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Speech Out of Doors

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 (ISBN-13: 9780521517300)

Speech Out of Doors
Cambridge University Press
9780521517300 - Speech Out of Doors - Preserving First Amendment Liberties in Public Places - By Timothy Zick
Index

Index

abortion 101, 115

abortion clinic 22, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 98, 100, 101, 105, 111, 112, 115, 117, 119, 120, 121, 122, 124, 125, 126, 128, 135, 136, 137, 139, 140, 142, 159

and arson 84

and assault 84

and blockades 84

and bomb threats 84

and bubbles 83, 85, 86, 87, 137, 139

and buffer zones 83, 85, 86, 87, 117, 119, 120, 122, 139, 140

and chemical attacks 84

and civil disobedience 84

and harassment 84

and pickets 84

and psychological repose 85

and right to privacy 87

and sidewalk counselors 84

and vandalism 84

and violence 84

absent presence 98, 181, 304, 305, 307, 315, 322

academic freedom 266

ACLU v. Mote 268

Afghanistan 124

Agora Coalition 176, 178

airports 159

Amalgamated Food Employees Union v. Logan Valley Plaza 151, 152, 153, 154, 155

American Revolution 28, 30, 34, 35, 43

anticipatory conformity 309, 317, 318, 321, 322, 324

anti-riot acts 30

architecture of fear 131, 141

assembly, right of 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 32, 35, 184, 191, 207

Augé, Marc 146, 147, 148, 181

Baker, C. Edwin 207, 208, 209

Balkin, Jack 233

Barber, Benjamin 176, 177

Battle in Seattle 221, 222, 223, 226, 227, 245, 254, 257

begging 40, 71, 75, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 87, 98, 102, 103

Berger, Curtis 175

Bethel School District v. Fraser 269

Bill of Rights 156

biometrics 301, 311, 314, 321

Birmingham, Alabama 51

Black, Justice Hugo L. 108, 109

Bloomberg, Mayor Michael 95

bollards 131, 141

Boston Common 183

Brandeis, Justice Louis 63

broken windows theory 80

Burson v. Freeman 92, 93

Bush, President George W. 22, 94, 111, 116, 202, 221, 234, 235, 236, 237

Calthorpe, Peter 41

campus order management system 273, 276, 282, 285, 286, 287, 288

Cantwell v. Connecticut 45, 76

Cantwell, Jessie 45

captive audience 136, 138

Carter, President James 93

Celebration, Florida 148

Central Park 182, 201, 203, 205, 213, 216, 231, 321

as networked place 296

as sacred place 188

channeling 61, 62, 64

Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire 76

Cheney, Vice President Dick 65, 95

citizen-journalists 307

City of Ladue v. Gilleo 112

civil disobedience 217, 218, 222, 231, 244, 257, 323

Civil Rights Era 47, 49, 51, 59, 77, 105, 106, 109, 111, 116, 117, 132, 170, 255, 260

and access to contested place 109

and civil rights legislation 51

and people out of doors 47

and spatial segregation 106

civil rights movement 14, 47, 84, 108, 111, 115, 119, 185, 188, 244

and be-ins 47

and blockades 115

and contested place 48, 108

and demonstrations 115

and identity claims 48

and lie-ins 47

and love-ins 47

and pray-ins 47

and repertoires of contention 47, 142

and sit-ins 47, 48, 115

Civil War 33

Clark v. Community for Creative Non-Violence 203

closed-circuit television (CCTV) 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 307, 309, 318, 320, 321, 324

cocooning 148, 181

Cohen v. California 50

Cohen, Adam 72, 102

colonial era 75, 105, 132, 182, 183, 189

commercial speech 275

commercialization of place 199, 200, 202, 203

commons 99, 103, 200

Communists 314

company town 148, 150, 151, 154, 155, 164, 173

Connor, Bull 52

contested place 83, 85, 87, 105, 147, 153, 155, 187, 192, 203, 214, 231, 239, 250, 252, 277, 281

