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The Cambridge History of African and Caribbean Literature 2 Volume Hardback Set

Details

  • 9 maps
  • Page extent: 954 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 1.559 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 809/.8896
  • Dewey version: 21
  • LC Classification: PN841 .I74 2004
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Literature--Black authors--History and criticism

Library of Congress Record

2 Hardback books

 (ISBN-13: 9780521594349 | ISBN-10: 0521594340)




Index




Aarne, Anti, 23, 25

Abbad y Lasierra, Fray Iñigo, 676–677

Abbas, F., 381

Abdalla, Abdilatif, 205, 206, 324

Abdalla, Said, 212

Abdelkader, Emir, 183–184

Abdullahi, Jabiru, 345

Abdulwahid, Hafsatu, 346

Abdurra’uhu, Malam Shitu Dan, 335

Abedi, Kaluta Amri, 205

Abel, Antoine, 580

Abimbola, ’Wande, 375

Abomey kingdom, 544

Abouzeid, Leila, 193

Abrahams, Lionel, 520

Abrahams, Peter, 392, 399, 404, 425, 476, 516, 517

Abrahams, Roger, 122, 126, 127, 128

Abrahamsson, Hans, 20

Abranches, Henrique, 612, 613

Abrantes, Mena, 613

Abruquah, Joseph, 482

Abu-Haidar, Jareer, 62

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim of Kanem, 182

Abu-Lughod, Lila, 61

Abu-Manga, Al-Amin, 339

Abubakre, Razq, 196

abuse, oral forms, 126–128

Abyssinia, 98, 260, 277

Accra, Ghana Cultural Centre, 28

Achebe, Chinua

   and Armah, 826–827

   Arrow of God, 128, 390, 393, 486, 497

   choice of English, 480

   colonial debate, 392

   colonial education, 483

   and Equiano, 475

   Igbo culture, 489–490, 832, 835–837

   and Joyce Cary, 279

   and literature in English, 425

   loss of community, 491

   A Man of the People, 489, 495, 498, 630

   and modernism, 824–825

   and motivation to write, 381

   No Longer at Ease, 476, 486, 824, 828

   and Okike, 406

   postcolonial disenchantment, 283, 798

   short stories, 496

   and Soyinka, 486–487

   Things Fall Apart, xi, 126, 284, 343, 388, 393, 483, 484, 485–486, 824, 831–837

   translations into Yoruba, 376

   and women, 484

Achille, Louis-Thomas, 780

Adali-Mortty, K., 479

Adamastor, 263, 510

Ade Ajayi, J. F., 160

Ade, Sunny, 371

Adedeji, Joel, 37, 488

Adejobi, Oyun, 372

Adélaïde-Merlande, Jacques, 645

Adelugba, Dapo, 488

Adeniyi, Dapo, 406

Adepoju, Alhaji Karimu, 347

Adepoju, Olanrewaju, 371

Adera, Tadesse, 173

Adi, Hakim, 719

Adisa, Opal Palmer, 743

Admassu, Yonas, 171

adventure fiction, 446–448

Aesop, 207

Afigbo, A. E., 383, 390

Africa

   colonial borders, 274

   colonial image, 483, 762

   concept, 759–761, 766

   and Europe. See encounter with Europe; European experience of Africa

   exploration, 271–273, 274–276

   maps, xxxvii, xxxix, xl, xli

   meaning of “African,” 504

   name, 260

   source of affirmation, 759

African art, European discovery, 227

African-language literatures

   Gikuyu. See Gikuyu literature

   Hausa. See Hausa literature

   promotion, 319

   southern Africa

      generally, 289

      migration theme, 290–291

      missionary influences, 289–292, 301–302

      political themes, 290–291

      Xhosa. See Xhosa

   Swahili. See Swahili literature

   Yoruba. See Yoruba literature

African literature. See also writing

   and colonialism

      centrality of colonial experience, 379–395

      institutions, 385–392

   and decolonisation, 392–395, 826

   in English. See anglophone literature

   flowering, 392

   in French. See francophone literature

   links to Caribbean literature, xvi–xviii

   meaning, xiv–xv, 810

   and modernism, 825–828, 831–837

   popular literature, 626

   in Portuguese. See lusophone African literature

   postcolonial, 809

      disenchantment, 797

   and religion, 387–390

   in Spanish. See hispanophone literature

   vernacular. See African-language literatures; specific languages

African National Congress (ANC), 95, 514, 518

African Writers’ Series, 484

Africanism, 384

Afrikaans

   Cape Afrikaans, 417

   indigenization of language, 410–412

   Khoi Afrikaans, 411, 412

   standardization, 412

   status, 412

Afrikaans literature, xv

   black writers, 508

   and colonization, 412–415

   farm novel, 410, 419

   indigenization of language, 410–412

   literature as discourse, 415–417

   “minor literature,” 417–418

   modernism, 418

   origins, 408–410

   postmodernism, 418–420

   Sestigers, 413–415, 418

   war poetry, 413

Afrikaner, 264, 294, 409

Afro-Americans

   banter and abuse, 127

   blues, 120

   and Christianity, 121

   culture, 760

   gospel music, 121

   hip-hop music, 119, 120, 124

   holy rollers, 122

   jubilees, 122

   sankey, 121

   spirituals, 119, 120

   trickster tales, 24

   vocalists, 118–119

   writers on slavery, 241–245

Agard, John, 721, 722, 725, 731

Agni-Ashanti, folktales, 534

Agni-Bona, folktales, 26, 30

Agovi, J. K., 30, 127

Agualusa, José Eduardo, 612

Ahmadu Bello University, theater, 42

Ahmed, Sa’idu, 345

Aidoo, Ama Ata, 43, 320, 401, 476, 485, 837

ajami script, 159, 330, 332–333, 339–340

Ajibola, J. O., 125

Ajisafe, A. K., 367, 369

Akalay, Lotfi, 565

Akamba, folktales, 29

Akan

   cultures, 477

   drum poems, 479

   folktales, 23, 27–29, 30, 31, 32, 131

   mmoguo songs, 31

   speech-making, 118

   tricksters, 21

   values, 484

Akinlade, Kola, 368

Akinsowon, A., 366

Akintan, E. A., 366

Akinyele, I. B., 366

Akpabot, Samuel, 118

Aksumite kingdom, 164

al-’Aynayn, Shaykh Ma’, 195

Al-Azhar University, 331

al-Bakri, 180–181, 228

al-Barnawi, Muhammad, 332

al-Buhry, Hemed, 205

al-Du’aji, Ali, 193

al-Faqih, Ibrahim, 193, 194, 195

al-Fasi, ’Allal, 185

al-Furqani, al-Habib, 186

al-Hakim, Tawfik, 50, 187–188

al-’Id Khalifa, Muhammad, 184

al-Idrisi, 180–181

al-Jabarti, Abd al-Rahman, 384

al-Kawni, Ibrahim, 193–194, 195

al-Kunt, al-Mukhtar, 183

al-Kunt, Muhammad, 183

al-Madani, ’Izz al-Din, 195

al-Mami, Shaykh Muhammad, 183

al-Maqqari, 181

al-Nagar, Umar, 339

al-Naluti, Arusiyya, 193

al-Qadir, Ahmad Wuld ’Abd, 195

al-Sabbagh, Ibn, 332

al-Shabbi, Abu ’l-Qasim, 185–186

al-Tijani, Ahmad, 182

al-Tijani, Yusuf Bashir, 186

al-’Uqbi, Tayyib, 184, 185

Alarinjo theatre, 39

Albany, Jean, 578

Albert, Ethel, 122

Albert, James, 239

Alcântara, Osvaldo, 605

Aldrich, Robert, 650

Alemayehu, Haddis, 171

Alexander of Corinth, 167

Alexander the Great, 168

Alexis, Jacques Stephen, 649, 652, 656, 772, 788, 790

Alfonso I of Kongo, 261

Algeria

   Algiers, 400

   Arabic literature, 183–184, 196

      drama, 195

      fiction, 190–192, 560

      periodicals, 184

      poetry, 179, 185, 186

   Berbers, 51

   bilingualism, 191–192

   civil war, 556, 562, 564

   francophone literature

      1950s, 555, 556, 557–558

      1970s, 559

      1980s/1990s, 561–562, 564–565

      and Camus, 554

      and civil war, 564–565

      School of Algiers, 553–554

      women writers, 558, 561

   French colonization, 50, 552, 553

   language, 53

   Oran, 50, 228

   politesse, 60

   raï music, 50

   Revolution, 552, 553, 556, 557–558, 559–560

   terror campaign, 562

   Tlemcen, 179

   Ulema, 184, 190

alienation, 657, 770, 838–840

Alkali, Hamidu, 331

Allen, Grant, 447

Alleyne, Mervyn, 715

Allfrey, Phyllis, 720, 737

Alloula, Abdelkader, 195

Allsop, Richard, 715

Almeida, Germano, 616

Almeida Santos, Aires de, 606

Alnaes, Kirsten, 10

Alonso, Dora, 693

Alonso, Manuel, 680, 686

Alonso, Nancy, 698

Aluko, T. M., 482

Alvarez de Chanca, Diego, 672

Amadi, Elechi, 484, 485, 486, 498

Amado, Leopoldo, 620

Amankulor, J. N., 487

Amarilis, Orlanda, 615

Amda Tseyon, 165

Amharic, Ethiopian literature, 164, 170–172

Amidu, Assibi, 200

Amin, Idi, 439–440

Amo, Anton Wilhelm, 228, 229, 232, 233–236

Amon d’Aby, François-Joseph, 536

Amrouche, Jean, 553, 554–555

Anang, Michael Dei, 476

Ananse, 21, 27–29, 31, 130, 534

Anansekrom, 28

anansesem, 27

Anati, Emmanuel, 153–155

ancestors, praise poetry, 75

Andalusia, 52–53, 59, 61

Anderson, A. A., 447

Anderson, Benedict, 392

Andrade, Marion Pinto de, 606, 609, 620

Andrews, William L., xvi

Andrzejewski, B. W., 13, 14

Angira, Jared, 427, 434–435, 440

anglophone literature

   and African indigenous languages, 489–491

   Caribbeans, xvi–xvii

      boundaries, 717

      diaspora, 426, 717

      drama, 738–742

      exile, 723–726

      fiction, 732–738

      generally, 711–747

      history, 711–712, 713–714

      identity, 713, 723–726

      journals, 724, 732

      literary criticism, 745–746

      memoirs, 738

      oral and literary forms, 720–723, 744

      phases, 719

      poetry, 726–732

      response to colonial experience, 717–720

      sea presence, 716

      themes, 723

      women’s writing, 742–745

   Central Africa

      adventure tales, 446–448

      European origins, 446–452

      first black writers, 452–459

      generally, 445–466

      Malawi, 445–452, 456–459

      origins, 445–452

      poetry, 451–452

      racism, 450–451

      white adventure books, 446–448

      white colonial writers, 446–452

      white romantic anti-capitalism, 448

      white verse, 451–452

      white women writers, 449–451

      Zambia, 445–452, 454–456

      Zimbabwe. See Zimbabwe

   East Africa

      decolonization, 436–439

      dictatorship genre, 440

      dire conditions, 440–441

      exile, 441

      generally, 425–441

      globalization age, 439–441

      journals, 426

      Makerere English, 427–429, 431

      nationalism, 429–433

      Okot School poetry, 433–435

      sudden bloom, 426, 441

   Kampala Conference, 246, 425

   South Africa

      nineteenth century, 511–514

      apartheid period, 516–522

      black women writers, 521–522

      Drum generation, 517, 518

      generally, 504–524

      “interregnum years,” 520–522

      literary historiography, 504

      lyric poetry, 520–521

      memory of apartheid, 523–524

      origins, 510

      postapartheid, 522–524

      pre-apartheid period, 514–516

      protest writing, 518, 521

      sense of provisionality, 509–510

      theater, 519–520

      “white writing,” 508

   West Africa

      1960s turning point, 494–498

      birth of national literatures, 483

      British colonial influence, 482–483

      generally, 498

      hybrid language, 482

      and indigenous languages, 489–491

      literary portrayal of women, 484–485

      loss of cultural heritage, 491–493

      missionary influences, 482

      myth, 495

      origins, 473–476

      pan-Africanism, 475–478

      publishing, 483–484

      traditions, 478–481

Angola

   anticolonial rebellion, 606

   folktales, 22, 23

   freedom songs, 14

   journals, 399, 404

   Luanda, 606

   lusophone literature

      anticolonial period, 606–607, 609

      journals, 606

      literary criticism, 618–619

      post-independence, 610–613

      precursors, 603

Anim-Addo, Joan, 745

animism, 846–848

Anjos, Gustavo dos, 618

Anjouan, 579

Antara ibn Shabbad, 179

