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The Languages of the Andes
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  • 1 b/w illus. 13 maps 103 tables
  • Page extent: 748 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 1.22 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 498
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: PM5100 .A34 2004
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Indians of South America--Andes Region--Languages

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521362757 | ISBN-10: 052136275X)




AUTHOR INDEX





Acosta, A. 255

Acosta, J. de 23–4, 48

Acosta Ortegón, J. 83

Acosta Saignes, M. 130

Adam, L. 83, 91, 476–88, 554, 567–73, 578

Adelaar, W. F. H. xv, 21, 39, 43, 87, 170, 173, 186, 188–90, 193, 203, 224–5, 227, 242, 262, 398, 402, 459, 601, 616

Aguilar Páez, R. 191

Aguilera Faúndez, O. 553–4, 565–6

Aguiló, F. 356

Aguirre Licht, D. 57–60

Aikhenvald, A. Y. 2, 21, 39, 164, 411, 612

Albis, M. M. 140

Albó Corrons, X. 14, 176, 261–2, 296–7, 357, 363, 589, 606, 608

Alderetes, J. R. 221

Alencastre, A. 255

Alexander(-Bakkerus), A. 460, 463–4, 466

Allaire, L. 8

Allin, T. R. 39, 162

Alonso, A. 511

Altieri, R. 322–46

Alvar, M. 82

Alvarez, E. 433

Alvarez, J. 115–23

Alvarez-Brun, F. 170

Alvarez-Santullano Busch, M. P. 509–10, 514, 530

Andagoya, P. de 49, 53

Andrade Ciudad, L. F. 401

Angenot-de Lima, G. 477, 614

Animato, C. 254

Ans, A.-M. d’ 176, 418–19

Appel, R. 19

Arango Ochoa, R. 56, 66, 75, 80, 109, 112, 116, 141, 151, 164, 610

Araya, G. 589

Arcila Robledo, G. 60

Ardila, O. 162, 164

Arguedas, J. M. 256

Ari, M. 296

Armellada, C. de 80, 116

Arnold, D. 296

Arnold, J. 511, 523–5, 528

Arocha Rodríguez, J. 62

Arriaza, B. T. 2

Aschmann, R. P. 164, 449

Asher, R. E. 21

Augusta, F. J. de 509, 511–16, 519–22, 524, 526–41

Avila, F. de 174, 255


Bacelar, L. N. 376

Baessler, H. 460

Balmori, C. H. 31, 386

Barzana (Bárcena, Bárzana), A. de 20, 351, 408, 502

Bastian, A. 57

Bastien, J. 356

Bausani, A. 552–3, 564–5

Beier, C. 610

Belleza Castro, N. 171, 260, 265, 267, 281, 301–6, 313–15, 317–19

Bendor-Samuel, J. T. 448–9

Benvenuto Murrieta, P. M. 589

Bermúdez, G. 81

Bertonio, L. 16, 20, 191, 259, 264, 266, 270, 276–8, 280–5, 287, 289–90, 293–6

Betanzos, J. de 178–9

Beuchat, H. 141, 433, 436, 438

Bibar, G. de 22, 409, 508

Bickerton, D. 605

Bird, J. 553, 555

Bixio, B. 545

Bonilla, V. D. 151

Borman, M. B. 161

Bouysse-Cassagne, T. 171, 176, 263, 362

Bowman, I. 376

Boyd-Bowman, P. 586–7

Brack Egg, A. 610

Branks, J. 142–3

Branks, T. 142–3

Bravo, D. A. 177, 193

Brend, R. M. 142

Bresson, A. 176

Bridges, L. 580

Bridges, T. 550, 554, 567–74, 578, 581

Briggs, J. R. 496–7

Briggs, L. T. 168, 262, 264–6, 268, 271, 273, 275, 277–8, 280–5, 287–90, 293, 295–6, 298, 300, 496

Brijnen, H. B. 580

Brinton, D. G. 20, 25–6, 141

Brundage, B. C. 167

Brüning, E. 321, 400

Buchwald, O. von 400

Buesa Oliver, T. 591

Büttner, T. T. 194, 260, 278–9


Cabello Valboa, M. 320, 350

Cabral, A. S. A. C. 432

Cabrera, P. 409

Caillavet, C. 393–4

Cajas Rojas, J. 458

Calancha, A. de la 320, 400

Calle Restrepo, H. 49

Calvache Dueñas, R. 57, 142–5, 148

Calvo Pérez, J. 255

Camacho, J. 596

Camp, E. L. 421

Campbell, L. 21, 35, 38, 42, 497

Canals Frau, S. 409

Canto, J. del 401

Captain, D. 117, 120, 121

Carlin, E. B. 115

Carpenter, L. K. 192

Carrasco, V. 260

Carrera Daza, F. de la 16, 84, 319–46

Casamiquela, R. M. 550, 554, 556–8, 561–4, 582–3

Casanova, V. 315

Castellanos, J. de 48, 124

Castro de Trelles, L. 401

Catarroja, F. de 80

Catrileo, M. 511

Celedón, R. 67, 117, 124

Cenepo Sangama, V. 193

Censabella, M. 21, 41, 488–9, 610

Cerrón-Palomino, R. M. xv, 13, 20–1, 35, 168–70, 178–9, 182, 189, 192–4, 197, 201–4, 210, 213, 257, 259–60, 265–6, 270, 273–4, 276, 280–2, 285–6, 301–2, 305, 317, 320–4, 327, 363–74, 595–6, 599

Chamberlain, A. F. 26, 552

Chandless, W. 459

Chaparro, C. 207

Chatwin, B. 572

Chaumeil, J.-P. 417

Chaves, M. 114

Chaves Mendoza, A. 49, 52, 75

Chávez, A. 193

Chirif, A. 416–17, 419, 423, 431, 433, 452, 457, 459

Chirinos Rivera, A. 13, 168, 187, 258, 262, 402, 610

Chomé, I. 496

Cieza de León, P. de 22, 48–9, 179, 392–4, 404

Claesson, K. 493–5

Clairis (Clair-Vassiliadis), C. 21, 265, 379, 550, 552–6, 565–7, 578, 582

Cobo, B. 22, 24, 178

Cohen, M. 26

Cole, P. 17, 193–4

Comrie, B. xv, 224

Condori Cruz, D. 260, 278–9

Condori Mamani, G. 249, 255

Constenla Umaña, A. 30, 37–8, 49–53, 55–8, 61–2, 70, 73–4, 80, 82–8, 114–15, 128–30, 142, 145, 155–6, 161

Contreras, C. 510, 530

Contreras, H. 511

Coña, P. 511, 539

Coombs, D. 193

Coombs, H. 193

Cooper, J. M. 550–6

Corbera Mori, A. 438

Cordero, L. 192, 255

Córdova, L. 243

Correal Urrego, G. 8

Cotari, D. 260, 278–80, 290

Courtney, E. 597

Creider, J. 201

Créqui-Montfort, G. de 39, 175, 191

Crevels, M. 476, 610, 613–14, 616

Crickmay, L. 17

Croese, R. A. 40, 509, 511, 515

Cuba Manrique, M. del C. 401

Cuervo, R. J. 588

Cueva, R. P. G. de la 476

Curnow, T. J. xv, 38, 57, 141–8, 150, 397

Cusihuaman, A. 193, 250, 252


Dadey, J. 83

Darwin, C. 550

Davidson, J. O. 35

Davis, I. 34, 40

Dedenbach(-Salazar Sáenz), S. 16, 192, 292, 296

Derbyshire, D. 21, 423

Díaz Fernández, A. E. 505, 514

Dickinson, C. 147

Dietrich, W. 431–2

Diez de San Miguel, G. 259, 264

Dillehay, T. D. 1, 506

Dixon, R. M. W. 2, 21, 411

Duff(-Tripp), M. 424–30

Dumézil, G. 34

Dümmler, C. 16, 83

DuPonceau, P. S. 522

Duque Gómez, L. 49

Durbin, M. 38, 53, 112–16, 161

Duviols, P. 191


Ebbing, J. E. 260, 285

Echeverría, M. S. 511

Echeverría y Reyes, A. 376

Echeverría Weasson, S. 511, 515

Eckstein, S. 10

Eguillor, M. I. 606

England, N. C. 278–81, 299

Ercilla, A. de 506

Escalante, A. 605

Escalante Gutiérrez, C. 249, 255–6

Escobar, A. 201

Escobar, A. M. 589, 596

Escribens Trisano, A. 192, 207

Espejo Ayka, E. 296

Espinoza Soriano, W. 259, 404

Esquivel Villafana, J. 192


Fabre, A. 21, 171

Fals Borda, O. 62

Farfán, J. M. B. 192, 305, 315–19

Faron, L. C. 27–8

Fast, P. W. 424

Fawcett, P. H. 417

Febrés, A. 510

Febrés Cordero, T. 124

Fernández Garay, A. V. xv, 505, 510–11, 514, 516, 528, 550, 555–6, 558, 563–4, 580, 582–3

Fernández de Oviedo y Valdez, G. 116

Ferrario, B. 41, 181

Ferrell, M. A. 171, 261–2

Fiedel, S. J. 1–2, 506

Figueredo, J. de 181

Firestone, H. L. 431

Fischer, M. 56

Fischermann, B. 496

Flores Reyna, M. 401

Flornoy, B. 433

Fonseca, A. 124–5

Fontanella de Weinberg, M. B. 511, 587

Fornaguera, M. 114

Foster, G. 586

Frank, P. S. 66–70, 72–4

Fraunhaeusl, S. de 511

Friede, J. 138–40

Friedemann, N. S. de 62, 605

Furlong, G. 386

Fuss, M. 478, 481


Galeote Tormo, J. 478, 481, 485–6

García Hierro, P. 417

García Tomás, M. D. 447

Garcilaso de la Vega, Inca 23, 172, 178–81, 397

Gelles, P. H. 249, 254

Gerzenstein, A. 391, 495, 562

Gibson, M. L. 456

Gijn, R. van 476

Gilij, F. S. 24

Gill, W. 476

Girard, V. 39, 171, 419

Girault, L. 356–61

Gleich, U. von 258, 606–8

Gnerre, M. 172, 396, 433, 604

Godenzzi, J. C. 595

Golbert de Goodbar, P. 511, 514, 554, 567–78, 582

Gómez-Imbert, E. 162–4

Gonzales de Barcía Carballido y Zúñiga, A. 32

González, T. A. 401

González Holguín, D. 16–18, 20, 191, 199, 219

González Ñáñez, O. 610

González de Pérez, M. S. 21, 55, 59, 81, 83–5, 87–109, 164

Gordon, A. M. 589

Goulet, J. -G. 117

Granda, G. de 177, 588–9, 595–6, 599

Grasserie, R. de la 351–5

Gray, A. 3, 417, 459

Greenberg, J. H. 26–9, 37–45, 57, 61–2, 142, 175, 380, 482

Grimes, B. F. 125, 416

Grimes, J. 511, 525

Grinevald (Craig), C. 102, 476, 609

Grondona, V. M. 489

Groot de Mahecha, A. M. 53

Grosboll, S. 393

Gualdieri, C. B. 489, 493

Guaman Poma de Ayala, F. 174, 254, 261, 296

Guardia, J. 236

Guerra Eissmann, A. M. 570

Gugenberger, E. 607

Guillaume, A. 422

Guitart, J. M. 588

Gusinde, M. 550, 554, 567–9, 580–1

Gutiérrez, C. 80

Gutiérrez, I. 609

Guyot, M. 550, 554–5, 580


Haboud (de Ortega), Marleen 595, 599

Hammen, Th. van der 8

Hammerly Dupuy, D. 553

Hamp, E. P. 38

Hardman (-de-Bautista), M. J. 21, 34, 170–1, 174, 211, 260, 264–5, 269, 272, 283–7, 290–3, 301–17, 590

Harmelink, B. L. 511, 518, 520

Harms, Ph. L. 59–60

Harner, M. 433

Harrington, J. P. 26, 34

Harris, O. 262

Harrison, W. 379

Hart, H. 447

Hart, R. E. 460

Hartmann, R. 182, 392–3

Haude, K. 476

Havestadt, B. de 508, 510

Hawkins, J. A. 597

Hayes, B. 118

Headland, E. R. 110–12

Helberg Chávez, H. 459

Hemming, J. 3, 46–8, 75, 179

Henry, V. 478–88

Hermon, G. 192, 194

Hernández, G. B. 582

Hernández, I. 408, 410

Herrero, J. 193, 260, 265, 275, 589, 601

Hervás y Panduro, L. 17, 24–5

Hildebrandt, M. 117, 122

Hoff, B. J. 24, 113, 115

Holmer, N. M. 56, 62–5, 67, 117

Holt, D. 73

Hooykaas, E. M. 53

Hornberger, N. 194, 606

Hosókawa, K. 176

Hout, R. van 589

Hovdhaugen, E. 321, 324, 326–7

Howard, L. 56, 151–4

Howard(-Malverde), R. 256–7, 262, 364, 395

Howkins, D. W. 197

Hoyos, F. 376

Hoyos Benítez, M. E. 59

Huayhua Pari, F. 171

Huber, R. Q. 55, 85

Humboldt, W. von 18

Husson, J.-Ph. 254

Hvalkof, S. 417


Ibarra Grasso, D. 41, 176, 376

Imbelloni, J. 41

Isbell, W. H. 165

Itier, C. 168, 183, 236


Jackson, S. 164

Jahn, A. 124–30

Jamioy Muchavisoy, J. N. 152

Jaramillo Gómez, O. 112

Jensen, C. 431

Jijón y Caamaño, J. 26–7, 36–8, 41, 49, 61, 155–9, 172, 321, 392–5, 397

Jiménez de la Espada, M. 174, 261, 385, 393–7, 405, 408, 502

Jiménez Turrón, S. 606

Jones, P. 164

Jones, W. 164

Juajibioy Chindoy, A. 152–5

Juank, A. 433–43, 445–7

Judy, J. 476

Judy, R. A. 476

Julien, C. J. 175

Juncosa, J. E. 610

Jung, I. 131–8, 140, 592, 606

Jusayú, M. A. 117, 120, 122, 124


Kany, C. F. 588–9

Karsten, R. 433–6, 439, 447

Kaufman, T. S. 2, 21, 26, 29–34, 38, 40, 43, 61, 142, 188, 456

Keatinge, R. W. 7

Kensinger, K. M. 418, 419

Kerke, S. C. van de 21, 192, 475–6, 617

Key, H. 476

Key, M. R. 21, 28, 31, 39, 419, 511, 556

Kilku Warak’a 255

King, K. A. 607

Kingsley Noble, G. 39, 175

Kirtchuk, P. 197

Klee, C. A. 589

Klein, H. E. M. 21, 177, 489–92

Kramer, F. 56

Krauss, M. 609

Krüsi, D. 478

Krüsi, M. 478

Krzanowski, A. 404


Ladefoged, P. 117

Lafone Quevedo, S. A. 386

Lagos Altamirano, D. S. 511, 515

Lanchas de Estrada, S. 60–1

Landaburu, J. 34, 54–5, 67–71, 73, 114, 162–4, 610, 621

Landerman, P. N. 185, 187–9, 192–3, 197, 200

Laprade, R. 589, 591, 600–1

Lara, J. 193, 254–5

Lares, J. I. 124

Larraín Barros, H. 188

Larrucea de Tovar, C. 21

Lastra, Y. 193

Lathrap, D. W. 27, 182, 419

Layme, F. 261, 296–7

Lefebvre, C. 17, 19, 192, 226

Lehmann, W. 321, 344–8, 363, 401

Lehmann-Nitsche, R. 41, 493, 554, 556

Lehnert Santander, R. 376–9

Lemle, M. 431

Lengerke, G. von 114

Lenz, R. 509–11, 515, 590

Lévi-Strauss, C. 4, 37, 580, 609

Levinsohn, S. H. 19, 193

Liccardi, M. 476

Liddicoat, A. J. 38, 57, 141–5, 150

Liedtke, S. 34

Lindskoog, C. A. 142, 145, 147–50

Lindskoog, J. N. 142, 145, 147–50

Lipski, J. M. 587, 605

Lira, J. A. 192, 255

Llamín Canulaf, S. 539

Llerena Villalobos, R. 49, 57–9, 62–6

Loewen, J. A. 57–9

Long, V. 142–3, 145, 150

Longacre, R. E. 35, 38, 195

Loos, B. 420–21

Loos, E. 419–21

López, Lorenzo E. 129

López, Luis E. 194, 296, 592, 606–7

López García, A. 83

Loukotka, Č. 21, 26, 30–4, 37, 52, 56, 62, 142, 159, 162, 176, 180, 392, 395, 397, 410, 502, 553–4, 616

