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Fundamentals of High-Frequency CMOS Analog Integrated Circuits

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 (ISBN-13: 9780521513401)

Fundamentals of High-Frequency CMOS Analog Integrated Circuits
Cambridge University Press
9780521513401 - Fundamentals of High-Frequency CMOS Analog Integrated Circuits - By Duran Leblebici and Yusuf Leblebici
Frontmatter/Prelims

Fundamentals of High-Frequency CMOS Analog Integrated Circuits

With a design-centric approach, this textbook bridges the gap between fundamental analog electronic circuits textbooks and more advanced RF IC design texts. The structure and operation of the building blocks of high-frequency ICs are introduced in a systematic manner, with an emphasis on transistor-level operation, the influence of device characteristics and parasitic effects, and input–output behavior in the time and frequency domains.

  • solved design examples to guide the reader through the decision process that accompanies each design task, with an emphasis on key trade-offs;

  • coverage of the major issues that must be taken into account when combining analog and digital circuit building blocks;

  • key criteria and parameters that are used to describe system-level performance;

  • simple circuit models to enable a robust understanding of high-frequency design fundamentals;

  • SPICE simulations that are used to check results and fine-tune the design.

This textbook is ideal for senior undergraduate and graduate courses in RF CMOS circuits, RF circuit design, and high-frequency analog circuit design. Analog integrated circuit designers and RF circuit designers in industry who need help making design choices will also find this a practical and valuable reference.

Duran Leblebici is Professor Emeritus of Electrical and Electronics Engineering at Istanbul Technical University (ITU). He has been teaching a range of undergraduate and graduate courses, from device electronics and fabrication technologies to integrated electronic circuits and RF IC design, for more than 40 years. He is the author of three textbooks in the field of electronics. He also established the first microelectronics laboratory and the first VLSI design house at ITU. He has received the Distinguished Service Award of the Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Council (TUBITAK) in 1992, in recognition of his services to microelectronics education.

Yusuf Leblebici is Director and Chair Professor of the Microelectronic Systems Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). He has previously worked as a faculty member at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, at Istanbul Technical University, and at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), where he established and directed the VLSI Design Laboratory, and also served as a project director at the New England Center for Analog and Mixed-Signal IC Design. He is a co-author of more than 150 scientific articles and three textbooks.


Fundamentals of High-Frequency CMOS Analog Integrated Circuits

Duran Leblebici

Istanbul Technical University (ITU)

Yusuf Leblebici

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL)


CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
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Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521513401

© Cambridge University Press 2009

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2009

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication data

Leblebici, Duran.
Fundamentals of high-frequency CMOS analog integrated circuits / Duran Leblebici, Yusuf Leblebici.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-521-51340-1 (hardback)
1. Metal oxide semiconductors, Complementary. 2. Linear integrated circuits. 3. Analog electronic systems. 4. Very high speed integrated circuits. 5. Oscillators, Electric. I. Leblebici, Yusuf. II. Title.
TK7871.99.M44L4335 2009
621.3815–dc22 2009007320

ISBN 978-0-521-51340-1 hardback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.


To

Yıldız Leblebici – wife, mother, and colleague.