anthropology, xiii, 22, 23, 25, 73

anti-Americanism, 694

anti-capitalism, 448

Antigua, 127, 246, 248, 719

Antoine, Jacques, 770

Antoine, Régis, 644, 649, 651

Antoni, Robert, 715, 723, 725, 737, 744

António, Mário, 606, 618

Anyinefa, Koffi, 812

apartheid, 281, 412

   memory of apartheid, 523–524

   migrant workers, 12

   oppression of Xhosa poets, 4

   and South African literature, 516–522, 523–524

Apidan theater, 39

Apollinaire, Guillaume, 655

Appiah, Anthony, 249, 477

Apuleius, 49

Arabic

   Hassaniya, 183

   invasions of North Africa, 50, 51

   linguistic mixtures, 52–53

   music, 119

   orality. See Arabic oral traditions

   regional and classical Arabic, 51, 52

   spread in North Africa, 51

   and spread of Islam, 178, 331–332

   written language, 158–160

Arabic literature, xiv

   twentieth-century drama, 195

   twentieth-century fiction, 187–195, 560

   twentieth-century poetry, 185–186

   generally, 178–196

   and Hausa literature, 330

   periodicals, 184

   poetry, 179–180

   religious writing, 181

   Sufis, 57, 62, 181–184, 331, 335

   travel writing, 180–181, 228, 260

Arabic oral traditions

   Antar, 179, 185

   Banu Hilal, 179

   children’s rhymes and games, 63

   coded speech, 63

   epics, 59, 179

   folktales, 23, 50

   generally, 49–64, 178–179

   genres, 50, 56–64

   inspiration for contemporary writers, 50

   jokes, 58–59, 63

   linguistic mixtures, 52–53

   lullabies, 61, 62–63

   Maghreb, 186–187

   market cries, 57–58

   narratives, 56–57

   poems, 59–60

   politesse, 60

   preservation, 53–55

   proverbs, 58, 63

   public patter, 57–58

   riddles, 58, 63

   songs, 61–62

   speech play, 63

Arawak, 670, 683

Arbousset, Thomas, 72

Ardouin, Coriolan, 648

Arenas, Reinaldo, 696

Arendt, Hannah, 277

Aresu, Bernard, 561

Arewa, Ojo, 23

Aríbilósòò, 366

Aristotle, 166, 235

Armah, Ayi Kwei

   The Beautyful Ones are not Yet Born, 173, 437, 494–495, 497, 799, 826, 837

   elitist literature, 630

   modernism, 825, 827, 831, 837

   postcolonial disenchantment, 283, 799–801, 802

   Two Thousand Seasons, 477, 801

   Why Are We so Blest, 477, 799

Arnaud, Jacqueline, 561

Arnold, James, 539, 650, 655

Arnold, Matthew, 385–386, 387, 428

Arnold, Thomas, 385

Arobiodu, Sobo, 369

Arrate, José Martin Félix de, 677

Arriví, Francisco, 691

Asa-Asa, 245

Ashanti, 30, 279, 534, 715, 727

Ashcroft, Bill, xviii, 719

’Ashur, Radwa, 189

Asma’u, Nana, 333, 334, 336

Assima, Fériel, 564

Assis Júnior, António de, 603

Atari Ajanaku, 369

Athanasius of Alexandria, 164

Atiku, Abutakar Dan, 337

Aubin, Eugène, 55

Aubry, Gilbert, 578

Aucamp, Hennie, 415, 419

Auden, W. H., 727

Audisio, Gabriel, 553

Auld, Thomas, 245

Avila Laurel, Juan-Tomás, 598, 599

awliya ’, 57

Awobuluyi, O., 375

Awolowo, Chief Obafemi, 387

Awona, Stanislaus, 99, 107

Awoonor, Kofi, 477, 479, 480, 493, 495, 496, 497, 798, 827

Axelson, Eric, 408, 409

Ayerra Santa Maria, Francisco de, 675

Azande, folktales, 27

Azéma, Jean-Henri, 578

Azikiwe, Nnamdi, 490

Azudu Saga, 99


Bâ, Amadou Hampaté, 99, 100, 159, 533

Ba Ka Khosa, Ungulani, 613

Baba Sala, 373

Babalola, Adeboye, 2, 375

Babalola, S. A., 364

Bada, S. O., 361

Baden-Powell, Robert, 448

Badian, Seydou, 537

Baghdad, 56

Bahamas, 28, 130, 131, 246

Bailey, George, 145

Bailey, Jim, 404

Baines, Thomas, 447

Bajan language, 728

Baker, Léandre-Alain, 813

Bakpetu-Thompson, Vincent, 759

Bakr ad Siddiq, Abu, 229, 411

Bakr, Salwa, 189

Balandier, Georges, 379

Balboa Boneke, Juan, 592–593, 594, 595, 596, 597

Balboa, Sylvestre de, 675, 676

Baldwin, James, 131

Baldwin, William, 511

Balewa, Abubakar Tafawa, 342–343, 351, 473

Balfour, Makhaphela Noyi, 291

ballads, 722

Ballantyne, R. M., 511

Balogun, Odun, 627

balwo, 13

Bamba, Shaykh Ahmadou, 182

Bambara oral traditions, 24, 99, 100

bamboula, 722

Bame, Kwabena, 40

Bamgbose, Ayo, 375

Bamun, sultans, 158

B’Anansi, 28

Banda, Hastings, 455, 457, 458, 459

Bandele, Biyi, 819

Bandoeng Conference, 400

Banjayomoyo, Storm, 456

Bannis, Muhammad, 186

Bannuna, Khannata, 193

banter, 126–128

Bantu

   Bantu Education, 517

   cave paintings, 155

   folktales, 27

   languages, 157, 159

   southern languages, 84

   and Swahili literature, 199

Bantustans, 301

Banu Hilal tribe, 59, 179

Banzi, Alex, 213

Barbados

   early plantations, 717

   in fiction, 737

   geography, 716

   igbos in, 715

   journals, 403

   literature. See anglophone literature

   Redlegs, 714

   slave economy, 715

   slave revolts, 246

   sugar economy, 718

barbarians, Africans as, 260, 271, 275

Barbeitos, Arlindo, 610

Barber, Karin, 2, 5, 12, 40, 627, 629, 630, 632

Barbosa, Jorge, 605

Bardolph, Jacqueline, 432

bards, 71

Barker, W. H., 130

Barnard, Anne, 510

Barnard, Chris, 413

Barnet, Miguel, 249

Barolong, 514

Barotseland, 452

Barre, Siyad, 805–806

Barreto, Manu, 618

Barrow, Sir John, 510

Barrow, Steve, 720

Barthes, Roland, 646, 847

Barue, 382

Bascom, William, 20, 130

Basotho

   Bohadi, 295

   customs, 295–296

   education, 293

   lithoko, 4, 5, 12

   oral tales, 295, 296

   praise poetry, 73, 297

   records, 71

   women, 12

Basset, Henri, 55, 63

Bassir, Olumbe, 479

Bastide, Bastide, 760

Bataille, Georges, 277

Batista, Fulgencio, 693

Baudelaire, Charles, 269, 689

Baugh, Edward, 729, 745

Bauman, Hermann, 20

Bauman, Richard, 7

Béart, Charles, 536

Beckett, Samuel, 216, 813

Beckles, Hilary, 712, 713, 714, 742

Begag, Azouz, 815

beguine, 120

Behan, Brendan, 46

Behori Sipi, Gerardo, 598

Behr, Mark, 522–523

Beier, Ulli, 20, 401, 492, 607, 627, 632

Bekri, Tahar, 186

Belaval, Emilio, 692

Belcher, Stephen, 14

Belgium

   colonialism, 255, 273, 276, 279

   francophone African publishing, 814

   in Rwanda, 2

Belize, 246

Bello, Muhammad, 334, 343, 347, 348, 351

Bemba language, 455

Ben Abdallah, Mohammed, 825

Ben-Amos, Dan, 25

Ben Badis, Abdelhamid, 184, 190

Ben Jelloun, Tahar, 50, 558, 559, 562, 563, 815

Ben Mansour, Latifa, 564

Bender, Thomas, 267

Benhedouga, Abdelhamid, 191

Beni Hilal tribes, 51

Beniamo, Michel, 579

Benin, 25, 105, 160, 261

Benítez, Alejandrina, 681

Benítez, Maria Bibiana, 681

Benítez-Rojo, Antonio, 711, 792

Benjamin, S. P., 412, 417

Benjelloun, Abdelmajid, 192

Bennabi, Malik, 53

Bennett, Hazel, 716

Bennett, James Gordon, 272, 273

Bennett, Louise, 721, 728, 729, 730, 744

Bennie, William Govan, 291

Benveniste, Emile, 15

Berbers

   ancestors, 554

   children’s rhymes, 63

   and colonizers, 53

   languages, 51, 194

   narratives, 56–57

   oral traditions, 56, 49–64, 186, 558

   origins, 55

   poems, 59–60

   presence in North Africa, 51

   proverbs, 58

   riddles, 58

   songs, 61–62

Bereng, D. C. T., 72, 90

Bergh, Olaf, 409

Bergson, Henri, 777, 779

Berlin Conference, 273–274, 276, 280, 379, 381

Berman, Bruce, 307

Bermuda, 246, 247

Bermudez de Pedraza, 232

Bernabé, Jean, 578, 653

Berrada, Mohamed, 192

Berrou, Raphaël, 648, 649, 654

Berry, James, 731, 818

Bertelsen, Eve, 450

Bertin, 577

Bertoncini, Elena Zubkova, 211

Bess, Reginald, 233, 235

Betances, Ramón Emeterio, 679

Bete, folktales, 24

Beti, Mongo, 390, 393, 476, 545

Bettelheim, Judith, 146

Beukes, Eugene, 412, 417

beurs, 565, 811, 815

Beyala, Calixthe, 542, 809, 810, 813, 814, 838–840

Bezold, C., 168

Bible

   Bible operas, 372

   biblical explanations of racism, 265

   and Ethiopian literature, 164, 165

   influence on African-language literatures, 289

   in Lesotho, 294

   translations

      Afrikaans, 411

      Ge’ez, 164

      Gikuyu, 306

      Hausa, 340

      Malagasy, 572

      southern Africa, 292

      Swahili, 208

      West Africa, 479

      Xhosa, 389

      Yoruba, 365, 480

Biebuyck, Daniel, 99, 100, 108–109

Biko, Steve, 414, 518

Bilby, Kenneth, 129

Bildungsroman, 431, 545

Birbalsingh, Frank, 714, 723, 725

Bird, Charles, 100, 107

Birnin Gwari, Muhammadu na, 335, 337

Bissoondath, Neil, 725, 820

Bjorkman, Ingrid, 42

Bjornson, Richard, xix, 627, 778

Black Athena, 49

Black Atlantic, xvii

Black Conciousness, 518–519, 521

Black Orpheus, 401–402

Black Power, 518

Black, Stephen, 519

Blackburn, Douglas, 513

Blackburn, Robin, 714, 717, 718, 720

Blacking, John, 9–10, 11

Blair, Dorothy, 530, 535, 540, 544

Blassingame, John, 245

Blay, Benibengor, 637

Bleek, W. H. I., 22

Blixen, Karen, 279–281

Bloch, Ernst, 274

Bloom, Harold, 506

blues, 120

Blum, Peter, 414

Blyden, Edward, 384, 398

bo gu, 31

Boadi, Lawrence, 122

Boahen, Adu, 380, 381, 393

Boal, Augusto, 41

boasts, 128

Bobes, Marilyn, 698

Boelaert, P., 99

Boer War, 300, 412, 413

Boerneef (I. W. van der Merwe), 416

Boers, 5, 514

Boetie, Dugmore, 525

Boezak, André, 412, 417

Bogle, Paul, 733

Bokesa Napo, 584

boko, 159, 353

Bokwe, John Knox, 294, 513

Bonavena, E., 610

Bonn, Charles, 557, 561

book fairs, 461

Boolell, Shakuntala, 576

Booth, James, 298

Booth, Marilyn, 52, 53

Borana, qoosaa-taapaa, 14

borders, 274

Boricó, Benigno, 589

Bornu empire, 331, 332

Borrell, D. E., 452

Bosch, Juan, 692

Bosman, Herman Charles, 515

Botswana, 10, 42, 521

Boudjedra, Rachid, 191, 560, 564

Boudry, Robert, 573

Bourgeacq, Jacques, 545

Bowles, Paul, 50

Bowra, Maurice, 98

Boxer, C. R., 260, 261

Boy Nasty, 28

Boyd, Jean, 333, 336–337

Bradbury, Malcolm, 825

Bragança, Albertino, 618

Brand, Dionne, 725, 728, 731, 744, 819

Brantlinger, Patrick, 267, 268, 270, 271, 272

Brathwaite, Edward Kamau

   autobiography, 738

   Caribbean rivers, 716

   and Collymore, 724

   and Creole, 714, 721, 723, 788

   cultural identities, 652

   discovery of Africa, 727

   dominance, 727

   exile, 724

   generally, 712–713

   and history, 713

   intellectualism, 729

   literary criticism, 746

   and literary renaissance, xvii

   in London, 717

   and metrics, 729

   and oral traditions, 131

   video style, 731–732

Brau, Salvador, 685

Brazil, candomble, 121, 129

Brecht, Bertolt, 41

Breeze, Jean, 721, 731, 744

Breiner, Laurence, 726, 727

Breton, André, xvii, 576, 655, 659

Brettell, Noel, 452

Bretts, R. F., 393

Breuil, Henri, 154

Brew, Kwesi, 493

Breytenbach, Breyten, 409, 414–415, 418

bridal chants, 364

Brière, Jean, 771

Briggs, Charles, 7

Brink, André, 414–415

Britain

   abolition of slave trade, 246, 269

   African writers on slavery, 238–241

   Black Studies, 817

   colonization policy, 339–340

   concept of culture, 385–386

   diaspora writers

      generally, 816–819

      Windrush generation, 816

      women, 819

   emancipation of slaves, 246

   expulsion of Africans, 229

   Niger Expedition, 270

   scramble for Africa, 270

Brito Semedo, Manuel, 619

broadcasting, 3, 13–14, 374

Brodber, Erna, 131, 725, 743

Brontë, Charlotte, 735

Brontë family, 269

Brouard, Carl, 649, 771

Brown, Duncan, 4

Brown, John, 245

Brown, Lloyd, 722, 726, 728, 729, 730, 744

Brown, Wayne, 727, 730

Brown, William Wells, 243, 245

Brun, Amédée, 659

Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel of Saxony, Duke Anton Wilhelm, 233

