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United Nations Reform and the New Collective Security

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 (ISBN-13: 9780521515436)

United Nations Reform and the New Collective Security
Cambridge University Press
9780521515436 - United Nations Reform and the New Collective Security - By Peter G. Danchin and Horst Fischer
Index

Index

7/7 London bombings (2005) 265

9/11 attacks (2001) 2, 108, 124, 251, 254

Security Council response 256–260

A More Secure World

See underHigh-Level Panel

Abyssinia

Italian invasion 36–38, 55, 60

Action Aid 230

AFDL (Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo) 341

Afghanistan 5, 165,

military interventions 108, 170

sanctions 256

Agenda 21 366

Agenda for Development 200

aggression

crime of 301–308

definitions 41

agricultural subsidies 20, , 105

Ahtisaari, Marti 198

AIDS

See HIV/AIDS

Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo (AFDL) 341

Aloisi, Baron 36, 55

Al-Qaeda 3, 251, 253, 257–260

Alvarez, Jose 166, 168

America

See United States

An Agenda for Peace 167

Annan, Kofi 5, 7, 9, 27, 29, 85, 90, 109, 155, 160, 179, 270, 314, 346, 365

anti-formalism

international law 56–58

Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC) 342

arms trade 374, 381

Arroyo, President 369

Article 2(4) (United Nations Charter) 38

Article 16 (League of Nations Covenant) 35–36, 60,

Article 51 (United Nations Charter) 24

Australia 170

balance of power 41–42, 45

conflict prevention 71

United Nations 49

weaknesses 46

Balkans 122

Baltic States 103

Bangladesh 69, 171

Banyamulenge 318

Bemba, Jean-Pierre 318, 328, 329, 342

Beslan attack (2004) 264

biannual reviews

peacebuilding frameworks 221

biological weapons 16, 22

blacklisting 90

Blair, Tony 168

Bolton, John 109, 273

border controls 181

Bosnia-Herzegovina 249

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros 200

Brahimi Report 202–203, , 213

Brookings Institution 203

Burma 153, 383

Burundi 209–210, 217–220, , 221, , 222, 224, 225–226, 227, 228, 229, 231, 234

Bush doctrine 3

CAFOD 230

Cambodia 198, 205

Cameroon 378


Canada 170

CARE International 230

Central African Republic 232, 233, 384

Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) 316

centralization

collective security 146, 147

state power 46

CERF

See underCentral Emergency Response Fund

Certain Expenses of the UN 248

CFI

See underCourt of the First Instance of the European Community

Chad 378, 381

Chad–Cameroon pipeline 378

Chapter VI powers 127, 128, 149

Chapter VII powers 25, 72, 130

controversial use 150

flaws 128–129

human rights violations 157

Charnovitz, S. 348

CHASE

See underConvergence for Human Security and Peace

Chechnya 383

chemical weapons 16, 22

Chesterman, Simon 27

Childers, Erskine 199

China 81, 153

Churchill, Winston 103

civil conflicts

See internal conflicts

civil society

non-governmental organizations 348–352

civil wars

See internal conflicts

civilian volunteer organizations (CVOs) 369

civilians

protection of 159–160,

See also responsibility to protect

Claude, I. 50

climate change 20, 178

coercion

See sanctions, use of force

Cold War 1, 64, 99, 141

collective action

legitimacy criteria 66

collective security

definitions 40–46, 145–149, 153

development paradigm 387–389

domestic analogy 45

historical development 47–51

international law 51–63, 282–309

local communities 365–393

parameters 176–182

re-evaluation 140–153

terrorism 250–281

threats 14–19

clustering 182–186

diagnosis 118–127

nonmilitary 173–192

prevention 127–129

responses 20–25, 94–113, 250–270

United Nations Charter 63–71, 141

See also threats to peace/security

collective security index (CSI) 390–392

Collier, Paul 218

Colombia 148

colonial administration 197

Commission on Human Rights 84–86, 87, 353

Commission on Human Security 203–204

complaints procedure 363

complementarity principle 308

comprehensive sanctions 237, 238, 239, 240