Contents

Preface
xi
1             Components of analog CMOS ICs
1
1.1           MOS transistors
1
1.1.1         Current–voltage relations of MOS transistors
3
1.1.1.1       The basic current–voltage relations without velocity saturation
4
1.1.1.2       Current–voltage relations under velocity saturation
11
1.1.1.3       The sub-threshold regime
15
1.1.2         Determination of model parameters and related secondary effects
19
1.1.2.1       Mobility
20
1.1.2.2       Gate capacitance
20
1.1.2.3       Threshold voltage
21
1.1.2.4       Channel length modulation factor
23
1.1.2.5       Gate length (L) and gate width (W)
24
1.1.3         Parasitics of MOS transistors
25
1.1.3.1       Parasitic capacitances
26
1.1.3.2       The high-frequency figure of merit
30
1.1.3.3       The parasitic resistances
31
1.2           Passive on-chip components
36
1.2.1         On-chip resistors
36
1.2.2         On-chip capacitors
38
1.2.2.1       Passive on-chip capacitors
38
1.2.2.2       Varactors
40
1.2.3         On-chip inductors
43
2             Basic MOS amplifiers: DC and low-frequency behavior
49
2.1           Common source (grounded source) amplifier
49
2.1.1         Biasing
53
2.1.2         The small-signal equivalent circuit
54
2.2           Active transistor loaded MOS amplifier (CMOS inverter as analog amplifier)
63
2.3           Common-gate (grounded-gate) amplifier
68
2.4           Common-drain amplifier (source follower)
70
2.5           The “long tailed pair”
75
2.5.1         The large signal behavior of the long tailed pair
84
2.5.2         Common-mode feedback
88
3             High-frequency behavior of basic amplifiers
95
3.1           High-frequency behavior of a common-source amplifier
97
3.1.1         The R-C load case
99
3.2           The source follower amplifier at radio frequencies
103
3.3           The common-gate amplifier at high frequencies
110
3.4           The “cascode” amplifier
114
3.5           The CMOS inverter as a transimpedance amplifier
118
3.6           MOS transistor with source degeneration at high frequencies
126
3.7           High-frequency behavior of differential amplifiers
129
3.7.1         The R-C loaded long tailed pair
129
3.7.2         The fully differential, current-mirror loaded amplifier
132
3.7.3         Frequency response of a single-ended output long tailed pair
136
3.7.4         On the input and output admittances of the long tailed pair
141
3.8           Gain enhancement techniques for high-frequency amplifiers
143
3.8.1         “Additive” approach: distributed amplifiers
144
3.8.2         Cascading strategies for basic gain stages
146
3.8.3         An example: the “Cherry–Hooper” amplifier
148
4             Frequency-selective RF circuits
155
4.1           Resonance circuits
156
4.1.1         The parallel resonance circuit
156
4.1.1.1       The quality factor of a resonance circuit
160
4.1.1.2       The quality factor from a different point of view
163
4.1.1.3       The “Q enhancement”
164
4.1.1.4       Bandwidth of a parallel resonance circuit
168
4.1.1.5       Currents of L and C branches of a parallel resonance circuit
169
4.1.2         The series resonance circuit
170
4.1.2.1       Component voltages in a series resonance circuit
172
4.2           Tuned amplifiers
172
4.2.1         The common-source tuned amplifier
173
4.2.2         The tuned cascode amplifier
179
4.3           Cascaded tuned stages and the staggered tuning
181
4.4           Amplifiers loaded with coupled resonance circuits
189
4.4.1         Magnetic coupling
189
4.4.2         Capacitive coupling
194
4.5           The gyrator: a valuable tool to realize high-value on-chip inductances
194
4.5.1         Parasitics of a non-ideal gyrator
197
4.5.2         Dynamic range of a gyrator-based inductor
201
4.6           The low-noise amplifier (LNA)
202
4.6.1         Input impedance matching
203
4.6.2         Basic circuits suitable for LNAs
207
4.6.3         Noise in amplifiers
210
4.6.3.1       Thermal noise of a resistor
212
4.6.3.2       Thermal noise of a MOS transistor
213
4.6.4         Noise in LNAs
224
4.6.5         The differential LNA
234
5             L-C oscillators
237
5.1           The negative resistance approach to L-C oscillators
237
5.2           The feedback approach to L-C oscillators
245
5.3           Frequency stability of L-C oscillators
249
5.3.1         Crystal oscillators
251
5.3.2         The phase-lock technique
253
5.3.3         Phase noise in oscillators
255
6             Analog–digital interface and system-level design considerations
259
6.1           General observations
259
6.2           Discrete-time sampling
263
6.3           Influence of sampling clock jitter
265
6.4           Quantization noise
267
6.5           Converter specifications
268
6.5.1         Static specifications
269
6.5.2         Frequency-domain dynamic specifications
273
6.6           Additional observations on noise in high-frequency ICs
275
Appendix      
Appendix A    Mobility degradation due to the transversal field
277
Appendix B    Characteristic curves and parameters of AMS 0.35 micron NMOS and PMOS transistors
279
Appendix C    BSIM3-v3 parameters of AMS 0.35 micron NMOS and PMOS transistors
281
Appendix D    Current sources and current mirrors
287
D.1           DC current sources
287
D.2           Frequency characteristics of basic current mirrors
289
D.2.1         Frequency characteristics for normal saturation
291
D.2.2         Frequency characteristics under velocity saturation
292
References
293
Index
297




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