Brutus, Dennis, 402, 478, 518

Bryant, A. T., 76

Bualo Bokamba, Esteban, 589

Buchan, John, 483, 511

Buckler, William, 386

Bucuane, Juvenal, 613

Buele Bisele, Apollonio, 598

Bueriberi Bokesa, Pedro Cristino, 593, 598

Buffon, Georges-Louis, 265

Buganda, 387, 428

Bully, Alwyn, 741

Bulman, Stephen, 112

Bulwer Lytton, Edward, 270

Bundy, A. J. M., 733, 746

Bundy, Colin, 413

Bunyan, John, 207, 208, 289, 292, 295, 296, 301, 367, 389

burial practices, 308

Burkina Faso, folktales, 30, 532

Burnett, Paula, 716, 727, 728

Burns-Ncamashe, S. M. Z., 95

Burton, Richard D. E., 650

Burton, Richard Francis, 22, 23, 271

Buruga, Joseph, 434

Burundi, 282

Bushmen, 264

Butler, Guy, 520–521

Buxton, Thomas Fowell, 270, 271

Byron, Lord George, 681


Cabezas Altamirano, Juan de las, 675

Cabon, Marcel, 576

Cabral, Amilcar, 616

Cabral, Luis, 620

Cabral, Manuel del, 690

Cabral, Vasco, 616

Cabrera Infante, Guillermo, 695

Cabrera, Lydia, 129, 690

Cagnolo, Father C., 309

Cairo, jokes, 55

Calame-Griaule, Geneviève, 24

Calder, Angus, 437, 457

Caliban, 719, 731

Caluza, Reuben, 293, 298, 300

Calvert, Jean-Louis, 482

calypso

   anthologies, 728

   and Caribbean art forms, 722, 729

   importance, 138, 720

   modern performance, 119

   national literature, 147–150

   and resistance, 712

   season, 146

   and sex, 120

   social critique, 120

   themes, 119

   vilification, 140

Camara Laye, 110, 392, 544–545, 547

Camara, Sana, 182

Cameroon

   Benue Valley, 332

   epics, 99, 103

   Gbaya folktales, 27, 30

   Hausa diaspora, 339

   journals, 402

   literature, xix

   missions, 545

   theater, 536

Camey, Daniel, 451

Camo, Pierre, 572, 573

Camões, Luis Vaz de, 262–264, 510

Campbell, George, 726

Campbell, Joseph, 479

Campbell, Roy, 515

Camus, Albert, 211, 553, 554

Canada

   immigrant writers, 819–820

   multiculturalism, 819

Canales, Nemesio, 690

Cancel, Robert, 25

cannibalism, 271, 272

Cape of Good Hope

   Cape Afrikaans, 411

   Cape Colony, 264

   Dutch in, 262

   early descriptions, 409, 510

   first governor, 410

   naming, 409

   Portuguese in, 261

Cape Verde

   journal, 605

   languages, 605

   lusophone literature

      colonial period, 605–606

      literary criticism, 619

      post-independence, 614–616

      Pro-Culture Movement, 615

   map, xxxviii

   Mindelo, 605

Capella, Martianus, 49

capitalism

   and colonialism, 276

   and postmodernism, 828–829

   and Protestant Reformation, 265

   romantic anti-capitalism, 448

   and slavery, 266, 718

Capitein, Johannes, 229, 235, 380

Cardinall, A. W., 19

Cardoso, António, 606

Cardoso, Boaventura, 607

Caribbean Voices, 724

Caribbeans

   Afro-Caribbean writers on slavery, 245–249

   Ananse, 28

   banter and abuse, 126, 127–128

   British West Indies

      cricket, 137, 717, 791

      ethnic origins, 714, 716

      geographical diversity, 716

      history, 711–712

      indentured workers, 714

      literature. See anglophone literature

      racism, 718

      slavery, 719

   Carnival, 137–151

   folktales, 129

   formal speech, 122

   French Antilles

      béké class, 659

      Code noir, 646

      colonial status, 646, 661

      history, 646–648

      literature. See francophone literature

   gospel music, 121

   hispanophone islands, 670–671, 691

   links to African literature, xvi–xviii

   literature in English. See anglophone literature

   literature in French. See francophone literature

   literature in Spanish. See hispanophone literature

   music themes, 119–120

   Napoleonic wars, 647

   oral forms, 722–723

   postcolonial identities, 785

   proverbs, 125–126

   slave revolts, 246–247

   theater, 139

   trickster tales, 130

Caribs, 714

Carlyle, Thomas, 267, 718

Carmen Diaz, Jose de, 248

Carmichael, Mrs, 718, 719

carnival

   Caribbeans, 151, 792

   competitions, 144–145

   costumes, 142–143

   kalinda music, 150

   origins, 138

   and theater, 139, 143–144, 145–146, 149

   Trinidad, 137–138, 139–151, 740, 745

Carpanin Marimotou, Jean-Claude, 578

Carpentier, Alejo, xvii, 690, 695, 772, 790–791

Carroll, Lewis, 208

Carter, Martin, 726, 729

Cartey, Wilfred, 723

Carthage, 50

cartography

   and Africa, 274–275, 280

   naming places, 409

Carvalho, Agistinho Mendes de, 611

Carvalho, Jose Jorge de, 119, 129

Carvalho, Ruy Duarte de, 610

Carver, George Washington, 317

Cary, Joyce, xv, 278–279, 280, 483, 484, 832

Casal, Julìan del, 689

Casalis, Eugène, 71

Casanova, Gonzalez, 413

Casely-Hayford, J. E., 476

Castellanos, Juan de, 673

Castillo, Maria Angeles, 598

Castillo, Otto Rene, 324

Castro, Fidel, 403, 405

Catholic Church, and colonialism, 265–266

Cavacas, Fernanda, 620

cave paintings, 153–156

Cege, John Kabogoro, 311

Céline, Louis-Ferdinand, 287

Celliers, Jan, 412, 413

Cendrars, Blaise, 532

censorship

   Malawi, 457

   Rhodesia, 453

Central Africa. See also Malawi; Zambia; Zimbabwe

   drums, 3

   folktales, 23

   indigenous languages, 455

   literature. See anglophone literature

   meaning, 445

   narrative collections, 22

Cervantes, Miguel de, 232

Césaire, Aimé

   anticolonial poetry, 539

   Cahier d’un retour au pays natal, 649, 656, 657, 774–775

   Discourse on Colonialism, 393, 656

   intellectualism, 729

   journalism, 538

   L’etudiant noir, 400, 538, 655

   and maroons, 788

   and Negritude, 539, 609, 655

   plays, 656

   poetry, 659–660, 774–775, 789

   politics, 540

   and Senghor, 774, 776

   Surrealist, xvii

   Toussaint Louverture, 656

   Tropiques, 400, 538, 650

Césaire, Suzanne, 650

Ceuta, 228, 260

Cezair-Thompson, Margaret, 743

Chad, Sara folktale, 27

Chadwick, H. M. & N. K., 72, 98, 107

Chadwick, N. K., 98

Chakrabarty, Dipesh, 836

Chalkdust, Mighty, 721, 722

Chalmer, J., 448

Chamberlin, Edward, 728, 731

Chambertrand, Gilbert de, 540

Chamoiseau, Patrick, xvii, 578, 644, 645, 646, 649, 653, 654, 659, 794, 815

Chance, Jane 49, 50

Chapman, Michael, 505, 506–507, 512

Charef, Mehdi, 815

Charlemagne, Lydia, 130

Charles, Jean-Claude, 651, 816

Charles V., 231

Charlot, Edmond, 553

Chateaubriand, François-René de, 274

Chatelain, H., 22, 23

Chauvet, Marie, 658

Chaviano, Daína, 698–699, 704

Chazal, Malcolm de, 571, 576

Cheche, Muthee, 311, 312, 313

Chema Mijero, Juan, 589

Chemi Chemi, 427

Chénier, André, 577

Chennells, Anthony, 450–451, 461

Chevrier, Jacques, 533, 537, 539

Chewa, 155

Cheyenne Indians, 272

Cheynet, Anne, 578

Cheyney-Coker, Syl, 498

ChiChewa literature, 456, 458

Chikwakwa Theatre of Zambia, 39

Child, Lydia, 235

children, rhymes and riddles, 58, 63

Chiluba, Frederick, 455

Chimerah, Rocha, 218

Chimombo, Steve, 457, 458, 459

chimurenga, 6

Chinese writing, 156, 162

Chinodya, Shimmer, 463–464

Chinweizu, 826–827

Chipamaunga, Edmund, 462

Chipasula, Frank, 457, 459

Chipeto, Herbert, 453

ChiSena, worksongs, 7

Chitabantu, Susan, 456

Chraïbi, Driss, 556, 558, 562

Christelow, Allen, 53

Christensen, James, 124

Christianity

   and African American songs, 121

   and African literature, 387–390

   and colonialism, 270, 271, 273, 394

   Ethiopian literature, 164–165

   evangelization, xiii

   history, 11

   missionaries. See missionaries

   and modernity, 832–833

   and praise poetry, 94

   and slavery, 267, 269

   Swahili literature, 217

   and West African literature, 480–481, 482

Chrysostom, John, 164

Churchill, Winston, 435

cinema, Yoruba, 373–374

circumcision, 308, 309, 390

Cisneros, Hilario de, 678

civilization

   and African barbarians, 260, 271, 275

   concept of western civilization, 761–762

Claridge, Cyril, 126

Clark, Ebun, 37

Clark, John Pepper

   and African theater, 43

   Ibadan University, xii, 492–493

   and journals, 401, 402

   and Ozidi epic, 99, 109, 110, 479, 493

   poetry, 497

   and western traditions, xvii

Clarke, Austin, 717, 725, 737, 819

Clarke, Kenneth, 23

Clarkson, Thomas, 232

Claudel, Paul, 655

Clay, Bertha, 636

Claypole, William, 246

clicks, 160

Cliff, Jimmy, 729

Cliff, Michelle, 737, 743, 744, 819

Clouts, Sydney, 521

Clutton-Brock, Guy, 454

Cobb, Martha, 765, 766

coded speech, 63

Coetsé, Jacobus, 409

Coetzee, A. J., 505

Coetzee, J. M., 265, 508, 512, 515, 523

   liberal disillusionment, 513

   modernism, 825, 828, 831, 837

   postapartheid, 524

   postmodernism, 520

   use of English, 509

Coillard, Frederick, 295, 446

Coldham, Geraldine, 160

Cole, Catherine, 40

Collins, Harold, 479, 633

Collins, Marie, 539, 543

Collins, Merle, 131, 725, 743

Collymore, Frank, 403, 724

Colombia, 683

colonial literature, xv, 274–276, 277–281, 282–285, 446–452. See also Conrad

colonialism

   adventure fiction, 446–448

   and African literature

      generally, 395

      impact of education, 383–384

      institutions, 385–392

      main literary theme, 380–381

      modernity, 382–383

      momentous historical event, 384

      overview, 380–385

      postcolonial theme, 384–385

      writing as weapon, 383

   and art theater, 43–44, 45

   beginnings, 273

   Berlin Conference, 273–274, 276, 280, 379, 381

   and capitalism, 276

   and Caribbean literature, 717–720

   Central African experience, xvi, xvii, xix, 445

   and Christianity, 270, 271, 273, 394

   decolonization. See decolonization

   and dignity, 381

   divide and rule, 160

   endings, 277–285

   European cultural imperialism, 472

   European experience, 255–285

   European writers, xv, 274–276, 277–281, 282–285, 446–452

   and francophone literature

      Madagascar, 573

      Maghreb, 555–557

      sub-Saharan Africa, 537–546

   and idea of culture, 384–385

   impact on local communities, 382

   imperial discourse, 256–259

   institutions, 385–392

   legacies, 282–285

   and literary criticism, 627–628

   neocolonialism, 259, 282–285, 804

   paternalism, 392–395

   period of discredit, 259

   postcolonialism. See postcolonialism

   scramble for Africa, 259, 273–274

   speculative frenzy, 276–277

   and Swahili literature, 207

   violence, 255, 759–760

Columbus, Christopher, 228, 645, 670–671, 672, 732

Comaroff, John, 300

Comaroff, John & Jean, 388, 389

Combe, Dominique, 655

communalism, 826

Communist Party, 281

Comoros Islands

   francophone literature, 579

   history, 570

   language, 579

   literary modes, 571

Condé, Maryse, xvii, 652, 744, 795, 815, 820

Confiant, Raphaël, 578, 644, 645, 646, 649, 653, 654, 659, 794

Congo

   Belgian colonialism, 255, 273, 276, 279

   epics, 99

   folktales, 20, 27

   literary representations, 282

   Mwindo epic, 103–104

Connell, John, 650

Conrad, Joseph, xv, 429, 832

   Heart of Darkness, 255, 256, 259, 263, 274, 276, 282–283, 484, 545

Constantinople, 228

Conton, William, 476

conversation, forms, 117–118

Cook, David, 428, 456

Cook, Mercer, 773, 778

Cooper, Carolyn, 721, 744

Cope, Trevor, 4, 11, 72, 78, 90

Copland, David, 5, 12, 73

Copts, 57, 61, 164

Cordeiro da Matta, Joaquim Dias, 603

Cordova, 331

Cornevin, Robert, 535, 536

Cory, H., 216

Corzani, Jack, 644, 648

Costa Alegre, Caetano da, 604, 609

Costa Alegre, Francisco, 618

Costa Andrade, Fernando, 606

Costa Semedo, Odete, 617

costumes, 38

Côte d’Ivoire, 26, 27, 30, 533, 536

Couchoro, Félix, 544

Coulon, Virginia, 627

Coupez, A., 2, 11

Couraige, Ghislain, 772

court poetry, 2–3

courtly love, 119

Couta, Mia, 613–614

Couzens, Tim, 505

Covey, Edward, 244

Cowper, William, 267

Cox, Brian, 777

Crafts, Hannah, 243–244

Craig, Christine, 743

Craton, Michael, 246, 247

Craveirinha, José, 607, 613

Creole

   anglophone Caribbean literature

      Brathwaite, 713

      novels, 723

      poetry, 728

      transcription of Creole voices, 735–736

   Cape Verde, 605

   and Caribbean identity, 792

   Caribbeans, 648, 714, 715, 721–722

      Trinidad, 715

   Columbus texts, 645, 671

   créolité, 578, 653, 794, 814

   Criollismo, 691

   Cuba, 679

   francophone Caribbean literature, 644, 659

   grammar, 718

   Guinea-Bissau writers, 617

   hispanophone Caribbean literature, Puerto Rico, 680

   Mauritius, 575

   meaning, 605

   political consciousness, 674

   Réunion, 577

   Seychelles, 579

cricket, 137, 717, 791

Cripps, Shearly, 449, 452

Cronin, Jeremy, 523

Croonenberghs, C., 72, 76

Crow, Brian, 741

Crowley, Daniel, 128

Crowther, Samuel Ajaiyi, 160, 365, 398

Crusades, 260

Cruz, Viriato da, 606

Cuba

   Bay of Pigs invasion, 404

   Castro, 405

   conquest, 673

   dictatorships, 693

   hispanophone literature

      nineteenth century, 684–685

      twentieth century, 693, 694–695

      twentieth-century women’s writing, 698–699

      Boom, 695

      early texts, 675, 676

      journal, 693

      Modernismo, 689–690

      nationalist poetry, 688–689

      slavery debate, 677–679

   journals, 403–404

   literary renaissance, xvii

   Los Rayos y Soles de Bolivar, 688

   mambo, 120

   palo monte, 121

   printing press, 676

   regal de oct, 129

   regla de ocha, 121

   rumba, 120

   slaves, 248

Cubism, 227

Cudjoe, Selwyn, 745

Cugoano, Quobna Ottobah, 240, 250

Cullen, Countee, 766, 773

Cullinan, Patrick, 520

culture

   British concepts, 385–386

   centrality of literature, 385–387

   cultural nationalism, 506

   emergent cultures, 6

   European cultural imperialism, 472

   festivals, 400

   francophone Africa, 530, 531

   francophone culture, 386

   heart of colonial project, 384–385

   loss of indigenous cultural heritage, 491–493

   postcolonial cultural nationalism, 506

Cumming, Gordon, 511

Curtin, Philip, 265, 266, 268, 270

customs, and missionaries, 308, 309, 390

Cyril of Alexandria, 164


Dabydeen, Cyril, 717, 725

Dabydeen, David, 243, 714, 723, 725, 730–747, 811, 817, 818

Dadié, Bernard, 533, 534–535, 536

Dagare, folktales, 30

D’Aguiar, Fred, 725, 736, 737, 811, 817, 818

Dahomey, 20, 23, 129, 533, 536

Dakar-Djibouti expedition, 277

Dalby, David, 156, 158

Dalton, Peter, 720

Damane, M., 4, 12, 72

Damas, Léon, 400, 539, 540, 541, 654, 655, 770, 773–774

Dambara, Kaoberdiano, 606

Dambatta, Magaji, 346

Dame Lorraine, 144, 151

Dampier, William, 510

Dan Marina, 332

Dan Masani, 332

dance, and oral tradition, 1

Dance, Daryl Cumber, 247, 727, 746

Dangambo, Abdulkadir, 347

Dangarembga, Tsitsi, 465, 828, 837

Dangor, Achmat, 519

Danquah, J. B., 126

Dante, 727

Danticat, Edwidge, 131, 652, 744

Dapper, Olfertus, 410

Daramola, Olu, 370

Darío, Rubén, 689

Darwin, Charles, 22

Darwinism, 270, 273, 679, 685

Dash, J. Michael, 644, 647–648, 650, 654–657, 658, 659, 769

Dáskalos, Alexandre, 606

Dáskalos, Maria Alexandre, 610

Dathorne, O. R., 239

Daumas, P., 60

Daura, Iman, 337

Davenport, T. R. H., 413

Davidson, Basil, 274

Davies, Carole Boyce, 485, 743, 745

Davies, W. V., 158

Davis, John, 510

Davis, John Gordon, 451

Dawes, Kwame, 747

Dawes, Neville, 747

D’Costa, Jean, 120

De Beers, 276

De Boissière, Ralph, 717

De Francis, John, 153, 156, 162

De Graft, Joe, 438, 439, 493

De Jongh, James, 778

De Kock, Ingrid, 520

De Kock, Leon, 506

De Lisser, H. G., 732

De Vries, Abraham, 415, 419

Deacon, Thomas, 412

decolonization

   and African literature, 392–395, 826

   arrested decolonization, 380

   and East African literature, 436–439

   and European culture, 281–285

   historiography, 392–395

   period, 259

Defoe, Daniel, 280, 635, 732

Degel, Asim, 334

Déjeux, Jean, 553, 561

Delafosse, Maurice, 787

Delano, Isaac, 367–368, 478

Delany, Martin, 761, 763

Deleuze, Gilles, 417

Delius, Anthony, 521

Delmonte, Domingo, 678

Dembo, Umaru, 345, 351

Depelchin, H., 72, 76

Depestre, René, xvii, 651, 653, 657, 660, 771, 788

Derive, Jean, 6–7

Descartes, René, 235, 386

desert, 194

Desparmet, Joseph, 54

Deveau, Jean-Michel, 229

Devi, Ananda, 576, 580

Dhlomo, Herbert, 77, 384, 390, 515–516, 519

Dhlomo, R. R. R., 299, 517

Dia, Amadou Cissé, 536

Diallo, Bakary, 531, 544

diamonds, 276

Dias, João, 604

diaspora

   African oral traditions

      banter and abuse, 126–128

      boasts, 128

      folk narratives, 128–131

      formal speech, 122

      proverbs, 124–126

      songs, 117–122

   America. See Afro-Americans

   black diaspora, 760

   Nguni people, 85, 90, 91

   postcolonial writers, 810–820

   writers in Britain, 816–819

   writers in Canada, 819–820

   writers in colonial countries, xvi, 809, 810–820

   writers in France, 811–816

Diawara, Mamadou, 14, 110

Díaz, Alfaro, 692

Diaz, Bartholomew, 408, 409, 510

Díaz Varcárel, Emilio, 694, 695

Dib, Mohammed, 553, 554, 556, 564

Dickens, Charles, 267

dictatorship genre, 440

Diego, José de, 687, 688, 689

Dierx, Léon, 577

Dieterlen, Germaine, 155

dignity, 381

dilemma tales, 19–20

Dinesen, Isak, 279–281

Dingane, King, 7–8, 72, 84, 85

Dinwiddy, Hugh, 428

Diogenes, 167

Diop, Alioune, 400, 541, 609

Diop, Birago, 533–535, 537, 542, 545

Diop, Cheikh Anta, 541

Diop, David, 542

Diouf, Sylviane, 229

Dirks, Nicholas, 385

disillusionment, postcolonial, 797–808

Disraeli, Benjamin, 270

divination, 21

Djaout, Tahar, 561–562

Djebar, Assia, 558, 561, 562, 564, 815, 825

djeli, 105

Djemaï, Abdelkader, 564

Djerba, 62

Djibouti, 812

Djoleto, Amu, 482

Dlamini, J. C., 85, 95

Dlamini, Phiwase, 88

Dogon, 24, 155, 533

Dogondaji, 351

domba, 9–10

Domingues, Mário, 604

Dominica, 28, 120, 246, 714, 717

Dominican Republic

   hispanophone literature

      nineteenth century, 683–684

      twentieth-century rural novels, 692–693

      twentieth-century women’s writing, 699–700

      late twentieth century, 697

      nationalist poetry, 687

   independence, 683

   oral tradition, 670

   re-colonization, 683

   Trujillo dictatorship, 693, 697

Dorfman, Ariel, 324

Dorsinville, Roger, 651

Douala, 6

Douglas, Marcia, 730

Douglass, Frederick, 244–245, 247, 249, 763

Dow, George Francis, 714

Dracius, Suzanne, 658

Drake, Sir Francis, 510

drama. See theater

Drayton, Arthur, 247

Drayton, Richard, 724

Drum, 404, 453, 517

drums, 3, 38, 722

Du Bois, W. E. B., 399, 514, 762, 763

Du Plessis, Hans, 412

Duarte, Fausto, 604

Duarte, Vera, 615

Dube, John, 72, 298–299

Dugaste, Idellete, 19

Duke, Antera, 474

Dum, Baltazar van, 612

Dumbuya, 805

Dumestre, Gérard, 24

Dunbar, Paul Lawrence, 131, 761

Dundas, Henry, 510

Dundes, Alan, 24

Dunton, Chris, 487

Duodu, Cameron, 494

Durand, Oswald, 648

Durix, Jean-Pierre, 716

Dutch East India Company, 264, 409, 410

Duvaliers in Haiti, 404, 651, 702, 791, 816

e-mail, 53

Eanes de Zurara, Gomes, 261

Early, Robert, 451

Easmon, Sarif, 482, 493, 498

East African literature

   English. See anglophone literature

   Gikuyu. See Gikuyu literature

   Kampala Conference, 1962, 425

   popular literature, 636, 637–638

   pre-independence, 427

   Swahili. See Swahili literature

East African Literature Bureau, 208, 436

East, Rupert, 340, 341, 342, 344, 350, 473

Easthope, Anthony, 713

Echeruo, Michael, 38, 399, 400, 405, 482, 487

Edgar, Frank, 340

education

   Bantu Education, 517, 518

   colonial education, 385–387

   colonial francophone Africa, 530–531, 546

      Maghreb, 552–553

   Comoros Islands, 579

   Equatorial Guinea, 586

   impact on first literate generation, 383–384

   mission schools, 389–392, 530

Edwards, Paul, 243, 475

Edwards, Walter, 127

Efik, 22, 128

Efoui, Kossi, 813, 814

Egbuna, Obi, 482

Egypt

   Arabic fiction, 187–189

   Arabic literature, 178, 195

   Arabic poetry, 185, 186

   Berbers, 51

   Copts, 61

   Description de l’Egypte, 265, 384

   English colonization, 50

   folklore, 52

   hieroglyphs, 156–157, 158

   ideograms, 156–157

   Napoleon’s invasion, 265, 384

   newspapers, 184

   oral traditions, 49–64

   Ottoman expansion, 50

   part of Africa, xiv

   tricksters, 27

Ekpo, Denis, 828–829

Ekwensi, Cyprian, xi, 473, 483–484, 845

El Maleh, Edmond Amran, 562–563

El Saadawi, Nawal, 189, 320

El-Saheli, 229

El-Shamy, Hasan, 23, 27

Elder, J. D., 120

electronic media, and oral tradition, 13

Eliot, T. S., 281, 428, 727, 766, 824, 825, 832

elitism, 44

Ellenberger, Victor, 154

Ellis, Pat, 742

Ellison, Ralph, 131

Elmslie, Walter, 446

Eló, Eloy, 589

Elugbe, B. O., 474

Emecheta, Buchi, 485, 819

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 512

empire. See colonialism

encounter with Europe

   African writers on slavery in Britain, 238–241

   Africans in Europe, 229–232, 233–236

   concept of western civilization, 761–762

   culture contacts, 257

   discourse, xii, 256–259

   Enlightenment, 232

   first documents, xvi

   Renaissance, 227–232

   violence, 255, 759–760

Enekwe, Ossie, 39, 487

England, Jane, 450

Engle, Paul, 459

English

   Achebe’s English, 832

   and Gikuyu literature, 306–307

   literature in English. See anglophone literature

   Makerere English, 427–429, 431

   pidgin, 474

   West Indian English, 715

   and Yoruba, 376

Enlightenment

   and Africans, 232–236

   and race, 257

   scientific approach, 264–266, 269

   and slavery, 748

Ensema, Marcelo, 590

epics

   and African diaspora, 129

   Arabic oral tradition, 59, 179

   characteristics, 100–101

   critical perspectives, 98–100, 111

   documentation, 108–111

   function, 74

   generally, 98–113

   mvet epics, 99, 103, 105

   Mwindo epic, 103–104, 107, 108–109

   and national identity, 104–105

   oral tradition, 14, 55

   Ozidi Saga, 102–103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 109, 110, 487

