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Languages and Communities in Early Modern Europe
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  • Page extent: 226 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.31 kg

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 (ISBN-13: 9780521535861 | ISBN-10: 0521535867)




Index




References to English, French, German, Italian and Spanish are omitted as they occur virtually passim.

Academies, linguistic, xii, xiii, xiv, 19, 90, 91, 98, 99, 100, 146, 150, 152, 153, 155, 157

Accent, 33, 40–2, 67

Adam, language of, 21, 69

Adam of Usk (1377–1421), medieval Welsh chronicler, 16

Adelung, Johann Christoph (1732–1806), German writer, 109

Advertisements, 11

African-American English (AAE), 38, 126

African languages, 125

Agricola, Mikael (c. 1510–57), Finnish religious reformer, 104

Albanian, xi, 79, 90, 119

Alberti, Leonbattista (1404–72), Italian humanist, 95

Aldo, Aldus, see Manuzio

Aldrete, Bernardo de (1565–1645), Spanish canon and scholar, xii, 21, 22, 29

Alfonso X, ‘the Wise (el Sabio)’ (reigned 1252–84), King of Spain, 15, 63, 97

Alfred, King of England (849–99), 92

Alphabets, 169

Amaseo, Romolo (1489–1552), Italian humanist, 55, 65

Anchieta, José de (1534–97), Portuguese Jesuit missionary, 47, 92, 125

Anderson, Benedict (b. 1936), British political scientist, 6, 166

Anglo-Saxon, 25, 92, 171

Anxiety of defecit, 17

Arabic, xi, 7, 24, 27, 48, 52, 76, 112, 121, 123, 127, 135, 154, 171

Aretino, Pietro (1492–1556), Italian writer, 31, 154

Arias Barbosa, sixteenth-century Spanish humanist, 145

Ariosto, Ludovico (1474–1533), Italian poet, 37, 107

Arnim, Achim von (1781–1831), Prussian poet, 170

Arwidsson, Adolf (1791–1858), Finnish poet, 168

Ascham, Roger (1516–68), English humanist, 45

Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal (1881–1938), modernizer of Turkey, 169

Aubrey, John (1626–97), English antiquary, 41

Aventinus (Johann Thurmair, 1477–1534), Bavarian humanist, 27, 120

Aymara, 92, 124

Bacon, Francis (1561–1626), English philosopher, 59

Baggioni, Daniel, French linguist, 9, 10

Bakhtin, Mikhail Mikhailovich (1895–1975), Russian linguistic and literary theorist, 4, 51, 62, 109, 113, 139, 159

Balassa, Bálint (1554–94), Hungarian poet, 114

Balbín, Bohuslav (1621–88), Czech Jesuit, xiii, 66

Banchieri, Adriano (1568–1634), writer in Bolognese, xii

Barère, Bertrand (1755–1841), French revolutionary, 165

Barnes, William (1801–86), English poet and language reformer, 171

Barros, João de (1496–1570), Portuguese humanist, xi, 28, 65, 66, 67, 125

Barrow, John, nineteenth-century English traveller, 47

Bas-Lauriol law, 172

Basque, xi, 83, 90, 104, 124, 127, 134, 135

Bayle, Pierre (1647–1706), French Protestant scholar, 59, 87

Beatus Rhenanus (1485–1547), German humanist, 120

Beccaria, Gian Luigi, Italian linguist, 50

Bellarmino, Roberto (1542–1621), Italian Jesuit, 37, 79

Belorusian, see Ruthenian

Bembo, Pietro (1470–1547), Italian language reformer, x, 55, 95, 97–9, 144, 145, 154, 157

Beni, Paolo (1553–1625), Italian scholar, xii, 155

Bergamask, 37, 135

Bernegger, Matthias (1582–1640), German professor and translator, 56

Bertonio, Ludovico (1555–1628), Italian Jesuit missionary, 92

Berynda, Pamva (d. 1632), Ruthenian monk-printer, 106

Betham, Peter (floruit c. 1543), Fellow of Peterhouse, 150

Bethlen, Miklós (1642–1716), Hungarian aristocrat, 78, 116, 132

Beza, Theodore (1519–1605), French humanist and Calvinist, 108, 133

Bibles, x, xi, xii, 79, 83, 84, 103–6, 107, 149

Bibliander (Buchmann, c. 1500–64), Theodor, professor of Hebrew, 24

Bielski, Marcin (1495–1575), Polish chronicler, 8

Biffi, Giovanni Ambrogio (d. 1672), Milanese writer, xii, 66

Biondi, Giovanni Francesco (1572–1644), Italian historian, 116

Biondo, Flavio (1392–1463), Italian humanist 20

Bloch, Marc (1886–1944), French historian, 9

Boccaccio, Giovanni (1314–75), Italian writer, 89, 98

Bodin, Jean (c. 1530–96), French political thinker, 76

Bodmer, Johann Jakob (1698–1783), Swiss writer, 116

Bohorić, Adam (d. 1598), Slovene schoolmaster, xii, 24

Bolognese, 25, 36, 37, 135

Borghini, Vincenzio (1515–80), Florentine scholar-cleric, 20, 23, 24, 25

Boscán, Juan (c. 1487–1542), Catalan writing in Castilian, 84

Botero, Giovanni (1544–1617), Italian political thinker, 22

Bouhours, Dominique (1628–1702), French Jesuit writer, 22, 24, 25, 27, 66, 67, 68