Concert of Europe 48

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

See underDemocratic Republic of the Congo

Congolese Rally for Democracy– Goma (RCD-Goma) 342

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 389

conventional weapons 21

Convergence for Human Security and Peace (CHASE) 370

Cordesman, Anthony 252

corruption 329

cosmopolitan justice 62

Cote d’Ivoire 232, 233

Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) 257, 261–262, 269, , 278

Court of the First Instance of the European Community (EC) 89–90


crime of aggression 301–308

crimes against humanity 288

criminal activities 17, 23, 24, 125

CSI

See undercollective security index

CTC

See underCounter-Terrorism Committee

CVOs

See undercivilian volunteer organizations

DAC

See underDevelopment Assistance Committee

Darfur 69, 295, 383

decentralization

collective security 147, 150–153

democracies

double standards 100

Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) 342

Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) 30, 148, 383

conflicts 317–322, 335–339

ethnic violence 337–338

resource exploitation 331

Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) 198, 209

Deputy Secretary-General post 200

developing countries

non-governmental organizations 348, 349, 356, 366–368, 377–380

threats perception 317

development

and security 179, 180

development aid 10, 104, 191, 229–231, 381

collective security 387–389

motivations 201

Peacebuilding Commission 242–243

United Nations Development Programme 196–197

Development Assistance Committee (DAC) 229

development politics 185

disabled people 389

disarmament 10, 104

disease control 191

Distant Thunder (Ray) 365, 377

diversity 147

double standards 100, 162–163

DPKO

See underDepartment of Peacekeeping Operations

DRC

See underDemocratic Republic of the Congo

drugs trade 148

Eagleton, C. 40

Earth Institute, Columbia University 384

Earth Summit Conference (Rio de Janeiro, 1992) 185, 186, 189

East Pakistan 69

East Timor 294

Eastern DRC

See underDemocratic Republic of the Congo

Eastern Europe 103, 113

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) 11, 188, 353

economic development 177

economic sanctions

See sanctions

economic threats 14–15, 20, 144

Economic Vulnerability Index (EVI) 233

ECOSOC

See underEconomic and Social Council

emigration 372

energy sector 226

environment, disease, technology threat cluster 184–186, 190

environmental degradation 15, 190

Ethiopia

Italian invasion 36–38, 55, 60

ethnic cleansing 69, 72, 161

European Union (EU) 78

development aid 104

International Criminal Court 300

Evans, Gareth 8

EVI

See underEconomic Vulnerability Index

failed states 165, 166

FAO

See underFood and Agriculture Organization

FAR (Forces Armées Rwandaises) 342

FARDC (Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo) 342

farm subsidies

See agricultural subsidies

FDLR (Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda) 342

FLC (Front de Libération du Congo) 342

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 196

food insecurity 15

force

See use of force

Forces Armées Rwandaises (FAR) 342

foreign governments

village security 380–381

formalism

international law 54–56, 74

free trade 188

Front de Libération du Congo (FLC) 342

Fuller, Lon 77

G8

counter-terrorism 276

General Assembly 82

counter-terrorism 273–277

crime of aggression 307

Peacebuilding Commission 207

reforms 11

genocide 69, 72, 106, 125, 288

Germany 102

Glennon, Michael 67, 68, , 70, 73

Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy 254, 274–278

global governance 42, 50, 105, 109, 122

global justice

See international law

global warming

See climate change

globalization 2, 180, 365

Great Powers

patronage 112–113

Security Council 80–81, 97–101

Guinea 228

Guinea-Bissau 232

Habermas, Jürgen 63

Hammarskjöld, Dag 233

Hannay, David 17

hard threats 17

High-Level Panel (HLP)