   performance, 105–107

   performers, 105

   Sunjata story, 13, 99–100, 101, 104, 105, 110, 111–113, 124, 129

   translations of oral epics, 535

Eppel, John, 463

Equatorial Guinea

   Banapá, 586

   epics, 103

   Fang ethnic group, 590

   Fernando Po, 585, 586

   hispanophone literature

      fiction, 589, 597

      generally, 584–599

      history, 594–595, 597

      journals, 586–587, 589

      oral tradition, 597

      origins, 585–588

      poetry, 589–590, 591–594, 595–596, 598, 599

      short stories, 598

      theater, 599

   independence, 590

   Macias Nguéma dictatorship, 590–591, 592, 596

   Mongomo, 590

   “years of silence,” 590

Equiano, Olaudah, 227, 229, 234, 240–241, 249, 250, 380, 474–475

Equilbecq, François-Victor, 532

Erickson, Peter, 231

Eritrea, 172, 320

Erlmann, Veit, 13

Ervedosa, Carlos, 618

Esan, Olanipekun, 376

Escoffery, Gloria, 730

Esedebe, Olisawunche, 759

Esono, Antimo, 598

Espinet, Ramabai, 743

Esprito Santo, Alda, 609, 617

Esprito Santo, Carlos do, 617

Esproncela, José de, 681

Esslin, Martin, 401

Essop, Ahmed, 519

Esteves, José de Jesus, 690

Etherton, Michael, 42, 628–629

Ethiopia

   Aksumite kingdom, 164

   Colonel Mengistu, 172

   Debre Libanos, 169

   Derg, 172

   dictatorship literature, 440

   Emperor Amda Tseyon, 165, 168, 170

   Emperor Ghelawdewos, 170

   Emperor Haile Selassie, 170, 171–172, 173

   Emperor Menelik, 168

   Emperor Menilik, 170

   Emperor Tewodros, 170, 171

   Falashas, 170

   and Ge’ez language, 170

   independence, 170

   Islamization, 169

   Italian invasion, 170, 779

   literature. See Ethiopian literature

   medieval knowledge, 260

   military coup, 436

   religious conflicts, 169–170

   revolution, 439

   Solomonic dynasty, 165, 168

   syllabary, 158

   traditionalism, 432–433

   Zara Yacob, 168–169

Ethiopian literature, xiii

   Amharic literature, 164, 170–172

   anglophone writers, 173–175, 432–433, 440

   categories,

   classical literature

      Christian texts, 164–165

      Enbakom, 169

      Gedlat, 168, 169

      Ge’ez language, 164, 170

      generally, 164–170

      hymns and poetry, 168–170

      Kebra Negest, 168

      philosophical writings, 165–167

      qine, 169

      religious books, 169

      royal chronicles, 168

      Skendes, 166–167

   French language, 173

ethnocentric bias, 160

ethnography, 309, 307–309, 319, 532, 555, 612, 788

ethnohistory, xiii

Etienne, Gérard, 651

Etogo Mitogo, Pancracio, 599

etymological stories, 56

eugenics, 271, 514

Eulate Sanjurjo, Carmen, 685, 686

Euro-African intertextuality, xvii

Eurocentricity, and Caribbean values, 137

Europe. See encounter with Europe; European experience of Africa

European experience of Africa

   twentieth-century art, 532

   colonialism. See colonialism

   decolonization. See decolonization

   exploration. See exploration

   extended meaning of Europe, 257

   generally, 255–285

   literature, xiii, 274–276, 277–281, 446–452

   Middle Ages, 260

   myths of Africans, 271, 275

   origins, 260–266

   phases, 259–260

      decolonization, 259

      discredited imperialism, 259

      economic exploitation, 259

      slave trade, 259

   popular culture, 274–276, 281

   quest-romance, 258–259, 260, 272, 281, 284, 446–448, 511

   slavery. See slavery

   violence, 255, 759–760

Europhone literature, 504

Evans-Pritchard, E. E., 23

Evita Enoy, Leoncio, 588–589

Ewe, 22, 25, 479, 495

exile

   Caribbean writers, 661, 723–726

   East African literature, 441

   Guineans, 591, 593–594

   Haitians, 816

   Indian Ocean Islands, 572

   Maghreb writers, 557, 559

   Malawi writers, 458

   Mauritians, 575, 576

   Puerto Rican writers, 688

   Rabemananjara, 574

   Senghor, 543

   South African writers, 517–518

   Zimbabwean writers, 460

Existentialism, 789

exoticism, 545, 571, 689

exploration, 271–273, 274–276

Eybers, Elisabeth, 416

Eze, Emmanuel Chukwudi, 265

Fabian, Johannes, 259, 627, 628

Fabre, Michel, 769

Fagunwa, D. O., xiii, 367, 368, 376, 384, 478, 480

Faidherbe, General, 530, 531, 536

Faik-Nzuji, Clémentine Madiya, 155–156

Faleti, Adebayo, 368, 370

Fang epics, 99, 103, 105, 107

Fang ethnic group, 590

Fanon, Frantz

   alienation, 657

   Black Skin, White Masks, 762, 789

   existentialism, 789–790, 792

   gender discrimination, 465

   influence, 322, 435

   Manichean allegory, 257, 258, 271

   The Wretched of the Earth, 436, 657, 797

Fanti-Akan, folktales, 30

Faqir, Fadia, 349

Farah, Nurrudin, 437–438, 440, 441, 806–807

Fardon, Richard, 13

Farès, Nabile, 560–561

Farias, P. de Moraes, 2

Farris-Thompson, Robert, 760

Fascism, 277

Fawale, Jolaade, 370

Feierman, Steven, 2

Feijóo K., Lopito, 610

Fenton, Elizabeth, 451

Feraoun, Mouloud, 553, 555

Ferguson, Moira, 248

Fernandez de Cordoba, Don Luis, 230

Fernández de Oviedo, Gonzalo, 672–673, 684

Fernando Po, 585, 586

Ferré, Rosario, 700

Ferreira, Manuel, 615

festival theater, 37–39

Fez, 179, 331

Fiawoo, F. K., 478

Fiebach, Joachim, 215

Fielding, Ann Mary, 451

Figueroa, John, 724, 729, 730

Fikes, Robert, 231

File, Nigel, 229

Finn, D. E., 452

Finn, Hugh, 452

Finnegan, Ruth, 2, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25, 27, 30, 35–36, 76, 98–99, 100, 107, 122, 316

Firmin, Anténor, 654, 786

First World War, 277

Fish, Stanley, xi

Fitzgerald, Edward, 334

Fitzpatrick, Percy, 511

Flacourt, Etienne de, 572

Flaubert, Gustave, 547

Fodio, Abdulahia Dan, 351

Fodio, Sheikh Usman Dan, 332, 334–335, 337, 338

folksongs, Caribbeans, 728

folklore, 23, 25, 52, 53, 650, 683

folktales

   African diaspora, 128–131

   Berber tales, 53

   collection, 21–23

   contents, 26–27

   diffusionists, 23–24

   dilemma tales, 19–20

   distinctiveness, 19, 21

   etymological stories, 56

   formal approaches, 24–25

   generally, 21–23

   legends, 57

   literary esthetics, 25–26

   myths, 20–21

   North Africa, 50, 54

   performance, 29–32

   rediscovery in francophone Africa, 532–537

   Senegal, 532, 533

   tricksters, 24, 26, 27–29, 56

Fon tricksters, 21, 27

Fonlon, Bernard, 402

Ford-Smith, Honor, 730

Forrester, Harding, 450

Forster, E. M., 286

Fortes, Corsino, 614

Fortune, G., 5

fortune tellers, 57

Foster, Cecil, 737

Foster, Cyril, 725

Foucault, Michel, 256

France

   African folktales, research, 23–24

   civilizing mission, 530, 531, 552

   Clamart, 772

   CNRS, 23–24

   Colonial Exhibition, 243, 540–541

   colonization in North Africa, 50, 53

   colonization policy, 339

   Communist Party, 399

   diaspora writers

      Caribbean, 814–815

      filmmakers and playwrights, 814

      generally, 811–816

      Haitians, 816

      Maghreb, 815–816

      sub-Saharan Africa, 812–814

   end of slavery, 269

   expulsion of Africans, 229

   francophone culture, 386, 387

   francophonie, 814

   International Congress of Black Writers and Artists, 541

   Overseas Departments (DOM), 646, 661

   racism, 559

   Revolution and slavery, 267

Francis, Carey, 386, 387, 392

Franco, Francisco, 588, 597

francophone Africa

   Colonial Exhibition, 540–541

   Dakar-Djibouti Mission, 541

   ethnography, 541

   literature. See francophone literature

   mission schools, 530

   state schools, 530–531

francophone literature

   Caribbeans, xvii

      Caribbean identity, 653–658

      central concern, 644

      cultural marooning, 653

      diaspora, 814–815

      diversity, 643–644

      esthetics, 658–661

      folktales, 130

      and francophone Africa, 540

      generally, 643–661

      historiography, 644

      journals, 538–539, 654

      Negritude movement. See Negritude

      poetry anthology, 541–543

      spatial representations, 645–653

      women writers, 652, 658

   Indian Ocean islands. See Comoros islands; Indian Ocean islands; Madagascar; Mauritius; Réunion; Seychelles

   Maghreb

      1940s, 554–555

      1950s, 555

      1960s, 557–559

      1970s, 559–561

      1980s/1990s, 561–565

      anticolonialism, 555–557

      beur authors, 565, 811

      diaspora, 815–816

      generally, 555–565

      historical context, 557

      School of Algiers, 553–554

   sub-Saharan Africa

      anticolonial literature, 537–546

      diaspora, 812–814

      fiction, 544–546

      and French Caribbeans, 540

      indigenous theater, 536–537

      journals, 399–401, 538–539

      origins, 530–531

      poetry, 541–544

      poetry anthology, 541–543

      rediscovery of oral tradition, 532–537

      women writers, 546, 547

francotropism, 575

Frankenberg, Ruth, 809

Frankétienne, xvii, 651

Franz, G. H., 410

Fraser, Nancy, 779

Freire, Paulo, 41, 322

French

   and alienation, 770

   Indian Ocean islands, 570

   Mauritius, 580

   North Africa, 53, 552–553

French Equatorial Africa, colonial exploitation, 537

Freud, Sigmund, 842

Friedman, Frances Louie, 299

Frobénius, Léo, 99, 650, 655, 778, 803

Froude, James, 718, 719, 785, 786

Frye, Northrop, 479

Fryer, Peter, 238, 239

Fu’ad, Sakina, 189

Fudi, Abdullah, 182

Fudi, Muhammad Bello, 182

Fudi, Shaykh ’Uthman ibn Muhammad, 182

Fugard, Athol, 43, 44, 519, 525, 825, 837–838

Fula, script, 159

Fulani

   Arabic scholars, 182

   epics, 99

   folktales, 24

   Hausa assimilation, 329, 334

   jihad lords, 337

Fulfulde literature, 330, 332

Fulgentius, 49

funerals, Yoruba songs, 363

Funtunwa, Garba, 345

Furé, Rogelio Martinez, 129

Furniss, Graham, 3, 4, 11, 13, 330, 335, 336, 338, 346, 347, 351

Futa Jallon, 159


Ga, folktales, 22

Gabon, epics, 99, 103

Gabriel Plot, 241

Gadeau, Coffi, 536

Gafaïti, Hafid, 557, 561

Gagare, Bature, 347

Gakaara wa Wanjau, 310, 311, 312, 313, 316, 317–319, 320, 323

Gallenger, David Henry, 234

Galli, Silvano, 26, 30

Galton, Francis, 271

Galván, Manuel de Jesus, 684

Gama, Vasco da, 262, 263, 265, 408

Gamaleya, Boris, 578

Gambia, 14, 100, 106

Ganhão, Fernando, 608

Garcia Ramis, Magali, 701

Garmadi, Salah, 186, 559

Garrett, Naomi, 769, 770

Garrison, William Lloyd, 244

Garvey, Amy Ashwood, 719

Garvey, Marcus, 399, 719, 728

Gates, Henry Louis, xvi, 228, 230, 231, 232, 244, 380, 760, 762, 765, 778

Gathanju, Isaac, 311

Gatheru, Mugo, 430, 431

Gathigira, Stanley Kiama, 307, 308–309

Gautier Benítez, José, 687–688

Gauvin, Axel, 578

Gavronsky, Serge, 547

Gbaya, folktales, 27, 30, 32

Gebre, Afework, 170–171

Gebre-Medhin, Tsegaye, 173–174, 175, 433

Ge’ez language, xiii, 158, 164, 170

Gelb, Stephen, 413

Genet, Jean, 739

genocide, 714

Gérard, Albert, xiii, 117, 201, 205, 209, 331, 334, 337, 344, 351, 456, 478, 482, 505

