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Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring

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  • 113 b/w illus. 12 colour illus. 28 tables
  • Page extent: 252 pages
  • Size: 246 x 189 mm
  • Weight: 0.74 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 616.8/047547
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: RD52.N48 I558 2010
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Neurophysiologic monitoring
    • Monitoring, Intraoperative--methods
    • Intraoperative Complications--prevention & control
    • Surgical Procedures, Operative--methods
    • Trauma, Nervous System--prevention & control

Library of Congress Record


 (ISBN-13: 9780521518031)

Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring
Cambridge University Press
9780521518031 - Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring - By Gloria M. Galloway, Marc R. Nuwer, Jaime R. López and Khaled M. Zamel

Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring

Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring

Gloria M. Galloway, Marc R. Nuwer, Jaime R. López and Khaled M. Zamel

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo, Mexico City

Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK

Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York
Information on this title:

© Cambridge University Press 2010

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2010

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication data

Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring / Gloria M. Galloway . . . [et al.].
p. ; cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-521-51803-1 (hardback)
1. Neurophysiologic monitoring. I. Galloway, Gloria M., 1960– [DNLM: 1. Monitoring,
Intraoperative – methods. 2. Intraoperative Complications – prevention & control. 3. Surgical Procedures,
Operative – methods. 4. Trauma, Nervous System – prevention & control. WO 181 I609 2010]
RD52.N48I558 2010

ISBN 978-0-521-51803-1 Hardback

Additional resources for this publication at

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

Every effort has been made in preparing this book to provide accurate and up-to-date information, which is in accord with accepted standards and practice at the time of publication. Although case histories are drawn from actual cases, every effort has been made to disguise the identities of the individuals involved. Nevertheless, the authors, editors, and publishers can make no warranties that the information contained herein is totally free from error, not least because clinical standards are constantly changing through research and regulation. The authors, editors, and publishers therefore disclaim all liability for direct or consequential damages resulting from the use of material contained in this book. Readers are strongly advised to pay careful attention to information provided by the manufacturer of any drugs or equipment that they plan to use.

This book is dedicated to God in whom all is possible; the love and support of my parents; the humor and inspiration of my sons Nadeem and Corey; the encouragement of my darling Bruce; and the tolerance of Jordan my Great Dane who missed many long walks while I spent time writing this book.

Gloria Galloway


1     Introduction, history, and staffing for intraoperative monitoring
Marc R. Nuwer
2     The preoperative assessment
Gloria M. Galloway
3     Magnetic stimulation
Khaled M. Zamel
4     The operating-room environment and team approach: pitfalls and technical factors
Khaled M. Zamel
5     Basic pharmacology of anesthetic agents and their effects on neurophysiological monitoring
Gloria M. Galloway
6     Somatosensory evoked potential monitoring with scalp and cervical recording
Marc R. Nuwer
7     Transcranial electric motor stimulation: technique and exclusionary criteria
Gloria M. Galloway
8     Electrocorticography and intraoperative electroencephalography
Marc R. Nuwer
9     Brainstem auditory evoked potential monitoring
Khaled M. Zamel
10    Pedicle screw application and electromyographic recording
Gloria M. Galloway
11    Cranial nerve monitoring
Jaime R. López
12    Peripheral nerve monitoring: basics and indications
Jaime R. López
13    Special considerations in pediatric surgical monitoring
Khaled M. Zamel
14    Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring of vascular disorders
Jaime R. López
15    Selective dorsal rhizotomies: technique and protocol for monitoring
Gloria M. Galloway
16    Interpreting and reporting the neurophysiologic data to the surgical team: how to do it and when it is indicated
Jaime R. López
17    Intraoperative wake-up test
Marc R. Nuwer
18    Postoperative studies and outcomes: clinical indications and usefulness of a postoperative study
Gloria M. Galloway


Since its inception clinically in the late 1970s and early 1980s, intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring has shown a steady increase in use for surgeries in which neural structures may be at risk of injury. The types of and varieties of neurophysiologic techniques available for multimodality monitoring have allowed a patient-centered individualized approach to the practice and planning of these surgical cases. Some neurophysiologic techniques may carry inherent risks. An example of this is the potential risk of induction of seizures with the use of direct cortical and transcranial electric motor stimulation. Other risks involve inadvertent motor movements, tongue and lip lacerations. In addition, the more widespread use of multimodality intraoperative neurophysiologic techniques has allowed surgeons to become somewhat more aggressive and expansive in their surgical approaches. An example of this is the ability to be more expansive during resection of an intramedullary spinal tumor when motor, sensory, and possibly electromyography monitoring indicate that no change in electrophysiologic signals from these pathways has occurred.

The risk of consequential harm as a result of a neurophysiologic technique coupled with the increased ability to be more expansive surgically has changed methods of neurophysiologic monitoring and allowed the field to make an impact on patient safety and quality of care during surgical procedures. Therefore, it is especially important that those performing and interpreting these studies be adequately trained. This has been challenging given the relatively small number of training programs in the field: furthermore, several organizations whose members practice intraoperative neurophysiology have been led to develop guidelines, training courses, and additional certification programs specially geared toward this increasing subspecialty. Fellowship training programs have been around for many years in general neurophysiology as well as subspecialty areas such as epilepsy, including surgical epilepsy and electromyography (EMG). Often interest in intraoperative neurophysiology begins through subspecialty fellowships in EEG, epilepsy, or EMG. Several years ago a separately defined neurologic fellowship track was developed in intraoperative neurophysiology, similar to the tracks that already exist in EEG and EMG.

This book is a compilation of the current trends in intraoperative neurophysiology with chapters on various modalities and clinical uses. Separate chapters devoted to anesthesia, operating-room environment, special considerations in pediatrics and the interpretation and reporting of neurophysiologic data are useful and complementary. This book can be helpful to trainees as well as neurophysiologists already in practice but interested in other approaches to familiar techniques or in reviewing new techniques outside of their typical practice pattern. Questions on the topics covered in the chapters with detailed answers serve as a nice supplement on the accompanying website ( In some chapters, illustrative case examples are also included.

Physicians, PhD neurophysiologists, technicians, fellows, and residents can use this book for self-review and preparation and, through improved quality techniques and interpretation, may positively impact patient care.

Gloria Galloway


Enormous thanks to Ed Buggie, our neurophysiology laboratory manager, who always supported the need for improved equipment and enhanced training. Our excellent neurophysiologic technologists, Sharon Newell, Judy Brown, Christina Castleberry, and David Brooks, provided excellent technical expertise, were not afraid to give their opinions, and always provided much needed humor and silliness to balance out difficult situations. Much gratitude is given to our orthopedic and neurosurgical colleagues; E. Steve Roach and the neurology division for the support of our neurophysiologic endeavors as we grew together to improve patient care. Lastly, we owe enormous gratitude to those patients who entrusted their care to us.

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