Lowes, R. H. G. 498

Lozano, A. G. 593, 596–7

Lozano, E. 31, 178, 391, 408–9

Lozano, P. 408–9

Lucca, M. de 260, 363

Lucena Salmoral, M. 82–3, 87, 98

Lugo, B. de 16, 82–8, 95, 97–9, 102, 106–7

Luján, M. 597–8

Lumbreras, L. G. 165

Lussagnet, S. 496

Lynch, T. F. 2, 8

Lyon, P. J. 22


Macera, P. 1

Machoni de Cerdeña, A. 385–90

Mackert, M. 522

MacNeish, R. 1

McQuown, N. A. 27–8, 30, 180

Maglio, B. 376

Malone, T. 76

Mannheim, B. 3, 24, 175, 179–80, 183–5, 191–5, 200, 261–2, 607

Mansen, R. 117, 120–1

Mansilla, L. V. 507

Maque Capira, A. 262

Margery Peña, E. 38, 57–8

Markham, C. R. 192

Márquez Miranda, F. 544

Martín, E. H. 408

Martin, L. 259, 269, 271

Martín, M. D. 194

Martínez Compañón B. J. 20, 173, 320, 398–402, 460–2

Martínez Escobar, G. 249, 254

Martínez Sarasola, C. 386, 502, 510

Martins, S. 163

Martins, V. 163

Mason, J. A. 26, 30, 35, 180, 376

Masson, P. 363

Mata, P. de la 20, 460–75

Matisoff, J. 43

Matteson, E. 39, 423

Medina, J. T. 544–5

Megenney, W. W. 605

Meggers, B. J. 27

Meira, S. 161

Meillet, A. 26

Mejía, J. 260

Mejía Fonnegra, G. 59

Mejías, H. A. 591

Meléndez Lozano, M. 75, 110, 152–5, 163–4

Meliá, B. 610

Meneses Morales, T. 254

Menges, P. A. 599

Mera, J. L. 255

Messineo, M. C. 489–93, 608

Métraux, A. 363

Miccinelli, C. 254

Michael, L. 610

Middendorf, E. W. 18–19, 25, 83, 192, 261, 320–50

Migliazza, E. C. 21, 37, 40

Millones, L. 9

Minaya, L. 597

Miranda Mamani, L. 362

Mithun, M. 42

Mitre, B. 544–5, 548

Moesbach, E. W. de 511, 538–9

Mogollón Pérez, M. C. 80–1

Mogrovejo, T. de 401

Molina, C. de 254

Monguí Sánchez, J. R. 151–2, 154–5

Montaño Aragón, M. 422

Montes Rodríguez, M. E. 164

Montoya, R. 256

Moore, B. R. 142–5, 147, 394

Moore, T. H. 376, 383

Mora Bernasconi, C. 416–7, 419, 423, 431, 433, 452, 457, 459

Morales Gómez, J. 49

Moseley, C. 21

Mosonyi, E. E. 117, 120, 124, 606, 610

Mosonyi, J. C. 117, 124, 606, 610

Mostny, G. 377, 383–5

Murra, J. V. 6

Murúa, M. de 178

Mutis, J. C. 54, 82, 140

Muysken, P. C. xv, 17, 19, 192, 226, 239, 356–8, 363–5, 367, 370–4, 589, 598–9

Myers, S. K. 607


Najlis, E. L. 489, 495, 550, 554–5, 557–61

Nardi, R. L. J. 177–8, 192, 376, 380, 408–9

Nebrija, A. de 16

Neira, A. de 162

Newfield, M. 195

Newson, L. A. 392

Nieves Oviedo, R. 130–5, 138

Ninalingón, S. 404

Niño Murcia, M. 599

Noort, O. van 581

Nordenskiöld, E. 5, 48, 56, 418, 430, 500

Nowak, E. 17


Obando Ordóñez, P. 142

Oblitas Poblete, E. 356–61

Olawsky, K. xv, 458

Olaya Perdomo, N. 67, 73–4

Olson, R. D. 38, 43, 175, 363–6, 372, 375

Olza Zubiri, J. 117, 120, 122, 124, 422

Oramas, L. R. 129

Orbigny, A. D. d’ 25, 477, 581

Oré, L. J. de 322, 351–6

Oroz, R. 589

Orr, C. J. 35, 195

Ortega Ricaurte, C. 54–5, 453–9

Ortiz, S. E. 55, 61

Ortiz Ricaurte, C. 67–70, 72

Ossio Acuña, J. M. 9

Ostler, N. xv, 52, 55, 82–4, 87, 89–96, 98–102, 106–9, 111


Pabón Triana, M. 141

Pachón, X. 130–1

Páez, J. 116

Pallares, J. M. 155

Paniagua Loza, F. 296

Pantoja Alcántara, I. del R. 401–3

Parada, E. 589

Pardo Rojas, M. 57–8

Park, M. 193

Parker, G. J. 34, 181, 185–6, 192–3, 195, 203, 205, 207, 209–10, 216, 223, 232

Parker, S. G. 39, 353

Patiño Rosselli, C. 164, 450, 605

Patte, M.-F. 116–18

Payne, David L. 39–40, 116, 162, 422–30, 457, 539

Payne, Doris L. 21, 34, 40, 164, 458

Payne, T. E. 164, 458

Paz y Miño, L. T. 172, 392–6

Peeke, M. C. 452, 454–5

Pellizzaro, S. M. 433–6, 438–41

Perea y Alonso, S. 41

Pérez de Barradas, J. 22

Pérez van Leenden, F. 115

Perl, M. 588

Petersen de Piñeros, G. 449

Phelan, J. L. 155, 416

Philippi, R. A. 376, 379

Piedrahita, L. F. de 52

Pigafetta, A. 15

Pike, E. G. 454–6

Pike, K. L. 454

Pineda Giraldo, R. 114

Piossek Prebisch, T. 408

Pizarro, P. 181

Poblete Mendoza, M. T. 265, 567–70

Polo, J. T. 363

Porterie-Gutiérrez, L. 260, 265, 272, 364, 375

Posnansky, A. 363

Pottier, B. 21

Pozzi-Escot, I. 13, 171, 258, 610

Preuss, K. Th. 56, 67

Proulx, P. 189

Puente Baldoceda, B. 593, 597, 599

Pullum, G. 21

Pyle, R. C. 294


Queixalós, F. 21, 162, 164

Quesada Castillo, F. 193, 403

Quesada Pacheco, M. A. 82, 87, 100–101, 106

Quijano Otero, J. M. 82

Quinchavil Suárez, L. 515

Quispe Huamán, A. 249


Rabinowitz, J. 320

Raimondi, A. 170

Ramos Cabredo, J. 320, 398, 400–1

Ramos Pizarro, N. 608

Raymond, J. S. 6, 499

Reed, R. B. 55, 85

Reichel-Dolmatoff, A. 114

Reichel-Dolmatoff, G. 8, 53, 56, 67, 75, 114

Remy, P. 403

Renault-Lescure, O. 21

Reuse, W. de 202

Ribero, J. 162

Ricardo, A. 182, 191, 219

Rick, J. W. 1

Riedmayer, O. 433, 435

Riester, J. 477–8, 481, 496

Rivano, E. 511

Rivarola, J. L. 167, 182, 589

Rivera, M. A. 552

Rivet, P. 26, 34, 36–9, 41, 49, 54–5, 57, 61, 80, 116, 124–8, 138, 140–1, 161, 173, 175, 191, 320, 397–8, 400–1, 405–6, 433, 436, 438, 449, 461, 470

Robayo Moreno, C. A. 112–14

Rochereau, H. 110

Rodrigues, A. D. 34, 39–40, 431–2, 621

Rodríguez, G. 377

Rodríguez Baquero, L. E. 115

Rodríguez Garrido, J. A. 593–4

Rodríguez González, S. P. 163

Rodríguez de Montes, M. L. 21, 55, 59, 164

Rojas Curieux, T. 132–6

Rojas de Perdomo, L. 8

Romero, F. 604

Romoli, K. 3, 62

Rona, J. P. 41

Rösing, I. 356

Rossi, P. A. 254

Rostworowski de Diez Canseco, M. 403

Rouby, A. 433, 435

Rowe, J. H. 16, 56, 62, 180, 258, 320

Ruíz, G. 32


Sáez Godoy, L. 377, 379, 385

Saint, R. 454–6

Sakel, J. 375, 476, 618

Salas, A. 21, 265, 509–11, 514–17, 521, 525–6, 539, 567–70

Salas, J. A. 321

Salas, J. C. 125

Salomon, F. 255, 393–4, 406

San Pedro, J. de 401

San Román, F. 376–85

Sánchez, G. 507

Sánchez Gutiérrez, E. 56, 66, 75, 80, 109, 112, 116, 141, 151, 164, 610

Sánchez de Lozada, F. 193

Sankoff, D. 597

Santa Gertrudis, J. de 53

Santacruz, M. de 296

Santo Tomás, D. de 16–18, 174, 179, 181, 187, 191, 198, 261

Sapir, E. 36

Sayritupac Asqui, D. 296

Schieffelin, B. 590

Schleicher, C. O. 432

Schöttelndreyer, M. 56

Schreiber, K. J. 165

Schuchard, B. 478

Schuller, R. 376

Schumacher de Peña, G. 321

Schwegler, A. 588

Seelwische, J. 494

Seely, M. 125

Seijas, H. 38, 53, 112–16, 161

Seler, E. 34, 155–9

Serrano, A. 408

Shady Solís, R. 2, 165

Shafer, R. 39, 66

Shell, O. 39, 418

Sherzer, J. 56, 62–6

Silva Santisteban, F. 401

Simón, P. 22–3, 48

Simoneau, K. 556, 580

Simson, A. 604

Skottsberg, C. 552–3

Smeets, I. 511, 513–44

Solá, D. F. 193, 197

Solís Fonseca, G. 192, 194

Sorensen, A. P. 164

Soto Ruíz, C. 193, 216

Spruce, R. 400

Stahl, W. 498

Stark, L. R. 21, 38, 182, 188, 192, 200, 321, 356–8, 361, 511

Stevenson, W. B. 155

Steward, J. H. 27–8, 416, 499

Stratford, B. D. 596

Strom, C. 164

Suárez, J. A. 31, 32, 39–41, 511

Suárez Roca, J. L. 16

Sušnik, B. J. 41, 497–8

Swadesh, M. 29–30, 34, 39, 42–3, 376

Swisshelm, G. 193

Szemiński, J. 178, 404


Tastevin, C. 449

Tate, N. 294

Taussig, M. T. 3, 417

Taylor, A. C. 140, 397, 411–18, 423

Taylor, D. 116

Taylor, G. 173, 186, 189, 192–3, 198, 207, 221, 255, 406–7

Tello, J. C. 39, 460

Tenorio, M. 585

Tessmann, G. 456, 460–3, 499

Thiesen, W. 164, 450–1

Ticona, A. E. 363

Tobar Ortiz, N. 161, 164

Toledo, D. 606

Toliver, R. 197, 202

Torero Fernández de Córdova, A. A. xv, 21, 34, 170, 172–5, 178, 181, 185–6, 189–90, 192, 194–5, 199, 207, 256, 261–3, 320, 323–4, 326, 328, 350–7, 362, 364, 375, 397–403, 461

Torres Rubio, D. de 18, 259

Toscano Mateus, H. 588, 599–600

Tovar, A. 21, 39, 40, 391, 493

Triana y Antorveza, H. 3, 46, 53, 55, 163

Trillos Amaya, M. 66–9, 71–3, 75–9

Triviño Garzón, L. 142, 146, 150

Troiani, D. 16

Tschopik, H. 263, 296

Tschudi, J. J. von 192, 376–7, 379–85

Turner, C. G. 42

Turner, G. D. 433–6


Uhle, M. 25, 37, 52, 363–4, 366–7

Uricoechea, E. 48, 54, 81–3, 91, 100, 103, 109–10, 130

Urioste, G. L. 255


Vaïsse, E. 376–85, 539

Valderrama, R. 249, 256

Valdivia, L. de xvi, 16, 508–10, 512–18, 522, 526–30, 533, 536–8, 544–9

Valenti, D. 39

Valenzuela Bismarck, P. M. 421

Valera, B. 254, 397–8

Varese, S. 13, 418, 423

Vargas Llosa, M. 411

Vásquez, J. 260

Vásquez de Ruíz, B. 142–3, 146

Velasco, J. de 192, 392, 394, 397

Vellard, J. A. 362–4, 371–5

Vidal, A. 489

Viegas Barros, J. P. 41, 386, 495, 505, 552–3, 556, 558–9, 562, 565, 580–2

Vienrich, A. 192

Vignati, M. A. 542

Villareal, F. 322–5, 333, 335, 338, 341–2

Vink, H. 173

Vittadello, A. 141–2, 145

Voegelin, C. F. 38

Voegelin, F. M. 38


Wachtel, N. 175–6, 259, 362

Wagner, E. 124

Wassén, S. H. 56

Watahomigie, L. J. 609

Weber, D. J. 17, 164, 189, 192–3, 197, 256–7

Weber, N. 193

Weber, R. 193

Weisshar, E. 37

Wheeler, A. 152–5

Whiffen, Th. 417

Whitehead, N. L. 62

Wilbert, J. 30, 556, 580

Willey, G. R. 156

Wilson, P. J. 164

Wipio Deicat, G. 397

Wise, M. R. 22, 39, 118, 418, 423–30

Wölck, W. 192–3, 607

Wolf, J. C. 582

Wolf, T. 155

Woolard, K. A. 590


Yamamoto, A. 609

Yáñez, C. 610

Yapita Moya, J. de D. 260, 265, 268, 270–3, 275–6, 281–93, 296–7

Yapu Mamani, E. 296

Yokoyama, M. 19

Yule Yatacué, M. 132–3


Zamora Munné, J. C. 588

Zamponi, R. 161

Zegura, S. 42

Zevallos Quiñones, J. 320, 406

Zimmermann, K. 16

Zolezzi, G. 496

Zúñiga, F. 511

Zúñiga Cazorla, N. 255

Zwartjes, O. 17




INDEX OF LANGUAGES AND ETHNIC GROUPS





abajero (dialect of Guajiro) 115, 121

Abipón 488–9

Achagua 24, 55, 116, 162, 164, 423

Achual, Achuar 432–3

Aconipa, see Tabancale

Afro-American Spanish 605

Agatano 52

Aguaruna 173, 397, 406, 432–5, 438

Aimara (historical nation) 179, 259

Aimara ayacuchano 262

Aʹi-ngae, see Cofán

Airico (Betoi subgroup) 161

Aksanás 30–3, 552–3

Akuriyo 161

Alacaluf, Alakaluf, Alakuluf, see Kawesqar

Alacalufan 32, 553

Algonquian languages 523, 571

Allentiac xvi, 16, 42, 44, 352, 502, 508, 544–9

Alto Pativilca–Alto Marañón–Alto Huallaga (Quechua dialect group) 185, 193

Amahuaca 417–19

Amarakaeri (Harakmbut subgroup) 417, 459

Amazon Spanish 416

Amazon Spanish pidgin 602–4

Amazonas (Chachapoyas) Quechua 193, 200, 207, 213

Amazonian Quechua 500

Amerind 26, 42–3

Amerindian languages 585–6, 591, 605–9

Amuesha, see Yaneshaʹ

Ancash Quechua (dialect group) 168, 180, 192–3, 202–7, 224–31, 235

Ancash–Huaylas (regional standard dialect) 193, 256

Andalucian Spanish 586–7, 589, 605

Andaquí, Andaqui, Andaki 26, 28–30, 33, 37–8, 44, 48, 54, 138–41, 161

Andean 28, 42, 44

Andean A 28

Andean B 28

Andean–Equatorial 28, 42

Andean Spanish 160, 206, 217, 224, 585–602

Andoa 451–2

Andoque, Andoke 31, 33–4, 44, 164, 417

Angutero 453

Anserma (language of ) 49

Antioquia (languages of ) 44, 49

Añún, see Paraujano

Aonekʹenk, see Tehuelche

Apatama 410

Apolista 28, 39, 44, 422–3

Apolo (Quechua dialect) 200

Arabela 44, 451

Araona 418

Arasaeri (Harakmbut subgroup) 459

Araucanía Mapuche 526–30

Araucanian xvi, 14, 22–3, 28, 39–40, 43–4, 77, 89, 176, 508–44, 552, 590

Araucanians 3, 9, 502–8, 582

Araucanised Tehuelche 505

Arawá, Arawa, Arawán, Araua (group) 28–9, 31, 33, 39–40, 44, 459

Arawak (group) 28, 31, 33, 411, 422–30, 500

Arawakan 22, 24, 26–30, 32, 36, 39–41, 44, 53, 66, 115–16, 125, 128–9, 162, 175, 353, 405, 416–17, 422–30, 459, 477, 539