German colonies, 2, 10, 205, 207

Germany, postwar imperialism, 277

Ghallab, ’Abd al-Karim, 192

Ghana

   Accra, 483, 494

   Akan folktales, 27, 30

   and Amo, 233, 234, 235

   colonization, 338

   Cultural Centre, 28

   Dagare folktales, 30

   drama, 493

   festivals, 127

   fiction, 494

   Hausa diaspora, 329

   Hausa writers, 338

   Islamic literary tradition, 201

   Nkrumah, 493, 494, 800

   Nzema folktales, 30

   and pan-Africanism, 476

   poetry, 493–494

   popular fiction, 626–627, 636, 637

   post-independence, 797

   vernacular traditions, 482

Ghanaian Concert Party, 39

Gibbon, Edward, 180

Gibbons, Rawle, 740, 741

Gibbs, James, 457, 497

Gibbs, Peter, 451

gicaandi, 322–324

Gichuiri, Henry Mwangi, 307

Gicingri wa Ndigirigi, 324

Gide, André, 277, 400, 573

Gidley, C. G. B., 4

Gikandi, Simon, xvi, 322, 431, 437, 486

Gikuyu literature

   critical works, 322–324

   ethnographies, 309, 307–309, 319

   generally, 306–325

   historical studies, 319

   newspapers, 307, 324

   Ngugi wa Thiong’o, 320–322

   origins, 306–310

   orthography, 310

   political songs, 312–316

   publishers, 306, 309–310

   radical history, 324–325

   second-generation, 310–320

   and trilinguism, 306–307

   vitality, 306

Gilbert, Helen, 742

Gilkes, Michael, 725, 732, 741, 745

Gilliatt, Penelope, 46

Gilroy, Beryl, 726, 738, 744, 817

Gilroy, Paul, xvii

Giraud, Octave, 648

Girma, Bealu, 171, 172

Gitahi Gititi, 322, 323, 324

Githiora, Cege, 324

Gitiri, K. K., 324

Glanville, Ernest, 447

Glausser, Wayne, 717

Glazier, Stephen, 121

Glissant, Edouard, xvii, 648, 650–651, 657–658, 659, 660–661, 729, 792–795

glottophagy, 482

Gobineau, Arthur de, 270, 654, 777, 785

Goethe, J. W. von, 636

gold, 228, 276, 413

Gold Coast. See Ghana

Gomes, Albert, 399

Gomes, Aldónio, 620

Gómez de Avellaneda, Gertrudis, 678, 683

Gonçalves, António Aurélio, 605

Gonzáles, José Luis, 693

good savage, 233

Goodison, Lorna, xvii, 725, 730–731, 744

Goody, Jack, 11, 162

Gordimer, Nadine, 509, 513, 520, 523–524

Gordon Riots, 240

Görög-Karady, Veronika, 24

Gorra, Michael, 283

gospel music, 121

Goulsbury, Cullen, 449, 452

Goveia, Elsa, 742

Gqoba, William Wellington, 292–293, 295, 513

Graham-White, Anthony, 36

Granada (Spain), 230

Gratiant, Gilbert, 655

Graves, Anne Adams, 485

Gray, Stephen, 505, 507–508, 509–510

Greek, 49–50, 51

Greeks

   Ancient Greece, 260

   influences in North Africa, 53, 54

   intellectual ascendancy, 162

   invasions of North Africa, 51

Green, Michael, 506, 509

Greene, Graham, xv, 277

Greene, Robert, 635

Grégoire, Henri, 234, 235, 530

Gregsen, Edgar, 117

Grenada, 28, 246

Griaule, Marcel, 155, 277, 532, 541

Grimm, Jacob, 54

griots, 14, 105, 190, 533–535, 655, 801, 803, 804

Griqua people, 420

Gronniosaw, Ukawsaw, 239, 248, 249

Grosskopf, J. F. W., 417

Gruesser, John Cullen, 779

Gu language, 160

Guadeloupe

   colonial status, 814

   francophone literature

      early writers, 648–649

      fiction, 652–653

      journals, 655

      poetry, 660

   history, 646–647

   landscape, 645–646

   music, 120

   reimposition of slavery, 648

   white writers, 540

Guattari, Félix, 417

Gubenya, Abe, 171–172, 173

Guebuza, Armando, 608

Guerra, Henrique, 606

Guerra, Mário, 606

guerrilla theater, 41–42

Guettat, Mahmoud, 62

Guillén, Nicolàs, xvii, 401, 403, 690, 780

Guillot, René, 19

Guinea, 532, 544, 813

Guinea-Bissau

   anticolonial rebellion, 606

   coup, 620

   creole writing, 617

   lusophone literature

      journal, 620

      literary criticism, 619–620

      post-independence, 616–617

      precursors, 604

Gulumbanasi, 28

Gunner, Elizabeth, 4, 8, 11, 72, 75

Guridi, Angulo, 683

Gurnah, Abdulrazak, 441, 818

guslari, 106

Gutenberg, 160

Gutiérrez, Felipe, 681

Guyana

   Ananse, 28

   banter and abuse, 127

   exiled novelists, 737

   francophone fiction, 657

   French Guyana, 814. See also francophone literature

   funeral wakes, 125

   geography, 716

   indentured workers, 714

   Indo-Caribbean culture, 714

   journals, 399, 400, 403, 724

   proverbs, 125

   slave revolts, 246

   and Wilson Harris, 735

Gwala, Mafika, 4, 72, 519

Gwarzo, Muhammadu, 343–344


Haggard, Rider, xv, 208, 275–276, 447, 448–449, 483, 511

haiku, 58

Haile, Getatchew, 164, 165, 168, 169

Haile Selassie, 170, 171–172, 173

Haiti

   American occupation, 649, 769, 788

   Dominican occupation, 683

   Duvaliers, 404, 651, 702, 791, 816

   francophone literature

      diaspora, 816

      early writers, 648, 786

      fiction, 651–652, 656

      Indigenist movement, 649, 654

      journals, 400, 404, 649, 659, 772

      literary essays, 654

      poetry, 659, 660

   history, 646

   indegenism, 787–788

   independence, 661

   literature, xvii

   post-independence identity, 786

   rara, 120

   Renaissance, 770–773

   slave revolution, 267

   Toussaint L’Ouverture, 269, 656, 720, 769

   vodun, 121

hajj, 180

Haldane, George, 247

Hale, Thomas, 14

Hall, Douglas, 719

Hall, Stuart, 713, 817

Hall, Tony, 150

Halle, 233

Hallward, Peter, 651

Hamilton, Carolyn, 4, 511

Hamilton, Judith, 730

Hammon, Britton, 241–242

Hamner, Robert, 734

Hanks, W. F., 11

Hannibal, Ibrahim, 233, 234

Hargreaves, Alec, 815, 820

Haring, Lee, 23, 24–25, 29

Harlem Renaissance

   Jamaicans, 726

   literature, 764–769

   and Negritude movement, 759–779

   poetry, 764–768

   prose, 768–769

   socioeconomic factors, 762–764

Haroun al-Raschid, 56

Harper, Frances Ellen Watkins, 245

Harries, Jeanette, 55

Harris, Claire, 725, 731, 744

Harris, Denise, 747

Harris, Joel Chandler, 130

Harris, William Cornwallis, 511

Harris, Wilson, 733, 735

   African cultural identity, 712–713

   and Caribbean identity, 791–792

   exile, 724, 736, 737

   and Guyanese geography, 716, 735

   influence, 712

   literary criticism, 746

   and literary renaissance, xvii

   modernism, 733

   and tradition, 711

Hart, Mickey, 119

Hart, Robert-Edward, 571, 575

Hartmann, Michael, 451

Haruna, Malam, 346

Hassan II, 565

Hassaniya, 183

Hausa

   boko, 159, 353

   culture, 487

   diaspora, 329, 339

   ethnic groups, 329

   folktales, 23, 27, 340

   genres, 12

   Hausaland

      colonial division, 339

      Kano, 337

      Katsina, 337

      meaning, 329

      Sokoto, 334, 338, 340

      Timbuktu, 331

      Zaria, 352

      Zazzau, 337

   identity, 329–330

   Islamic lawyers, 332

   kings, 334

   labaru, 340

   literature. See Hausa literature

   script, 159

   states, 329

   tatsuniya, 341

   tatsuniyoyi, 340

   television, 3

Hausa literature

   ajami script

      anticolonization resistance, 337–338

      drama, 350, 351

      end, 339–340

      establishment of tradition, 334–337

      origins, 330, 332–333

      poetry, 352–353

      structure of poetry, 336

      women, 336–337

   chronicles, 337

   classical genres, 336

   concept of authorship, 333

   drama, 350–351

   and European colonization, 338–346

   formative years, 330–333

   and gender, 348–350

   identity, 329–330

   love stories, 348–350

   Mahdist scholars, 337

   poetry, 351

   post-independence writers, 346–348

   praise poetry, 4

   printing, 333

   roman script

      introduction, 340

      novellas, 344, 345

      travel writings, 345–346

      western impact, 340–346

      women writers, 346

   themes, 341–342, 347

   translations, 340–341, 473

Havemeyer, Loomis, 29

Hawariyat, Germachew Tekle, 170, 171

Hawkins, John, 238

Haya, folktales, 25, 29

Hayford, Caseley, 383

Haykal, Muhammad Husayn, 187–188

Hazoumé, Paul, 544

Head, Bessie, 521, 837

Hearn, Lafcadio, 648

Hearne, John, 724, 737

Heath, Roy, 737

Hebrew, 53, 62, 98

heello, 13

Hegel, Friedrich, 408, 409, 655, 656, 681

Heidegger, Martin, 779

Heinemann, African Writers’ Series, 484

Hellier, A. B., 209

Hemingway, Ernest, 280

Henderson, Stephen, 778

Hendriks, A. L., 730

Henessy, Maurice, 273

Henney, Jeannette Hillman, 121

Henry the Navigator, 261

Henshaw, Ene, 43

Henty, G. A., 274

Herakleois, 201

Herbert, Thomas, 510

Herder, Johann Gottfried von, 54

herdsmen, 75

Heredia, José Maria, 688

Heredia, Nicolás, 684

Herero, songs, 10

Hermann, Jules, 576

Hernández, Angela, 699–700

Hernando de Acuna, 230

Herodotus, 260

Heron, G. A., 433

Herskovits, M. & F., 19, 20, 23, 129, 760

Hertefelt, Marcek d’, 2

Hertzog, J. B. M., 294

Héry, Louis, 577

Hesler, Albert, 19

Hibbert, Fernand, 648, 656

hieroglyphs, 156–157, 158

Higgins, Dick, 830

Hill, Alan, 484

Hill, Donald, 121

Hill, Errol, 143, 149, 740, 741

Himes, Chester, 812

Hinderer, David, 366

Hintjens, Helen, 15

hip-hop music, 119, 120, 124

Hippolyte, Kendel, 730, 740

Hiskett, Mervyn, 473

Hispaniola. See also Dominican Republic; Haiti

   early texts, 671–674

   independence, 679

hispanophone literature

   Africa, 599

   Caribbeans, xvii

      seventeenth century, 675–676

      eighteenth century, 676–677

      nineteenth century, 677–690

      twentieth century, 690–704

      African roots movement, 690

      el Boom, 695

      erotic fiction, 703

      islands, 670–671

      Negrismo, 691

      origins, 670–674

      slavery debate, 677

      women’s writing, 697–704

   Equatorial Guinea. See Equatorial Guinea

   Modernismo, 689

history, oral forms, 11

Hitchens, William, 159, 203

Hobson, G. C. & S. B., 410

Hodge, Merle, 131

Hodgkin, Thomas, 201, 338

Hodza, Aaron, 5

Hofmeyr, Isabel, 415

Holloway, Joseph, 760

Homer, 106, 111, 727

homosexuality, 696–697

Honwana, Bernardo, 608

Honychurch, Lennox, 246

Hopkinson, Nalo, 131, 743, 747

Hopkinson, Slade, 730–747

Horace, 231

Horn, Andrew, 488

Horodugu kingdom, 804

Horton, George Moses, 242

Hostos, Eugenio María de, 682–683, 687

Hottentot, 22, 264

Houël, Drasta, 648

Houhou, Réda, 190

Hountondji, Paulin, 234, 235, 846

Hove, Chenjerai, 462

Huggins, Nathan, 767

Hughes, Langston, 401, 764, 766, 767–768, 771, 773, 776, 778, 779

Hughes, Victor, 246

Hugo, Victor, 243, 386, 387, 572, 603, 648, 659, 681

Hulme, Peter, 714, 746

human rights, 267

human sacrifice, 271

humanitarianism, 266, 267

Humbert, Marie-Thérèse, 576

hunters’ chants, 364

Huntingford, G. W. B., 168

Hurston, Zora Neale, 779

Hurtado de Mondoza, Diego, 230

Husayn, Taha, 187–188

Hussein, Ibrahim, 214–215, 217, 218, 438

Hutu language, 4

Hyatt, Stanley Portal, 449

hymns, 722

Hyslop, Graham, 214


Ibadan university, xii, 492–493

Ibibio, ese, 128

Ibn Bakr, Al-Hajj Umar, 338

Ibn Battuta, 181, 228

Ibn ben Said, Omar, 229

Ibn Jubayr, 180, 181

Ibn Juzayy, 181

Ibn Khaldun, 51, 99, 180, 228

Ibn Rashiq, 179

ideograms, 156–157

ideophones, 31

Idowu, Bolaji, 480

Idria, Yusuf, 50

Idris, Dahiru, 351

Igbos

   and Achebe, 489–490, 832, 835–837

   art forms, 487

   in Barbados, 715

   chi, 835–837

   culture, 484

   Equiano, 475

   and feminism, 819

   folktales, 131

   kola, 489, 799

   language, 489–490

   novelists, 487

   Onitsha Market literature, 636

   proverbs, 125

   speech, 486

   villages, 487

Ijo epics, 99, 102, 104, 109, 479, 492–493

Ikiddeh, Ime, 128, 626

Ila, folktales, 27

Ilonbé, Raquel, 593, 597

Ilorin, 183

Imam, Abubakar, 343, 344

imbongi, 80

Imbuga, Francis, 439

imilayo, 10

immigrant writers

   Britain, 816–819

   France, 811–816

imperial romance, 511, 514

indentured workers, 714

India, xvii, 722

Indian Ocean islands

   diversity, 569–570, 580

   francophone literature

      colonial literature, 571

      Comoros islands, 579–580

      exile literature, 572

      generally, 569

      languages, 570

      literary forms, 571–572

      literary modes, 570

      Madagascar, 572–574

      Mauritius, 574–577

      native literature, 571

      travel writing, 571

   geography, 569

   Indian-Oceanness, 580

   languages, 570

   Réunion, 577–579

indigenism, Haiti, 787–788

individualism, 826

Ingawa, Amadu, 344

initiation songs, 9

Inkatha, 95

Innes, Gordon, 100, 106, 112

Innocent, Antoine, 648, 656

insults, 60

Ionesco, Eugene, 216

Irele, Abiola, xvii, 14, 376, 394, 401, 402, 478, 495, 534, 762, 772, 777, 778, 844