collective security threats 14–19, 124–127, 143–144, 178–179, 313

Commission on Human Rights 85

Peacebuilding Commission 206

reform recommendations 5, 10–13, , 20–30,

sanctions reform 240–241, 243

Security Council 95, 96

terrorism threat 250, 253

historical relativism 102

HIV/AIDS 15, 17, 126, 376

HLP

See underHigh-Level Panel

Hoffmann, Stanley 63, 64

Hrabar, Vladimir 97–98

HRC

See underHuman Rights Council

human protection

See responsibility to protect

human rights 86, 164–166, 346, 382–387

See also humanitarian crises

See underinterventions

Human Rights Commission 363

Human Rights Council (HRC) 12, 26, 30, 84–87, 343–364

membership 86, 92, 359–361

non-governmental organizations 31, 346, 353–358

website 357–358

Human Rights Watch 269

Human Security Now (Commission on Human Security) 203

humanitarian crises 70, 316

humanitarian interventions 29, 71, 72, 107, 156–163

collective security index 390–392

War on Terror 164–166

Hutu militia 317, 318, 321

Hyderabad dispute 38–40, 57, 58

ICC

See underInternational Criminal Court

ICISS (International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty) 160

ICJ

See underInternational Court of Justice

idealism

international law 59–61

ILC

See underInternational Law Commission

In Larger Freedom 6, 9, 10, 90, 176, 179–181, 206, 240, 242, 314, 390

India 38–40, 58,


indirect power

non-governmental organizations’ role 343–364

individual rights 59, 142

See also human rights

infectious diseases 191,

information technology 191

institutional reform 13, 76–93

instrumentalism

international law 74

integrated missions 198

integrated peacebuilding strategy (IPBS) 219–221, 224

intelligentsia 145, 147

Interahamwe 317, 318, 321

internal conflicts 15, 21–22, 120–121, 148, 156, 374

economic triggers 218

internationalization 149

minimization 10

international civil society 347–348, 350–352

International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) 160

international community 43–44

International Council on Human Rights Policy, Geneva 382

International Court of Justice (ICJ) 171

aggression definition 304

Security Council powers 247–248,

International Criminal Court (ICC) 10, 21–22, , 151, 171

competence 308

crime of aggression 301–308

Democratic Republic of the Congo 329

Security Council

objectives coordination 288–296

objectives subordination 296–308

relationship evolution 284–288

state cooperation 294–296

international law

collective security 51–63, 282–309

formalism 54–56, 74

idealism 59–61

instrumentalism 74

international civil society 347–348

normativity 53, 54–63, 74

policy approach 56–58

realist skepticism 58–59

International Law Commission (ILC) 303

international NGOs 377–379, 393

international security

See collective security

international terrorism

See terrorism

interstate conflicts 15, 21–22, 119, 121, 125

intrastate conflicts

See internal conflicts

IPBS

See underintegrated peacebuilding strategy

Iraq 122

case for war against 4

economic sanctions 136–139

Kurds 168

Kuwait boundary dispute 151

military interventions 66, 101, 108, 113, 124, 165, 170

Islamist terrorism 250, 252, 254

Italy

Abyssinia invasion 36–38, 55, 60

Ivory Coast 232, 233

Jennings, Ivor 78

Johnson, Howard C. 41

just war doctrine 47, 55, 68

justice

objective theories 52

Kabila, Joseph 320, 321, 328, 342

Kabila, Laurent 318, , 320

Kant, Immanuel 47

Kassa, Michel 336

Kelsen, Hans 54, 94, 112

Kennedy, David 93

Kennedy, Paul 81

Khan, Abdul Qadeer 263

Koskenniemi, Martti 44, 61, 73

Kosovo 69, 107, , 113, 160, 168, 294

Kouchner, Bernard 153, , 315

Kurds 168

Kuwait 106, 151

Kuwait–Iraq boundary dispute 151

Kyoto Protocol 20


Lauterpacht, Hersch 54

law

See international law

League of Nations 35–38, 80

failure 98, 103

formation 48

Italo-Ethiopian war 58

liberalism

dilemmas of 51–54, 61

Liberia 233, 384, 385–387,

Libya 135–136, 256

local communities 31

collective security 365–393

security threats 371–387

local NGOs 379–380, 393

logging 368

London bombings (2005) 265

Lovald, John 225

Luck, Professor Edward 8

Lusaka Accord 320

Madrid bombings (2004) 261–262

Mai-Mai 318, 342

Malawi 384

Malloch Brown, Mark 9, 214

MDGs

See underMillennium Development Goals

medicine 191

Middle East 122

migration 372

military interventions

See use of force

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 10, 20, 177, 180, 332

Millennium Villages 384–385

Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

See underMONUC

Mobutu, President 317, 318, 374

Moisi, Dominique 154

Molotov, Vyacheslav V. 103

MONUC (Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo) 30

human rights 329–331

New Collective Security 335–339

security role 324–328

sustainable peace 331–332

tasks 322–324

transition facilitation role 328–329

UN reforms 332–335, 339–340

moral naturalism 73

morality 52

Morgenthau, Hans 58

Mountain Partnership 375,

Mozambique 198, 205

multilateralism 72

Mutebusi war 321

Myanmar 153, 383

Namibia 197–198,

Napoleon Bonaparte 102

narcotics trade 148

National Security Strategy document (NSS) 165

national sovereignty

See state sovereignty

National Task Force on Convergence 367

nationalist terrorism 251

NATO 69, 70, 106, 107

natural disasters 153

natural morality 52

natural resources

exploitation 368

natural rights 46

Negros community, Philippines 366–370, 371–372, 378

Nepal 233

New York summit (2000) 123

NGOs

See undernon-governmental organizations

Nicholas, H. G. 80

Niemeyer, Gerhart 41

Nkunda, General 321, , 328, 329, 337, 338

non-governmental organizations (NGOs)