Arawakan languages of the Caribbean islands 116

Arawakan languages of the Lesser Antilles 116–38, 141

Arequipa (Quechua dialect) 35, 195, 199

Arhuacan 28, 37, 44, 66–74, 76

Arhuaco, see Ika

Arma and Pozo (language of ) 49

arribero (dialect of Guajiro) 115

Arsario, see Damana

Aru (group), see Aymaran

Aruaco, Aruak (group), see Arhuacan

Asháninca 423, 608

Ashéninca 423

Atacame, see Esmeraldeño

Atacameño, Atacameno, Atacama 27–9, 31, 33, 34, 42, 44, 120, 176–8, 375–85, 409, 539

Ataguitan 27

Atallán 392

Atallana 392

Atunceta 49

Auca, see Huao

Auishiri, see Huao

Auishiri, Auixira, Auixiri, Aushiri, see Tekiraka

Australian languages 36

Awa 141

Awa Pit 26, 28, 38, 44, 53, 54, 57, 141–8, 150, 160, 393, 397

Ayacucho Quechua 168, 187, 188, 192–3, 198–202, 208–32, 235–6, 258

Ayacucho rural Spanish 593

Ayacucho–Chanca (regional standard dialect) 193, 256

Ayamán, Ayomán 129–30

Aymara, Aymará, Aimara 2, 5, 13–14, 16–18, 20–5, 27, 29–31, 34, 38, 41, 44, 103, 167–79, 182, 187–8, 191, 195, 214, 243, 259–319, 321, 328, 350–62, 365–7, 372–5, 377, 402, 409, 411, 436, 442, 445, 512, 517, 522–3, 529, 537–8, 549, 582, 589–91, 607–9

Aymara, Aimara (group) 28, 31–3, 42, 44

Aymara of Guaman Poma de Ayala 261

Aymaran 5, 22, 33, 34–6, 145, 168, 170–1, 173–4, 181, 199, 259–319, 375, 528

Ayoreo, Ayoréode 496–7, 499


Bagua 405

Baniva del Guainía 162, 423

Baniva do Içana 162

Baniva–Yavitero 423

Bantu 605

Bará 164

Barasana, Barasano 164

Barbacoa, Barbácoa (group) 30, 33, 44

Barbacoan, Barbakóan 26, 33, 37–8, 43, 53–4, 57, 141–51, 155, 159, 171, 392–4, 397, 437

Barí 37, 44, 50, 80–1, 112, 117

Basque 326

Baudó river (dialect of Emberá) 58

Baure 422–3

Beliche 509, 522, 530

Besɨro (dialect of Chiquitano) 478

Betoi 161

Betoi (group) 30, 33, 37, 38, 44, 130, 161

Bíntukua, see Ika

Bolivia–Paraná (division of Southern Arawakan) 423

Bolivian Aymara 260–1

Bolivian Quechua (dialect group) 168, 180, 187–8, 192–3, 195–206, 214, 221, 231, 235, 270, 357, 361

Bolivian Spanish 588–9

Bolona 393, 397

Bora 162, 164, 417, 423, 449–51

Bora (group) 31–3, 44

Bora–Huitoto, Bora–Uitoto 44, 449–51

Bora–Huitotoan 32

Bora–Muinane 449

Boran, Bóran 26, 29, 33–4, 164

Bororo, Boróro (group) 28, 31, 33, 44

Bororoan, Boróroan 29, 33–4, 477

Bribri 73


Cabécar 73

Cabiyarí 162, 423

Caca, see Diaguita

Cahuapana (group) 28, 31–3, 44, 447–9

Cahuapanan 40

Cahuarano 451

Caingang (group), see Kaingangan

Cajamarca Quechua 167, 193, 198, 200–1, 213, 221, 261, 403–4

Cajamarca–Cañaris (regional standard dialect) 193, 256

Cajatambo Quechua 207

Calchaquí (Diaguita subgroup) 407

Caldono (dialect of Páez) 130–2

Californian Penutian 43

Callahuaya 5, 30, 33–4, 44, 175, 350–2, 356–62, 400, 411

Callejón de Huaylas Quechua 197, 201–3

Camiare (Comechingón subgroup) 502

Campa 29, 39, 411, 417, 422–3

Campaces 392

Campan 29

Camsá, see Kamsá

Candoshi 33, 37, 40, 44, 397, 405–6, 456–7

Canichana 28–9, 31, 33, 44, 475–6

Cañar, Cañari 29, 167, 172, 237, 321, 392–3, 395–7

Cañar Quechua 160

Capanahua 417–21

Capayán (Diaguita subgroup) 407, 409

Caquetío 129

Cara, Caranqui 38, 44, 142, 172, 393–4

Carangas (Aymara dialect) 265–6, 271

Caráquez Bay Indians 394

Carapana 164

Carare 114

Carib (group) 28, 44, 173

Cariban 22, 24, 29, 31–3, 38, 40, 50, 57, 80, 112–15, 125, 161, 405

Caribbean (division of Northern Arawakan) 423

Carijona 161, 406

Casabindo 410

Cashibo 418–19

Cashibo–Cacataibo 418

Cashinahua 418–19

Castilian Spanish 181, 243, 325, 398, 562, 586–7

Catacao, Catacaos 28, 31, 33, 44, 398–400, 403

Catalan 293

Catamarca and La Rioja (Quechua dialect) 187

-cat(e) (hypothetical language) 405, 407

Catío (Chocó) 56–7

Catío Chibcha 37, 44, 49, 57

Catuquina (group), see Katukina

Cauca valley (tribes of the) 49

Cauqui 27, 29–30, 34, 171, 259, 264–6, 306, 315

Cautín (Mapuche dialect) 513

Cavineña 418, 422

Cayapa 26, 38, 44, 54, 141–51, 155, 159–60, 603

Cayuvava 28, 31, 33, 44, 475–6

Cayuvavan 29

Central Aimara, see Tupino Aimara

Central Arawakan 423

Central Peruvian Quechua 17, 191, 286, 301, 314–15, 318, 424

Central Peruvian Spanish 595

Central Quechua 185

Cerro de Pasco Quechua 258

cesuŋun, see Huilliche

Chacha 167, 173, 406

Chachapoya 406–7

Chachapoyas (Amazonas) Quechua 186, 194, 198, 407

Chachi, see Cayapa

Chácobo 418

Chamacoco 496, 499

Chamí 57, 59

Chamicuro 28–9, 39, 44, 416–17, 423

Chancos (language of the) 49

Chandinahua 419

Chané 422–3, 430

Chango 176

Chapacura 477

Chapacura (group) 31, 33, 44

Chapacura–Uanhaman 28

Chapacuran, Chapakúran 29, 33, 477

Chaʹpalaachi, see Cayapa

Charrua (group) 28, 31–3

Charrúan, Charruan 29, 33, 40, 44, 488

Chayahuita 44, 447–8

Chayma 112

Chechehet 29, 31–2

Chetilla (Quechua dialect) 404

Chibcha 16, 46–8

Chibcha (group) 31–3, 37, 44

Chibcha–Duit 28

Chibchan, Chíbchan 22, 25–6, 29–30, 32–4, 36–8, 40, 42, 44, 46, 49–53, 55–6, 61–112, 114, 125, 130, 140, 142, 145–6, 151, 159, 470

Chibchan proper 28

Chibchan–Paezan 42, 44

Chicha (historical nation) 176

Chilean Aymara 265–6, 365, 379

Chilean Diaguita 409

Chilean Quechua 188

Chilean Spanish 379, 511, 590

Chilidugu 508

Chillao (historical nation) 405

Chimane 476

Chimila 37, 44, 48, 52, 55, 75–80, 85–6

Chimú, Chimu 28, 31, 33, 37–8, 44, 320

Chimúan 33

Chinchaisuyo 181

Chinese 585

Chipaya xv, 33, 38–9, 43, 175, 362–75, 379, 420

Chiquitano, Chikitano, Chiquita, Chiquito 28–9, 31, 33, 34, 44, 64, 416, 422, 477–88, 609

Chiriguano 8, 14, 422, 430

Chiriguano–Ava 430–1

Chiriguano–Guaraní 499

Chiriguano–Tapyi 430–1

Chirino 29, 406

Chitarero 52

Chocó, Choco, Chokó (group) 28–9, 31–3, 44, 57

Chocoan 38, 50, 54, 56–61, 65, 111, 117

Cholón xvi, 20, 21, 97, 173, 352, 398, 405, 407, 416, 456, 460–75, 499

Cholona (group) 31, 33, 37, 44

Cholónan 33

Cholones 398

Chon (group) 29, 31–3, 36, 39, 41, 44, 505

Chonan 555–64, 581–2

Chongos Bajo (Quechua dialect) 202, 217

Chono (Chile) 508, 550, 552–4, 556–8, 564–5, 580

Chono (Ecuador) 392

Chorote 493–5

Chubut (Mapuche dialect) 505

Chucuito (Aymara dialect) 265, 272

Chulupí, Chulupí–Ashlushlay 493–4, 499

Chupaca (Quechua dialect) 202

Churumata 410

Ciaman 49

coastal dialect of Quechua 182, 185, 187, 191, 198, 207, 261

Cobaría (dialect of Tunebo) 109–10

Cocama 164, 419, 431–2

Cocamilla 431

Cochabamba Quechua 43, 193, 236

Cochabamba Spanish 601

Coche, see Kamsá

Cochinoca 410

Coconucan 26, 29, 38, 141–2

Coconuco 141

Coconuco (group) 9, 30

Cofán, Cofan 26, 28–9, 31, 33, 37, 42, 44, 50, 141, 161, 454

Colán, Colan 28, 398–400, 403

Coli (historical nation) 175, 350

Colima (Colombia) 38, 48, 114–15

Colima (Ecuador) 392

Colla (historical nation) 234, 350

Collavino Aimara 170

Collavino Quechua 170, 187

Colombian Chibchan 37, 55

Colombian Quechua 208

Colombian Spanish 61, 588

colonial Cuzco Quechua 213, 228

Colorado, see Tsafiki

Colorado–Cayapa 28

Comechingón 502

Comechingones 502

Compi, La Paz (Aymara dialect) 275

Concepción (Quechua dialect) 201–5

Conibo 418–19, 500

Conima, Huancané (Aymara dialect) 266

Copallén 30–2, 406–7

Copiapó valley (Indians of the) 409

Coquimbo valley (Indians of the) 409

Coto, see Orejón

Cotopaxi (Ecuadorian Quechua dialect) 204

Covendo Mosetén 476

Cuaiquer, see Awa Pit

Cubeo 164

Cueva 3, 57, 62

Cuiba 162

Cuica 124–9

Cuitlatec 42

Cujareño 418

Culina 459

Culli, Culle 25, 28, 31, 33, 44, 161, 172–3, 398, 401–5, 461

Cullian 29

Cumanagoto 112

Cuna 26, 37, 48–50, 55–6, 61–6, 79, 85–6, 111

Cuna (group) 44

Cuna–Cueva 28

Cundinamarcan Chibchan 37

Curripaco 162, 423

Cuzco (alternative name for the Quechua dialect of Santiago del Estero) 180

Cuzco Quechua 17, 20, 35, 167, 168, 180–3, 187–8, 191–206, 208–31, 235–6, 249–54, 256–7, 270, 292, 352, 357–8, 360, 361

Cuzco–Bolivian (Quechua dialect group) 195

Cuzco–Collao (regional Quechua standard dialect) 193


Damana 44, 50, 55, 66–74, 117

-den (hypothetical language) 404

Desano 164

Diaguita, Diaguit 20, 27, 30–2, 177–8, 376, 380, 407–9

Dobocubí, see Barí

Dorasquean 37

Duit 23, 37, 44, 46, 50, 81–2, 85

Duitama (language of ) 82


Easter Island language 41

Eastern Apurimac (Quechua dialect) 200

Eastern Tucanoan 163–4

Eastern Yahgan 580

Ecuadorian Amazonian Quechua 186, 451

Ecuadorian Coastal Spanish 605

Ecuadorian Highland Quechua 131, 149, 172, 186, 195–204, 208–31

Ecuadorian Highland Spanish 605

Ecuadorian Quechua 168, 192–3, 207, 218, 235, 237–42, 289, 395, 594, 596–8

Ecuadorian Spanish 588, 594, 598–600

Ele (Betoi subgroup) 161

Emberá 50, 54–60, 62

English 16, 66, 324, 360, 516, 567–70, 574–8, 582, 591

Equatorial 28, 42, 44

Equatorial–Tucanoan 42, 44

Eseʹejja 417–18

Eskimo–Aleut 42

Esmeraldeño, Esmeralda, Ezmeralda 28–30, 33–4, 42, 44, 54, 155–61, 172

Ette Ennaka, see Chimila

Ette Taara, see Chimila

European languages 586


Ferreñafe (Quechua dialect) 186, 189, 193, 198, 200, 207, 220–1

Fiscara (Humahuaca subgroup) 410

Fisherman’s language 320

French 103

Fuegian languages (languages of Tierra del Fuego) xvii, 5, 21, 31, 41, 550–82

Fuegians 3, 550


Galibi 113

Gayón 129

Ge (group) 28–9, 32–4, 163

Ge–Kaingan 44

Ge–Pano–Carib 28, 42, 44

General Language of the Inca 179, 186

Gennaken, see Gününa Küne

German 16, 323, 378

Gorgotoqui, Gorgotoki 30–3

Grau, Apurimac (Quechua dialect) 199

Guachí 29

Guachian 29

Guahibo, see Sikuani

Guahibo (group) 32–3, 44

Guahibo–Pamigua 28

Guahiboan 29–30, 33, 162

Guaicuru (group) 31–3, 44

Guaicuruan 14, 29, 33, 40–1, 178, 386, 488–93, 495

Guaiteca, see Chono (Chile)