Bourdieu, Pierre (1930–2002), French sociologist, 32, 122, 157

Bouvet, Joachim (1656–1730), French Jesuit missionary, 21

Boyle, Robert (1627–91), English natural philosopher, 78

Braudel, Fernand (1902–85), French historian, 9, 14

Bredero, Gerbrand Adriaenszoon (1585–1618), Dutch playwright, 39

Brerewood, Edward (c. 1565–1613), English writer on language, 23

Breton, x, xiii, 72, 82, 90, 135

Bridges, Robert (1844–1930), English poet, 172

Browne, Edward (1644–1708), English traveller, 47

Bruni, Leonardo (1370–1444), Tuscan humanist, 20, 27, 144

Brunot, Ferdinand (1860–1938), French historian of language, 3, 62, 107

Bulgarian, xi, 123, 170

Bullokar, William, sixteenth-century English spelling reformer, 96

Burckhardt, Jacob (1818–97), Swiss cultural historian, 58

Busbecq, Ogier Ghislain de (1522–92), Flemish diplomat, 118

Callières, François de (1645–1717), French diplomat, xiii, 31, 114

Calmo, Andrea (c. 1510–71), Venetian playwright, 30, 135

Calvet, Louis-Jean (b. 1942), French linguist, 70

Calvin, Jean (1509–64), French reformer, 78

Camden, William (1551–1623), English scholar, 21

Campe, Joachim Heinrich (1746–1818), German purist, 109, 171

Camus, Jean-Pierre (1584–1652), French bishop and writer, 155

Caravia, Alessandro, sixteenth-century Venetian goldsmith-poet, 30

Carew, Richard (1555–1620), English poet and scholar, xii, 28, 65, 66

Cartier, Jacques (c. 1491–1557), French explorer, 26

Castellesi, Adriano, sixteenth-century Italian cardinal, x, 20, 23

Castro, Américo (1885–1972), Spanish historian, 4

Catalan, x, 62, 63, 72, 84, 104, 119, 135, 163

Catherine II, Empress of Russia (‘the Great’, ruled, 1762–96) 26, 69

Cawdrey, Robert, sixteenth-century English dictionary maker, 84

Caxton, William (c. 1422–91), English printer, 106

Celtic languages (see Breton, Irish, Manx, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh), 10, 25

Centrifugal and centripetal tendencies, 13, 102, 109, 140

Černín, Graf Humprecht Jan, seventeenth-century Czech nobleman, 85, 137

Certeau, Michel de (1925–86), French cultural theorist, 4

Cervantes de Salazar, Francisco (c. 1514–c. 1575), rector of the University of Mexico, 47

Cesarotti, Melchiorre (1730–1808), Italian writer, 120, 156, 164

Chaderton, Lawrence (1536–1640), Master of Emmanuel College, 142

Chanceries, 10, 52, 63, 73, 93, 99, 101, 102, 103, 106, 136

Chapelain, Jean (1595–1674), French critic, 35

Chappelain, Geneviève, seventeenth-century French translator, 116

Charlemagne (768–814), emperor, 72

Charles III, King of Spain (ruled 1759–88) xiv, 163

Charles V, emperor (ruled, 1516–58) 28, 45

Charpentier, François (1620–1702), French writer, 66, 86

Chaucer, Geoffrey (c. 1340–1400), English poet, 15, 150

Cheke, John (1514–57), English humanist, 149, 158

Chinese, 8, 21, 48, 59

Christian (Christiern) III, King of Denmark (ruled, 1534–59) 103

Church Slavonic, see Old Church Slavonic

Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106–43 BC), Roman writer and statesman, 57, 58, 144, 145

Citolini, Alessandro (c. 1500–82), Italian humanist, 66

Cittadini, Celso (1553–1627), Sienese poet and scholar, xii, 21

Civilizing process, 89, 110

Clarke, Samuel (1675–1729), disciple of Newton, 56

Clusius, Carolus (1526–1609), Flemish botanist, 114

Colbert, Jean-Baptiste (1619–83), French minister, 76

Colet, John (c. 1467–1519), English humanist 145

Colocci, Angelo (1474–1549), Italian humanist, 51

Comenius, see Komenský

Communities, 5, 44, 49, 53, 54, 164, 166

Congresses, 46, 86

Constance, Council of, 161

Cordier, Mathurin (1479–1564), French schoolmaster, 54

Corneille, Thomas (1625–1709), French writer, 141

Cornish, xiii, 25, 71

Correas, Gonzalo (c. 1571–1631), Spanish spelling reformer, 96

Corsi, Pietro, sixteenth-century Florentine humanist, 144

Cotgrave, Randle (d. 1634), English dictionary maker, 36

Coulton, George G. (1858–1947), British historian, 62

Courcelles, Etienne de (1586–1659), French pastor and translator, 56

Courts of law, 74, 75

Courts of princes, 99, 100, 127, 128

Cranmer, Thomas (1489–1556), archbishop of Canterbury, 49

Creoles, creolization, 111, 126

Croat (see also Serbo-Croat) x, 90, 105, 118, 168

Curonian, 70

Czech, x, xi, xii, xiv, 8, 16, 23, 62, 66, 74, 79, 80, 83, 90, 93, 95, 102, 104, 105, 150, 153

Dalgarno, George (c. 1626–87), British schoolmaster, 59

Dalmatin, Antun (d. 1579), South Slav translator, 105

Daniel, Samuel (c. 1562–1619), English poet, 19

Danish, x, xi, 8, 10, 39, 63, 66, 67, 90, 96, 103, 127, 128, 130, 134, 136, 146, 148, 151, 155, 162, 165, 168