Irving, Dr Charles, 240

isicathamiya, 13

Islam

   and Christian missionaries, 159

   Comoros Islands, 579

   conquest of western Europe, 228

   in Ethiopia, 169

   and French literary establishment, 563

   hajj, 180

   Ilorin, 183

   influence on epics, 102

   intellectual centres, 182, 183, 332

   jurisprudence, 332

   and literacy, 330

   militancy, Maghreb, 560, 565

   spread in Africa, 260, 331

   spread of Arabic, 178, 331–332

   Sufi writing, 57, 62, 181–184, 331, 335

   Tijaniyya brotherhood, 335, 352

   Touba, 182

   and West Africa, 473

   and writing, 158

Ismail, Hasani bin, 11

Isola, Akinwumi, 368, 369, 370, 375, 376

Italy, colonialism, 50, 53, 277, 779

Itotia wa Kimacia, Justin, 307, 309

Itsuzu, Toshihiko, 131

Ivory, Annette, 232

Ivory Coast, 26, 27, 30, 533, 536

Izevbaye, Dan, xiv

izibongo, 4, 71, 72, 73, 74, 78–79


Jabavu, D. D. T., 294, 390

Jabavu, John Tengo, 72, 294, 389, 398, 513

Jabavu, Noni, 521

Jabbour, Alan, 119

Jacinto, António, 606

Jack, Belinda Elizabeth, 538

Jackman, Oliver, 737

Jackson, Jesse, 123

Jacobs, Harriet, 242–243, 249

Jacobson, Dan, 513

Jahadhmy, Ali, 204

Jahn, Janheinz, xiii, 401, 480

jali, 14

Jamaica

   Ananse, 28

   Ashanti culture, 715

   banter and abuse, 126, 127

   Chinese community, 714, 716

   conquest, 673

   dance-hall music, 119, 120, 124

   ethnic groups, 716

   folktales, 129, 130, 131

   and Frances Williams, 247

   geography, 716

   and Jesse Jackson, 123

   journals, 403, 724

   literature. See anglophone literature

   Long’s History, 268

   maroons, 247, 716

   and Martin Luther King, 123–124

   Morant Bay uprising, 733

   national character, 137

   popular culture, 721

   proverbs, 125

   slave revolts, 246, 247

   slavery, 719

   trickster tales, 24

Jamaliddin, Abdulkarim bin, 205

Jamba, Sousa, 612

James, C. L. R., 267, 399, 713, 719, 720, 732, 790, 791

James, Deborah, 6, 11, 13

James, Henry, 825

James, Louis, 747

James VI, 718

Jameson, Fredric, 828, 829

jamooje nai, 8

Janvier, Louis-Joseph, 786

jazz, 712, 722

Jeboda, Femi, 368

Jemie, Onwucheka, 766

Jervis, Vera, 450

Jews

   flight from North Africa, 53

   in Morocco, 57

   tsaddiqim, 57

   in Tunisia, 62

Jeyifo, Biodun, 37, 40, 173–174, 372, 380, 477, 486

Jimenez de Enciso, Diego, 232

jinns, 57, 194, 343, 346

João, Mutemati Bernabé, 608

jocular poetry, 14

John, Errol, 741

John, Prester, 260

Johnson, James Weldon, 776

Johnson, John W., 13, 14, 30, 100

Johnson, Lemuel, 386, 476, 498

Johnson, Linton Kwesi, 721, 725, 729, 731

Johnson, Samuel, 361, 391, 489

Johnson, Simone, 13

Johnston, Harry, 273, 447

Johnston, William, 448

jokes, 55, 58–59, 63

Jollie, Ethel Tawse, 449

Jones-Jackson, Patricia, 30, 123

Jones, Marion Patrick, 737

Jones Mathama, Daniel, 589

Jonker, Ingrid, 414

Jooste, Pamela, 523

Jordan, A. C., 291–292, 294, 390

Jordan, Neil, 460

Joseph, Terry, 146

Joubert, Elsa, 414, 415

Joubert, Jean-Louis, 570, 571–572, 573, 575, 576, 578

Jouin, Jeanne, 63

journals

   anglophone Caribbeans, 403–404, 724, 732

      Barbados, 403

      Guyana, 403

      Trinidad, 399, 403

   Angola, 399, 404, 606–607

   black diaspora in Britain, 817

   black diaspora in France, 814

   Black Orpheus, 401–402

   Cameroon, 402

   Cape Verde, 605

   Cuba, 403–404, 693

   Drum, 404, 453, 517

   East Africa, 426, 436

   Egypt, 184

   Equatorial Guinea, 586–587, 589

   francophone Africa, 399–401, 538–539

      Présence Africaine, 400, 540, 541–542, 609

   francophone Caribbeans, 538–539, 654

      Guyana, 399, 400

      Haiti, 400, 404, 649, 659, 772

      Tropiques, 650

   francophone ethnography, 532

   generally, 398–399

   Guinea-Bissau, 620

   independents, 398–399

   Jamaica, 403

   Madagascar, 573

   Maghreb, 184

   Malawi, 457

   Martinique, 400

   Morocco, 558

   Mozambique, 608

   Negritude, 400, 772–773

   Nigeria, 398, 401, 402–403, 405–406

   Rhodesia, 452

   role, xix

   Senegal, 399, 400

   South Africa, 399, 401, 404, 515

   Staffrider, 405, 519

   Uganda, 401, 402–403

   Zambia, 455

Jouvay Process, 150

Joyce, James, 827

Juan of Austria, 231

Juha, 56

jukwara, 6

Jules-Rosette, Bennetta, 541, 812

Julien, Eileen, 322–323

Juminer, Bertène, 657

Junega, Renu, 819

Jung, Carl, 479

Jurqra, 61


Kaarsholm, Preben, 462

Kabetu, Mathew Njoroge, 319

Kabutu, Kibaara, 319

Kabyles, 61, 63, 558

Kacem, Abdelaziz, 186

Kachingwe, Aubrey, 457

Kadadwa, Byron, 439

Kadhani, Xavier, 462

Kafka, Franz, 417

Kagame, Alexis, 1, 2, 4

Kaggia, Bildad, 307, 311, 312

Kahigi, K. K., 216, 218

Kalam al-layl, 52

Kamagati, Nasara, 7

Kamanzi, T., 2, 11

Kamaru, Joseph, 316

Kamau, Josphat, 307

Kamau, Kwadwo Agymah, 737

Kamiriithu Education and Cultural Centre, 42

Kampala Conference 1962, 425

Kandjimbo, Luís, 610, 619

Kane, Cheikh Hamidou, 545

Kanengoni, Alexander, 463

Kani, John, 44, 519, 525

Kannemeyer, J. C., 410

Kano, Aminu, 345, 350, 353

Kant, Immanuel, 235

Kanute, Banna, 14, 112

Karega Mutahi, 316

Kariara, Jonathan, 428, 429

Kariuki, J. M., 307, 430, 431

Karone, Yodi, 812

Karumba, Kungu, 312

Kasoma, Kwabe, 456

Katalambulla, Faraji, 212

Katiyo, Wilson, 461

Katsina, Amadu, 345

Katsina, Munir Muhammed, 347

Katsina, Sulaiman Ibrahim, 346, 347–348

Kaunda, Kenneth, 454–455

Kavanagh, Robert, 40, 42

Kay, Jackie, 810

Kaye, Jacqueline, 563

Kayira, Legson, 457

Kayper-Mensah, Albert, 493

Keane, Shake, 730

Keens-Douglas, Paul, 721, 729

Keiru, Crispin, 307

Keita, Salif, 13, 14

Kellman, Anthony, 725, 737

Kelsall, J. M., 306

Kennedy, Ellen Conroy, 770, 771, 772, 774

Kente, Gibson, 40

Kenya

   Akamba folktales, 29

   anglophone writers. See anglophone literature

   British colonization, 207

   Gikuyu literature, 325

   independence, 430

   and Isak Dinesen, 280

   Islamic poets, 202

   Kamiriithu Education and Cultural Centre, 42

   Kapenguria trial, 313

   languages, 325

   literary censorship, 306

   Mau Mau, 313, 316, 317–318, 322, 430, 431

   Mombasa, 204, 209

   Nairobi, 324

   nationalism, writers, 429–433

   political failures, 439

   political writers, 206

   popular literature, 638

   postcolonial, 436

   qoosa-taapaa, 14

   schools, 386, 392

   and Swahili language, 208

   Swahili literature, 204, 218, 220

Kenyan African Union, 311, 312, 317

Kenyatta, Jomo

   arrest, 312

   and colonial debate, 392, 394

   editor, 307

   Facing Mount Kenya, 307–308, 309, 310, 430, 431

   politics, 311, 316

Kerkennah, 60

Kerma, 157

Kerr, David, 40, 42, 457, 627–628

Kesteloot, Lilyan, 99, 100, 538, 540, 644, 773, 774

Kezilahabi, Euphrase, 211, 212, 214, 216, 218, 219

Khadra, Yasmina, 564

Khaïr-Edine, Mohammed, 558

Khalifa, 185

Khan, Ismith, 737

kharja, 53

Khatibi, Abdelkébir, 558–559, 562, 563

Khoi people, 160, 409, 410–412, 510, 512

Khoikhoi, 264

Khurayyif, al-Bashir, 193

Ki-Swahili, xv

Kiango, S. D., 211

kiba, 11, 12

Kiernan, Victor, 266, 270

Kiganda, folktales, 27

Kikuyu

   culture, 430

   folktales, 25

   and Karen Blixen, 279

   Kikuyu Central Association, 307, 308, 309, 311, 312

   literature. See Gikuyu literature

   Ngugi wa Thiong’o, xix, 43

Kilson, Marion, 25

Kilwa, 209

Kimani Njogu, Simon, 217, 219, 323, 324

Kimberly, 276

Kimbundu people, 603, 611, 612

Kincaid, Jamaica, 725, 736, 737, 738, 744, 819

King, Bruce, 739, 746, 747

King Kong, 259

King, Martin Luther, 123–124

Kingsolver, Barbara, 282, 284

Kinuthia wa Mugiia, 311, 312, 313

Kipkorir, B. E., 392

Kipling, Rudyard, 208, 451

Kiswahili, 158, 159, 340

Klipple, Mary, 23

Knappert, Jan, 20, 100, 200, 201

Knibb, Michael, 165

Knopfli, Rui, 608

Knox, Robert, 270

Koelle, Sigismund, 22, 23

Kofi, Vincent, 401

Koigi, Morris Mwai, 311

kola, 489, 799

Kolb, Peter, 410

Kom, Ambroise, 540

Konadu, Asare, 483, 484

Kongo, 261, 285

Konrad, Zinta, 25

Koran, 51, 310, 331

Kourouma, Amadou, 542, 804–805

Kouroussa, 544

Kouyate, Djeli Mamoudou, 108

kraal, 77, 94

Krige, Uys, 416

Krog, Antjie, 415, 523

Kru, folktales, 24

Kuba, 3

Kubai, Fred, 312

kudeketera, 6

Kunene, Daniel P., 72, 291, 293, 295

Kunene, Mazisi, 4, 5, 12, 77, 95

Kuria, Henry, 214

Kurtz, Roger, 638

kurubi donkili, 6

Kush, 157

Kuteb, proverbs, 125

Kuzwayo, Ellen, 521

Kwahulé, Koffi, 813

Kynarwanda language, 4


la Cruz, Sor Juana Inès de, 675

La Fontaine, Jean de, 532, 579

La Guma, Alex, 518

Laâbi, Abdellatif, 558

Labat, Jean-Baptiste, 647, 650

Labou Tansy, Sony, 656

Labov, William, 127

Lacaussade, Auguste, 577

Lacrosil, Michèle, 658

Ladan, Umaru, 351

Ladan, Yusuf, 351

Ladele, T. A. A., 368

Ladiipo, Duro, 372, 401, 489, 497

Ladoo, Harold Sonny, 725, 737

Ladysmith Black Mambazo, 13

Laedza Batanani, 42

Laferrière, Dany, 651, 795, 816

Laforest, Edmond, 659

Lagesse, Marcelle, 576

Laguerre, Enrique, 692

Lahens, Yanick, 647

Laing, Kojo, 845

l’ait, 59

Lake Victoria, 91

Laleau, Léon, 770, 771

Lalla, Barbara, 120, 737

Lamartine, Alphonse de, 648, 659

Lamb, Charles, 207

Lambrecht, Winifred, 23

Lamming, George, xvii, 712, 724, 733, 734, 735, 736, 816

Lamu island, 204, 209

Langa, Mandla, 519, 523

Langley, Ayo, 382

languages

   African literatures in European languages, 383

   Caribbean literature, xvi

   and colonial control, 55

   colonial language, 825

   and Gikuyu literature, 306–307

   indigenous languages and Anglophone writers, 489–491

   issue, xix

   purity, 54

   southern Africa, 292

   theater, 46

   West Africa, 157

Lanham, Peter, 525

LaPin, Deirdre, 362

Lara, Alda, 606

Lara Filho, Ernesto, 606

Larej, Waciny, 191

Laroui, Fouad, 565

Larrasa, Diego de, 675

Las Casas, Bartolomé de, 671–672, 684

Latin, 49–50, 51

Latin America, xvii, 41

Latino, Juan, 228, 229, 230–232

Lautréamont, Comte de, 655

Lawrence, D. H., 429

Laye, Barnabé, 813

Laye, Camara, 110, 392, 544–545, 547

Lazarus, Neil, 798

Le Clézio, J. M. G., 572, 577

League of Nations, 277

Leakey, L. S. B., 309, 313

Leavis, F. R., 428

Leavis, Q. D., 629, 640

Leavis, Ronald, 451

Leblond, Marious-Ary, 577

Leconte de Lisle, Charles, 572, 577

Lee, Jarena, 242

Lee, Robert, 730

Lee, Sonia, 545

Leexo, 13

legends, 57, 63

Leibniz, G. W., 234

Leiden, 235

Leipoldt, Louis, 412, 413

Leiris, Michel, 277–278

Lele, 3

Lemma, Mangestu, 171, 173

Lemsine, Aïcha, 561

Lenin, 277, 657

Lenje language, 455

Leo Africanus, 229, 260

Leopold, King of the Belgians, 273, 276, 279

Lepanto, Battle of, 231

Léro, Etienne, 538, 655, 774

Leroux, Etienne, 410, 414

Lesotho

   border bars, 12

   Matelile, 293

   migrant workers, 12

   missionaries, 293, 294–295

   Paris Evangelical Missionary Society, 294

   premissionary descriptions, 289

   theater, 42

Lespinasse, Beauvais, 654

Lessing, Doris, 281, 450–451, 828

Levy, André, 57

Lévy-Bruhl, Lucien, 777, 787

Lewis, David Levering, 763

Lewis, Gordon, 715

Lewis, J. M., 13, 14

Leys, Colin, 439

Lezama Lima, José, 693, 695

Lhérisson, Justin, 648, 656

L’Homme, Léoville, 575

Lhote, Henri, 154

Liberia, 269, 476, 498

Libya

   Arabic fiction, 193–194

   Arabic literature, 195

   folktales, 54

   Italian colonization, 50

   medieval knowledge, 260

Lienhardt, Peter, 11

lifela, 5, 12

Lijadu, E. M., 366, 369

Liking, Werewere, 43

Lima, Conceição, 618

Lima, Manuel, 612

Limba, folktales, 19, 23, 25, 27, 30

Lindfors, Bernth, 433, 479, 629–630, 639, 640

linguistics, 25

Liniger-Goumaz, Max, 585, 590

Linnaeus, Carolus, 265

Lionnet, Françoise, 647

literacy

   colonial gift, 383, 844

   impact on first generation, 383–384

   Middle Ages, 391

   and missionaries, 292, 301, 390–392

   plantation society, 721

   and spread of Islam, 330

literature, centrality in European culture, 385–387

lithoko, 4, 5, 12

Livingstone, David, 155, 271, 272–273, 388, 389, 445, 446

Liwenga, George, 219

Liyongo wa Bauri, Fumo, 199–200, 201, 203

Llerena, Cristóbal de, 674

Llorens Torres, Luis, 690

Lo Lyong, Taban, 426, 427, 435

Lobengula, King, 71, 79, 92, 453

Loboch, Mapal, 595

Locke, Alain, 763, 772, 773, 778, 779

Locke, John, 717

Lods, Jean, 578

Lomani-Tchibamba, Paul, 544

Long, Edward, 247, 268

Longden, Blanche, 450

Lonsdale, John, 307

Lopes, Baltasar, 399, 605

Lopes, Henri, 812, 814

Lopes, Manuel, 605

López de Haro, Damián, 675

Lord, Albert, xiii, 106, 107

Lorde, Audre, 738

Lorraine, Alain, 578

Losi, J. B. O., 366

Loti, Pierre, xv, 274–275, 545

Louis XIV, 646

Louw, N. P. van Wyk, 415–416

Love, Ade, 40

Lovejoy, Elijah, 243

Lovelace, Earl, 131, 724, 736, 741

Lovell, Glenville, 725, 737

Lozi language, 455

Luabo, songs, 7

Luandino Veira, José, 607, 610

Luangala, Lazarus, 456

Lubbock, Percy, 825

Luganda language, 402

Lugo Filippi, Carmen, 700

Lukacs, Georg, 437, 655, 657

lullabies, 61, 62–63, 363

Lumumba, Patrice, 284

Lunda, 155

Luo culture, 27, 432, 434

lusophone African literature

   anticolonialist period, 606–609

   colonial movements, 605–606

   literary criticism, 618–620

   post-independence, 609–618

   precursors, 604

Lwo language, 427, 433

Lybia, oral traditions, 49–64

Lynch, Louis, 122

Lyndersy, Dexter, 351

Lyotard, Jean-François, 829


Mabille, A., 294–295

Mabille family, 294–295

MacCrae, Donald, 484

Macdonald, Sheila, 450

Macedo, Jorge, 607, 610

Macgoye, Marjorie Oludhe, 441

Machado dictatorship, 693

Machel, Samora, 110, 477

Machiavelli, Niccolò, 180

Mack, Beverly, 333, 334, 336–337

Macnab, Roy, 521

MacPherson, Margaret, 428

Macrobius, 49

Madagascar

   1947 uprising, 573

   francophone literature

      generally, 572–574

      journals, 573

      short stories, 574

   geography, 569

   hain teny, 572–573

   history, 569, 570

   literary modes, 570

   Malagasation, 574

   Malagasy language, 572

   Merina Kingdom, 572

   native literature, 571

   oral tradition, 570

   poetry, 540

   Radama I, 572

   Ratsiraka regime, 574

Madden, Richard, 248

Maddy, Yulis Amadu, 498

Madingoane, Ingoapele, 519

Madmulla, J. S., 211, 212

Madubuike, 826–827

Mafalda Leite, Ana, 615

Mafeking, 300

Magaia, Lina, 614

Maghreb. See also Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia

   Arabic literature

      fiction, 190–193

      and French colonization, 552

      generally, 178, 196

      learning centres, 179

      newspapers, 184

      oral poetry, 186–187

      poetry, 185

      short-story genre, 190, 192

   colonial education, 552–553

   colonialism, 555–557

   diaspora writers, 815–816

   exile of writers, 557, 559

   francophone writing. See francophone literature

   French colonization, 552–553

   Islamic militancy, 560, 565

magic realism, xvii, 524, 614, 695, 772, 844, 848

Magogo, Princess, 8

Magona, Sindiwe, 522, 523

Magubane, Peter, 404

Mahdist movement, 337, 339

Mahé, Marguerite-Hélène, 577

Mahfouz, Naguib, 184, 188

Mahmud, Zena, 204, 205

Mahood, Molly, xi, xii

Maillu, David, 630, 638–639

Maina wa Kinyatti, 316, 324

Mainoma, João, 610

Mais, Roger, 724, 732

Maja-Pearce, Adewale, 819

Makarfi, Shaibu, 351

Makerere Free Travelling Theatre, 44

Makhalisa, Barbara, 465

Makhele, Caya, 811

Makombe Hanga, 382

Malagasy, folktales, 23, 25

Malam, Moh Sada, 351

Malawi

   anglophone writers

      black writers, 456–459

      journals, 457

      Malawi Writers’ Group, 457

      white origins, 445–452

   Banda dictatorship, 455, 457, 458, 459

   Federation with Zambia, 454–455

   imperial history, 446

   Mzimba district, 85

   praise poetry, 72, 73, 91, 92

   publishing, 458

   riddles, 458

   and Shaka Zulu, 85, 90

   theater, 42, 44

   traditional culture, 459

Malherbe, D. F., 410

Mali

   Berbers, 51

   Emperor Abubakar, 228

   Emperor Kankan Moussa, 228, 229

   folktales, 532, 533

   gold, 228

   Kambili epic, 107

   Kangaba, 114

   Modibo Keita, 803

   Soundjata Keita, 535

   spread of Arabic, 331

   Sunjata story, 100, 104, 114

Malik, 721

Malinké traditions, 535, 545, 804

Malinowski, Bronislaw, 308, 309, 430

Mallarmé, Stéphane, 659

malouf, 52, 61–62

mambo, 120

Mammeri, Mouloud, 553, 557–558

Manaka, Matsemela, 519

Mancienne, Leu, 580

Mande language, 101–102, 110, 158

Mandegni, customs, 536

Mandel, Georges, 536

Mandela, Nelson, 4, 76, 250, 505

Mandinka people, 13, 104, 105, 106, 118

Mangi, Aliyu Na, 353

Mangoaela, Zakea, 72, 297

Mang’ua, Charles, 438, 638

Mani, Abdulmalik, 345

Mani, Lata, 809

Manim, Mannie, 519

Manley, Edna, 403

Manley, Rachel, 730, 738

Mann, Thomas, 211

Mansfield, Lord, 239

Manuel, Peter, 722

Manzano, Juan Francisco, 245, 248, 679

Mapanje, Jack, 457, 458

Maponye, Maishe, 519

Marais, Eugène, 410, 412, 415

Maran, René, 399, 537–538, 654, 655, 772

Marechera, Dambudzo, 459, 460–461, 828, 837

Margarido, Maria Manuela, 609

Margarita, conquest, 673

Margueritte, Auguste, 59

Mariano, Gabriel, 606

market cries, 57–58

Markham, E. A., 725, 728, 730, 731, 818

Marky, Sum, 604

Marley, Bob, 131–132, 148, 721, 729

maroons

   and Caribbean identity, 793

   and Césaire, 788

   communities, 129

   cultural marooning, 653

   and Fanon, 789

   Jamaica, 247, 716

   narratives, 249

Marouane, Leila, 564

Marqués, René, 693–694, 696

Marrero Aristy, Ramón, 693

Marshall, Paule, 725, 733, 735, 736, 744, 819

Marti, José, 688–689, 690, 704, 792

Martial, 231

Martin, Sanchez, 231

Martinière, Guy, 231

Martinique

   anticolonial literature, 537

   colonial status, 814

   créolité movement, 653, 794

   francophone literature. See also Césaire, Aimé; francophone literature; Negritude