Guajiro xvi, 53–4, 115–24, 162, 423

Gualaquiza (Shuar dialect) 438

Guallatire, northern Chile (Aymara dialect) 266

Guamaca, see Damana

Guambiano 26, 38, 43–4, 54–5, 57, 131, 141–50

Guamo 31, 33, 44, 163

Guaná 423

Guanaca 138, 142

Guanano 164

Guanca (historical nation), see Huanca

Guane 52

Guaque, see Carijona

Guaraní 24, 351, 431, 480, 500, 608

Guarayo 430–2

Guató, Guato 28–9, 31, 33–4, 44

Guatuso 26, 86

Guayabero 55, 162, 164

Guaycurú–Charruan 32

Guaycuru–Opaie 28

Gününa Küne 5, 28–9, 31, 33, 44, 505, 550, 554

Gününa Yajich 554–8, 561–4, 581–2


Hacaritama 116

hahuasimi 174, 261

Haki (group), see Aymaran

Harakmbut, Harákmbut 2, 28, 31–3, 39, 43–4, 163, 422, 459–60

Haush 41, 550, 554, 556, 580

Hawaiian 41

Henia (Comechingón subgroup) 502

Het, see Chechehet

Hianacoto, see Carijona

Hibito, Hivito 44, 173, 398, 407, 460–2

Hibito–Cholón 28–9, 407

Highland Jivaroans 418

Hiraháran, see Jirajaran

Hitnü 162

Hívaro (group), see Jivaroan

Hivito, Hivitos, see Hibito

Hokan 28, 34, 36, 42, 44, 61

Hokan–Siouan 37

Hongote 29

Huachipaeri (Harakmbut subgroup) 459

Hualfín (Diaguita subgroup) 407

Huallaga (Quechua dialect) 189

Huamachuco (language of ) 401

Huambisa 432–3

Huanca (Quechua dialect group) 179, 181, 188, 192–3, 196, 201–6, 210–31, 236, 256–8, 261, 595

Huancané (Aymara dialect) 283

Huancavilca 392–3

Huancayo (Quechua dialect) 197, 202–5, 208

Huangascar–Topará (Quechua dialect group) 185

Húanuco Quechua (Quechua dialect group) 192–3, 200–1, 217–31, 257, 424

Huao, Huaorani 28, 30–3, 44, 454–6

Huarayo, see Eseʹejja

Huaraz (Quechua dialect) 207

Huari 29

Huarochirí manuscript (Quechua dialect of the) 192, 198, 231, 318

Huarpe (group) 28, 31, 33

Huarpean 29, 42, 502–5, 508, 544, 548

Huasco valley (Indians of the) 409

Huaylas–Conchucos (Quechua dialect group) 185

Huilliche 509–10, 514, 516–17, 526, 530

Huitoto 56, 162, 164, 423, 449–50, 500

Huitoto–Bora–Záparo 37

Huitoto Muinane 449

Huitoto–Ocaina 449

Huitotoan 26, 28–9, 31–4, 162, 164

Humahuaca 27, 30–2, 177, 410

Hupda 163


Iberian dialects (of Spanish) 586–7

Idabaez 31–2, 56

Ignaciano 422, 423

Ika 50, 55, 66–74, 76, 93

Ilinga 401

Imbabura Quechua 193, 199, 204, 393

Inca 16

Inca (general) language 182, 191–2, 198

Incas (secret language of the) 178

Inga, Ingano (Colombian Quechua dialect) 53, 151, 179–80, 186, 193, 202

inga šimi 180

Iñapari 353, 423

Iquito 44, 451–2

Irapa (dialect of Yukpa) 112–13

Iroka (dialect of Yukpa) 112

Irra (language of) 49

Isconahua 418

Italian 24, 380

Itene 477

Itonama 28–9, 31–3, 44, 475–6

Itucale, see Urarina

Itucale–Sabela 44

Izoceño 430–1


Jabutían 376

Japanese 585

Japreria 52, 112–13

Jaqaru 27, 34, 44, 171, 259–60, 264–70, 275–6, 281, 287, 290, 293, 295, 300–19, 352

Jaqi (group), see Aymaran

jaqi aru, see Aymara

Jaruro, see Yaruro

Jauja (Quechua dialect) 197, 201–5

Jauja–Huanca (Quechua dialect group) 185

Je (group), see Ge

Jebero 44, 447–9

Jebero–Jivaroan 32

Jíbaro, Jibaro (group), see Jivaroan

Jibaro–Kandoshi, see Jívaro–Candoshi

Jicaque 37

Jirajara 129

Jirajara, Jirajira (group) 28, 31, 33, 44, 129

Jirajaran 29, 33, 37, 52, 129–30

Jirara (Betoi subgroup) 130, 161

jitano 82

Jitirijiti 49, 53

Jívaro, see Shuar

Jívaro–Cahuapana, Jivaroan–Cahuapanan 29

Jívaro–Candoshi 28, 40, 42, 44

Jivaroan 31–3, 40, 44, 172–3, 396–7, 406, 416, 432–47, 457

Jopoqueri (Aymara dialect) 293

Jorá 430–1

Jujuy (Humahuaca subgroup) 410

Juli (Aymara dialect) 293

Junín (Quechua dialect group) 281, 424

Junín–Huanca (regional Quechua standard dialect) 193

Jurí 33, 178


Kachá, see Urarina

Kadiweu 488

Kagaba, Kággaba, see Kogui

Kahuapana (group), see Cahuapana

Kahuapana–Zaparo 44

Kaingan, Kaingán (group) 31–3, 44

Kaingang 163

Kaingangan 28–9

Kakán, see Diaguita

Kakua 163

kamɨnčá, see Kamsá

Kamsá 28–30, 33, 37–8, 44, 53–4, 56, 151–5, 161

Kandoshi, see Candoshi

Kanichana, see Canichana

Kankuamo, Kankuí 50, 67

Kanoê 29, 34, 376

Kapishana, Kapishaná, see Kanoê

Karaib (group), see Cariban

Káriban, see Cariban

Kariri–Tupi 44

Katakáoan 33–4

Katio, see Catío Chibcha

Katukina (group) 29, 39, 43, 459

Kaueskar, see Chono (Chile)

Kawapánan, see Cahuapana

Kawesqar, Kawéskar 28–33, 41, 44, 550, 552–4, 556–8, 564–7, 580–2

Kayuvava, see Cayuvava

Kechua (group), see Quechua

Kechumaran, see Quechumaran

Kitemoca 477

Kofán, see Cofán

Kogui 44, 50, 55–6, 66–74, 86

Kolyawaya, see Callahuaya

kot-suñ, see Uru

kougian, see Kogui

Kugapakori 423

Kulyi, see Culli

Kunza, Kunsa, see Atacameño


La Paz (Aymara dialect) 265–6, 270–7, 283–4, 286, 289, 293

La Paz Spanish 591, 600–1

Lache 52

Lamista Quechua 186

languages of Andean tribes 30

languages of the Amazonian lowlands xvii

languages of the Cauca valley 49–50

languages of the Gran Chaco 488–99

languages of the Magdalena valley 50

languages of Paleo–American tribes 30

languages of the Sierra Nevada the Santa Marta, see Arhuacan

languages of Tropical Forest tribes 30

languages of the Upper Magdalena region 138–41

Lapachu, see Apolista

Laraos (Quechua dialect) 186

Latin 16, 24, 344, 510

Latin American Spanish 586–8

Lebanese Arabic 585

Leco, Leko 21, 28–9, 31, 33, 44, 475–6

Lenca 37, 50

Lengua 498

Lengua (group) 31, 33, 44

lengua general (del Inga) 179, 182

lengua del Inga 53, 401

lengua linga 53

lengua de los Llanos 392

lengua pescadora 320

lengua yunga pescadora 320

Lengua–Mascoy 29, 40, 488, 497–9

Letuama, see Tanimuca–Retuarã

lican antai, see Atacameño

Lili 49

Lima standard Spanish 593

Limarí valley (Indians of the) 409

Lincha (Quechua dialect) 186, 189

Linga, see Ilinga

Lípez (historical nation) 176

llapuni 589

Llata (Quechua dialect) 193

Lokono 116–17

Lolaca (Betoi subgroup) 161

Lomerío (dialect of Chiquitano) 478

Louisiana French 591

Low German 416

Lule 28–34, 44, 177–8, 380, 385–91

Lulean 31–2

Lule–Tonocoté 385

Lule–Vilela 41, 44, 386, 488

Lupaca (historical nation, Aymara dialect) 264, 266


Macaguane, see Hitnü

machaj juyay, see Callahuaya

Machiguenga 29, 39, 411, 417, 422–3

Macoita (dialect of Yukpa) 112–14

Macro-Arawakan 29, 44

Macro-Carib 28, 29, 42, 44

Macro-Chibchan 28, 32, 36–8, 42

Macro-Ge, Macro-Jê 28, 32, 34, 39–40, 42, 44

Macro-Hokan 30

Macro-Mayan 29, 32

Macro-Pano–Tacanan 32

Macro-Panoan 28, 42, 44

Macro-Penutian 38

Macro-Quechuan 29

Macro-Tucanoan 28, 42, 44

Macu (Venezuelan) 29

Macuan 29

Macuna 164

Madeán (Quechua dialect) 186

Madi (group), see Arawá

Magdalena valley (tribes of the) 48

Magdalena valley Cariban 112–15

Maipuran 24, 39, 44, 422

Maipure 162, 423

Maipúrean 33

Majigua 161

Maká 493, 495, 499

Makú (group) 31, 33, 163

Makú–Puinave, Macú–Puinave 29, 163

Makúan 163

Malacato 172, 393, 396

Malayo, see Damana

Malibu (group) 44

Malibú 52

Mandarin Chinese 147

Manekenkn, see Haush

Manta 392

Mapocho, Mapuchu (Santiago dialect of Araucanian) 508–9, 517–18, 526–7, 528–30, 533, 537

Mapuche xvi, 2–3, 5, 9, 14, 16, 21, 28, 31, 33, 38, 40–1, 103, 123, 171, 321, 470, 500, 505–44, 551, 552, 563, 565, 580–2, 608

Mapuchean 29

Mapudungu, Mapudungun, see Mapuche

Marinahua 419

Marocasero, see Damana

Mascoy (group) 28

Mascoyan, Maskóian 33, 497–9

Mashco 33

Mashubí 29, 376

Mastanahua 419

Mataco 493–4

Mataco (group) 28, 31, 33, 44, 430

Mataco–Guaicuru 44

Matacoan, Matákoan 14, 29, 33, 40–1, 386, 391, 488, 493–5

Mataguayan, see Matacoan

Matanauí 29

Mayan 31–2, 38–9, 321, 329, 364

Mayna 28–31, 33, 40, 44, 447, 456

Mayo 418

Mayoruna 418–19

Media Lengua 5, 602–3

Mennonite German 585

Millcayac 16, 44, 502, 544

Mɨnɨka (dialect of Huitoto) 164, 449

Miraña 164, 449

Mirripú (dialect of Timote) 125

Misumalpa (group) 30, 33–4, 37, 50

Mobima, see Movima

Mocana 52

Mochica xvi, xvii, 2, 16, 22–3, 28–9, 37–8, 61, 84, 120, 172–3, 319–50, 351–2, 392, 397–8, 403, 513

Mocoa, see Kamsá

Mocoví 488–9, 493

Moguex 142

Mojo 16, 411, 422–3

Moluche, see Ngoluche (Mapuche subgroup)

Moré 477

Morocomarca, northern Potosí (Aymara dialect) 283, 287, 310

Morocosi, see Mojo 16

Morunahua 418

Mosca, see Muisca

Mosetén, Moseten, Mosetene 28–9, 31–3, 39, 44, 375, 476

Mosetén–Chimane 475–6

Motilon, see Barí

Motilones 38, 80, 112

Movima 28–9, 31, 33, 44, 475–6

Muchic, Muchik 172, 320

Mucuchí (dialect of Timote) 125–8

Muellamués 393

Muinane 164

Muisca xvi, 3, 18, 23, 37, 46, 50, 52, 54–5, 81–109, 111–12, 352, 397

Munchique (dialect of Páez) 130–1

Muniche, Munichi 28, 30–1, 33, 44, 456, 500

Mura–Pirahá 29

Muran 29

Murato (Candoshi) 31, 33, 37, 457

Murato (Uru–Chipaya) 362

Murui (dialect of Huitoto) 164, 417, 449

Mutús 125

muysc cubun, see Muisca

Muzo 38, 48, 114–15


Na–Dene 42

Nahua 418

Nambikwara (group) 29, 37

Napeca 477

Napipí river (dialect of Emberá) 59

Nasa, see Páez

Nasa Yuwe, see Páez

Neuquén (Mapuche dialect) 516

New World Spanish 586

Ngoluche (Mapuche subgroup) 509

Nɨpode (dialect of Huitoto) 164, 449

Nivaclé, see Chulupí

Noctenes (dialecto of Mataco) 493

Nonuya 164

North Amazon (division of Northern Arawakan) 423

North Barasana 164

Northern Bolivian Quechua 35, 200, 357

Northern Amerind 44

Northern Andean 44

Northern Arawakan 423

Northern Aymara 265

Northern Junín (Quechua dialect group) 189, 194, 201–6, 210–33, 237, 257

Northwest-Coast languages 571

Nuclear Chibchan 44

Nuclear Paezan 44

Nukak 163

nuna šimi 179

Nutabe 37, 44, 49


Ocaina 164, 449

Ochosuma, see Uru

Ocloya (Humahuaca subgroup) 410

Ofaié–Xavante 29

Old Catío, see Catío Chibcha

Olmos (language of ) 320, 400

Omagua 24, 417–18, 431

Omaguaca, see Humahuaca

Omasuyos (Aymara dialect) 275

Omurano, see Mayna

Ona, see Selkʹnam

Opón 114

Opón–Carare 38, 53, 112, 114–15

Orejón 453

Oristiné 386

Osa (Humahuaca subgroup) 410

Otavalo Quechua 445

Otí 29

Otomac, Otomaco (group) 31, 33, 44, 163

Otomaco–Taparita 28

Otomákoan 33

Otuque 477


Pacabueyes 52

Pacaguara 418

Pacaraos (Quechua dialect) 186, 189–90, 193, 197–229, 234–5, 242–50, 261, 279, 325