civil society 348–352

collective security 358–364

complaints procedure 363–364

Human Rights Council 346–361, ,

special procedures 363

UN legitimacy 352–358

village security 377–380

Nordic reform proposal 199

North Korea 383

Norway 225

NSS (National Security Strategy document) 165

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 22, 104


nuclear weapons 16, 22, 244

nuclear-weapon-free zones 22

Nuremberg Tribunal 302

Oakeshott, Michael 77

OAU

See underOrganization of African Unity

official development aid (ODA) 104, 229–230

See also development aid

oil market 135

Organization of African Unity (OAU) 135

organizations

reform 76–93

types 77

organized crime 17, 23, 24, 125

Otto, Diane 347

P5

See underPermament Five

Pakistan 171

pandemics 191

paternalism 147

PBC

See underPeacebuilding Commission

peace enforcement 70

peacebuilding

criteria 201

definition 202

post-conflict 202–211, 212–233

Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) 12, 27–28, 87–89, 212

added value 225–231

assistance to governments 222–223

Burundi 218

challenges 223–225

composition 92

configurations 215

Democratic Republic of the Congo 333

first assignments 208–210

integrated peacebuilding strategy 219–221

membership 206, 214–215

origins 204–208

performance 230–233

resources 224, 225, 229–230

role 206, 212, 214, 315

selection process 216–218

Sierra Leone 218

weaknesses 210–211

Peacebuilding Fund 208, 209, , 210, 212, 213, 216, 224, 227–228

Peacebuilding Support Office 212, 213, 215

peacekeeping 83, 170–171, 197, 202, 300

peer accountability 171

Penn, William 47

permanent five (P5) 80, 81, 82, 84, 94, 95

double standards 101, 103–105

peacekeeping 83

power abuses 97–101

Peru 148

Peterson, M. J. 98

Philippines 366–370, 371–372, 378

political rationality 77

pollution 190

post-conflict peacebuilding 202–211, 212–233

Post-conflict Recovery Facility 203

poverty 146, 164

collective security threat 126, 184–185

reduction 191

See also wealth distribution

Powell, Colin 165

preventive war 66

property rights 90

prostitution 324

protection responsibility

See responsibility to protect

Radio Okapi 331

radiological weapons 16, 22

Rastas 327

Rau, Sir Benegal 39

Ray, Satyajit 365

RCD-Goma (Congolese Rally for Democracy–Goma) 342

realism

international law 58

Realpolitik 145

reform 7–14, 18

decisive moments 7

political rationality 91–93

regional organizations 8, 21

Register of Conventional Arms 21


relativism 102

representativeness of the Security Council 79–84, 92, 142

responsibility to protect 19, 28–29, 71, 107, 155–172, 180, 315

crisis prevention 169

criticism 166

MONUC 334

recommendations 170–172

Rio Pact 70

roads 331–332, 333–334

‘rogue’ states 165, 166

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano 9

rule of law 51, 53, 64

rural communities

See villages

Rwanda 106, 160, 282

DRC conflict 317–318, 319, 320, 326, 330, 337

Rwandophones 342

Sachs, Jeffrey 385

San Francisco Conference 102

sanctions 15, 129–141,

against individuals 244, 246

against Italy 37

avoidance 135

committees 89–91, 93, 241, 244–245, ,

compliance 249

corruption 137

criticism 238, 240

effectiveness 134

equality principle 244

High-Level Panel recommendations 240–241

human costs 137

humanitarian impact assessment 245

In Larger Freedom 242

intrusiveness level 134

motivations 133

policy refinements 236–240

reform 29, 235–236, 238, 240–249

shortcomings 138–140

types 237

World Summit Outcome 242–246,

Saul, Ben 253

Schucking, Walter 48

Secretariat

counter-terrorism 270–273

Secretary-General

MONUC report 325–328

sanctions 241

Security Council

9/11 attacks (2001) 256–260

authority 187

Beslan attack response 264

Cold War 1

composition 79–84, 96

counter-terrorism 254, 255–280, ,

crime of aggression 301–308

criticism of 97–101

empowerment 110–112

enforcement role 149–153

geographical representation 84

historical record 101–105

Hyderabad dispute 39–40

inadequacies 106

International Criminal Court 21–22

deferral powers 296–301

objectives coordination 288–296