Dante Alighieri (1265–1331), Florentine poet, x, 15, 65, 89, 106

Dead languages, 19, 98

Defecit, linguistic, 17

Defoe, Daniel (c. 1660–1731), English writer, 46, 100, 146

Dell, William, seventeenth-century English divine, 17

De Mauro, Tullio, Italian linguist, 2, 167

Derrida, Jacques (b. 1930), French philosopher, 12

Descartes, René (1596–1650), French philosopher, 56, 78

Desmarets, Henri, seventeenth-century French pastor and translator, 56

Dialect, 4, 23, 35–8, 97

Diglossia, 7, 43, 72, 168

Diodati, Elio (1576–1661), Swiss lawyer and translator, 56

Dobrovský, Josef (1753–1829), codifier of Czech, xiv, 106

Dolet, Etienne (1509–46), French scholar-printer, xi, 27, 106, 145

Douglas, Mary (b. 1921), English anthropologist, 146, 156

Drummond of Hawthornden, John (1585–1649), Scottish poet, 134

Dryden, John (1631–1700), English poet, 23, 28, 89, 152

Du Bartas, Guillaume Salluste (1544–90), French poet, 137

Du Bellay, Joachim (1525–60), French poet, xi, 18, 19, 27, 65, 66, 68, 89, 91

Dubois, Jacques (1478–1555), French physician-grammarian, 95

Dupleix, Scipion (1569–1661), French historian, 26, 155

Duret, Claude (c. 1570–1611), French lawyer, 24

Dutch, x, xii, 21, 39, 56, 62, 63, 66, 69, 71, 74, 81, 83, 90, 101, 104, 113, 118, 119, 126, 130, 134, 151, 168

Dutch East India Company (VOC), 73, 82

Eck, Johann (1486–1543), German theologian, 103

Eco, Umberto (b. 1932), Italian semiologist, 60, 113

Eden, Richard, sixteenth-century English merchant and translator, 18, 79

Edward I, King of England (ruled, 1272–1307) 16

Egenolff, Johann Augustin the younger (1683–1729), historian of language, xiii, 21, 151

Elias, Norbert (1897–1990), German sociologist, 89

Elizabeth I, Queen of England (ruled, 1558–1603) 45, 75

Elyot, Thomas (c. 1490–1546), English humanist, 34, 64

Emmanuel Philibert (1528–80), Duke of Savoy, 74

Empires and languages, 20, 22, 64, 75, 81, 152

Erasmus, Desiderius (c. 1466–1536), Dutch humanist, 33, 54, 55, 56, 58, 67, 80, 142, 154

Erik XIV, King of Sweden (ruled, 1560–68) 113

Erlinger, Georg (c. 1485–1541), German printer, 103

Esperanto, 60

Estienne, Henri (1531–98), French scholar-printer, xi, 40, 65, 66, 67, 68, 70, 106, 120, 147, 157, 158