abortion clinic as 22, 111, 112, 115, 119

and amplification of message 112, 121

and “no-gos” 131

and “obvious centers of protest” 106, 110, 115, 131

and architecture of fear 141

and audience 111

and bollards 131, 141

and buffer zones 117, 136

and captive audience 136

and choice of place 110, 134, 139, 143

and content neutrality 134, 135, 136

and discretionary policing 130

and expressive zoning 129

and French barrier 131

and institutional free speech policies 128, 129

and Jersey barriers 131

and media attention 106, 111, 116, 121

and permit schemes 128, 129

and physical conditions 117, 130

and privacy 121, 136, 137

and proximity 112

and public order laws 129

and repose 121

and residential privacy zones 117, 121

and security consultants 131

and social movement 110

and speakers’ tactics 142

and symbolism 105, 111

and topophilia 111, 115, 134

Armed Forces Recruitment Center as 22, 112

as place of last resort 113, 114

business as 115, 116

capitol as 106

cemetery as 22, 115, 119, 124, 125

church as 115

county jail as 108

court as 106, 107

Fleet Center as 231

foreign embassy as 118

forest as 115

mayoral residence as 108

military academy as 115

military installation as 115

national park as 115

official residence as 115, 121

Pentagon as 114

political convention as 115

port as 115

private lunch counter as 109

private residence as 115, 121

public library as 106

public school as 117

statehouse as 106, 107

Summer White House as 22, 111, 113

Supreme Court as 118

U.S. Capitol as 114

White House as 114

Cox v. New Hampshire 190, 191, 194, 196, 206, 207, 208, 211, 212

Crawford, Margaret 148

critical democratic moments 1, 3, 6, 10, 23, 119, 220, 221, 223, 225, 226, 236, 237, 239, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 248, 250, 254, 258, 318

cyber-stalking 307

datasensing 302, 303

Davis v. Commonwealth 35

della Porta, Donatella 242, 243

Democratic National Convention, 1968 52, 61, 197, 221, 226, 227

Democratic National Convention, 2000 227, 241, 251

Democratic National Convention, 2004 1, 6, 228, 249

demonstration zone 246, 256

See also DZ

digital nervous system 302, 319

Disneyification 200

District of Columbia Police Department 193

Douglas, Justice William O. 104, 108, 109, 282, 289, 292, 293

Draft Riots 33

DZ 1, 2, 4, 5, 228, 229, 230, 231, 243, 248, 250, 251, 252, 253

Earl, Jennifer 242, 243

eigenface 311

eigenvalues 311, 312

Ellickson, Robert 102, 103

embodied expression 66, 67, 70, 72, 74, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 83, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 103, 157, 239, 252, 304

and fraud 89, 90, 92, 96

and pedestrian traffic 89, 90, 92

and personal distance 94

and personal space 98

and public attitudes 96, 97

and public order 92

See also embodied place

embodied place 65, 136, 142, 147, 159

and abortion clinic 21

and airports 89

and beggars 72

and bodily integrity 72

and bubbles 99, 100, 101

and buffer zones 99, 100, 101

and captive audience 73

and codification of social distance 99–104

and commercialization 98

and content neutrality 100, 101

and democratic functions of place 66

and fraud 72

and identity claims 73, 102

and immediacy 21, 66, 71, 77, 78, 83, 93, 100, 101

and leafleting 71

and movement 72

and panhandlers 21, 66, 71

and participation function 74

and petitioners 71, 72

and physical conditions 98

and polling places 92, 93

and pollsters 71, 72

and privacy concerns 22, 67, 72

and privatization 98

and proselytizers 66, 71

and proxemics 69, 70

and proximity 21, 66, 71, 77, 78, 83, 93, 100, 101

and public officials 94, 95

and repose 72

and reserve 72

and right to privacy 90, 95, 96, 101

and safety 72

and sidewalk counselors 21, 65, 66, 71, 72

and social conditions 78

and social distance 77, 95

and solicitors 66

and transparency 74

as personal space 65, 66

relationship wedge and 72

solicitors 21

Emerson, Thomas I. 35

Equal Protection Clause 212

escalated force policing 59, 197, 199, 225, 226, 227, 240, 242

exit polling 93

expressive culture 3, 5, 10, 13

expressive topography.

and activism 63

and automobile 37

and early public contention 41–53

and Hague dictum 185

and influence of public policing 59–60

and modern city 39

and physical conditions 36, 38

and political influences 36

and population migration 37

and security concerns 64

and shopping centers 38

and social conditions 36

and suburbs 38

and urban malaise 41

and urban purification 40

as system of places 114

defined 5

early expressive topography described 26–35

mapping of 6

social and demographic forces 41

See embodied place, contested place, non-place, inscribed place, militarized place, places of higher learning, networked place, sacred places

expressive zoning 44, 61, 62, 99, 100, 105, 117, 118, 119, 122, 127, 129, 220, 224, 225, 243, 277, 280, 287, 293