Paccho (Quechua dialect) 198–9

Paccioca (Diaguita subgroup) 407

Pachitea (Quechua dialect) 202

Páesan 33

Paez (group) 33, 44

Páez 9, 26, 30, 38, 48, 50, 54–5, 57, 125, 130–8, 140–2, 395, 500

Paez–Coconuco 28

Paezan 28–9, 38, 42, 44

Paiconeca 477

Palenquero 604

Paleo–Chibchan 159

Palta 172, 393, 396–7

Pamigua 161

Pampa, see Gününa Küne

Panatagua 422

Panche 38, 48, 53, 114–15

Paniquita 142

Paniquitá (dialect of Páez) 130

Paniquitan 26

Pano (group) 31–3, 411, 417–18

Pano–Tacana, Pano–Tacanan 29, 31, 39, 44, 418–22, 477

Panoan, Pánoan 33–4, 39–40, 44, 261, 418–21, 447

Pantágora 38, 48, 114

Panzaleo 393–5, 397

Papiamentu 595

Paraujano 53, 115–16, 118, 423

Parecis–Saraveca (division of Central Arawakan) 423

Pariri (dialect of Yukpa) 112–13

Parquenahua 418

Pasco (Quechua dialect group) 281, 424

Pastaza (Quechua dialect) 187, 193

Pasto 38, 53, 142, 151, 392–4, 397

Patagon (group), see Chon

Patagón, Patagón de Perico 173, 405, 554–6

Patagón de Bagua, see Bagua

Patagonian languages 5, 21, 31, 41, 578

Paunaca 422, 477

Pauserna–Guarasugwé 430–1

Paya 37, 73

Paya–Chibchan 37

Peba–Yagua 458

Peban 28

Pehuenche (independent group) 505

Pehuenche (Mapuche dialect) 505, 509

peibu, see Kogui

peninsular Spanish 586–9

Peruvian Andean Spanish 589, 592

Peruvian Aymara 260–1

Peruvian Spanish 589, 593, 604

Piapoco 116, 162, 423

Piaroa 162

Piaroa (group) 31, 33, 44

Pichincha (Quechua dialect) 199

Picoy (Quechua dialect) 201

Picunche (Mapuche dialect) 509–10, 516

Pijao 38, 48, 53, 114–15, 138, 141

Pilagá 488–9

Piojé, see Secoya

Piratapuyo 164

Piro 39, 411, 417, 422–3

Piro–Apurinã 423

Pisabo 418

Pisamira 164

Piura (languages of ) 403

Plains Indians 556

Polynesian languages 41

Portuguese 181

Pre-Andine subgroup of Arawakan 22, 39

Pre-Quechuan languages of highland Ecuador 25, 38, 172, 195, 391–7

Proto-Arawakan 423–6

Proto-Aymaran 35, 171, 263, 265–7, 287

Proto-Barbacoan 57

Proto-Chibchan 37, 73, 80

Proto-Chocoan 57–8

Proto-Colombian Chibchan 96

Proto-Emberá 58

Proto-Matacoan 495

Proto-Quechumaran 195

Proto-Quechua(n) 35, 181, 187–8, 190, 192, 194–204, 206–7, 213, 244, 267

Proto-Yukpa 113

Pucapacuri, see Kugapakori

Puelche, see Gününa Küne

Puinave 163

Puinave (group) 28, 44

Puinávean 33

Pular (Diaguita subgroup) 407

Pumé, see Yaruro

Puná (language of ) 155

Puno (Aymara dialect) 269

Puno Bay Uru 363

Puno Quechua 35, 187, 199, 201–2, 292, 357

Puquina, Pukina xv, xvi, 5, 26, 30–4, 36, 39, 43–4, 167, 175–6, 178, 263, 350–62, 366, 375, 382

Purmamarca (Humahuaca subgroup) 410

Puruhá, Puruguay 29, 167, 172, 321, 392–3, 395–6


Qawasqar, see Kawesqar

Quechua xvi, 2–3, 5–6, 12–25, 27, 31–6, 38, 41, 53, 103, 123, 129–30, 139, 142, 145–6, 149–51, 160, 165–320, 328, 344, 351–61, 365–6, 370–5, 377–85, 393–6, 398, 400–6, 409, 411–16, 424, 430, 443, 446, 452, 464, 465–8, 471, 499, 506, 512, 517, 522–3, 527–8, 534, 537–8, 539, 585, 589–603, 605, 607–8

Quechua (group) 22, 28, 42, 44

Quechua (historical nation) 179

Quechua A 185

Quechua B 185

Quechua I 185–6, 188–91, 197–207, 210–37, 243, 258, 278, 281, 429, 506

Quechua II 185–91, 212–32, 234–6, 243, 270

Quechua IIA 186–91, 198

Quechua IIB 186–91, 196–207, 213–31, 235–6, 243

Quechua IIC 186–91, 195–206, 212–32, 234–6, 293

Quechua III 186

Quechua(n) dialects 34–5, 160, 168, 177, 179–81, 183–91, 256, 305

Quechua standard language (lengua general) 182–3

Quechuan 5, 29, 34–6, 53, 168–71, 179–263, 318

Quechumaran 27, 32, 34–6

Querandí 505

Quichua 12–13, 168, 177

Quichua (historical nation) 179

quichua unificado 607

Quijos 394

Quillacinga 53, 151, 392

Quilme (Diaguita subgroup) 407–8

Quimbaya 3, 57

Quimbaya, Carrapa, Picara and Paucura (language of the) 49

Quindío (language of the) 49

Quingnam 173, 320, 401


Rabona 393, 397

Ranqueles 505, 507

Ranquelino, Ranquel (Mapuche dialect) 510–11, 514, 516, 528

Remo 419

Resígaro 39, 44, 162, 423

Reyesano 418

Río Negro (Mapuche dialect) 516

Rionegrino (dialect of Yukpa) 112–13

Roraima (languages of ) 406

Rucachoroy, Neuquén (Mapuche dialect) 514

Rumanian 217

runa simi 130, 179, 259

Russian 231


Sabela, see Huao

Sacata 405

Saija 57–60

Salasaca (Quechua dialect) 204, 237–42

Saliba, Sáliba 44, 162–3

Saliban, Sálivan 28, 29, 33, 162

Salinas de Garci Mendoza (Aymara dialect) 266

Sambú 57

Samúkoan, see Zamucoan

San Javier (dialect of Chiquitano) 478

San Martín (regional Quechua standard dialect) 193, 203, 236, 256

San Miguel (dialect of Chiquitano) 478

San Pedro de Cajas (Quechua dialect) 193, 197, 225, 229, 237

Sanaviron, Sanavirón 31–2, 502

Sanavirones 502

Sanjá, Sanká, see Damana

Santa Ana Mosetén 476

Santiago dialect of Araucanian, see Mapocho

Santiago de Chuco (dialect of Spanish) 403–4

Santiago del Estero Quechua, Santiagueño Quechua 177, 187–8, 193, 197, 202–4, 221, 231, 258, 378, 380, 386, 387, 409

Sáparoan, see Zaparoan

Sapiteri (Harakmbut subgroup) 459

Saraguro Indians 6, 395

Saraveca 423, 477

Sebondoy, see Kamsá

Sec (group) 29

Sechura, Sec 25, 28, 31, 33–4, 44, 172, 320, 398–400

Secoya 453

Sek 400

Selkʹnam 28, 36, 41, 44, 550, 554, 556–7, 558–64, 571, 580–1

Setebo 419

Shaparu (dialect of Yukpa) 112–13

Shapra, see Candoshi

Sharanahua 418

Shipibo 500

Shipibo–Conibo 417, 419

Shipibo–Conibo–Shetebo 418–19

Shuar 13, 172, 397, 416, 418, 432–47, 499–500, 603, 609

Shuar pidgin 433

Sibundoy, see Kamsá

sign languages 416, 418

Sikuani 55, 162, 164

Simacu, see Urarina

Sindagua 53

Sínsiga 110

Sinú 50, 57

Siona 163, 453

Siriano 164

Sirionó 430–1

Sitajara, Tacna (Aymara dialect) 281, 283–4, 288, 307

Situfa (Betoi subgroup) 161

Slavic languages 231

Sokorpa (dialect of Yukpa) 112

Sonchon (group) 29

Sora (historical nation) 178

South American Spanish 587–8

South Bolivian Quechua 35

Southern Andean 44

Southern Aimara, see Collavino Aimara

Southern Arawakan 423

Southern Aymara 265

Southern Barbacoan 149

Southern Peruvian Quechua 253

Southern Quechua I 250

Spanish 3–6, 11–13, 24, 53, 59, 66–7, 74, 82–7, 116–18, 128–9, 131, 139, 155, 170, 173, 179, 182–3, 197, 216–17, 256, 258–9, 262, 267, 293, 324–5, 344, 351, 368, 378–81, 386–7, 393–6, 398, 400–4, 418, 452, 471, 478, 493, 500, 510–11, 544–5, 576, 581, 585–605

Spanish of northwestern Argentina 589, 595–6

Subtiaba 37

Swedish 217


Ta–Arawak 116

Tabancale 29–32, 406

Tacana 418, 500

Tacana (group) 31–3, 411

Tacana–Pano 28

Tacanan, Takánan 26, 33–4, 36, 39, 44, 171, 357, 418–19

Tacna (Aymara dialect) 271

Taíno 116

Tairona 48, 52, 67

Taiwano 164

Talamancan 26, 73

Tallán 25, 34, 172, 179, 393, 398–400

Tamanaco 112

Tanimuca 164

Tanimuca–Retuarã 164

Tapieté 418, 430–1, 499

Tapo (Quechua dialect) 225

Tarascan 29, 34, 42

Tarata (Aymara dialect) 265–6

Tariana 162, 164, 423

Tarma (Quechua dialect) 192–4, 197–206, 210–33, 235–6, 258

Tatuyo 164

Taushiro 40, 456

Tegría (dialect of Tunebo) 109–10

Tehuelche 28, 36, 41, 505, 510, 550, 552, 554–6, 558, 563–4, 580–4

Tehues, see Teushen

téižua (ceremonial language) 67

Tekiraka 28–9, 31, 33, 44, 456

Temuco, Cautín (Mapuche dialect) 516

Tena (Quechua dialect) 242

Térraba 73

terruna shayama (ceremonial language) 67

Teteté 453

Teushen 41, 550, 554, 556, 581

Ticuna, Tikuna 28–9, 31, 33, 44, 55, 164, 458

Ticuna–Yuri 44

Tiliar (Humahuaca subgroup) 410

Timaná 138

Timote 124–9, 130

Timote (group) 28–9, 31, 33, 37, 44

Timote–Cuica xvi, 52, 124–30

Timótean 33

Timucua 29, 42

Tinigua 161–2

Tinigua (group) 31, 33, 44

Tiniguan, Tiníwan 29, 33

Toba 40, 488–93, 499, 608

Tonocoté 177–8, 385–6, 408

Toquistiné 386

Toribío (dialect of Páez) 130–3

Toromona 418

Totoró 38, 54, 141

Toyeri, see Harakmbut

Toyoeri (Harakmbut subgroup) 459

Trinitario 422–3

Trio 115, 161

Trumai 29

Tsachila 141

Tsafiki 26, 38, 44, 54, 141–51, 159–60, 225, 228, 392, 394

Tshon (group), see Chon, Chonan

Tucano 164

Tucano (group) 28, 31, 33, 37, 44

Tucanoan, Tukánoan 29, 33, 55, 141, 162–4, 453

Tucuna, see Ticuna

Tule, see Cuna

Tunebo 37, 44, 52, 85, 109–12

Tunebo (group) 28, 52, 85, 87, 109–10, 112, 161

Tupi, Tupí (group) 22, 28–9, 31, 33, 40, 44, 432

Tupi–Guaraní 14, 24, 26–7, 99, 422, 430–2, 434, 477, 488

Tupían 33, 419, 432

Tupinambá 432

Tupino Aimara 170

Turkish 34

Tuyuca 164

Tuyuneri, see Harakmbut


Uchumataqu, see Uru

Uitoto (group), see Huitotoan

Umaua, see Carijona

Upper Andágueda (Emberá Chamí dialect) 59

Urarina 28–9, 31, 33, 44, 457–8, 500

Uro (group) 31–3, 44

Uru, Uro 28, 36, 38–9, 176, 259, 362–3, 366–7, 370, 375

Uru of Chʹimu 175, 363

Uru of Iru Itu (Iruitu) 175, 363

Uruan, see Uru–Chipaya

Uru–Chipaya 26, 29, 31, 38–9, 43, 175–6, 259, 321, 357, 362–75

Uruquilla 175–6, 362

Uw Cuwa, see Tunebo

Uwa, Uʹwa, see Tunebo


Viakshi (dialect of Yukpa) 112

Vilela 28–9, 31–4, 44, 178, 386–7, 391

Viñac (Quechua dialect) 186

Vulgar Latin 589


Wahívoan, see Guahiboan

Waikurúan, see Guaicuruan

Wamo, see Guamo

Warao 32, 37

Warpe (group), see Huarpe

Wasama (dialect of Yukpa) 112–13

Waunana 54, 56–9

Wayuunaiki, see Guajiro

Weenhayek, see Mataco

West Patagonian Canoe Indians 552

Western Arawakan 423

Western Tucanoan 163

Wichi, see Mataco

Wintu 43

Witotoan, Witótoan, see Huitotoan

Wiwa, see Damana


Xauxa (historical nation) 181

Xibito-Cholon, see Hibito-Cholón

Xidehara, see Jirajara

Xinca 37

Xiroa 393, 397

Xoroca 396, 406


Yacampis (Diaguita subgroup) 409

Yagua 164, 417, 458

Yagua (group) 31, 33, 44

Yaguan 28–9, 33–4

Yahgan, Yagan 28, 31, 33, 41, 44, 550, 553–4, 556–8, 567–82

Yalcón 48, 138

Yamana, Yámana, see Yahgan 554, 556

Yamanan 29

Yameo 458, 500

Yaminahua 418

Yanahuanca (Quechua dialect) 201

Yaneshaʹ 5, 22, 28–9, 39, 44, 397, 416–17, 422–30, 447, 499–500

yanga šimi 180

Yanomama, Yanoama (group) 32, 37

Yanomaman 40

Yaru (Quechua dialect group) 185, 193

Yaruro 28–30, 33–4, 42, 44, 159, 163

Yauyos (dialect group) 186, 192, 200, 205, 214

Yavitero 162, 423

Yáwan, see Yaguan

Ysistiné 386

Yuco, see Yukpa

Yucuna 162, 423

Yuhupde, see Hupda

Yukpa 38, 52, 80, 112–15

Yunga, Yunca 28, 38, 172, 320, 398

Yuqui 430–1

Yuracaré, Yuracare, Yurakare, Yurucare 28–9, 31–3, 39, 44, 475–7

Yurí, Yuri 28, 31, 33, 44, 164

Yurían 29

Yurumanguí, Yurumangui, Yurimangui, Yurimangi 28–9, 31, 33, 36–7, 41–2, 44, 54, 60–1, 161