Estienne, Robert (c. 1503–59), French scholar-printer, xi, 99, 106

Estonian, xiii, 19, 78, 90

Etiemble, René (b. 1909), French intellectual 172

Evelyn, John (1620–1706), English virtuoso, 96, 140, 146

External explanations, 12

Fauchet, Claude (1530–1601), French lawyer and scholar, xii, 20

Febvre, Lucien (1878–1956), French historian, 4, 91, 131, 163

Feyerabend, Sigmund, sixteenth-century German printer, 107

Fichte, Johann Gottlieb (1762–1814), German philosopher, 164

Finnish, xii, xiii, 10, 25, 87, 104, 113, 119, 168, 170

Fischart, Johann (c. 1546–90), German translator and satirist, 68, 121, 149

Fishman, Joshua A., American linguist, 2

Fixity, 58, 89–90

Flemish, see Dutch

Florio, John (c. 1553–1625), Italian-English translator, 122

Foglietta, Uberto (c. 1518–81), Genoese humanist, 65

Folengo, Teofilo (1491–1544), Italian monk and poet, 133

Fonvizin, Denis Ivanovich (1745–92), Russian writer, 136

Fortunio, Gianfrancesco, sixteenth-century Italian grammarian, 95

Franck, Sebastian (1499–1542), German printer and writer, 18, 106

Frederick II, King of Prussia (‘the Great’, ruled, 1740–86) 87, 109

Fries, Laurentius (1491–1550), German physician, 76, 148

Frisian, 71, 90, 148

Furetière, Antoine (1619–88), French novelist and dictionary-maker, 31, 36, 155

Gaelic, see Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh

Gaj, Ljudevit (1809–72), codifier of Croat 168

Galbraith, Vivian H. (1889–1976), British historian, 4

Galeani Napione, Gianfrancesco (1748–1830), Italian writer, 164

Galiani, Ferdinando (1728–87), Neapolitan writer, xiv, 164

Galician, 71

Galilei, Galileo (1564–1642), Italian natural philosopher, 30, 55, 78

Gândavo, Pedro de Magalhães de, sixteenth-century Portuguese writer, 66

Gascon, see Provençal

Gaulle, General Charles de (1890–1970), French president, 172

Gelli, Giambattista (1493–1563), Florentine writer, 17

Gender, language and, 33

Genovesi, Antonio (1712–69), Neapolitan professor, 78

Georgian, 48, 118

Gerasimov, Dmitri (c. 1465–c. 1535), Russian diplomat, 46, 53

Germain, Jean, sixteenth-century French lawyer and poet, 134

Gerner, Henrik (1629–1700), Danish bishop, 100, 146

Gesner, Conrad, Swiss scholar (1516–65), 121, 144

Giambullari, Pierfrancesco (1494–1555), Florentine canon, 121

Gill, Alexander (1597–1642), English headmaster, 34, 36, 69

Ginzburg, Carlo (b. 1939), Italian historian 17

Glazemaker, Jan Hendrikszoon (c. 1620–82), Dutch translator, 151

Göseken, Heinrich (d. 1705), pastor, author of Estonian grammar, xiii

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832), German writer, 117

Goldoni, Carlo (1707–93), Venetian playwright, 39, 135

Górnicki, Łukasz (1527–1603), Polish humanist, 83

Goropius Becanus, Johannes (c. 1518–72), Flemish humanist, 21, 69

Gothic language, 25, 70

Gottsched, Johann Christoph (1700–66), German critic, 32, 109, 151

Gozzi, Carlo (1720–1806), Venetian writer, 98, 153

Grand Tour, 114

Granvelle, Antoine de Perrenot (1517–86), cardinal and statesman, 117

Gravina, Gianvicenzo (1664–1718), Neapolitan scholar, 153

Greek, x, 20, 36, 48, 57, 90, 96, 119, 123, 134, 135, 144, 156, 158, 170

Grégoire, Baptiste Henri (1750–1831), French priest, revolutionary and language reformer, xiv, 10, 38, 165

Guarini, Giambattista (1538–1612), Italian poet, 37

Gueintz, Christian (1592–1660), German superintendent of schools, 18, 150

Guineo, 38

Gustav III (ruled 1771–92), King of Sweden 152

Gustav Vasa (ruled 1523–60), King of Sweden, 103

Gutenberg, Johann (c. 1397–1468), German printer, 10, 91

Gyarmathi, Sámuel (1751–1830), Hungarian linguist, 25

Gypsies, 38, 67

Hackett, John, sixteenth-century English ambassador, 113

Hall, Robert A. (b. 1911), American linguist, 2

Hamann, Johann Georg (1730–88), German writer, 117

Hare, John, seventeenth-century English radical, 152

Harington, John (1560–1612), English translator, 107

Hart, John, sixteenth-century English orthographer, 96

Harvey, Gabriel (c. 1550–1631), English scholar, 96

Haugen, Einar (b. 1906), Norwegian linguist, 8

Hebrew, 20, 21, 24, 52, 65, 121, 134, 144

Heere, Lucas de (c. 1534–84), Flemish painter 119

Heidegger, Martin (1889–1976), German philosopher, 12

Heinsius, Nicolaas (1620–81), Dutch poet, 83

Heltai, Gáspár (Caspar Helth, d. 1574), German-Hungarian printer, 105, 106

Herder, Johann Gottfried (1744–1803), German thinker, 117, 164

Heteroglossia, 4, 113, 139, 159

Heywood, Thomas (c. 1574–1641), English playwright, 122

Hickes, George (1642–1715), English scholar, 25

Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679), English political theorist, 58

Hoby, Thomas (1530–66), English translator 149

Holberg, Ludvig (1684–1754), Scandinavian playwright, 39, 152, 155

Holguín, Diego González (c. 1552–c. 1617), Spanish Jesuit missionary, 92

Horn, Frederik (1708–81), Danish writer, 151

Hosius, Stanislaus (1504–79), Polish archbishop, 43, 72

How, Samuel, seventeenth-century English shoemaker, 17

Howell, James (c. 1594–1666), British writer, 28, 30, 96

Hungarian, x, xii, xiii, 25, 63, 66, 69, 80, 95, 105, 118, 119, 123, 130, 132

Hus, Jan (c. 1369–1415), Czech reformer, 16, 51, 83, 93, 104, 150

Huygens, Constantijn (1596–1687), Dutch scholar, 116

Hymes, Dell, American linguist, 2

Hypercorrectness, 100

Icelandic, xi, xiii, 23, 63, 66, 104, 127, 149, 152

Ickelsamer, Valentin (c. 1500–41), German pastor, schoolmaster-grammarian, xi, 95, 148