and abortion clinic 61, 85, 101, 119, 120

and beggars 80

and bubbles 61, 86

and buffers 61

and cemeteries 61

and contested place 117, 119, 129

and embodied place 94

and fixed buffer zones 86

and floating buffer zones 86

and free speech zones 61

and funeral protests 117, 125

and militarized place 224

and national parks 61

and places of higher learning 61, 276–281

and political campaigns 61

and polling places 92, 93

and private residence 121, 122, 123

and public officials 95

and university 259

at Democratic National Convention, 2000 227

at Democratic National Convention, 2004 1, 228

at presidential events 234, 235

at presidential inaugurals 237

at world conferences and summits 238, 239

residential privacy zones 117

exurban 38, 201

exurbs 37

facial recognition software 311

Federalists 32

Fifth Amendment 154, 156, 172

fighting words 126, 272

First Amendment 89, 303, 317

absolutism 207

and “unwritten amenities” 308

and anonymity 275, 301, 307

and applicability to states 43, 183

and begging 82

and captive audience 7, 21, 69, 87, 137, 306

and chilling of expression 206, 246, 249, 273, 307, 317

and choice of place 114

and commercial speech 275

and compatibility standard 171

and content neutrality 54, 56, 58, 86, 90, 136, 139, 246, 249, 271

and expressive easements 49, 51, 185

and fighting words 76

and financial burdens on speech 206

and hate speech 272

and heckler’s veto 189, 290

and hostile audience 50, 108, 211

and incitement 50, 76

and leafleting 76, 77

and marketplace of ideas 207

and offensive speech 76, 77, 96

and overbreadth doctrine 318

and pamphleteering 16, 26, 45

and parchment liberties 25

and political expression 93

and poorly financed causes 97, 166, 201, 305

and preferred status of rights 154

and prior restraints 183, 191, 275

and proselytizing 26, 77

and protection for private thought 311

and right to privacy 50, 77, 79, 87

and Robert’s Rules of Order 6, 57, 58, 185

and self-actualization 102, 207

and self-government 13, 16, 17, 23, 50, 64, 76, 102, 143, 246

and soliciting 77

and threats 50

and university 263, 264, 266, 267

and unprotected expression 272

assembly, right of 4, 5, 6, 8, 26, 32, 35, 86, 121, 141, 207

breathing space 5, 20, 25, 45

distortion model 12

enhancement model 12, 163, 183, 211

leafleting 16, 21

marketplace of ideas 13, 100

petition, right to 2, 27, 32, 35, 94, 95, 109

poorly financed causes and 3

press, freedom of 26, 27, 32, 75, 89

public contention and 5

public forum doctrine 7, 11, 12

right not to speak 310

speech, freedom of 5, 8, 32, 89

See also assembly, right of, petition, right to, press, freedom of, speech, freedom of

flag burning 133

Fleet Center 229

Fortress USA 131

Foucault, Michel 11, 224, 225, 247, 248, 250

Foundation for Individual Rights in Education 278, 281, 293

Fourteenth Amendment 154

Fourth Amendment 294, 303, 309

Frankfurter, Justice Felix 266

Franklin, Benjamin 180

free speech fights 118

Free Speech Movement 260, 261, 263, 277, 293

free speech zones 61, 141, 224, 225, 235, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 293

See also expressive zoning

Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act 85

Freemont Street Experience 90

French barrier 131, 141

Frisby v. Schultz 121, 122, 126, 127, 133, 135, 138, 140

Frug, Gerald E. 41

funeral protests 124, 140

and buffer zones 125, 126, 138, 140, 143

and captive audience 127, 137

and content neutrality 128, 135

and court decisions 126, 127

and floating buffer zones 126

and privacy 126, 128, 137

and Respect for America’s Fallen Heroes Act 125

municipal laws relating to 126

state laws relating to 125

G8 Summit 238

Galbraith, John Kenneth 263

gated communities 13, 38, 79, 145, 148, 149, 160, 161, 162, 172, 250

Giuliani, Rudolph 80

Global Positioning System 302, 303, 306, 314

Goffman, Erving 65, 67, 72

Goldberger, David 209

Gore, Albert 93

Gould, Jon 272

Granny Peace Brigade 112, 130, 141

Great Lawn 203

Greek agora 13

Ground Zero 10, 112

Hague v. CIO 47, 54, 183, 184, 185, 189, 190, 196, 199, 205, 206, 211, 218

Hall, Edward T. 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 77, 87, 100

See proxemics

Hamilton, Alexander 31, 180

handbilling 86, 153, 154

Hare Krishnas 88

hate speech 272

Haymarket Riot 33

Healy v. James 263, 264, 270

heckler’s veto 290

Heffron v. International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Inc. 88

Hershkoff, Helen 72, 102

Hill v. Colorado 86, 87, 100, 101, 137

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr. 6, 35, 183

homelessness 79, 80, 82, 102, 115, 203

homeowner’s association 161

hostile audience 211

Hudgens v. NLRB 154, 155, 156, 165, 173

implied warranty of habitability 175

Industrial Workers of the World.