Yurutí 164


Zamuco 477, 496

Zamuco (group) 28, 31, 33, 44

Zamucoan 29, 33, 488, 496–7, 499

Záparo 451–3

Záparo, Zaparo (group) 31, 33, 44, 416, 418

Zaparoan 26, 28–9, 33–4, 172, 451–3, 456, 458

Zuni 29




SUBJECT INDEX





ablative 189, 215, 273, 277, 303, 374, 428, 440, 469

ablativus absolutus 251

ablaut 328

abolition of Quechua in the official domain 183, 255

absolute (transitive without an object) 485–6

abstract terms 234

Abya-Yala, organisation 13

Academia de la Lengua Quechua 181

accent 76, 153, 568

Aconcagua river 502

active (as opposed to passive) 485–6

active participle 547

active–stative distinction 122, 134–5, 489, 495, 499

accusative 71–2, 145, 213, 224, 303–4, 360

adcorporeal movement 490

adjectives, syntactic behaviour of 208, 335, 336, 353, 380, 390, 409, 419, 444, 449, 457, 471, 481, 562

adstratum 195

African–Amerindian relations in Pacific Ecuador 155

Africanisms 5, 588, 604

agent (of a passive construction) 329, 335, 368, 483

agent disambiguator 470

agentive nominalisation 227, 276, 288, 311, 335–6, 339–40, 355, 372, 527–8

agglutination 59, 64, 207, 267, 423, 463, 476, 545, 564, 609

agreement/concord 125, 370, 496, 563

agricultural terraces 2, 124

agriculture 2, 10, 21, 175, 502

Aisén, region 554

alienable/inalienable distinction 119, 492, 495, 499

allative 69, 100, 214–15, 274–328, 356, 385, 428, 440, 470

allophonic lowering of high vowels 195, 257, 361, 366

allophonic variation 62, 196

altiplano 6–7, 38, 165, 171, 175–6, 296, 350, 362

Alto Perú 171

Alto Purús (upper Purús valley) 459

alveolar affricate 265, 302, 386

Amantaní, island 350

Amazon, river and region 5, 6, 161, 173, 431, 499, 603

The American Race (Brinton) 25

Amerindian contact vernaculars 5

Amerindian grammatical patterns 43, 482

Ampudia, Juan de (conquistador) 138

analytic conjugation 122–3

anaphoric 537

Ancoaqui, indigenous community 363

Andahuaylillas, town 350

Andamarca, Quechua-speaking community 258

Andean civilisation 2, 35, 165–7

Andean Cordilleras 6, 168

Andean millenarism 1

animal fables 192

antecedent 17, 213, 430

anticompletive 251

Antilles 586

Antofagasta, town and region 408

Añasco, Pedro de (conquistador) 48, 138

Anthropos 56

apico-alveolar fricative 325–6, 365, 562

applicative 339, 474, 476–7

aquatic lifestyle (of the Uru) 259, 362

La Araucana 506

Araucanía 14, 507–10

Araucanian-speaking mixed groups 505

Araucanian Sphere 5, 177, 502–8

Araucaria pine 505

Arauco, town and region 506, 510, 516

archaeological horizons 7

Area Intermedia 50

Arequipa, town and region 262

Arhuacan culture 67

Ariguaní river 75

Arte de la lengua cholona 460–75

Arte de la lengua tonocoté y lule 385

Arte de la lengua yunga 322

aspect 133, 153, 190, 221, 226, 231, 281–2, 441, 455, 574

aspirated consonants 35, 57–8, 131, 133, 187–8, 195, 198–9, 264, 266–8, 282, 302, 313, 351, 364–5, 379, 495

aspirated vowels 87, 110, 131, 425

aspiration 378

Atacama desert 375

Atacames, town 155

Atahuallpa (Inca ruler) 8, 167, 179, 395

Atalaya, town 417

Atánquez, town 67

Atrato river 62

attenuator 272, 291

auca 413, 506

augmentative 126, 216

Augustinians 173, 320, 401, 402

autobiography 255, 296, 511

auto sacramental 255

auxiliary verb 59, 65, 70–1, 76, 137, 146, 150, 443, 474

Ayacucho, battle of 9

Ayacucho, town and region 258, 263

ayllu (lineage group) 234

Aymara (name) 259

Aymara substratum (in Arequipa and Puno) 262

Aymaraes, region 259

Aymaranised nouns 267


Bacatá 46

Bagua, town 406

Bahía de Solano 56

barriadas (popular neighbourhoods) 607

basic colours 236, 295, 538, 549

Bavarian mission 511, 512

behetrías 48

Belalcázar (or Benalcaçar, Benalcazar), Sebastián de (conquistador) 9, 53, 61

Belén de los Andaquíes, settlement 139

Benedictines 193

benefactive 278, 289, 303, 333, 356, 374, 428, 468–9, 534

beneficiary 71–2, 230, 280–1, 477

Bermejo river 386

Bibliothèque Linguistique Américaine 54, 478

bilingual education 4, 5, 12–13, 15, 168, 194, 585, 605–9

bilingualism 131, 258, 262, 580, 592–6, 606

Biobío, region 510, 516

Biobío river 9, 505–6, 509

bipartite division of Quechuan dialects 181, 186, 188, 191

bishopric of Trujillo 23

body-part terms 140, 213, 333, 427, 480, 482

Bogotá, valley of 46

Bohórquez, Pedro (rebel) 408

Bolívar, Simón (liberator) 9–10, 183, 589

Bourbon administration 3, 167, 183

Boyacá, region 81–2

British Library 20, 460

Brouwer, Hendrik (settler) 506

Brunswick Peninsula 581

Buenos Aires, region and state capital of Argentina 507


Cabana, town 401

Cabeceras Aid Project 610–11, 623

cabildo 79

Cachuy, indigenous community 171

cacicazgos (chiefdoms) 411

Caguán river 139, 163

Cajamarca, town and region 186, 403–7

Calchaquí valleys, see Valles Calchaquíes

Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda, region 49

Callejón de Huaylas valley 2

Canary Islands 586

Canas and Canchis, region 262

Cañar, town and region 256, 395, 602

canoe nomads 550–4, 555, 556, 581

Cape Horn 6, 554

Capuchins 151

Caquetá river 139, 164

Caral/Chupacigarro, preceramic settlement 2

Caráquez, Bay of 392

Carare river 114

cardinal directions 561

Caribs (as a cover term for hostile Indians) 24, 52, 75

Carumas, town and indigenous community 375

Casas, Bartolomé de las (defender of Indian rights) 191

case 59, 65, 69–70, 79, 89, 99–101, 111, 128–9, 140, 145, 153–4, 156, 158–9, 213–16, 226, 277–8, 303, 328, 332, 356, 367, 374, 380, 385, 387, 448, 460, 468–70, 476, 482–5, 494, 520, 545, 563, 565

case governed by verbs 101, 483

Caspana, indigenous community 376, 379

Catacaos, town and indigenous community 398

Catalogue of the National Library, Madrid 140

Catamarca, town and region 407–9

catechisms 16, 20, 81, 106, 130, 182, 351, 392, 477, 544, 552, 565

Catequil (deity) 401

Catherine II of Russia 54

Cauca, region 141

Cauca river and valley 3, 48

causative 59, 64, 74, 133, 136, 216, 233, 279, 305, 355, 372, 384, 441, 534

Cautín, region 507, 509–10

Cayapas river 141

ceceo 587

Central Andean linguistic features 145

central Chile 506

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) 55

Centro Amazónico de Antropología y Aplicación Práctica (CAAAP) 607

Centro Colombiano de Estudios de Lenguas Aborígenes (CCELA) 21, 55

Cenúfana (chiefdom) 50

ceramic phase of Andean prehistory 7

ceramics 8

ceremonial language 67

ceremonial speech 64

Cerro de la Sal 423

Cesar river 75

Chachapoyas, town and region 167, 173, 406–7

Chaco War 296, 478, 498

Chamaya river 6, 405

Chancay culture 165

Chancay river 165, 242–3

Chanchán, site 165, 320

charango (musical instrument) 236–7

Charazani, town 350, 356

Charles III (king of Spain) 3

Charles V (emperor) 48

Chaupiñamca (deity) 174

Chavín culture 8

Chavín de Huántar, site 7, 165

Checras, Quechua-speaking community 258

Chibcha Sphere 5, 46

Chicama river 320

Chiclayo, town 319

Chiloé island 14, 502, 506, 508–10, 552, 553

Chimborazo, region 395

Chimbos, region 395

Chimú, Chimor, kingdom 8, 165, 320

Ch’imu, Ts’imu, indigenous community 31, 363

Chinchaisuyo, administrative quarter of the Inca empire 181

Chinchipe river 405–6

Chinchorro culture 2

Chiquitano, region 5

Chiquitos missions 25

Chira river 398

Chita, town 110

Chocó, region 56–9, 62

Chota river and valley 605

chroniclers 181

Chucuito, town and region 259, 262–4

circum-Caribbean cultures 8

cislocative 230

Ciudad Perdida 48

Ciudad de los Reyes 182

class-free suffixes 209

classification 5, 22–45, 556

classification networks 29–30

classifiers 150, 153, 164, 451, 455, 459–60, 476

classifying affixes 67, 125–6, 158, 160

cleaning of the irrigation canals 377

cleft construction 118

climate 7

clitics 367–70, 595

Clovis horizon 1, 506

coarticulated stop 85

coca 7

Cochabamba, town and region 411

Coconuco, indigenous community 141

Colla Capac (indigenous ruler) 350

Collaguas, region 174, 262

Collasuyo, administrative quarter of the Inca empire 174

colonial occupation by Spain 2–3, 9, 20, 131, 344–8, 350, 362, 395, 411–13, 453, 548

comarca (autonomous region) 62

combinations of personal pronouns and case 99

comitative 123, 136, 215, 332, 440, 469, 521

complement clause 226, 372–3, 446

complementiser ‘saying’ 446

completive 253

complex sentences 292, 430, 445–7, 498, 516

compound tense 223, 229

compound verbs 59, 388, 448, 487, 571

compounds 66, 70, 236, 274, 402, 425, 436, 452, 518, 561, 566, 570

computer language 609

Concepción, town in the Chiquitos area 477

Conchucos, region 401

condenado 253

conditional 523–4, 533

conjecture 286

conquista del desierto 508

conquistadores 9, 16, 46–9, 53, 165–7, 392, 506, 508, 604

Consejo Regional Indígena del Cauca (CRIC) 131

conservative classifications 26–7, 30, 31

consonant clusters 68–9, 81, 85, 88–9, 110, 113, 128, 132, 153, 206, 268, 269, 273, 293, 351, 366–7, 379, 386, 402, 512–13, 545, 563, 569

consonant lenition 199–200

constitutions 11–15

   of Argentina 15

   of Bolivia 14

   of Chile 14

   of Colombia 4, 12

   of Ecuador 13

   of Peru 13–14

   of Venezuela 11–12

contrary-to-fact 153

contrast 209

convergence 5–6, 175, 591, 602

conversión de Hivitos 460

conversiones 460

coordination 18, 215, 356

copula/verb ‘to be’ 59–60, 135, 155, 207, 209, 275, 312–13, 330, 340–2, 382, 438

copula verbaliser 275–6, 291, 426

correlative 19

Cotopaxi, region and sacred mountain 241, 394, 602

creole studies 586

Cuélap, site 406

Cuenca, town 395

cultural diffusion 500

Cumancaya culture 419

Cuna, pictographic writing system of the 48

Cundinamarca, region 38, 46, 81

Cuntisuyo, administrative quarter of the Inca empire 174

Curaray river 456

Current Anthropology 27–8, 43

Curva, indigenous community 356

customary action 532

Cuyo, region 502, 506

Cuzco, name 178

Cuzco, capital of the Incas, town and region 165–7, 180–3, 191, 255, 262, 350, 406, 413

cuzqueros 180

cypher language 478


dalca (traditional boat) 552

Daquilema (Indian leader) 395

Darien, region 3, 56–7, 62

data source 209

dative 71–2, 79, 332, 429, 482–3

Daule river 392

Death of Atahuallpa (traditional play) 254

debt slavery 417

decimal counting 74, 123, 128, 140, 235, 375, 385, 538, 549

declarative 76–7, 111, 146–7, 354, 371, 437

definiteness 122, 217, 435

deictic roots 492, 560–1

demographic decline 167

demographic situation of Andean Indians 4

demonstratives 65, 105, 122, 331, 368, 444, 457, 466, 537

dental fricative 568

depalatalisation 204

Desaguadero river 362–3

Descripción de la Gobernación de Guayaquil 393

descriptions 192, 416, 499, 557

descriptive and comparative studies 4

desiderative 285–6, 337

determined/non-determined distinction 485–6

detrimental 280–1, 534

dialect chain 188

dialectal variation 181, 265–6

dialectology 192–3, 264

Diamante river 502

dictionaries 191–3, 257, 260, 265, 294, 494, 499, 511, 537, 550, 578

difrasismo 236

diminutive 126, 216, 435

Diocesan Synod of Quito 392

diphthongs 197, 322

Direct knowledge 135

direct speech 234, 292–3, 539

directional 59, 64–5, 190, 231, 278, 304–5, 448, 491, 498

directional verb stems 64–5

discourse structure 151, 225

distal past 70

distance scale 122, 537, 560

distribution of languages in highland Bolivia 176, 262

Doctrina Christiana 20, 182, 296

domestication of animals (camelids) 2, 7

domestication of plants 2, 7

dominance of Aymara in the Bolivian highlands 263

domination by Spanish 4, 196

Dominicans 82, 191, 416–17, 452, 459

double negation 453

double personal reference marking 426

double possessive 593

dual 60, 65, 77, 155, 451, 455, 492, 519, 521, 522, 524, 526, 571

Duchicela (indigenous rulers) 395

duplication pattern 597

durative aspect 65

Dutch occupation of Valdivia 506

dynamicity 490


earliest waves of migration 22–4, 42

Early Horizon 7

early human settlement in the Andes 1–2, 7

ejective 187

El Dorado (legend of ) 3, 8, 47–8

El Ecuador Interandino y Occidental antes de la Conquista Española 36

Elal (deity) 582

Elegías de Varones Ilustres de Indias 124

elision 206, 243, 368, 479

Elqui valley 409

embedded clause 137

enclitics 209

encomenderos 138

encomienda 138

Encyclopaedia Britannica 27–8, 31

Ene river 417

Entre Ríos, region 41

epew (literary genre) 539

epidemic diseases 3, 8, 182, 416, 555

epistemic modality 70, 134–5

equational clause 371

ergative 59–60, 70, 79, 111, 356, 360, 421–2, 470, 499

ergative patterning in verbal morphology 495, 563, 571

Esmeraldas river 155

Esmeraldas, town 155

Estudios Araucanos 510

Estudios de Lingüística Chibcha 55

Eten, town 321

Ethnographic Museum, Göteborg 56

Ethnographic Museum, Hamburg 321

Ethnologue 125, 416, 418

etnoeducación 606

euphonic element 429

evangelisation 3, 20, 25, 182, 398

evidentials 153, 210, 283, 286–7, 367, 455, 560

exclamative 464

exhortative 94–5, 473

existential verb 150, 330, 384

expansion of the Aymaran languages 171, 176, 260–1, 263

expected event 137

experiencer verb 483

experiential past 229

Experimental Project of Bilingual Education 194, 257, 296

expulsion of the Jesuits 24

extinction of languages 22

extirpador de idolatrías 255

extra-long vowels 569

extra-short vowels 301

extrametrical syllable 118


factual mood 71–3

failed action 530

family names 140, 395, 398–401, 403, 406–7

far-remote past 283

Federmann, Niklaus (conquistador) 129

Felipillo (interpreter) 179

Fell’s Cave, site 1

Fincenú, chiefdom 50

first Amerindian words borrowed into Spanish 116

first-person marker in Quechua 189, 197, 207

first-person-plural inclusive 211, 269, 370, 375, 449

fishing and shellfish-gathering 7, 552

Fitzcarraldo (rubber baron) 459

five-vowel system 196, 257, 366

focus 134, 523

folk literature 55–6, 511

foot nomads 550–2, 555, 580

Formative Period 165

fortis velar 365

four-term system of personal reference xx, 211–12, 218, 269, 493

four-vowel system 452

fourth person 211, 213, 269

Franciscans 56, 416–17, 423, 478

frequentative 91–2, 94

fricativisation 199–201

Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), guerrilla movement 10

fusion of tribes 5

future tense 92–3, 219, 284, 306–8, 336–7, 370, 383, 389, 452, 486, 530, 574


La Gaitana 48

geminate consonants 62–3, 76, 81, 144, 379–80

gender 125, 134, 367–9, 423, 451, 455, 476, 496, 498, 560, 583

gender of addressee 462–3

gender distinction in pronouns 149, 432, 451, 498

gender–number 118–19

gender-related language use 365, 478–9

generic prefix 125

generic term for possessed items 480

genetic diversity 42

genetic relations 22–45, 159, 364, 431, 456, 499, 556, 564, 578

genetically isolated languages 2, 22–3, 30, 61, 164, 416, 454, 456, 475, 477–8

genitive 59, 61, 69–70, 80, 101–2, 111, 120, 145, 149, 154, 213, 322, 328–9, 332–5, 352, 367–9, 470–1, 520, 545

genitive clitic doubling 596

genitive pronouns 332

genitive–locative 273

genocide 3, 10

geographic intertwining of languages 262–3

gerund 473, 599–600

glottal stop 68–9, 110, 113, 116, 118, 143, 147, 351, 361, 365, 377, 387–8, 519, 563, 568

glottalised consonants 35, 187–8, 195, 198–200, 264, 266, 302, 351, 365, 378, 379–80, 387, 494–5, 505, 578