Identity and language, 6

Innis, Harold (1894–1952), Canadian media theorist, 94

Internal explanations, 12

Irish, xi, 63, 74, 75, 117

Japan, Japanese, 48, 123

Jargon, 30, 35, 49, 57, 126

Javanese, 121, 123

Jerome (c. 348–420), early Christian writer and translator, 21, 33

Jesuits, 37, 48, 92, 102, 124

Jews, 38, see also Hebrew, Yiddish, 38

Johan III, King of Sweden (ruled, 1568–92) 87, 149

John of Salisbury (c. 1115–80), English writer 49

Johnson, Samuel (1709–84), English writer, xiii, 11, 34, 87, 100, 146

Johnston, William, eighteenth-century English dictionary maker, 108

Jones, Hugh (1669–1760), writer on grammar, 41, 90

Jones, Richard Foster (b. 1886), historian of English, 62

Jones, William (1726–1800), student of ancient India, 25

Jonson, Ben (c. 1573–1637), English playwright, 26, 33, 36, 134

Jónsson (Jonas), Arngrímur (1568–1648), Icelandic scholar, xiii, 23, 152

Joseph II, emperor, xiv

Karadžić, Vuk Stefanović (1787–1864), codifier of Serbian, 168, 170

Karl XI, King of Sweden (ruled 1660–97) xiii, 27, 76, 162

Kašić, Bartol (1575–1650), author of South Slav grammar, xii

Klein, Daniel (1609–66), author of Lithuanian grammar, xiii

Klonowicz, Sebastian (1545–1602), Polish poet, 30

Klopstock, Friedrich Gottlieb (1724–1803), German poet, 28

Knapski (Knapiusz), Gregorz (1564–1619), Polish schoolmaster-lexicographer, 153

Kochanowski, Jan (1530–84), Polish poet, 72

Koine, 97, 101, 102, 103, 109

Kollár, Ján (1793–1852), codifier of Slovak, 168

Komenský, Jan Amos (1592–1670), Czech educationalist, 119

Konzul, Stjepan (1521–79), South Slav translator, 105

Kopitar, Jernej (1780–1844), codifier of Slovene, 168

Kopystens’ky, Zakhariya (d. 1627), monk from Kiev, 52

Korais, Adamantios (1788–1833), Greek language reformer, 170

Koselleck, Reinhart (1923–), German historian, 163

Language culture, 1

Language competition, 70

Language consciousness, 2, 11;

     ch. 1, passim

Language death (cf. dead languages), 16, 70

Language domains, 7, 29, 71, 130, 131

Language encounters, 111, 122

Language planning, 12, 157

Language policies, 72, 160, 163

Language wealth, 66

Lapp, see Sami

Lasso, Orlando (Roland de Lassus, c. 1530–94), Netherlands composer, 137

Latin, 10, 17;

     ch. 2, passim; 62, 86, 87, 144–5

Latvian, 17, 71, 90

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1646–1716), German philosopher-polymath, 23, 25, 38, 66, 70, 81, 87, 116, 131, 151, 155

Lengua general, 102, 124

León, fray Luis de (c. 1527–91), Spanish scholar and poet, 29

Leopardi, Giacomo (1798–1837), Italian poet 111

Leopold I (ruled 1657–1705), emperor, 85, 113, 137

Le Roy, Louis (c. 1510–77), French humanist, 22, 24, 76

Léry, Jean de (1534–1611), French Protestant missionary, 26

Lever, Ralph (d. 1585), English divine, 149

Língua de preto, 38, 126

Lingua franca, 46, 54, 126, 127

Língua geral, 102, 124

Lipsius, Justus (1547–1606), Netherlands humanist, 57, 80

Lithuanian, xi, xiii, 71, 78, 90

Littleton, Thomas (d. 1481), English lawyer 128

Llwyd, Edward (1660–1709), Welsh antiquarian, 25

Lodwick, Francis (1619–94), English merchant, 59

Lomonosov, Mikhaylo Vasilevich (1711–65), Russian writer, xiii, 69, 100, 154

Longueil, Christophe de (1488–1522), Netherlands humanist, 145

López de Velasco, Juan, Spanish writer on language, 108

Louis XIV, King of France (ruled, 1643–1715) 86

Ludolf, Heinrich Wilhelm (1655–1710), German scholar, xiii, 52, 133

Luther, Martin (1483–1546), German reformer, x, 12, 36, 51, 55, 68, 102, 107, 120, 131, 142

Macaronics, 50, 133–8

Mackenzie, George (1669–1725), Scottish lawyer, 29

Magalotti, count Lorenzo (1637–1712), Tuscan natural philosopher, 116

Maggi, Ottaviano, sixteenth-century Italian diplomat, 115

Malay, 123, 125

Malecki, Jan (also Sandecki, c. 1490–1567), Polish printer and translator, 23, 106, 153

Malherbe, François de (1555–1628), French poet, 99, 100, 146

Mallarmé, Stéphane (1842–98), French poet 141

Maltese, 112

Manuzio, Aldo (1449–1515), printer in Venice, 97, 106, 157

Manuzio, Paolo (1512–74), printer in Venice, 97, 106

Manx, xiii

Mareuil, Pierre de (d. 1742), French Jesuit translator, 116

Martel, Antoine (1899–1931), French linguist, 3

Martin, Henri-Jean (b. 1924), French historian of the book, 91

Masculine and feminine languages, 28

Maunoir, Julien (1606–83), French Jesuit missionary to Brittany, xiii

Media lengua, 112

Medici, Catherine de’ (1519–89), Queen of France, 85, 137

Medici, Cosimo de’ (1519–74), Grand Duke of Tuscany, 98, 157

Meigret, Louis (c. 1510–c. 1560), French grammarian and spelling reformer, xi, 96

Meillet, Antoine (1866–1936), French linguist, 8, 9, 13

Mexia, Pedro (c. 1496–c. 1552), Spanish writer, 68

Migration, 39, 100, 101, 112

Milán, Luis de, sixteenth-century Spanish musician, 84

Milanese, 36, 40, 66

Missions, 92, 102, 103, 124

Mitford, Nancy (1904–73), English socialite, 31

Mohrmann, Christine (1903–88), Dutch linguist, 3, 44

Molière (1622–73), French playwright, 11, 35

Molina, Alonso de (d. 1585), Spanish dictionary maker, 92

Montaigne, Michel de (1533–92), French essayist, 28, 56

Morales, fray Ambrosio de (1513–91), Spanish writer, xii, 18

More, Thomas (1478–1535), English humanist, 64, 68

Moryson, Fynes (1566–1630), English traveller, 118, 122, 162

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (1756–91), Austrian composer, 137