See Wobblies

inscribed place 22, 182, 223, 297, 305, 321

and activism 217, 218

and civil disobedience 218

and commercialization 199, 200

and exclusive use permits 201, 213

and financial burdens on speech 182, 190–196, 206, 209

and improvements 23, 183, 199, 202, 203, 213, 216

and permit schemes 182

and privatization 23, 182, 199, 200, 213, 214, 215

and process of inscription 186–189

and public democracy 182

and public order management system 22, 190, 197

and public policing 182, 197

and sacred places 182, 187

Central Park as 22, 182

Great Lawn as 203

National Mall as 22, 182

New York City’s Fifth Avenue as 193

institutional free speech policies 58, 61, 117, 128, 129

institutionalization of protest 196, 197

International Monetary Fund 238, 239

International Society for Krishna Consciousness v. Lee 157, 158, 159, 162, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171

Iraq 65, 111, 113, 116, 124, 240, 274

Irish Five Points 32

Jackson State University 262

Jacobs, Jane 40, 41, 176, 179, 187, 199, 216

Jay Treaty 31

Jefferson, Thomas 27

Jehovah’s Witnesses 14, 45, 46, 47, 75, 76, 77, 78, 91, 97, 102, 150, 151, 314

Jena, Louisiana 15

Jersey barrier 62, 131, 141, 228

Jews for Jesus 90

John F. Kennedy International Airport 178

Johnson, President Lyndon B. 263

Kalven, Harry, Jr. 6, 8, 49, 185, 189

Kelling, George L. 80

Kennedy, Justice Anthony M. 86, 100, 101, 158, 159, 162, 167, 169, 170, 171, 174

Kent State University 262

King, Martin Luther, Jr. 52, 81, 188, 202

Kors, Alan 286

Kuntsler, James 37, 38

labor riots 32

Lafayette Park 188, 194, 203

Laird v. Tatum 317, 318, 319

Le Corbusier 149

leafleting 16, 21, 71, 74, 76, 77, 86, 88, 101, 122, 133, 141, 173, 174, 191, 214, 230, 231, 233, 252, 274, 275

League of Women Voters 165

Lee v. International Society for Krishna Consciousness 157

Lefebvre, Henri 11

Lerner, Max 179, 180, 181

Levinson, Sanford 233

Lincoln Memorial 113, 131, 202

Lincoln Park 226

Lipsky, Michael 255

Lloyd Center Mall 153, 154

Lloyd Corp. v. Tanner 153, 154

Logan Valley Mall 151

Los Angeles Police Department 241

Low, Setha 160

Lower Manhattan Security Initiative 299

Madison, James 27

Madsen v. Women’s Health Center, Inc. 85, 86, 120, 127

Maier, Pauline 27, 28

Mall of America 144, 165, 166

marketplace of ideas 13, 100, 207, 268, 282, 285, 286, 291, 292, 305, 315

Marsh v. Alabama 150, 151, 152, 173

Marshall, Justice Thurgood 152, 154, 158, 174, 188

Massey, Calvin 168

media

and conflict bias 257

and episodic coverage 257

and thematic coverage 257

description bias and 257

selection bias and 257

Meikeljohn, Alexander 15, 185

Meyer, David 196

militarization of place 115, 220, 221, 223, 225, 226, 231, 232, 234, 236, 238, 239, 240, 242–246, 248–252, 254, 255, 257, 258, 294

and burden on expression 249

and contested place 252

and democratic functions of place 245

and embodied expression 252

and media attention 239

and social control of dissent 242

and social movements 221, 244

and surveillance 240

as repression 243

See also militarized place

militarized place 220

and adequate alternative places 253

and branding 250

and content correlation 249, 251

and critical democratic moments 23, 220

and expressive zoning 239

and judicial review 246–254

and mass demonstrations 240

and media attention 244, 253

and national political conventions 23, 226

and National Special Security Events 237

and neutrality 246, 248, 249

and presidential events 234

and presidential inaugurals 23, 236, 237

and repertoires of contention 220

and repression 220

and security 220, 221, 238, 239, 251

and spatial militarization 223–226

and spatial skepticism 250

and surveillance 225, 238, 240

and tailoring 251, 252

and vocality 246, 250

and world conferences and summits 23, 238

world conferences and summits 238

Mitchell, Don 7, 14

mobs 2, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 43, 51, 59, 74, 106, 184, 208