      early writers, 648–649

      essays, 657

      fiction, 650–651, 652–653, 657–658

      journals, 655

      poetry, 659–661

      Tropiques, 650

   history, 646–647

   journals, 400

   landscape, 645

   music, 120

   reimposition of slavery, 648

Martins, Ovidio, 606

Marwick, Edward, 447

Marx, Karl, 261, 656

Marxism, 41, 540, 546, 774, 805

Mascarenes, 571, 572, 574

Maseia, Josh, 300

Mashonaland, 447, 449, 452, 465

Masiye, Andreya, 455

maskanda, 13

masks, 38, 39

Maso, Calixto, 232

masquerades, 363, 364

mass communications, and oral tradition, 3, 13–14

Masson, Loys, 572, 575

Mata, Inocência, 619–620

Matabele, 72, 462, 514

Matamba, Queen Nzinga Mbandi, 612

Mathenge, Stanley, 311, 312, 313

Mathurin-Mair, Lucille, 742

Matlosa, S., 290

Matos, Pales, xvii

Matshikiza, Todd, 404

Matshoba, Mtutuzeli, 519

Matura, Mustapha, 741

Mau Mau, 313, 316, 317–318, 322, 430, 431

Maugée, Aristide, 538, 650

Maunick, Edouard, 576

Maunier, René, 52, 55

Mauritania

   Arabic fiction, 195

   Arabic literature, 183, 195

Mauritius

   colonial literature, 571

   francophone literature, 574–577

   francotropism, 575

   geography, 569

   history, 569, 570, 574–575

   languages, 570, 575

   uniqueness, 574–575

   use of French, 580

Maximin, Daniel, 652, 660

May, Karl, 274

Mayas, 156

Mayotte, 570, 579

Mazrui, Abdalla Mas’ud, 203

Mazrui, Alamin, 216, 218, 221, 322, 324

Mazrui, Ali, 199, 207, 221, 329, 387, 392, 427, 437

Mazrui, Muhammad bin Mbarak, 203

Mbari movement, 481–482, 492

Mbega, Mwalimu Hassan, 205

Mbemba, Nzinga, 261

Mbenna, I. C., 217

Mbise, Ismael, 438

Mbomio Bacheng, Joaquín, 598

Mbotela, James, 209

Mboya, Tom, 430, 431

McDermot, Galt, 740

McFarlane, Basil, 726

McFarlane, James, 825

McGowan, Kate, 713

McGregor, G. P., 389

McGuire, James, 110

McHale, Brian, 830–831

McKay, Claude, 399, 435, 726, 729, 732, 764, 765, 768–769, 772, 776

McKay, Nellie, 762, 765, 778

McKinney, Mark, 820

McLoughlin, T. O., 463

McLynn, Frank, 271, 273

McNeill, Anthony, 727, 730

McWatt, Mark, 729, 730

Mda, Zakes, 524

Mechakra, Yamina, 558

Meddeb, Abdelwahab, 559

Medeiros, Tomaz, 609

Mehrez, Samia, 815

Meigos, Filimone, 613

Melo, João, 610

Melville, Pauline, 726, 737

Mema, kingdom, 101

Memmi, Albert, 553–554, 556, 558, 559

Mende, folktales, 25

Mendelssohn, Felix, 160

Mendes, Alfred, 399, 732

Mendes, Orlando, 608

Méndez Nieto, Dr Juan, 673–674

Mendonça, Fatima, 619

Mendonça, João Melo, 610

Mendoza, Elvira de, 673

Menéndez y Pelayo, 230

Mengistu, Haile Mariam, 172

Ménil, René, 538, 650, 787

Mercelin, Frédéric, 648, 656

merengue, 120

Meroe, 157

Meroitic script, 157

Meru people, 438

Messenger, John, 124

Mestre, David, 610, 618

Métellus, Jean, xvii, 651

métissage, 228, 229, 576

Mexico, 674, 683

Meza, Ramón, 684

Mezlekia, Nega, 174–175

mfecane, 73, 85, 90, 391

Mhlope, Gcina, 522

M’Hlopekazi, King, 275

Michelman, Frederic, 531, 532

Middle Ages, 260, 391

Middle East, Hausa diaspora, 329

Middle Passage, 238, 653, 714, 818

migrant workers

   and praise poetry, 75, 82, 90

   South Africa, 12–13, 301

   Zulu songs, 298

migration

   East African writing, 441

   Nguni people, 91–94

   southern African writings, 290–291

Mikael, Kebede, 171

Mikhail, Mona, 50

Mikro (C. H. Kühn), 410, 413

Miles, John, 419

Miller, Christopher, 256, 258, 384, 530

Millin, Sarah Gertrude, 452, 514

Milton, John, 727

mime, 38

Mimouni, Rachid, 562, 564

Minshall, Peter, 142, 145–146, 148

Mir, Pedro, 692–693

miscegenation, 514

missionaries

   and cannibals, 271

   Church of Scotland Mission, 308, 309

   and colonialism, 271, 387–388

   Equatorial Guinea, 586

   Fernando Po, 585

   Gikuyu orthography, 310

   Gikuyu publishing, 306

   and Hausa, 340

   influence on African-language writings, 289–292, 296, 301–302

   influence on anglophone writers, 479–481

   introduction of literacy, 160, 292, 301

   Livingstone, 273, 445

   London Missionary Society, 291, 513

   Malagasy transcription, 572

   Malawi, 456

   and native customs, 308, 308, 309, 390

   and oral traditions, 21, 94

   printing presses, 389–390, 398, 513

   and romanization of scripts, 159

   schools, 390–392, 530

   southern Africa, 289–292, 298–299, 513, 518

   and Swahili, 207

   West Africa, 478, 482

   Yorubaland, 365–366

Mitchell-Kernan, Claudia, 126, 127

Mitchell, Verner, 779

Mitford, Bertram, 448

Miti, Lazarus, 456

Mittelholzer, Edgar, 732

Mkangi, Katama, 218

Mkiva, Zolani, 4, 76

Mlacha, S. A. K., 211, 212

Mlama, Penina, 37, 42, 215

mmoguo songs, 31

Mnthali, Felix, 457

Mobutu, Sese Seko, 284

modernism

   Achebe, 824–825

   African modernism, 825–828, 831–837

   Europe, 825, 827

   and individualism, 826

   and postmodernism, 830–831

   symbolisation compulsion, 840–844

   techniques, 839

Modernismo, 688–90

modernity

   centrality of religion, 389

   colonial institutions, 385–392

   and colonialism, 393–395

   discourse, xvii

   and oral genres, 3

   theater, 45

Modisane, Bloke, 404, 518

Mofolo, Thomas, xiii, 160, 289, 296–297, 384, 391, 537

Mohamed, Mohamed Suleiman, 212, 213, 214, 220

Mohamed, Said Ahmed, 212, 213, 215–216, 219, 220

Mohammed, Patricia, 742

Mohammed VI, 565

Mohéli, 579

Mokeddem, Malika, 564

Molière, 208, 376

Moloto, D. P., 290, 300–301

Molvaer, Reidulf, 170, 173

Momplé, Lilia, 614

Monénembo, Tierno, 813, 814

Montagu, Duke of, 239, 247

Monte, Domingo del, 248

Montejo, Esteban, 245, 248–249

Montero, Mayra, 701–703, 704

Montesquieu, 677

Montserrat, 716

Moore, Bai, 498

Moore, Gerald, 401, 479, 492, 607

Moore-Gilbert, Bart, 713

Moore-King, Bruce, 463

Moors, 261, 718

Morais, Fragata de, 612–613

Mordecai, Pamela, 722, 730

Morell de Santa Cruz, Agustín, 675, 676

Morgades Besari, Trinidad, 599

Morgan, Kemi, 366

Morisseau-Leroy, Félix, 771

Morocco

   al-Maqqari, 181

   Arabic literature

      drama, 195

      fiction, 192–193

      poetry, 185, 186

   Berbers, 51

   francophone literature

      1950s, 555, 556–557

      1960s, 558–559

      1970s, 559

      1980s/1990s, 562–564, 565

      journals, 558

   French colonization, 50, 552

   Ibn Battuta, 181

   Jews, 57

   Mohammed VI, 565

   oral traditions, 52, 63

   political repression, 558

   Portuguese invasion, 264

Morris, Henry, 11

Morris, Mervyn, 721, 724, 729–730

Morrison, Toni, 131

Mortimer, Mildred, 545, 561

Morúa Delgado, Martin, 685

Mossi, folktales, 30

Mostaghanmi, Ahlem, 191

mothers-in-law, 20

motifemes, 24

Motsisi, Casey, 404

Moussali, Antoine, 560

Moviemento Antillano, 691

Mowoe, Isaac, 778

Mozambique

   anticolonial rebellion, 606

   Association of Native Sons of Mozambique, 608

   Barue, 382

   and Camões, 262

   civil war, 614

   lusophone literature

      anticolonial period, 607

      journals, 608

      literary criticism, 619

      post-independence, 613–614

      precursors, 604

   praise poetry, 73, 91

   and Shaka Zulu, 85

   song and dance, 7

Mpande, King, 84, 85

Mphahlele, Ezekiel, 401, 402, 404, 427, 492, 517, 521

Mphande, Lupenga, 73, 322, 457

Mpina, Edison, 458

Mqhayi, Samuel Edward Krune, 72, 95, 294

Mrima, 205

Msewa, O. B. N., 217

Mshweshwe, King, 5, 72, 90

Msimang, C. T., 506

Msokile, Mbunda, 214, 217

Mtshali, Oswald, 110, 519

Mtwa, Percy, 519

Muchemwa, Kizito, 460

Mudandagizi, 2

Mudimbe, V. Y., 3, 228, 260, 846

Mugabe, Robert, 453, 462–463

Mugia, Kinuthia, 319

Mugo, Micere, 215

Mugweru, Mwaniki, 311–312

Muhammad, Abdullah b., 334

Muhammad, Dalhatu, 4

Muhammad, Prophet, 201

Mulaisho, Dominic, 455

Mulikita, Fwanyanga, 455

Muller, Carol, 11

Mulokozi, Mugyabuso, 213, 214, 216, 217

Munene, Albert Wakang’u, 319

Mungoshi, Charles, 459, 461, 464

Munonye, John, 482, 484, 496, 498

Muñoz Rivera, Luis, 687

Munro, H., 98

Muoria, Henry Mwanki, 311

music, and oral tradition, 1

Musset, Alphonse de, 659

Mussolini, 277

Mutaburaka, 721, 729

Mutahi, Wahome, 324

Mutasa, Didymus, 454

Muteia, Hélder, 613

Mutswairo, Solomon, 454

muwashshahah, 52, 62

Muyaka wa Mwinyi Haji, 204–205, 206

mvet epics, 99, 103, 105

Mwana Kupona binti Mshamu, 203

Mwangi, folktales, 25

Mwangi, Meja, 437

Mwaura, Bantu, 324

Mwengo, Abukabar, 203

Mwengo wa Athumani, 201

Mwindo story, xiii, 99, 105, 108–109

Myrdal, Gunmar, 764

myths, 20–21, 495

Mzamane, Mbulelo, 320, 519

Mzilikazi, King, 447


Nabasuta, Helen, 27

Nabbany, Ahmad Sheikh, 205

Nagwamatse, Ibrahim, 338

Naipaul, V. S., 282, 724, 733, 734, 735, 737, 785, 816

Nairobi, slums, 14

Nakasa, Nat, 404, 405

Nama, colonization, 383

Namibia, colonization, 383

Napoleon I, 187, 265, 384, 647

Nardal sisters, 538, 655, 772, 773

Nare Makhang Konate, 101

Nasir, Sayyid Abdalla bin Ali bin, 202–203

Nassir, Ahmad, 205

national identity, and epics, 104–105

national literatures, issue, xix

nationalism, 429–433, 506

natural history, 264–266, 271–273

Naturalism, 677, 684, 685–687

Nau, Emile, 654

Nau, Ignace, 648

Nau, Rebecca, 425

navigators, 408–409

Nazareth, Peter, 402, 404, 433, 440

Nazism, 277

Ncogo, Maximiliano, 598

Ndawo, Henry Masila, 72, 289

Ndebele

   and colonial fiction, 447–448

   King Lobengula, 71, 79, 92, 453

   language group, 292

   praise poetry, 79, 91

   records, 71

   relations with Shona, 448

Ndebele, Njabulo, 508, 519, 521

ndgaringo, 6

N’Diaye, Marie, 810

Ndiba, 312, 313

N’Djehoya, Blaise, 812

Ndongo-Bidyogo, Donato, 585, 590, 594, 595, 597, 599

Negrismo, 691

Negritude, xvi

   and African literature debate, 826

   anglophone writers, 539

   attacks on, 788–790, 817

   and epics, 108, 110

   and ethnography, 788

   francophone Africa, 531

   and Haitian occupation, 769

   and Harlem Renaissance, 759–779

   influences, 540–541

   journals, 400, 772–773

   Juan Latino, 231

   manifesto, 774

   meaning, 539

   movement, 654–657

   origin of word, xvii

   Parisian movement, 769

   postcolonial writers, 803

   precursor, 538

   Rabemananjara, 573

   Sartre, 542–543

   surrealism, 540, 542, 546

Nelson, Horatio, 271

neo-Africanism, 480, 787

neocolonialism, 259, 282–285, 804

Neogy, Rajat, 403

Neto, Agostinho, 401, 404, 606, 607

Nettleford, Rex, 714, 746

Newson, Adele, 745

Newton, Robert, 110

Ng’ang’a, Philip, 320

Ngbandi, folktales, 27

Ngcobo, Lauretta, 522

Ngei, Paul, 312

Ngema, Mbongeni, 519

Ngerema, A. A., 218

Ngina wa Kiarii, 324

N’gom, M’bare, 588, 589

Ngomoi, John, 218

Ngqika people, 291

Nguéma, Francisco Macías, 590–591, 592, 596

Nguéma, Teodoro Obiang, 596

Ngugi wa Mirii, 320, 322, 324

Ngugi wa Thiong’o

   choice of language, xix, 43, 46, 322

   and colonial modernity, 394

   critical works on, 322–323

   Devil on the Cross, 441

   and dictatorship, 591

   early work, 429

   education, 428

   English work, 322

   Gikuyu work, 320–322

   A Grain of Wheat, 436, 828

   journals, 324, 402

   literature in English, 425

   Matigari, 441

   modernism, 831

   nationalism, 430, 431

   Petals of Blood, 439

   postcolonial disenchantment, 283, 436

   promotion of Kenyan languages, 325

   The River Between, 390, 431–432

   theater, 42

   Weep not Child, 431–432

Nguluma, J. R., 217

Nguni

   chronicles, 93

   diaspora, 85, 90, 91

   language group, 292

   migration, 91–94

   praise poetry, 71, 72, 73, 74–75, 79, 82–83, 85–90, 91–94

Ngwenya, Malangatana, 608

Niane, Djibril, 99, 108, 110, 112, 113, 535

Niasse, Ibrahim, 182

Nichols, Grace, 725, 731, 818

Nicholson, R. A., 180

Nicol, Abioesh, 483

Nicol, Mike, 524

Niger, 51, 329, 332, 338, 339, 343, 532

Niger Expedition, 270, 271

Niger, Paul, 660

Niger River, 102, 271, 492

Nigeria

   1980s, 827

   Ahmadu Bello University, 42

   Arabic writing, 178, 182–183, 196

   Bornu, 239

   chiefs, 387

   Civil War, 347, 362, 435, 485, 498

   colonization, 338

   corruption, 347

   dictatorship, 458

   drama, 43, 45, 195

   Hausa language, 329, 330, 339

      colonial writers, 342–346

      drama, 350–351

      folktales, 27