objectives subordination 296–308

referral powers 288–294

relationship evolution 284–288

state cooperation 294–296

Iraq invasion 5

legitimacy, 27 94–95, 112, 157

London bombings response 265

Madrid bombings response 261–262

nonmilitary threats 188

normative overstretch 156

normative principles 246

Peacebuilding Commission 208

permanent membership enlargement 112

reform 13, 25–26, 79–84, 94–113, 173

representativeness 79–84, 92, 142

role 38, 173

sanctions 131, 237, 238–240, 241, 242–243, , 244–249, 256, 257–260

self-defence rights 13, 65, 69, 72, 249, 256

separatist terrorism 251

Serbia 106

sex scandals 324

shared interests 145


Sichuan earthquake 153

Sierra Leone 209–210, 217–221, , 222, 223, 224, 226–227, , 229, 232, 234

skepticism

international law 58–59

smart sanctions 140

social contracts 51

socio-economic threats 14–15, 20, 144

soft threats 17

South Africa 376

South Centre 111

sovereign states 119

sovereignty

See state sovereignty

Soviet Union 102

special procedures 363

Spencer, John 37

St. Pierre, Abbé de 47

Stalin, Joseph 103

state sovereignty 13, 19, 43, 45–46, , 62–63, 64, 182

human rights 382

responsibility to protect 167–169

subsidies, agricultural 20, , 105

Sud Kivu province

See Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)

Sudan 256, 289, 295, 383

sustainable development 186, 189

Swing, William Lacey 323

Taliban 3, 165, 257–260

targeted sanctions 237, 238, 242

technology

collective security threat 185, 190–192

terrorism 16, 23–24, 125

cooperation against 3

definition 253, 255, 314

responses to 4, 250–281

suspects’ rights 91

threat perception 165

weapons of mass destruction 11

threats to peace/security 18, 156

clustering 182–186

diagnosis 118–127

evaluation 126–127

hierarchy 18

nonmilitary

burden sharing 184–186

clustering 183–184

responses 187–190

prevention 127–129

responses to 94–113, 173–192, 250–281

See also collective security

Timor-Leste 232,

trade liberalization 177, 188

transnational conflicts 127, 148

transnational crime 17, 23, 24, 125

transnational terrorism

See terrorism

truth and reconciliation commissions 283, 330

Türk, Danilo 99

Tutsi militia 318

Uganda 318, 319, 330

UNAMIL (UN Observer Mission in Liberia)

See Liberia

unilateralism 4, 73, 101, 111

use of force 65, 66, 67

United Nations (UN)

balance of power 49

Charter 43

collective security 63–71, 141

human rights 157

Development Programme 196–197

formation 49

non-governmental organizations 352–358

purpose 1

reform 5, 7–14

United States’ role 8

village security 389–390

See also General Assembly, Secretariat, Security Council

United States

development aid 104

hegemony 112–113, 122, 123, 182

Human Rights Council 26

humanitarian interventions 164–165

International Criminal Court 300

Iraq invasion 101

threats perception 317

UN relations 8, 9

unilateralism 111

veto powers 109


universal periodic review (UPR) mechanism 361–362

UNTAC (UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia) 198

UPR

See underuniversal periodic review

Urquhart, Sir Brian 199

use of force 24–25, 43, 46, 47, 51, 128–129

Afghanistan 108

authorization 72

humanitarian triggers 158–159, 161–163, 168

Iraq 108

limitation 65–68

motivations 132–133

NATO 69

as policy tool 130

preventive 166, 169

unilateralism 65, 66, 67

USSR 102

veto powers 50, 65, 82, 94–95, 112

abuses 99

reform 96

restraint pact 246

sanctions reform 246

villages

collective security 365–393

security threats 31, 371–387

war crimes 29

War on Terror 164–166

wealth distribution 148, 164, 176

See also poverty

weapons of mass destruction (WMD) 10, 16, 22, 163, 263

Wedgwood, Ruth 8

Westphalia, Peace of 47

Westphalian state model 61–62

WMD

See underweapons of mass destruction

world federalism 50

world order

competing visions 5

World Summit (New York, 2005) 184, 235–236, 314–315, 316

international law 287–288

political outcome 181–182

sanctions 242–246,

Wright, Quincy 55

Yeats, W. B. 35

Yugoslavia 107, 122, 282




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