Mormon Church 214

Moses, Robert 40

Muni WiFi 295, 296, 320, 321

narrowcasting 17, 78, 305, 315

National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty 79, 80

National Mall 10, 182, 188, 193, 194, 201, 202, 203, 213, 217, 236, 299, 315, 321

National Park Service 128, 193, 194, 202, 203, 237, 299

National Republican Party 52

National Security Agency 317

National Special Security Event 237

Nazis 314

negotiated management policing 59, 197, 198, 221, 223, 227, 240, 243

Neisser, Eric 209, 210

networked place 24, 181, 294

and absent presence 304, 307

and anticipatory conformity 309, 321

and captive audience 306

and chilling of expression 313, 315, 317

and citizen journalists 307, 323

and closed-circuit television (CCTV) 24

and compulsory speech 310

and democratic functions of place 312–316

and digital nervous system 302

and First Amendment 303

and Fourth Amendment 294, 303

and media attention 323

and narrowcasting 305

and personal computing 24, 295, 302, 305

and protection for private thought 311

and public anonymity 24, 307, 308

and public privacy 24

and regulatory transparency 319, 320, 323

and repression 316

and sexually explicit speech 306

and sousveillance 323

and spamming 306

and surveillance 294, 295, 296, 298, 299, 300, 301, 307, 308, 309, 316, 319, 321, 323

and virtual expression 24, 305, 307

and wireless Internet 294, 295, 296

public policing of 318

New Orleans Police Department 195

new urbanism 42, 98, 99, 179, 216, 217, 218, 314, 315

New York City Police Department 83, 97, 232, 294, 319

New York Civil Liberties Union 298, 299

New York Times v. Sullivan 50

non-place 22, 145, 146, 186

airport as 22, 147, 148, 157, 159, 167

and modernity 145

and cocooning 148

and homogenization 145

and placelessness 146, 181

and privatization 160

and public-private distinction 161–167

and quasi-public places 145, 163, 164, 167, 175

and relationship to non-public forum 22

and state action doctrine 149, 150

and third places 178–181

as dead space 145, 147

defined 146

gated communities as 148, 149, 160

places of modernity as 22, 148, 149, 159, 169, 171

prescriptions for negating 171–181

quasi-public places as 22

shopping center as 22, 148, 156

transportation facilities as 144, 159

Norris, Clive 309

Office of Presidential Advance 236

Oldenburg, Ray 179, 180

Operation Rescue 136

Orange Riots 33

Paine, Thomas 75, 90, 308

pamphleteering 26, 79, 88, 90, 95, 96, 101, 133, 139, 308

panhandling 80, 81, 82, 83, 88, 90, 97, 102, 103

Patriot Guard Riders 135

peddling 88, 89, 90, 92

Pennsylvania Socialist Workers 1982 Campaign v. Connecticut General Life Ins. Co. 174

Pentagon 22, 113, 114

people out of doors 2, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31, 34, 59, 105, 180, 184, 190, 196, 220, 245

permit schemes 30, 32, 75, 88, 117, 128, 182, 192, 193, 194, 196, 197, 206, 208, 209, 211, 213, 223, 240, 248, 273, 274, 276

and advance notice 192

and cleanup costs 194

and content neutrality 191

and cost allocation 211

and indemnification agreements 195

and indemnity bonds 195, 211

and indigency exceptions 195, 210, 212

and liability insurance 195, 209, 210

and license fees 194

and parade routes 192

and parks 193

and time, place, and manner doctrine 191

and unbridled discretion 46, 141, 190

and user fees 194

typical terms of 191

personal computing devices 78, 97, 181, 257, 294, 295, 302, 303, 305, 306, 307, 314, 322