glottalised vowels 75, 110, 131, 425

Goal 38, 99–100, 440

gold 8, 417

Government and Binding 19

grammars (colonial) 16–18, 20, 82–9, 191–2, 219, 319, 477, 496, 522, 544

Gran Chaco, region 5, 14, 40, 385–6, 411, 418, 488–99, 500

Gran Pajatén, site 407

Gran Vilaya, site 406

Great Civilisations 18

Guajira peninsula 115

Guambía, indigenous community 141

Guanacache, wetlands 502

guano exploitation 10

Guatavita, cacique of 47

Guaviare river 162

Guayas river 392

güecha 48

guerrilla movements 10

Guitarrero cave, site 2

Guzmango, kingdom 404


habitual past 223, 227, 276

haciendas 3, 459, 585

Handbook of South American Indians 26

Hatun Colla, ancient town 234

heavy syllable 118

Hispanic values 590

Hispanicisation 174, 176–7, 509, 607

Hispaniola island 116–17

Historia del Nuevo Mundo 24

Historia natural y moral de las Indias 23

homeland of Aymaran 263

homeland of Quechua 180–2, 263

honorific 455

horse 556

Huailillas, mission 398

Huallaga river 405, 416, 460

Huamachuco, town and region 398, 401, 404

Huambos, region 401

Huánuco, town and region 411

Huari, site 7, 165

Huarochirí, town and region 174, 255

Huarochirí manuscript 174, 187, 192, 255, 261

Huascar (Inca ruler) 8, 167, 395

Huayna Capac (Inca ruler) 3, 8, 165–7

huaynos 256

Huila, region 141

huinca 539, 608

Humboldt current 7

hunters and gatherers 7

hunting and extraction economy 417

Hunza 46

hypercorrection 203


Ibero-American Institute, Berlin 363, 401

ich-laut 326–7

iconicity 195

idiomatic expressions 103

illative 374

imperative 90, 92, 94, 127, 140, 153, 157, 219, 222, 273, 284–5, 290, 309, 337, 354, 383–4, 387, 389–90, 442, 523, 546, 564

imperfective aspect 91–2

impersonal 71–2

implosive 57–8

impure vowel 323, 513

Inca empire 3, 5, 23–5, 180–1, 260–1, 500

Inca nobility (colonial) 183

Inca Sphere 5, 165, 391

Incanised ethnic groups 418

Incas 8–9, 165–7, 178–81, 195, 254–5, 261, 263, 320, 350, 392, 401, 406, 411, 433, 459, 500, 506

inclusive/exclusive distinction 73, 222, 455, 481

indefinite 12–13

independence (of the Andean states) 3, 10, 183, 350, 507

independent suffixes 208–9, 224, 273–5, 290–2, 313–14

Indian movements 4, 10

indigenista movement 4, 181, 254–5, 590

indigenous communities (comunidades indígenas) 10, 79, 237, 320, 362–3, 418

indirect-object marking (on verbs) 71

inferential 286–7, 455

inferential past 224

Inferential knowledge 135

infinitive 152, 226, 288, 355, 384, 526

infinitive complement 137, 226, 372, 573

information status 458

Instituto Caro y Cuervo, Bogotá 55, 83

Instituto Lingüístico de Verano (ILV) 19, 447, 449, 457, 460

instrument nominaliser 227–8, 289, 339–41, 529

instrumental 215–16, 312–13, 332, 352, 385, 440, 469

instrumental prefixes 387, 448

instrumental–comitative 278, 356, 374

instrumental–coordinative 304

interdental 510, 514–15, 516

interlanguage 592, 596

intermediary periods (archaeological) 7

Intermediate Area 50

internal vowel change 89–90

International Journal of American Linguistics xvi

interrogative (as a verbal category) 76, 93, 111, 146–7, 153, 546, 547

Interrogative / no knowledge 135

interrogative pronouns 105, 118, 295, 313, 334, 352, 375

interrogatives 61, 93, 313, 437, 537

intralocutive 71

intransitivisers 73–4

Introductiones Latinae 16

inverse/direct distinction 354, 525–6, 528–9

inverse pulmonic nasal 454

Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato) 41

irrealis 442

irregular concord 598–9

irrigation 2

Iru Itu, indigenous community 362

Isla del Sol, island 363

Isla Huapi, island 510

Issa Oristuna, indigenous reserve 75

itive 231, 534


Jaén, town and region 396, 405–6

Jequetepeque river 320

Jesuits 17–18, 24, 163, 254, 259, 264, 408, 416, 433, 447, 457, 477–8, 552, 556, 605

Jiménez de Quesada, Gonzalo (conquistador) 46

Jivaroan uprising 397

joint action 133, 151

Juan del Oso (mythical figure) 256

Juan Santos Atahuallpa, rebellion of 423

Juli, town and mission centre 264


kankurua (place of worship) 67, 438

kinship terms 106, 235, 294, 329, 425, 427, 455, 480, 538


La Leche river 320

La Pampa, region 505, 514

La Plata, town and river in Colombia 138–9

La Rioja, town and region 407–9

La Tolita culture 156

labial click 454

labialised consonant 131, 365

labiodental fricative 510, 516

labio-postvelar 365

labiovelars 63, 69, 76, 84, 131, 365, 407

lack of polysynthesis 40

Lamas, town and region 186

Lambayeque, town and region 319, 400

landholding system 10

language attrition 580–2

language contact 4–6, 195, 386, 580–2

language families 26, 416, 454, 499

Language in the Americas (Greenberg) 27

language maintenance 5, 194, 256, 258

language mixture 602

language planning 515, 585, 605–8

language shift 6, 258–9, 262

language surveys 21

Les langues du monde (Meillet and Cohen) 26

laryngealisation 198–9

Late Horizon 8

lateral fricative 144, 364–6

lateralisation 205

Lecturas Araucanas 511

lengua general (general language) 81, 163, 167, 175, 296, 350, 453

lengua matriz 25

Leticia triangle 164

lexical and grammatical entwining (of Aymaran and Quechuan) 36

lexical borrowing 6, 36, 66, 159, 352, 357, 434, 549, 580–2

   from Aymaran 171, 263, 279, 302, 375, 385, 476, 538, 549, 591

   from Quechuan 131, 160, 175, 295, 314, 325, 378, 385, 391, 393, 403, 424, 448, 476, 538, 549, 590–1

   from Spanish 59, 74, 87, 105, 128–9, 131, 150, 152–3, 196–7, 233–4, 236, 241, 245–6, 253, 280, 293, 298, 325, 378, 384–5, 391, 488, 517, 538, 582

lexical gender (in verbs) 388

lexical diffusion 5, 500

lexical number (in verbs) 388, 571

lexical similarities 49, 57, 140, 142

lexical suffix 79, 140

lexico-statistics 431

Library of the Royal Palace, Madrid 82–3

Licancabur, mountain 376

Lima, as a centre of migration 258

Lima, Aymaran communities in the department of 261

Lima, Peruvian state capital and former residence of the Spanish viceroys 167, 182, 205

limitative 469

lingua franca 3, 477–8, 500

linguistic area 579

linguistic diversity 2, 22, 81, 183, 416

linguistic fieldwork 20, 191

linguistic rights 3

linguistic taboo 581

Lípez (region) 362

literary production 254–6, 296, 539, 580

lithic technology 7

llanos (eastern plains of Colombia and adjacent Venezuela) 24, 162–3

Loa river 375–6

Location 99, 100

location (as a verbal category) 498

locative 60, 70, 136–7, 189, 214, 276, 312–13, 356, 374, 397, 428, 439, 447–8, 470, 485, 491–2

locative–accusative 145

locative–genitive 276, 303

locative–possessive verbalisation 276

Loja, town and region 396–7, 432

loose morphological structure 40

Lord’s Prayer 106–9, 344–6, 359, 376, 381–4

Loreto, region 418, 423, 456

loss of aspiration 266

lowering of water level (in Lake Titicaca) 363

Lucanas, region 262

Lupaca, kingdom 7

Lurín river 165


Macotama, religious centre 66

Madeira river 40

Madre de Dios, region 416, 418, 423, 459

Magalhães (Magellan), Fernando de 15

Magdalena river and valley 9, 38, 46, 48, 52–3, 75, 112, 114–15, 138, 161

maintenance model (of bilingual education) 606–9

maize 7

Malleco, region 507, 509–10, 516

malón (Indian raid) 507

mama (spiritual leader) 67

Manabí, region 392–3

Mantaro river and valley 257, 261

manuscripts 20

Mapuche uprising 539

Mar Chiquita, lake 502

Maracaibo, town 115

Maracaibo, lake 11, 38, 52, 99, 112, 115, 124

mathematics teaching 609

Maule river 506

metathesis 435

Marañón river 319, 401, 405–6

Mérida, town and region 124

Mesoamerica 120, 156, 364

Messianic movements 9

mestizo 255, 418, 590–1

Meta river and region 162–3

Middle Horizon 7

migration to urban areas 258, 507

milenarismo andino, see Andean Millenarism

mining vocabulary 589

missions 4, 16–17, 24–5, 56, 67, 131, 139, 151, 163, 408, 416, 419, 423, 447, 452, 457, 459, 460, 476, 477, 552, 556, 567

mitimaes 167, 176, 237, 261, 319, 395, 406, 506

mixed dialect 82

Moche, town and indigenous community 320

Mochica culture 165

modal suffix 183

mohán (indigenous priest) 84

Mojos, Moxos, chiefdom 422

Mojos, Moxos missions 25

Monsefú, town 321

montaña (Andean-Amazonian foothills in Peru) 9, 13, 411, 419, 424, 499

Monte Verde, site 1, 506

month names 538

mood 218, 222, 282–7, 380, 389, 442, 472, 522, 523–4, 573

Moquegua, town and region 263

morphological transparency 209, 274

morphophonemic variation 117, 202, 481–2, 512, 517, 546

morphophonemics 69, 267, 323, 441, 463

morphosyntax 69

motion 153, 477

Motupe, town 320

mucuchíes 128

Muequetá 46

multilateral comparison 43

multilingualism 4, 67, 164, 180–1, 477, 580

multiple vibrant (trill) 58, 68, 81, 117, 205, 243, 325

mummification techniques 2

Musée de l’Homme, Paris 55

Museo de la Plata 582


Nabusímake, indigenous town 66

Napo river 417

narrative past 224

nasal cluster 515

nasal contour 163

nasal spread 58, 164, 478, 479, 487

nasal vowels 69, 81, 113, 131, 143, 147, 156, 433, 454–6, 479, 496, 499

National Library, Madrid 192, 544

National Library of Colombia 82–3

nationalism 10

nativos 413

Navarino island 554, 567

Nazca culture 165, 263

near past 389

near-remote past 283

negation 70–1, 78, 93, 133, 153, 158, 209–10, 281, 291, 309, 313, 360, 380, 420, 441, 443, 448–9, 473, 487, 522, 532–3, 546

negative command 90, 384, 443, 448, 533

negative participle 70–1

negative possession 158

negative subordination 342

negative verb 119, 385, 603

Nele Kantule (Indian leader) 62

neologisms 123

Neuquén, region 514

New Granada 23, 48, 53–4, 74, 84

New Testament translations 578

nominal derivation 467–8

nominal inflection 36

nominal negation 133, 137, 532

nominal person markers 212, 269, 426

nominal predicate 98, 118, 134–5, 207, 209, 275–6, 382, 487, 536–7

nominal tense 494

nominalisation 17–18, 69–70, 72, 76, 93, 137, 140, 146, 150, 218, 224, 226–9, 265, 275, 288–90, 311–12, 339, 355, 372–3, 380, 384, 389, 453, 473, 498, 519, 522, 526–30, 547

nominative 332

nominative–accusative system 145, 207

non-finite verbs 70, 76

Non-involver 286–7, 290

non-possession 119, 329, 427

Norte de Potosí, region 176

noun classes 423, 427, 480

noun incorporation 59, 66, 159, 449, 518–19, 563

number 111, 125, 133, 153, 221, 269, 354, 388, 455, 496, 519, 522–3, 538, 547

number of language families 2

number of eastern lowland Indians 13–14

number of speakers of highland languages (Aymara, Mapuche, Quechua) 13–14, 168, 258

numeral classifiers 66, 79, 329, 342–3, 470, 471

numerals 34, 66, 74, 79, 83, 106, 111–12, 123, 128, 140, 150, 235, 277, 294–5, 314–15, 343, 361, 368, 375, 385, 391, 424, 470, 500, 549

nütram (literary genre) 539


object marking (on nouns) 136, 303

object marking (personal reference in verbs) 71, 78, 97–8, 154, 208, 218, 264, 275, 282, 306–8, 310, 353, 384, 473–6, 498, 524, 548, 557

object-oriented nominaliser 137

object pronoun 147

obligation 289, 338, 383, 573

obviative/proximate distinction 523–5

Ocaña, town and region 116

Ollantay (theatre play) 192, 255

onomatopoeic roots 236–7

Opón river 114

optative 222, 224, 473

Orélie-Antoine I (king of Araucania and Patagonia) 507

Orellana, Francisco de (explorer) 431

oriente (Amazonian lowlands of Ecuador) 12–13, 454

Orinoco river 161, 163

Orteguaza river 163

orthography xvi–xix, 86, 183, 194, 257–9, 270, 302, 377, 513, 515, 544, 572

Otavalo, town 393–4

ownership 216–17, 277, 289


Pacaicasa, site 1

Pacasmayo river 320–1

Pachacamac, site and religious centre 8, 165

Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (Inca ruler) 8

Pachitea river 419

pacification of Araucania 9, 507, 511

Paiján, town 320

palatalisation 131, 407, 434, 450, 481, 489

palatals 322–3, 324–8, 403, 425

Paleo-Indian hunters 506

Pallasca, town and region 401–3

Pampa Wars 556

pampas 10, 505, 507–8

Pampas del Sacramento 422

Pancenú, chiefdom 50

Paracas culture 165

Paraguayan missions 24

Paranapura river 456

Pariacaca (deity) 174

partial reduplication 388, 476

participle 92–5, 156, 340, 390

passive participle 95, 547

passive voice 64, 95–6, 123, 150, 329, 335, 338–42, 368, 483, 485–6, 523, 534, 547

past tense 92, 383, 485–6, 530

Pastaza river and region 454

Pasto, town 142

Patagonia 505, 507–8, 550, 554–6

Path 99–100

paucal 492

Peine, indigenous community 376–7

Peñas, Gulf of 553

percentages of Indian population 11

Perené river 417

perfective aspect 221, 231, 441, 530, 595

perlative 374

permissive 456

person hierarchy 521, 525–6

personal names 408

personal reference 35, 59, 61, 65, 71–3, 77, 88–9, 96–8, 119, 122, 133–6, 140, 147, 153–4, 156–7, 189, 192, 211–12, 218–21, 226, 269, 275, 282–3, 306, 329–32, 353, 358, 380, 383, 388–9, 423, 426, 436–8, 453, 459, 463, 471–2, 481–2, 498, 511, 521–3, 545, 557, 582

personal reference number marking 212–13, 222, 546

Peruvian Corporation 417

petrified suffix 69, 74

Philip II (king of Spain) 182

phonology 57–9, 62–3, 68–9, 75–6, 81–9, 112, 117–18, 143–5, 152, 156, 194–207, 270–4, 301–2, 321, 361, 364–7, 377–80, 386–7, 424–5, 433–5, 450, 454, 463, 479, 489, 496, 512–17, 564–5, 567–70, 591

phonotactics 35, 267, 293

phylum 28

physical characteristics of the Andean region 6–7

pidginisation 602

Pikimachay, site 1

Pilcomayo river 385, 493

Pinochet Ugarte, Augusto, military government of 507

pitch accent 118

Piura, town and region 398

Pizarro, Francisco (conquistador) 8, 167, 179

Plate, River 3, 6, 505

pluperfect 601

plural 60, 65, 77, 155, 190, 212, 221–2, 269, 277, 281–2, 305, 331–2, 356, 375, 382, 390, 492, 509, 521–2, 524–5, 545, 560