Münzer, Thomas (c. 1490–1525), German reformer, 51

Mulcaster, Richard (c. 1530–1611), English schoolmaster, 19, 53, 68

Mylius (van der Myle), Abraham (1563–1637), Dutch scholar, 24

Nahuatl, 92, 122, 124

Napoleon (1769–1821), French emperor, 164

Neapolitan, xiii, xiv, 36, 37, 135, 164

Nebrija, Antonio (c. 1444–1522), Spanish humanist, x, 20, 89, 95, 96, 97

Neologisms, 13, 35, 58, 64, 104, 147

Newton, Isaac (1642–1727), English natural philosopher, 56, 78

Noot, Jan van der (c. 1540–90), Antwerp patrician, 118

Norwegian, 10, 169, 170

Nunes de Leão, Duarte (c. 1530–1608), Portuguese official and scholar, xii, 21, 22, 23, 27, 29, 121

Occitan, see Provençal

Old Church Slavonic, x, 10, 48, 52, 65, 69, 90, 105, 118, 131, 133, 136, 170

Old Norse, 149, 152

Old Prussian, 71

Oliveira, Frei Fernão de (b. 1507), Portuguese grammarian, xi, 95

Opaliński, Krzysztof (c. 1610–c. 1656), Polish satirist, 132, 153

Opitz, Martin (1597–1639), German poet, 65, 66, 68, 83

Optát, Benešš (d. 1559), Czech grammarian, xi, 83, 95

Orthography, 95, 105

Oxenstierna, count Axel (1583–1654), chancellor of Sweden, 45, 132

Palsgrave, John (d. 1554), English schoolmaster and chaplain, x, 30

Paracelsus, Philippus (1493–1541), German alchemist and physician, 77

Pasek, Jan Chryzostom (c. 1636–c. 1701), Polish gentleman, 132

Pasquier, Etienne (1529–1615), French lawyer and scholar, 20, 27, 28

Patin, Guy (1601–72), French physician, 133

Patois, see dialect

Peele, George (1556–96), English poet, 19

Peiresc, Nicholas-Claude Fabri de (1580–1637), French polymath, 87, 116, 127

Peletier du Mans, Jacques (1517–82), French poet, 27, 96, 108

Pentreath, Dolly (d. 1777), last speaker of Cornish, 71

Pepys, Samuel (1603–73), English diarist, 33

Perion, Joachim (c. 1499–1559), French monk and professor, xi, 20

Perkins, William (1558–1602), English divine, 80

Perrott, Sir John (c. 1527–92), President of Munster, 75

Persian, 123, 154, 171

Peter I, Tsar of Russia (‘the Great’, ruled, 1682–1725) 96, 130, 169

Petraeus, Eskil (1593–1657), Finnish bishop, 104

Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca, 1307–74), Italian writer, 98

Philip II, King of Spain (ruled 1556–98) xi, 142

Picard, Jean, sixteenth-century writer on French, 21

Picchio, Renato (b. 1923), Italian linguist, 9

Pidgins, pidginization, 47, 111, 127

Pietists, 32

Pigafetta, Antonio (c. 1480–c. 1534), Italian traveller, 26

Plays, 11, 30, 33, 36, 126, 134, 155

Plowden, Edmund (1518–85), English lawyer 128

Polabian, 71

Polish, x, xi, xiii, 16, 18, 23, 53, 63, 66, 68, 72, 74, 75, 80, 83, 90, 105, 130, 132, 153

Polyglossia, 4, 113

Polyphony, 113, 137

Pontano, Giovanni Gioviano (1426–1503), Italian humanist, 26

Pontoppidan, Erik (1698–1764), Danish bishop and linguist, xii

Popovsky, Nikolai (c. 1730–1760), lecturer at Moscow University, 78

Portuguese, x, xiv, 21, 22, 23, 27, 28, 29, 30, 62, 66, 81, 90, 95, 121, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 166

Postel, Guillaume (1500–81), French Orientalist, 20, 24

Pragmatics, historical, 3

Printing, printers, 91, 93, 106–8, 157

Pronunciation, 108

Provençal, x, 28, 63, 79, 82, 84, 135, 137

Pujades, Jeroni (1568–1635), Catalan chronicler, 84

Pulci, Luigi (1432–84), Florentine poet, 30

Punctuation, 96

Puttenham, George (d. 1590), English lawyer and critic, 41, 100

Quakers, 32

Quechua, 92, 102, 112, 122, 124, 165

Questione della lingua, 9, 94

Quevedo Villegas, Francisco de (1580–1645), Spanish writer, 34

Quintilian (Marcus Fabius Quintilianus, c. 35–c. 100), Roman writer on oratory, 144

Rabelais, François (c. 1494–c. 1553), French writer, 134

Raleigh, Sir Walter (c. 1552–1618), English courtier, writer and explorer, 41

Rambouillet, Cathereine de Vivonne, marquise de (1588–1665), seventeenth-century French noblewoman, 35, 100