personal space 67, 68, 70, 71, 72, 79, 85, 87, 89, 95, 96, 103

and gender differences 67

and nationality 67

and privacy 72

sociology of 66, 67

See also embodied place

petition, right to 27, 32, 35, 95, 109, 184

petitioning 71, 79, 95

picketing 108, 122, 124, 125, 127, 152

Piranesi 1, 228

place

and aesthetics 7

and branding 12

and civic republicanism 16

and commercialization 7, 10

and constitutional origins 182

and Disneyification 40, 200

and dynamism 11

and expressive easements 9

and fungibility 11

and identity claims 13, 14, 15, 18, 28, 43, 73, 161, 218, 245, 312, 314

and improvements 58

and media attention 10

and militarization 4

and neutrality 11, 100, 246

and non-place 146

and participation 74, 314

and placelessness 10, 146

and places of modernity 148, 149, 156, 157, 159, 168, 169

and privatization 7, 58, 99, 114, 150, 159, 160, 161, 162, 200, 213

and proximity 10

and quasi-public places 88, 163, 167, 172

and representation 14

and repression 4, 224

and social construction 10

and spatial inscription 186

and third places 172

and topophilia 9

and transparency 13, 17, 18, 74, 244, 246, 315

and variability 11, 163

and virtual forums 3, 16

and visibility 14

and vocality 4, 136, 246, 249

as bricks and mortar 3, 187

as expressive 9

as mnemonic 187

as res or property 8, 58, 184, 185, 199

as safety valve 18, 31

as theatrical 18

democratic functions of 13, 23, 28, 66, 73, 182, 184, 212, 221, 245, 304, 312

distinguished from space 145

government as owner 9, 34, 35, 108, 118, 184, 199

government as proprietor 9

government as trustee 9, 26, 47, 58, 63, 141, 184, 185, 205

malling of 199

meatspaces 3, 16, 17

See also embodied place, contested place, non-place, inscribed place, militarized place, places of higher learning, networked place, sacred places

placelessness 10, 146, 181

places of higher learning 23, 300

and campus “outsiders” 290, 291, 292

and campus activism 260–264

and expressive zoning 276–281

and First Amendment standards 267–270

and leafleting 275

and permit schemes 274

and social movements 23

and speech standards 288, 289

and time, place, and manner regulations 286

as marketplace of ideas 282, 286, 288, 291

as microcosm of expressive topography 282

campus order management system 273, 276, 285, 287

student activism 292, 293

typical speech policies 273, 274, 275

See also university

places of modernity 148, 149, 156, 157, 159, 161, 167, 168, 169, 171, 172, 173, 176, 177

polling 71, 79

polling places 92, 93, 94

pollsters 92, 97

popular sovereignty 2, 74

Powell, Justice Lewis F. 262, 270

Presidential Advance Manual 236

press, freedom of 27, 32, 75, 89, 184

prior restraints 183, 191, 206, 212, 269, 274, 275

privacy, right to 22, 66, 73, 76, 77, 79, 87, 96, 136, 137, 138

privatization 23, 150, 159, 160, 161, 162, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 206, 213, 214

proselytizing 26, 71, 75, 79, 88, 95, 103, 139

proxemics 67

and intimate distance 69

and personal distance 69

and public distance 70

and social distance 69, 87, 100

and zones 68

Prune Yard Shopping Center v. Robins 172

public anonymity 24, 249, 301, 307, 308, 310, 312, 313, 321

public contention 41, 190, 196, 197, 209, 211, 218, 220, 226, 232, 244, 246, 248, 250, 258, 260, 295, 307, 309, 315, 322, 323, 324

and “indoor” politics 31

and anti-riot acts 30

and Boston Stamp Act demonstration 28

and channeling 61, 62, 64

and contested place 114, 129

and early permit schemes 32

and early police forces 32

and early public order laws 32

and institutionalization 60, 196–199

and labor riots 32

and militarization 243

and militias 30, 31, 32

and negotiation with mobs 31

and permit schemes 207

and political parties 31

and political theatre 28

and public opinion 64

and public order management system 190

and race riots 32

and religious riots 32

and repertoires of contention 63

and repression 61

and residential protests 121, 122

and social control of dissent 226

and student activism 52

and university 260, 264

and unlawful assemblies 32

and vagrancy laws 32

at critical democratic moments 220

at Democratic National Convention, 2004 228

at political conventions 226

at Republican National Convention, 2004 232

burning in effigy 28

eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and 106

in networked places 303, 309, 322, 323

people out of doors 27, 30, 31, 34, 59, 105

tarring and feathering 29

public democracy 186, 187, 199, 203, 221, 242, 244, 246, 251, 316

public forum doctrine 11, 12, 53, 58, 61, 109, 117, 118, 144, 150, 155, 157, 158, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 282, 283, 284