polar question 209–10, 291, 331

Poopó, lake 362

Popayán, town 142

portmanteau suffix 190, 208, 219–20, 245–6, 339

Portuguese 417

Portuguese slave-raiders 417

possession 119, 239, 367, 487, 496

possession acted upon 71

possessive affix 98, 119, 277, 359, 381, 389, 390–1, 402, 420–1, 425, 427, 449, 451, 476, 490, 494

possessive construction 77, 214, 278, 358, 382, 390, 452, 519

possessive modifier 419, 444, 449, 457, 519–20, 527, 529

possessive pronoun 65, 77, 147–8, 352, 358, 360, 382, 439, 451, 482

postposition 79, 89, 101, 129, 154, 328, 332–3, 356, 419, 449, 468, 482–3, 495, 520, 545, 560–1, 563, 565, 567, 576

posture verb 65, 150, 388

postvelar 365–6, 378–9, 402, 409

potential 153, 284–6, 309, 372, 442

preaspirated consonant 145, 495

preaspirated glide 568

preceramic phase of Andean prehistory 2, 7

predicate marker 570

prefix fusion 472

preglottalised consonant 76, 144

prehistory 7–8

prenasalised consonant 58, 75, 131, 133, 152, 434

preposition 128, 332, 484–5, 497, 576, 599

present tense (absence of ) 530

preterit 336, 337

preverb 133

preverbal adverb 535

preverbal complement 273

proclitic 370, 453, 559, 561

professional language 357

Programa de Formación en Educación Intercultural Bilingüe para los Países Andinos (PROEIB Andes) 257

progressive aspect 221, 224, 231, 281, 338

promaucaes 506

pronominal possession 69, 136, 437

pronouns 73, 111, 127, 147, 155, 269, 329, 353, 358, 360, 367–8, 375, 382–3, 391, 436, 450–1, 466, 481–2, 498, 519–20, 529, 545, 557, 574–5

proto-language 35, 80, 112, 202, 266–7

Proyecto Experimental de Educación Bilingüe (PEEB) 257, 296, 608

pseudo-passive 123

Pubenza federation 142

Puerto Eden, town 553

Pueblo Llano, town 125

Puerto Hormiga, site 8

Puerto Montt, town 506

Puná, island 392

Puna de Atacama 376

Puno, Bay of 259, 362

Puno, town and region 350, 595

Puracé, indigenous community 141–2

purpose clause 228, 239–40, 288–9, 312, 341, 428, 446

Putumayo river 151, 163–4


Quebrada de Humahuaca 410

quechua as a generic term 168

Quechua (name) 179, 259

quechua legítimo 181

Quechua renaissance 183

Quechuanisation 12, 170, 175, 394, 397

Quellón, town 510

question words 18–19, 137, 209, 236, 291, 448, 458, 465–6, 578

Quichua (name) 179

Quimbaya, goldsmith’s art of the 48

Quimbaya federation 49

quipu 254, 542

quipucamayoc 254

Quisgó, indigenous community 141

Quito, capital of the northern Inca empire and of the Republic of Ecuador 167, 393–4, 398, 406


racionales 413

raised fields 2

Ranco, lake 510

real mood 73, 583

realised event 137

realised/non-realised distinction 223

reciprocal 279, 305, 429

recognition of Quechua as a national language 4, 256

reconstruction 37, 55, 194–5, 267, 431, 495

reducciones 416, 433, 452, 477, 507

reduplication 119, 123, 232–3, 295–6, 436, 539, 549, 561, 564, 566

reflexive 133, 279, 305, 372, 485–6, 526, 534

reflexive pronoun 391, 548

regional kingdoms 8

regional standard language 256

regionalisation 8

Relación de la tierra de Jaén 173, 405

Relaciones geográficas de Indias 174, 261, 385, 393–7, 405

relational–possessive form 113–14, 119–20, 329, 332, 335, 381

relational case marker 428

relational stem 120–1

relative clause 15, 17–19, 69, 102, 118, 123, 137, 213, 288, 292, 341, 372–3, 427, 430, 447, 526–8

relative verbs 93

relativiser 292, 430

relexification 5–6, 602

religion 7–8, 84

remote past 389, 455

reportative 534

Reproacher tense 285–6

resguardos 12, 112, 141

resistance (indigenous) 9, 48–9, 75, 131, 138, 139, 431, 433

restrictions on verb structure 217–18

resultative 372

resumptive pronoun 595

retroflex 365, 568

retroflex affricate 113, 189, 201, 264–5, 302, 424–5, 514, 517

retroflex flap 117

retroflex glide 516

retroflex sibilant 202, 325

retroflex vibrant 204

retroflex voiced fricative 591

reversal of personal reference categories 359

reversive 231

rhetoric 538

rhetorical question 245

rich obstruent inventories 264

Rimac river 205

Riobamba, town 395

rise of sea levels 1

Rituale seu Manuale Peruanum 322, 351

Robledo, Jorge (conquistador) 49

Roca, Julio Argentino (military leader) 10, 508

root economy 26, 293

root structure 269

Royal Commentaries of the Incas 23

rubber exploitation 3, 10, 162, 164, 417


sabana 46, 50

Salado river, Argentina 188

Salado river, Chile 376, 379

Salar de Atacama 376

saltpetre exploitation 10

San Agustín, site and culture 8, 48, 53, 138–9

San Agustín, stone sculptures of 48, 138

San Andrés de Sotavento, town and indigenous community 52

San Basilio del Palenque, Afro-Colombian settlement 605

San Blas, archipelago of 62

San Damián de Checas, indigenous community 255

San Juan river 56

San Juan de la Costa, town 509–10, 514

San Martín, José de (liberator) 9, 183

San Miguel de los Ayamanes, indigenous community 129

San Pedro de Atacama, town and indigenous community 376

San Pedro de Casta, indigenous community 595

sandhi 62–4, 270

Sangay, volcano 432

Santa Ana de Chipaya, indigenous community 363

Santa Cruz de la Sierra, town and region 477

Santa Elena Peninsula 8

Santafé de Bogotá, state capital of Colombia and former capital of New Granada 81

Santo Domingo de los Colorados, town and indigenous community 141

Santa Marta, town 52

Santa Rosa, hacienda 417

Santiago del Estero, town and region 168, 177, 386, 408

Saraguro, town and indigenous community 395–6, 602

Sarmiento, Domingo Faustino (president of Argentina) 508

schwa 323, 352, 377, 512

Scyri 394

Sechín Alto, site 7

second language (L2) acquisition 592

second-person pronouns (of Spanish) 587

selva (Amazonian forest area in Peru) 13

semantic influence 591

semantic interpretation, range of 234

semantic underspecification 103

semi-vowel 513–14

Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path), guerrilla movement 10

sentential particles 537, 600

sentential suffixes 208–9, 291, 465

sequences of case markers 216

Seville 586–7

shape morphemes 459–60

shape of object, verbs varying according to 74

shared lexicon 35, 140, 159–60, 267, 461, 499, 555–6

sierra (Andean highlands) 20, 181, 411

Sierra de Córdoba 502

Sierra de la Macarena 161

Sierra Nevada del Cocuy 52, 109–10

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta 37, 48, 50–2, 66–7, 75

Sierra de Perijá 50, 80, 112

Silvia, town 141

Simancas, colonial settlement 139

Sinamaica, lagoon of 116

singulative 155

Sinú river 62

Sión, ancient mission 460

Siquesique, town 129

Socaire, indigenous community 376–7

Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge 498

Sogamoso, town and religious centre 46

song texts 256, 261, 296

sound correspondence 462

sound symbolism 199, 203–4, 315, 516, 559

Source 440

South American Missionary Society 550

Spaniards 8–9, 124, 138–9, 179, 263, 350, 401, 409, 417, 433, 585

Spanish American republics 10, 589

spatial adverbs 104, 520–1

spatial deixis 235–6, 295, 422

spatial distinctions 79, 275, 278–9, 293, 304, 333, 428, 533–4

spatial nouns 304

speaker/non-speaker distinction 146

speech registers 64, 433

spheres, cultural and linguistic 4–5

spondylus shell 8

sprachbund 204, 591

standardisation 20, 117, 194, 256–8, 477, 607

state 157–8

stative nominalisation 228, 289–90, 311–12, 339–41, 355, 527

stative verbs 91–2, 122, 490

stem modification 485

stock (language) 28, 30

Strait of Magellan 1, 581

stress 69, 110, 132, 145, 156, 190, 206–7, 243, 270–2, 273, 367, 386, 434, 463, 489, 569

structural similarities between Aymaran and Quechuan 267

structural transformation 36

studies on Quechua 191–4

Suaza river 139

subject-centred nominaliser 17, 137, 227, 229, 288

subject extraction 372

subject marker 564

subject/non-subject distinction 17–19

subjunctive mood 429

subordinate clause 209, 373–4, 576

subordination 137, 149, 218, 223, 224–6, 275, 287, 310–11, 341, 355, 389–90, 420–1, 456, 547

substratum 6, 149, 172, 358, 393, 404, 409, 510, 511, 586, 589

Sucre, Antonio José de (liberator) 9

sudden discovery tense 224, 534, 601, 603

suffix order 209, 232, 274

Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) 19, 21, 55, 454, 608

supine 95, 342

suppletion 89, 328, 571

Swadesh list of basic vocabulary 130–1

sweet potato 41

switch-reference 146, 149, 189, 218, 223, 225–6, 238, 241, 275–6, 287, 310, 373–4, 420–1, 446, 473

syllabic lateral 545

syllable structure 131, 206

syncope 63–4

synonyms 236

synthetic conjugation 122–3


Tabaconas, town 401

tagmemics 19, 193

Tahuantinsuyo 165

Taki Onqoy (religious movement) 9

talátur (ceremonial song) 377

Taquile, island 350

Tauca, town 402

Telarmachay, site 2

Telembí river 141

temperate altitude zone 179

temporal deixis 295

tense 73, 111, 218, 222–4, 282–7, 306–8, 380, 389, 421, 429, 441, 494, 522, 530–2, 566, 574

tense–aspect 370–2, 472

Tequendama, site 8

Tercer Concilio Limense (Third Lima Council) 20, 182

textiles 8

texts in Andean languages 21

theatre plays 183, 255

three-vowel system 156, 195, 270, 301, 402, 409, 424–5

Tiahuanaco, site 7, 165, 375

Tierra del Fuego 550–82

Tigre river 456

Timaná, town 138–9

Tingo María, town 460

Titicaca, lake 7, 170, 175, 259, 262–4, 275, 350, 362–3

Tolima, region 114

Tomebamba, ancient town 395

tonal languages 80, 163, 164, 450

tone, grammatical 80, 164

tone, lexical 75–6, 80, 110–11, 563

topicalisation 70, 136, 209–11, 291–2, 313, 356, 430, 600

toponymical area 404–5

toponymy 21, 53, 114, 125, 140, 170, 172–6, 261–3, 350–1, 392–409, 562, 565

totora 175

Tounens, Antoine Orélie de 507

tourism 417

traditional healers 356

trans-Andean contacts (between tropical forest and coastal plains) 6

trans-Pacific connections 41

transition (combined personal reference marking of subject and object in verbs) 219, 282, 306–8, 353, 384, 473–4, 522, 525–6, 528–9

transitional model (of bilingual education) 606–8

transitive/intransitive distinction 64, 90–1, 94, 233, 420–1

transitiviser 73–4, 339, 384, 421

transitivity 490

trapecio andino 174

tripartite division of native American languages 42

Trujillo, town and region in Venezuela 124

Trujillo, town in Peru 320, 328, 398, 401

truncation 367

Ts’imu, see Ch’imu

Tucumán, town and region 386, 408

Túmbez, town 179, 392

Tupac Amaru II (José Gabriel) 3, 9, 183

Tupac Amaru, rebellion of 183, 255

Tupac (Inca) Yupanqui 8, 416, 459

Tupe, indigenous community 171

typological distance 2

typological regions 50, 55


Ucayali, region 418

Ucayali river 411, 418–19, 431

United Provinces of Río de la Plata 3

universal quantifiers 137

Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá 21, 55

University of Costa Rica 55

University of Florida 260

University of San Marcos, Lima 18

University of Valparaíso 377

University Library of Cuzco 544

unku 254

Upper Amazon valley 24, 432

Upper Magdalena region 53, 139–40, 163

Urabá, Gulf of 50, 61

Urituyacu river 456

Urubamba river 411

Ushuaia, town 567

Utcubamba river 405

uvulars 178, 183, 194–8, 201–2, 243, 257, 259, 264, 301, 351, 358, 361, 365, 379, 383, 387, 505, 566


Vacacocha, lake 456

Valdivia, town and region 506, 509, 510

Valdivia, Pedro de (conquistador) 409, 506, 508

valency-changing affixes 73–4, 89, 218, 229, 232, 305, 423, 533–4

validation 70, 210–11, 419–20

Valles Calchaquíes (Calchaquí valleys) 408–9

Vaupés, river and region 162–3

velar glide 513

velar nasal 144, 194, 264, 266, 302, 304, 325, 332, 365, 465

Velasco Alvarado, Juan, military government of 256

ventive 227, 230, 280, 289, 305, 534

verb classes 571

verb-initial languages 118, 155

verbal complement 102–3

verbal derivation 208–9, 218, 229–32, 275, 278, 280, 293–4, 304–5, 339, 355, 475–6, 487–8, 491, 509, 522, 533, 546, 571–2

verbal inflection 35, 442, 522, 573–5

verbalisation 277, 474–5, 530, 534

verbs of ‘carrying and holding’ 235, 293–4

verbs of communication 233–4, 293, 446, 539

verbs of ‘eating’ 105, 388

verbs ‘to do’ 150

vertically organised network of cooperation 6

viceroys of Peru 167, 182

Vichada river 162

vigesimal count 106

Vilcabamba, Inca stronghold 9

Viltipoco (Indian leader) 410

Viracocha (Quechua name for Spaniards) 179

virtual mood 73

visitas 138, 259, 403

voiced palatal fricative 395

voiceless lateral 327–8, 379, 387, 494, 498

voiceless nasal 387

voiceless vowels 143, 366

voicing 182, 198–9, 266

vowel fluctuation 198

vowel harmony 264, 268, 339, 463, 473, 495–7, 499

vowel length 76, 81, 110–11, 118, 131, 143, 190, 195, 270–1, 275–6, 284, 287, 289, 301–17, 322, 323–4, 327, 361, 366, 377–8, 425, 433, 463, 479

vowel loss 198, 268, 323

vowel suppression 35, 89, 101, 110, 267–8, 271–4, 278, 281–2, 286, 293, 302–3, 355, 367

La Voz de los Andes (radio broadcasting station) 607


Wafer, Lionel (ship’s doctor) 62

Wars of Independence (against Spain) 9–10

war of succession (between Atahuallpa and Huascar) 8, 167

witnessed/non-witnessed 494

word order 59, 61, 65, 69, 70, 79, 99, 111, 114, 118, 127, 129, 145, 207, 274, 367, 370, 380, 385, 419, 424, 429, 443–5, 447, 449, 452, 456, 457, 460, 475, 476, 488, 493, 495, 497, 560–4, 566–7, 575–9, 597–8, 603–4

writing system, lack of indigenous 2


yanacona 53

Yarí river 162

Yavarí river 417

yeísmo 587

Yurumanguí river 60

zambos 155

Zamora, town and region 397

Zaña, town 319

zaque (indigenous ruler) 46

Zepita, town 362

zero complement 273–4, 288, 303

zero person 118–23

zipa (indigenous ruler) 46–7

Zipaquirá, town 82

zones of refuge 6

Zulia, region 115–17



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