Ray, John (1627–1705), English botanist and linguist, xiii, 11, 37

Rebuffi, Pierre (1487–1557), French lawyer, 73

Rehehusen, author of Latvian grammar, xii

Religion, language and, 32, 78

Renaudot, Théophraste (1586–1653), French journalist, 77

Reuchlin, Johann (1455–1522), German humanist, 145

Rhys, John David (1534–1609), Welsh grammarian, xii, 108

Ribeiro Chiado, António (c. 1520–91), Portuguese playwright, 126

Ribinyi, János (1722–88), Hungarian writer on language, xiii, 66, 69

Richard, Jean, sixteenth-century French lawyer and poet, 134

Richelet, Pierre (1626–98), French dictionary maker, 11

Richelieu, Armand, Cardinal (1585–1642), French statesman, 86, 99, 157

Richey, Michael (1678–1761), writer on Hamburg dialect, xiii

Rist, Johann (1607–67), German poet, xii, 65, 66, 150

Rivarol, Antoine (1753–1801), French journalist, xiv, 28, 88, 90, 164

Roberts, Michael (1908–1996), British historian, 87

Robinson, Robert, seventeenth-century English writer on language, 108

Robles, Juan de (1575–1639), Spanish writer, 19

Rocca, Angelo (1545–1620), Italian priest, 20

Romanian, xi, 78, 90, 106, 119

Romansh, xi, 63, 78, 90, 104, 117

Rosa, Václav (c. 1620–89), Czech grammarian, 153

Ross, Alan (b. 1907), English linguist, 31

Rotundus, Augustin, burgomaster of Wilno (Vilnius), 53

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–78), Swiss-French thinker, 32

Rubens, Peter Paul (1577–1640), Flemish painter, 118, 127

Rudbeck, Olaf (1630–1702), Swedish polymath, xiii, 21, 69, 77

Russian, xii, xiii, xiv, 52, 66, 69, 78, 90, 96, 100, 118, 130, 136, 140, 154, 170

Ruthenian, 130

Ruzzante (Angelo Beolco, c. 1502–42), Venetian playwright, 30

Rybinski, Jacob (c. 1560–c. 1600), teacher in Toruń xii, 65, 66

Saint-Evremond, Charles de (1613–1703), French writer, xii, 155

Saint-Simon, Louis, Duc de (1675–1755), French courtier, 34

Sajnovics, János (1733–85), Hungarian scholar, 25

Salons, 35, 100

Salviati, Lionardo (1540–89), Florentine humanist, 66

Sami, xiii, 25, 78, 90

Sandecki, see Malecki

Sandys, Edwin (1561–1642), English Member of Parliament, 132

Sanskrit, 25

Sardinian, 37, 119

Saumaise, Claude de (Salmasius, 1588–1653), French humanist, 20, 144

Scaglione, Aldo, Italian-American linguist, 9

Schlegel, Friedrich (1772–1829), German philosopher, 164

Schottel, Justus Georg (1612–76) xiii, 65, 151

Schrijnen, Josef (1869–1938), Dutch linguist, 3

Schupp, Johann Baltasar (1610–61), German writer, 76

Schwab, Johann-Christoph (1743–1821), German writer on French, 88

Scottish Gaelic, xi, 75, 82

Seklucjan, Jan (c. 1510–70), Polish Protestant writer, 27, 100

Serbian, 123, 168, 170

Serbo-Croat, 8, 168

Shakespeare, William (1564–1616), English dramatist, 13, 36, 64

Sheridan, Thomas (1719–88), Irish actor and teacher of elocution, 41, 108

Siennik, Marcin, sixteenth-century Polish writer, 68

Sigonio, Carlo (c. 1523–84), Modenese humanist, 65

Simons, Menno (1496–1561), Dutch Anabaptist, 142

Skautrup, Peter (1896–1982), Danish linguist, 3, 102

Skippon, Philip, seventeenth-century English traveller, 11, 37

Slavonic, see Old Church Slavonic

Slovak, 79, 102, 119, 168

Slovene, xi, xii, 24, 63, 78, 90, 105, 119, 168

Smotrickii, Meletios (c. 1578–1633), Ruthenian cleric and grammarian, xii

Social history of language, 3

Sociolects, 29

Sociolinguistics, 2, 6, 17, 26, 100

Solorzano y Pereira, Juan de (1575–1655), Spanish jurist, 81

Sorb, 79, 90, 102, 105

Speech domain, 7, 29, 71

Spenser, Edmund (c. 1552–99), English poet, 75, 162

Sperling, Otto (1634–1715), Danish antiquary, xiii, 66

Speroni, Sperone (1500–88), Italian rhetorician, xi, 19, 27, 40, 55, 65, 66, 91

Spieghel, Hendrik L. (1549–1610), Dutch patrician and humanist, xii, 18, 39, 66, 120, 148

Sprat, Thomas (1625–1713), English bishop, 100, 152

Stanyhurst, Richard (1547–1618), English chronicler, 117

Statorius, Peter (d. 1591), French author of a Polish grammar, xi, 83

Stefan, Simeon, seventeenth-century metropolitan of Transylvania, 106

Steinberg, Sigfrid (1899–1969), historian of printing, 91

Sten, Hans Christensen, sixteenth-century Danish playwright, 136

Stevin, Simon (1548–1620), Flemish mathematician, xii, 22, 65, 66, 83, 148

Stiernhielm, Georg (1598–1672), Swedish poet, xii, 22, 23, 25, 66, 152

Štúr, L’udovít (1815–56), codifier of Slovak 168

Sumarokov, Alexander P. (1718–77), Russian writer, 154

Swedish, x, xi, xiii, 21, 23, 25, 38, 59, 66, 69, 76, 77, 90, 119, 127, 128, 130, 132, 149, 152, 162