and “demotion” of forum 99, 160

and airport 157

and compatibility standard 49, 51, 58, 107, 109, 118, 157, 170, 284

and ossification 167, 168

and tradition 186

and university 267

deference to officials 169

designated public forum 54

designated public forum 158

limited public forum 54, 268

non-public forum 54, 58, 144, 157, 159, 213, 214

places of modernity 56

primary function test 169

quintessential public forum 55, 56, 96, 101, 127, 137, 144, 159, 162, 185, 189, 221

scholarly criticisms of 55, 168, 169

traditional public forum 54, 58, 87, 92, 99, 118, 125, 141, 156, 158, 159, 160, 168, 189, 213, 214, 267

public order laws 59, 80, 117, 129, 130

public order management system 22, 60, 62, 190, 197, 198, 199, 206, 207, 209, 218, 220, 240, 241, 242, 259, 273, 321

public policing 105, 197, 199, 221, 225, 226, 227, 318

and Battle in Seattle 221–223

and civil rights training 254

and discriminatory enforcement 59

and escalated force model 59, 197, 199, 225, 226, 240, 242, 254, 255

and infiltration 59

and institutionalization of protest 23

and negotiated management model 59, 197, 198, 221, 223, 240, 243

and public order laws 59

and public order management system 60, 62, 190, 241

and social control of dissent 242

and surveillance 59

at critical democratic moments 221, 226

public protests

and institutionalization 23, 25, 116, 196, 197, 240, 255

and media attention 60, 198, 220, 257

and protest consultants 198

and public democracy 25

and public order management system 209

and repertoires of contention 28, 31, 116

public spamming 306

quasi-public places 163, 164, 167, 172, 173, 175

Rabban, David 43, 44

race riots 32

Radiant City 40

Reagan, President Ronald W. 93

Red Scare 44, 76

Rehnquist, Chief Justice William H. 157

religious riots 32

Relph, Edward

repertoires of contention 47, 84, 106, 111, 116, 119, 142, 143, 220, 244, 247, 255, 256, 293, 322, 323, 324

as modular 119, 121

repression 4, 61, 220, 224, 225, 234, 242, 243, 244, 245, 255, 309, 316

Republican National Convention, 2004 95, 192, 203, 231, 232, 323

residential protest 121

Respect for America’s Fallen Heroes Act 125

retaliatory eviction 175

Revolutionary War 31

Ring of Steel 294, 299

riots 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 35, 43, 51, 63, 64, 74, 76, 184, 227, 261

Robert’s Rules of Order 6, 7, 57, 58, 185

Roman forum 13

Rubenfeld, Jed 316

Sacco and Vanzetti 189

sacred places 10, 182, 183, 186, 187, 188, 189, 193, 201, 202, 203, 205, 206, 212, 213, 216, 236, 250, 297, 315, 321

Salt Lake City 214

Sankirtan 88

Scalia, Justice Antonin 86

Schenck v. Pro-Choice Network of Western New York 85, 120, 127

Secret Service Act 235

secure urban design 131

security 2, 4, 7, 12, 20, 64, 202, 221, 226, 231, 234, 236, 238, 239, 240, 245, 246, 247, 251, 252, 253, 254, 299, 300, 320, 321

sedition 45

Selma, Alabama 51

September, 11, 2001 62, 64, 94, 117, 131, 221, 223, 226, 228, 237, 238, 243, 251, 254, 298, 299, 319, 321

Sewell, William 8, 112

shadow university 286

Sheehan, Cindy 111, 113, 130

shopping centers 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 169, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 181

See also shopping malls

shopping malls 88, 145, 147, 148, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 164, 166, 167, 174, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 200

See also shopping centers

sidewalk counselors 21, 65, 66, 72, 86, 87, 97, 101, 119

Silverglate, Harvey 286

sit-ins 14, 47, 115, 119, 256, 261, 293

skid row 40

Slobogin, Christopher 309

snake march 256

soapbox orators 26

social capital 17, 245, 322

social control of dissent 226, 242, 243

social movement 23, 34, 110, 143, 221, 244, 245, 254, 256, 260, 323

social networking 303

social space 96

soliciting 21, 65, 74, 75, 76, 79, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 95, 96, 98, 103

