Magister: 687

Thomasin von Zerklaere: 437

   Der welsche Gast: 409, 437, 442

Thomson, David A.: 29

Thorndyke, Lynn: 158

Thrax, Dionysius, Technê grammatikê: 670

Thucydides: 688

Tibullus: 179, 180

Tiphys: 35

titulus: 587, 595–8

Todorov, Tzetvan: 644, 645

togata: 117

Tómasson, Sverrir: 346

Toon, Thomas E.: 311

topoi: 313, 331

Topsfield, Leslie T.: 474

Torri, A.: 601

Toulouse: 52, 61

tragedy: 3, 56, 62, 149, 206, 207–23, 229, 232, 239–74, 515, 522, 586, 587, 594, 598

   characteristics of: 57

   John of Garland on: 62

   medieval mode of: 402–4

Traité de l’art de rhétorique: 457

Traité de rhétorique: 459, 460

transition: 50

   and beginning: 50

translatio: 3, 363–421, 517

   imperii: 429

   studii: 357, 429, 457, 459, 513–14, 528

translator: 201

Tranter, Stephen N.: 296, 298, 347, 348, 358

Trastamaran dynasty: 507

Traversari, Ambrogio: 641, 655, 658

Travis, Peter W.: 40

Tretise of Miraclis Pleyinge: 263–4, 284–5

Trevet, Nicholas: 7, 20, 208, 217, 220–2, 232, 365–7, 374, 379

   Commentary on Augustine, De civitate Dei: 382

   Commentary on Boethius, Consolatio: 7, 188, 208, 209, 376, 401, 402

     translation of: 383–4

   Commentary on Seneca: 7, 208, 209, 216, 403

Trevisa, John: 239

   Dialogus inter dominum et clericum: 462

   Translation of Polychronicon: 437

   Translation of De proprietatibus rerum: 410

Triklinios, Demetrios: 687

Trimpi, Wesley: 104

Trinkaus, Charles: 8, 629, 636

triplex genus visionum: 245–9. See also: prophecy: 245–9

Tristan and Isolde, tale of: 81, 250, 426–7, 434, 444, 474

Tristram, H. L. C.: 343

trivium: 196, 456, 562, 569

   diagram of: 16

tropes: 59, 63, 64–5

   definition of: 34

   in De doctrina christiana: 36–7

   list of thirteen tropes: 46

   parallelism with coloures rhetorici: 46

   tropus: 48

troubadour lyric: 472–82

   alba: 491

   canso: 489–90

   chansonniers: 472, 491, 492–5

   classical period of: 472

   dansa: 490–1

   descort: 491

   estampida: 491

   gaita: 491

   generic terms: 476–7

   intertextual play: 473–5

   Latin, use of: 495

   metaphor of the crafstman: 475–6

   poetic style: 477–82

   rhyme: 487–9

   technical vocabulary:

   thirteenth-century theory of: 473

   trobar brau: 478

   trobar naturau: 477–8

   trobar prim: 478–9

   twelfth-century theory of: 473

   verse forms: 477

trouvères: 452

Trovato, Mario: 568

Troy: 242, 380, 400, 427, 646

Tudfwlch: 334

Tudur ap Goronwy of Penmynydd: 340

Tugwell, S.: 265

Turks: 690

Turpin chronicle, Pseudo-: 461

Tuscan: 610, 618, 619–20, 621, 622, 623–5

Tydydes (Diomedes): 386

Tyndale, John: 399

typology: 608

Tzetzes, John: 684–5

   Allegories: 685

   Chiliades: 681

   Epistle 42: 684

   Iambi: 682

   Notes on Lycophron: 684

   Ad Plutum: 684

   Scholia in Aristophanem: 684

⃞órarinsson, Hallr: 355

⃞órð arson, Óláfr: 356–9

⃞órð arson, Sighvatr, Bers⃞glisvísur: 351

⃞orr: 345

⃞órgils saga ok Haflið a: 347

⃞rymskvið a: 350

⃞ula, ⃞ulur: 350

Uc Faidit: 483

   Donatz Proensals: 483, 487, 495

Udo von Magdeburg: 80

Ugolino: 211

Uitti, Karl: 143

Ullerston, Richard: 395–8

Ullmann, Walter: 8

Ulrich von Etzenbach, Alexander: 450

Ulrich von Gutenberg: 546

Ulrich von Lichtenstein, Frauendienst: 81, 452

Ulysses: 45

Uraicecht Becc: 294–5

Uraicecht na Ríar: 292, 294–5

Urard mac Coise: 305, 306–7

Urien Rheged: 335–6

Usk, Thomas, Testament of Love: 420, 444, 446, 470

utilitas: 53, 117, 119, 124, 130, 146, 166, 169, 172, 174, 177, 185, 189–206, 224, 226, 287, 405, 412–14, 436, 439, 447, 505, 597, 638, 670, 677, 682, 685, 691

   utilitas audientis: 53

Vaillant, [Jehan?]: 459

Valenciennes: 422

Valerius Flaccus: 180

Valerius Maximus: 614

   translation of: 374

Valla, Lorenzo: 7, 368, 624, 648, 654–7, 658, 660, 661, 664

   Antidotum in Facium: 656

   Comparatio Ciceronis Quintilianique: 655

   Elegantiae linguae latinae: 655

   Epistole: 655

   Gesta Ferdinandi: 656

Valle Rodríguez, Carlos del: 496

Van Vleck, Amelia: 479

Vantuono, William: 93

varietas: 659

Vasoli, C.: 629

Vasolt: 548

Vatican Mythographers: 121, 136, 368

   First: 121

   Third: 199, 203

Vatteroni, Sergio: 477

Vaughan, Robert: 333, 550

Veggio, Maffeo: 639–40, 643

   De educatione liberorum: 519, 640

Venice: 590, 592

Venus: 404, 418, 470, 537, 544

Vérard, Antoine: 370–1, 459

Vercelli Book: 312, 313, 316

Vergerio, Pier Paolo: 634–5, 637, 638, 641, 643–4, 645, 661

   Epistolario: 634

   De ingenuis moribus: 634

vernacular:

   audience: 431–47

   effect on literature: 435–42

   flourishing of literature: 7–8

   ‘maker’: 463–71

   ‘minstrel’: 463–71

   ‘poet’: 463–71

   poetry in: 61

   rhetoric in: 447–63

   rhyme: 461–3

   sources: 424–31

   textual theorising and literature: 10

   theoretical discourse and literature: 9

   traditions: 231, 569–81, 585, 587–8, 612–25, 629, 648, 651, 691

   translation: 515

   and music, use of: 451–5

   and patronage: 431–2

   and vernacular authority: 414–21

   and vernacular commentary: 383–92

   and vernacular creativity: 400–14

Verona: 583, 590, 591, 593, 641, 652–3

verse:

   definition of: 54

   rhythmical: 58

versificatores: 44

De vetula. See: Ovid, Pseudo-:

Victorinus, Maximus: 15, 32

vidas: 509, 565

Vie de Saint Alexis: 422

Villa, Claudia: 102, 130, 585, 586

Villani, Filippo: 590, 594, 615–16, 654, 660

   Commentary on the Commedia: 584, 594–611, 651

   De origine civitatis Florentie: 616, 651, 662

Villani, Giovanni: 648

   Cronica: 648, 663

Villena, Enrique de: 507, 511–14, 515, 521–2

   El arte de trovar: 511, 512–14

   Commentary/translation of the Aeneid: 384–7, 511–12, 513, 514, 521

   Lose doze trabajos de Hércules: 379–80, 385, 513

   Translation of Commedia: 384–7

Vilt, Jacob, Middle Dutch Boethius, Consolatio: 373

Vinaver, Eugene: 81, 437

Vincent of Beauvais: 28, 164, 182, 206, 210

   De eruditione filiorum nobilium: 184

   Speculum maius: 28, 182–6, 267, 411, 501

     Apologia actoris (Liber apologeticus): 183–6, 410–11

     Speculum doctrinale: 28, 29, 33, 182, 206

     Speculum historiale: 182, 185, 186, 217

     Speculum naturale: 182, 241

Vincent of Beauvais, Pseudo-, Speculum morale: 182, 267

Virgil: 3, 23, 39, 40, 69, 99, 102, 104, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 115–16, 119, 122, 128, 137, 138, 153, 155, 159, 163, 176, 178, 180, 187, 195, 198, 206, 207, 212–17, 220, 222, 254, 268, 304, 305, 306–7, 322, 335, 340, 371, 428, 432, 433, 459, 465, 469, 470, 531, 573, 576, 577, 595, 602, 604, 606, 613, 614, 615, 617, 622, 624, 625, 630, 633, 634, 635, 639, 646, 649, 651, 659, 661

   commentary on: 102, 105, 126, 127, 135–6, 166, 224, 379–80, 384–7, 401, 511–12, 513, 514, 521, 522

     Servian commentary on: 103–4, 212, 213

WORKS:

   Aeneid: 31, 35, 36, 39, 56, 100, 101, 103, 105, 107, 115, 119, 120, 124, 126, 132, 141, 143, 155, 156, 207, 208, 212, 215, 222, 226, 245, 304, 321, 403, 416, 464, 524, 576, 581, 609, 610, 622, 635, 638, 640, 646

     figures in: Aeneas: 81, 100, 101, 163, 242, 377–8, 387, 428, 646

     Anchises: 101

     Anna: 245

     Cacus: 379–80

     Calchas: 337

     Cassandra: 337, 544

     Creusa: 100

     Dido: 100, 163, 245, 377–8, 387, 638, 646

     Evander: 107

     Lavinia: 81

     Messapus: 107

     Mezentius: 107

     Neptune: 387

     Sibyl: 101

     Turnus: 107

     relation to Confessions: 100

     translations of: 368–9, 377–8

   Bucolics: 56, 124

     translation of: 331

   Eclogues: 36, 39, 100, 103, 108, 126, 580

   Georgics: 35, 39, 56, 100, 103, 108, 115, 126, 132, 133, 536

   Christian cult of Virgil: 100–1

   Life of Virgil: 102

   in Macrobius, Saturnalia: 105–6

Virgil, Pseudo-, Copa: 285

Virgilius Maro Grammaticus: 19, 300

vis (function of poetry): 634

vis cogitativa: 242

vis imaginativa: 242

visio (prophetic vision): 244

     See also: prophecy:

visio intellectualis. See: triplex genus visionum:

visio spiritualis seu imaginaria. See: triplex genus visionum:

visum (apparition): 244

vita auctoris: 563, 565

Vitae patrum: 440

Vitale, Maurizio: 621

Vitalis of Blois:

   Aulalaria: 228

   Geta: 154, 180, 189, 228

Vittorino da Feltre: 639, 642

Vivarium, monastery of: 18, 108

Vives, Juan Luis: 7

voluntarism: 506

V⃞luspá: 349, 350

von den Brincken, A.-D.: 183, 184, 185

von See, Klaus: 326, 327

Vossen, P.: 122

Vossler, K.: 629

Voyage of Maél Dúin. See: Immram Curaig Máele Dúin:

vox: 30

   articulata litterata: 30, 32

   differentiae of: 31

Voyage of Máel Dúin: 304

Vulcan: 537

Wace: 429, 443

   Roman de Rou: 428

Waleys, Thomas: 87, 89, 271

   Commentary on De civitate Dei: 382

   De modo componendi sermones: 85, 88, 93, 94–5, 271

Walsh, J. K.: 504, 506

Walsingham, Thomas:

   Arcana deorum: 199

   Historia anglicana: 222

   Prohemia poetarum: 199, 217

Walter of Châtillon: 11, 75, 159, 226, 405, 621

   Alexandreis: 142, 143, 158, 211, 368, 382, 416

Walter of England, Romulus: 153, 158, 376

Walter von der Vogelweide: 537, 542, 544

   ‘Lange swîgen’: 431

Waltharius: 423

Walton, John, translation of Boethius, Consolatio: 366–7, 373, 430, 470

Ward, John O.: 3

Wars of Alexander: 433

Watkins, Calvert: 299, 336

Webb, C. C. J.: 132

Weiss, Julian: 3, 500, 509, 510, 511, 514

Wenceslas de Brabant: 431

Wenzel, Siegfried: 85, 86, 89, 90, 93, 95

Werferth, bishop of Worcester: 317

   Translation of Gregory’s Cura pastoralis: 317

Werlich, E.: 326

Werner, J.: 326

Wessobrunn Creation and Prayer: 326

Westra, H. J.: 136

Wetherbee, Winthrop: 2, 140, 143

Wetzel, Life of St Margaret: 548

Whaley, Diana: 346

wholeness, concept of: 53–4

Widsith: 313, 316

Wigalios: 81

Wiliems, Thomas: 550

William of Aragon: 365–6

   Commentary on Boethius, Consolatio: 368, 406–7

William of Auvergne: 88

William of Blois, Alda: 228

William of Conches: 22, 24, 139, 155, 365–6, 368

   commentaries: 132–4

     Commentary on Boethius, Consolatio: 195, 208–9, 218, 373

     Commentary on Timaeus: 133, 195

     Glosae in Iuvenalem: 120

   influence of: 134–8

   school of: 139, 225

William of Moerbeke: 171, 240, 252

   Translation of Aristotle, Poetics: 218

William of Nottingham: 5

William of Ockham: 26, 556, 655

William of Orléans: 195–6

   Bursarii Ovidianorum: 7

William of Saint-Amour: 457

William of Saint-Thierry: 212

Williams, Caerwyn: 342

Williams, G. J.: 554

Williams, Glanmor: 556

Williams, Ifor: 339, 343

Williram von Ebersberg, Commentary and paraphrase of Song of Songs: 423

Wills, T.: 356

Wilson, Bradford: 120, 137

Wilson, Evelyn Faye: 143

Wilson, N. G.: 113

Wimsatt, W. K.: 1, 2

Winkelman, Johan H.: 543

Winner and Wastour: 465

Wireker, Nigel, Speculum stultorum: 405

Wissink, Wilma: 373

Witt, Ronald G.: 615, 630

Wogan-Browne, Jocelyn: 3

Wolfram von Eschenbach: 81, 533–4, 538, 543, 546, 547

   Parzival: 81, 429, 450, 533, 543, 548

   Willehalm: 533, 534

Wolkan, R.: 640, 641

Woods, Marjorie Curry: 65, 66, 229

Woodward, W. H.: 637

Worcester Cathedral sermons in Middle English: 89, 91

Wormald, Patrick: 310

Wormell, D. E. W.: 116, 138

Wormianius Codex: 359

Worstbrock, Franz Josef: 543

Wyclif, John: 11, 261, 364

Yates, Frances A.: 268, 272

Yder: 443

Ynglingatal: 350

ypozensis: 45

Ysagoge in theologiam: 165, 206, 210

Yvain: 427

Zabughin, V.: 634

Zafarana, Zelina: 88

Zechmeister, J.: 127

Zeeman, Nicolette: 164

Zetzel, James E. G.: 113

zeugma: 45, 64

Zigabenos, Euthymios, Commentary on psalms: 683

Zippel, G.: 641

Zosimos: 673

Zumthor, Paul: 311


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