Swift, Jonathan (1667–1745), British writer, 23, 34, 90

Sylvester, János (c. 1504–c. 1555), Hungarian translator, xi, 95

Sylvius, see Dubois

Szymonowić, Szymon (1558–1629), Polish poet, 18

Tacitus, Cornelius (c. 57–c. 120), Roman historian, 57

Tagalog, 92

Tahureau, Jacques, sixteenth-century French writer, 66

Taíno, 123

Tasso, Torquato (1544–95), Italian poet, 37

Thomasius, Christian (1655–1728), German professor, xiii, 77, 150

Thorláksson, Guđbrandur (1542–1627), Icelandic scholar, 66

Thurmair, see Aventinus

Timoneda, Juan (d. 1583), Spanish writer, 135

Tindale, William (1492–1536), English Protestant translator, 68, 104

Tolomei, Claudio (1492–1555), Sienese humanist, xi, 18, 22, 144

Tompson, John, eighteenth-century professor of English, 117

Torres Naharro, Bartolomé de, sixteenth-century Spanish playwright, 136

Tory, Geoffroy (c. 1480–c. 1533), French printer, x, 33, 106

Toubon law, 172

Translation, 79

Travellers, 37, 47, 118, 162

Trediakovsky, Vasily K. (1703–69), Russian writer, xiii, 66, 69, 91

Trent, Council of, 48, 51, 52, 79, 98

Trissino, Gian Giorgio (1478–1550), Venetian nobleman, poet and scholar, x, 96

Trubar, Primoz (1508–86), Slovene Protestant reformer, 105

Tupí 26, 92, 102, 122, 124, 125

Turkish, xiii, 114, 115, 122, 123, 135, 154, 170

U and non-U, 31

Uchański, Jakub (1502–81), Polish bishop 43

Ukrainian, see Ruthenian

Universal languages, 59

Universities, 54, 76, 114

Urbanization of language, 101

Utenhove, Jan (d. 1565), Dutch translator, 104

Utenhove, Karel (1536–1600), Flemish patrician, 118

Valdés, Juan de (c. 1500–41), Spanish humanist, 97, 121

Valla, Lorenzo (1407–57), Roman humanist, 20

Varchi, Benedetto (1503–65), Florentine critic, xi, 20, 99

Vargas y Ponce, José (1760–1821), writer on Spanish, xiv, 30

Varro, Marcus Terentius (116–27 BC), Roman scholar, 20

Vaugelas, Claude Favre, seigneur de (1585–1650), French writer on language, xiii, 12, 30, 31, 35, 68, 91, 99, 100, 110, 146, 155

Vázquez de Espinosa, Antonio (d. 1630), Spanish Carmelite, 26

Veblen, Thorstein (1857–1929), American sociologist, 32

Vega Carpio, Lope de (1562–1635), Spanish playwright, 135, 136

Venetian, 36, 37, 39, 40, 50, 127, 135

Venier, Matteo or Maffeo (1550–86), Venetian patrician and poet, 155

Vergara, Juan de, sixteenth-century Spanish humanist, 134

Vergerio, Pier Paolo, Junior (1498–1565), Italian Protestant humanist, 105

Veronese, Paolo (1528–88), Italian painter, 44

Verstegan, Richard (floruit 1565–1620), English Catholic scholar, 21, 150

Vicente, Gil (c. 1470–c. 1536), Portuguese playwright, 30, 135

Vidaković, Milovan (1780–1842), codifier of Serbian, 168

Villalón, Cristóbal (c. 1500–58), Spanish humanist, 89

Villers-Cotterêts, edict or ordinance of, xi, 73

Villon, François (b., 1431) 30

Vinogradov, Vladimir Alekseevich (b. 1921), Russian linguist, 3, 140

Viziana, Martin de [Martí de Viciana], Valencian writer, xi, 29, 65, 66, 121

Voltaire (François Marie Arouet, 1694–1778), French philosophe, 28, 155

Vyšenskyi, Ivan (c. 1545–c. 1620), Orthodox cleric, 65

Walker, John (1732–1807), English dictionary maker, 108

Wallenstein, Albrecht von (1583–1634), Czech-German general, 130, 131

Webb, John (1611–72), English architect, 21, 152

Webster, Noah (1758–1843), American dictionary-maker, 165

Weckherlin, Georg (1584–1653), German poet, 116, 150

Welsh, x, xi, xii, 16, 67, 69, 71, 78, 82, 90, 91, 105, 117

Werve, Jan van de, sixteenth-century Flemish merchant, xi, 148

Wesley, John (1703–91), founder of Methodism, 54

Whig history, 61, 73, 167

Whitelocke, Bulstrode (1605–75), English envoy to Sweden, 46

Whorf, Benjamin L. (1897–1941), American linguist, 166

Wietor, Hieronim (c. 1480–c. 1547), Polish printer, 68, 106

Wilkins, John (1614–72), English divine, 24, 59

Wilson, Thomas (c. 1525–81), English writer on rhetoric, 149

Winstanley, Gerrard (1609–76), English radical, 17

Wolff, Christian (1679–1754), German philosopher, 77

Women and language, 33–5, 49, 100, 146, 159

Wordsworth, William (1770–1850), English poet, 170

Wyclif, John (c. 1328–84), English reformer 104

Yiddish, xi, 118, 121

Žefarović, Christophor, eighteenth-century Bulgarian monk, 53

Zesen, Philipp von (1619–89), German writer 151

Zizanij, Lavrentii, sixteenth-century Ukrainian dictionary maker, xii


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