Solove, Daniel 318

Sorkin, Michael 200

sousveillance 323

Souter, Justice David H. 171, 249

spatial skepticism 246, 250, 253

spatial tactics 224, 249, 250, 256

speech codes 259, 271, 272, 273, 276, 277, 278, 286, 288, 290, 293

speech, freedom of 89, 184

and liberalization 76

and prior restraints 75

Sproul Hall 261

Stamp Act of 1765 28

state action doctrine 149, 150, 151, 161, 163, 165, 166, 167, 172, 173, 174

Stevens, Justice John Paul 93

Stone, Geoffrey R. 45

Students for a Democratic Society 261, 263, 277

suffragettes 192

Summer White House 111

Sunstein, Cass R. 16, 305

Supreme Court, of United States

and abortion clinic expression 85, 86, 87, 120

and access to place 26

and airport expression 89, 157, 158

and anonymous speech 307

and begging 82, 102

and bureaucratization of place 53–59

and captive audience 77, 137

and compatibility standard 53

and concept of place 9

and contested place 106, 107, 132

and discriminatory licensing of speech 75

and embodied expression 96

and expressive place 112

and financial burdens on speech 190, 210

and Hague dictum 45

and leafleting 75

and ownership of public places 47, 183

and pamphleteering 46

and polling place expression 92

and public zoning laws 39

and residential protests 121

and sale or distribution of written material 88

and shopping centers 38, 151, 153, 154, 155, 156

and state action doctrine 151

and surveillance 317

and unconventional ideas 76

and university 263, 266

and unprotected speech 76

Burger Court 53

Rehnquist Court 53

surveillance 4, 10, 23, 59, 131, 220, 225, 232, 233, 238, 240, 247, 254, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324

Surveillance Camera Players 233, 324

surveillance state, the 233

syndicalism 45, 76

Talen, William 66, 97

targeted picketing 122, 123, 138

Tarrow, Sidney 59, 196, 198, 245

Terminiello v. Chicago 51

terrorism 4, 131, 221, 224, 225, 234, 321

The Federalist Papers 308

third places 172, 178, 179, 180, 181, 305

Tilly, Charles 242

time, place, and manner doctrine 6, 7, 11, 12, 46, 54, 56, 57, 58, 61, 76, 77, 88, 101, 117, 118, 125, 128, 134, 135, 136, 139, 153, 174, 185, 209, 250, 252

Tinker v. Des Moines Indep. Cmty Sch. Dist. 269

topophilia 9, 111, 115, 133, 134, 146

trespass 109, 175

Tuan, Yi-Fu 9, 146

Union Square Park 66, 188, 203

United Nations 240

United States Army 317

United States Capitol 128, 202, 203

United States Census Bureau 160

United States Department of Homeland Security 298

United States Department of Labor 164

United States Federal Bureau of Investigation 240

United States Secret Service 95, 131, 193, 223, 235, 236, 237, 238, 247

United States Secretary of Defense 239

United States v. Grace 214

university

and campus “outsiders” 264, 265, 268, 276, 290

and closed-circuit television (CCTV) 300

and codes of conduct 272, 273

and expressive zoning 276–281

and Free Speech Movement 260

and prior restraints 274

and public forum doctrine 283, 284, 285, 286

and speech codes 259, 271, 272, 273

and Students for a Democratic Society 261, 263

and time, place, and manner regulations 269

and violence 261

as marketplace of ideas 266

campus order management system 273

origins 259

physical characteristics 264

student activism 292

See also places of higher learning

University of California at Berkeley 260, 261, 263, 277, 293

vagrancy 40, 80

vagueness 81

Vietnam War 22, 38, 49, 52, 114, 153, 192, 260, 263

virtual protest 17

Washington Monument 131, 202

West Point 116

Westboro Baptist Church 124, 125, 127, 128, 135, 136, 141, 143

Westin, Allan 72, 308

White House 10, 22, 112, 128, 131, 194, 203, 237, 321

Whyte, William 176

Widmar v. Vincent 268

WiFi 295, 296, 302, 306

Wilson, James Q. 80

Wobblies 43, 44, 46, 61

and free speech fights 43, 44, 61

and free speech zones 44

and reliance on First Amendment 43

criticism of 44

women’s suffrage movement 34

Wood, Gordon S. 2, 28, 31

World Bank 238, 239

World Trade Organization 221, 222, 223, 257, 322

World War I 43, 44

World Wide Web 3, 10, 15, 24, 96, 139, 222, 232, 238, 253, 257, 293, 296, 305, 306, 307, 314, 322, 323

Wright, Charles Alan 264

Wright, Frank Lloyd 149




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