      post-independence writers, 346–348

      Zaria Bureau of Translation, 340, 341

   Ibadan, 366, 401, 489, 492

   Ibadan University, xii, 394, 484, 492–493

   independence, xii

   journals, 401, 402–403, 405–406

      Black Orpheus, 401–402

      Nigeria Magazine, 398

   Lagos, 365, 372, 373, 400, 401

   Lagos University, 401

   military rule, 496–497

   oil boom, 346, 347, 348, 372

   Onitsha Market, 483, 630, 632–637, 640

   Oshogbo, 401

   radio, 3

   scripts, 159

   theaters, 39, 40

   University of Ibadan Travelling Theatre, 36, 44

   vernacular traditions, 482

   Yoruba language, 357

      importance of history, 391

      oral traditions, 357–365

      popular literature, 371–376

      written literature, 365

Nile River, 271, 272

Nini, Soraya, 815

Nirina, Esther, 574

Nissaboury, Mostafa, 558

Njama, Karari, 307

Njami, Simon, 812

Njau, Elimo, 427

Njau, Rebecca, 427, 438

Njoya, 158

Nketia, J. H., 478, 479

Nkomo, Joshua, 453, 454

Nkosi, Lewis, 404, 405, 505, 517, 518, 521, 826

Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrika, 294

Nkrumah, Kwame, 235, 493, 494, 800

Nkundo, epics, 99

Nlhongo, Lindo, 609

Nngahyoma, Ngalimecha, 219

Noa, Francisco, 619

Nogar, Rui, 608

Nolla, Olga, 700–701

non-governmental organizations, 42

Noronha, Ruid de, 604

North Africa

   dialects, 53

   linguistic mixtures, 52–53

   map, xl

   North-East Africa folktales, 23

   oral traditions, 49–64

North, Michael, 832

Nortje, Arthur, 518

Noss, Philips, 30, 31, 32, 41, 130

Nottingham, John, 307

Nsibidi, script, 156

Nsue Angüe, Maria, 597, 598

Nsue Otong, Carlos, 598, 599

Ntara, Samuel Josiah, 456

Ntiru, Richard, 427, 434, 435

Ntshona, Winston, 44, 519, 525

Ntsikana, Chief, 291–292, 294, 297

Ntsikana, William Kobe, 292

ntsomi, 25, 72

Nubia, 157, 158

Nugent, Lady, 732

Numidians, 554

Nunley, John, 146

Nupe, Hausa assimilation, 329

Nwana, Pita, 478, 485

Nwanko, Nkem, 482

Nwapa, Flora, 484, 485, 498

Nwodo, Christopher, 235

Nwoga, Donatus, 627, 633

Nxumalo, 404

Nyagumbo, Maurice, 454

Nyamfukudza, Stanley, 459, 460, 461, 464

Nyamubaya, Freedom, 463

Nyanga, epics, 105

Nyasaland. See Malawi

Nyau, rituals, 155

Nyembezi, C. L. S., 4, 72, 290, 299–300

Nyerere, Julius, 216, 387

Nzekwu, Onuara, xii, 482, 487

Nzema, folktales, 30

Nzibe, 83, 84


O., Rachid, 565

Obafemi Awolowo University, theater, 42

Obasa, D. A., 369

Obey, Ebenezer, 371

Obiechina, Emmanuel, 190, 475, 487, 489, 627, 633–637

Obote, Milton, 387

Obumselu, Ben, 481, 495

O’Callaghan, Evelyn, 725, 745

Ocete, Marin, 232

Ocháa Nve, Constantino, 589, 594

Oculi, Okello, 427, 434

Odinga, Oginga, 436

Odunjo, J. F., 367, 369

Oedipus, 175

Ogo-Yurugu, tricksters, 21

Ogola, Margaret, 441

Ogot, Bethwell, 316

Ogot, Grace, 401, 425, 432, 438, 440

Ogude, S. O., 475

Ogunba, Oyin, 37, 39

Ogunbiyi, Yemi, 487

Ogunde, Hubert, 40, 45, 372, 489

Ogundele, J. O., 367

Ogundipe-Leslie, Omolara, 402

Ogunmola, Kola, 372, 489

Ogunniran, Lawuyi, 368

Ogunsola, Isola, 40

Ogunyemi, Wale, 376, 489

Oguunde, Hubert, 372, 373

Ohlange Institute, 298

Ohly, Rajmund, 199, 200, 211

Ojo, Gabriel Ibitoye, 369

Ojoade, J. O., 125

Ojoboulo, Okabou, 99

Okai, Atukwei, 493

Okara, Gabriel, xii, 474, 494, 495, 832

Okediji, Oladejo, 368, 370, 376

Okigbo, Christopher

   Black Orpheus, 401

   choice of English, 480

   and Christianity, 481

   death, 435, 496

   and journals, 401, 402

   and language, 482

   literary renaissance, xii

   loss of cultural heritage, 491–492

   modernism, 435, 825

   and Yoruba, 479

Okola, Lennard, 427, 435

Okpewho, Isidore, 14, 20, 21, 100, 498

Okri, Ben, 479, 819, 845–848

Olabimtan, Afolabi, 368, 369, 375

Oladapo, Olatunbosun, 371

Oladipupo, A. B., 367

Olaiya, Moses, 40

Olatunji, Olatunde, 363, 375

Olayemi, Kayode, 131

Oliver, Roland, 388

Ollivier, Emile, 651, 816

Olney, James, 475, 545

Oló Mibuy, Anacleto, 594, 595, 598

Olurankinse, Olanipekun, 369

Omamor, P., 474

Omar Khayyam, 334

Omotoso, Kole, 487, 498, 740

Oneko, Achieng, 312

Ong, Walter, 117

Onitsha Market pamphlets, 483, 630, 632–637, 640

Onwueme, Tess, 43

Opland, Jeff, xiii, 2, 4, 72

Opoku, Asare, 389

Opperman, D. J., 416

oral traditions

   adaptation, 12–14

   African diaspora. See diaspora

   Arabic. See Arabic oral traditions

   Arawak, 670

   Berbers, 56–64

   children’s rhymes and games, 63

   coded speech, 63

   commentary and criticism, 6–8

   concept, 117

   contemporary genres, 3

   epics. See epics

   and European forms, 433

   and European tradition, xv

   and gicaandi playing, 323–324

   hybrid forms, 11, 13

   influence on literary works, 3

   initiation songs, 9

   jokes, 55, 58–59, 63

   Kabyles, 558

   lullabies, 61, 62–63

   Madagascar, 570

   market cries, 57–58

   and mass communications, 3, 13

   and modernity, 3

   multiplicity of forms, 6

   narratives, 56–57

   and Ngugi’s work, 323

   North Africa, 64

   obscuring, xii–xiii

   obsession, 162

   oral continent, 1

   poetry

      Arabic and Berber, 59–60

      characteristics, 76–77

      court poetry, 2–3

      praise poetry. See praise poetry

   politesse, 60

   and postcolonial protest, 804

   proverbs, 58, 63

   public patter, 57–58

   recontextualizing, 7

   rediscovery phase, 532–537

   riddles, 58, 63

   role, 14

   songs, 61–62

   speech play, 63

   theater, 535

   transmission, 8

   West Africa, 472–473, 479

   Yoruba, 357–365

O’Reilly, Alejandro, 676

Orientalism, 384, 689

oriki, 2, 357

Orlando, Valérie, 563

Orphée noir, 541–543

Ortiz, Fernando, 690

Orwell, George, 172, 279, 286

Osadebay, Dennis, 476

Oseni, Zakariyau, 195

Osofisan, Femi, 43, 46, 472, 497, 825

Osório, Oswaldo, 614–615

Ottomans, in North Africa, 50, 62

Ounissi, Zhor, 191

Ouologuem, Yambo, 801–804, 825

Ovando, Leonor de, 673

Owen, Robert, 685

Owolabi, Olu, 368

Oyedele, A, 367

Oyelaran, Olasope, 375

Oyo dialect, 489

Oyo Empire, 489

Oyono, Ferdinand, 389, 392, 393, 546

Oyôno-Mbia, Guillaume, 43, 537

Ozidi Saga, xiii, 102–103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 109, 110, 487, 493


Paa ya Paa, 427

Pacavira, Manuel, 612

Padmore, George, 719

Padura Fuentes, Leonardo, 704

Page, Gertrude, 448, 449–450, 452

Pageard, Robert, 531, 532, 537

Paimo, Lere, 40

paintings, cave paintings, 153–156

Paiva, 7

Palangyo, Peter, 437

Palés Matos, Luis, 690

Palmer, Colin, 718

Pan-African Conferences, 382, 719

pan-Africanism, xvi, 475–478, 759

pan-Americanism, 688

Pané, Ramon, 670

Panetta, Ester, 54

Paques, Viviana, 54

Paravisini-Gebert, Lizabeth, 745, 746, 747

Pareja, Juan de, 229

Park, Mungo, 233, 271

Parnassians, 689

Parrinder, Geoffrey, 20

Parrish, Lydia, 120

Parry, Milman, xiii, 106

Parsons, Elsie Clews, 129

Pascal, Michael Henry, 240

Pate, 202, 209

paternalism, 392–395

Paton, Alan, 404, 513, 516–517, 525, 608

Patraquim, Luis Carlos, 613

patriarchy

   Algeria, 560

   Boudjedra, 191

   El Saadawi, 189

   Hausa literature, 348–350

   Morocco, 556, 563

   Swahili literature, 203

   Zambia, 456

   Zimbabwe, 465

Paulhan, Jean, 572, 576

Paulus, Mopeli, 525

Paz, Octavio, 44

p’Bitek, Okot, 426, 427, 433–435, 630

Pechey, Graham, 509

Pedreira, Antonio, 691

Peek, Philip, 131

Peix, Pedro, 697

Pélégri, Jean, 553

Pelton, Robert, 21

Pepetela, 610–611, 612, 613

Pépin, Ernest, 653

Pereira, Pacheco, 409

periodicals. See journals

Persaud, Lakshmi, 737

Peru, 674

Peter the Great, 233

Peters, John, 242

Peters, Lenrie, 482, 495, 496

Petersen, Kirsten Holst, 483, 484

Petersen, Patrick, 412, 417

Petersen, S. V., 417

Phala, D. M., 72

Phelps, Anthony, 651, 810

Philander, P. J., 417

Philip II, 231

Philip, Nourbese, 725, 730–731, 738, 743, 744

Philip, Rev. Robert, 315

Phillips, Abraham, 412, 417

Phillips, Caryl, 725, 736, 741, 795, 809, 811, 816, 817, 818

Phillips, Mike, 816, 818

Phillips, Trevor, 816

Phillips, Wendell, 679

philosophy, 541

Phiri, Gideon, 455

Phoenician culture, 49, 50, 53, 54

Pichanick, J., 447

Pick, Vittorio Merlo, 324

pidgin, 39, 44, 474

Pierrot, 143–144, 151

Pilaszewicz, Stanislaw, 331, 337, 344, 345, 351, 353

Pineau, Gisèle, 652

Píñera, Virgilio, 694

Piot, Charles, 126

Pius V, 231

piyyutim, 62

Plaatje, Solomon

   colonial culture, 383

   education, 384

   generally, 514

   irony, 515

   languages, 508

   Native Life in South Africa, 298, 300

   publishers, 390

   Sechuana Proverbs, 302

   translations from English, 386

   uses of literacy, 391

Placoly, Vincent, 652

plantations, folktales, 129

Plastow, Jane, 42

Plato, 166

Plattenburg, Governor Van, 264

Pliny, 260

Plomer, William, 513, 515

Pocock, Tom, 276

politesse, 60

Pollard, Velma, 730, 743

polygamy, 6, 291, 308, 347

Pompilus, Pradel, 648, 649, 654

Ponce de León, Juan, 672, 673

Pongweni, Alec, 6

Ponty, William, 531

pop music, 118

popular African literature

   and colonialism, 627–628

   East Africa, 637–638

   English contempt, 629

   generally, 626–641

   Ghana, 637

   Onitsha Market pamphlets, 483, 630, 632–637, 640

   theater, 39–40, 45, 628

Portuguese

   circumnavigation of Africa, 228

   early African settlements, 260–264, 474

   literature. See lusophone African literature

   in Mozambique, 7, 262

positivism, 682, 777

postcolonialism

   anglophone East African literature, 436–439

   Caribbeans, 795

   colonialism theme, 384–385

   cultural nationalism, 506

   disillusionment, 282–283, 436, 437, 438, 797–808

   literature, 282–285, 820

   postcolonial studies, 809

   and postmodernism, 812–813

Post, K. W. J., 633

postmodernism

   African postmodernism, 828–831, 844–848

   and capitalism, 828–829

   and modernism, 830–831

   postcolonial writers, 812–813

Pound, Ezra, 832

Powell, Patricia, 714, 725, 743, 744

Power, Chris, 229

Pragnell, Alfred, 721

praise poetry

   appropriation, 94–95

   Basotho, 73, 297

   characteristics, 73–77

   and Christianity, 94

   critical approaches, 77–79

   examples, 83–84, 85–90

   experience of migration, 91–94

   function, 71

   generally, 4–6, 12

   Hausa, 4

   language, 73–74, 84–85

   Malawi, 72, 73, 91, 92

   Mozambique, 73, 91

   Ndebele, 79, 91

   Nguni. See Nguni

   northern Sutho, 72

   occasions, 76

   performance, 82–83

   and politics, 94–95

   praise name, 73

   Sesotho, 72

   Setswana, 72, 302

   Shona, 71, 72

   Sotho, 71, 72

   South Africa, 4, 71

   status of poets, 79–82

   structure, 74–75

   Swaziland, 73

   Tanzania, 91

   themes, 74, 75–76

   and women, 75

   Xhosa, 4, 72, 95, 291

   Yoruba, 2, 357–359

   Zambia, 91

   Zimbabwe, 73, 91

   Zulu. See Zulus

Pratt, Mary Louise, 264, 510

Pre-Raphaelites, 689

Preller, Gustav, 415

Présence Africaine, 400, 540, 541–542, 609

Prester John, 260

Prestol Castillo, Freddy, 693

Price, Hannibal, 786

Price-Mars, Jean, 649, 654, 770, 787, 788

Price, Richard, 119, 129

Price, Sally and Richard, 118

Priebe, Richard, 627, 629, 637

Priese, Karl-Heinz, 157

primitive man, 22

primitivism, 275, 832

Prince, Mary, 245, 247–248, 249, 742

Prince, Nancy, 242

Principe, 228

Pringle, Thomas, 511–512

Prinsloo, Koos, 419

printing

   Cuba, 676

   Equatorial Guinea, 586

   Gutenberg, 160

   Hausa literature, 333

   mission school presses, 389–390, 398, 513

   Puerto Rico, 680

Probst, Peter, 155

prodigal sons, 290, 301, 302

Proença, Hélder, 616

Propp, Vladimir, 24, 25

Prosper, Jean-Georges, 575

Prosser, Gabriel, 241

Protestant Reformation, 265

proverbs, 19, 58, 63, 124–126, 302, 361–362

Providence, slave revolt, 246

Ptolemy, 181

public patter, 57–58

publishing

   Central Africa, 455

   colonial publishing, 389–390

   East Africa, 436

   Gikuyu literature, 306, 309–310

   Malawi, 458

   Sotho publishing, 160

   West Africa, 483–484

   Yoruba writing, 375

   Zimbabwe, 462, 464

Puerto Rico

   colonization, 673

   Grito de Lares, 688

   hispanophone literature

      nineteenth century, 679–683

      nineteenth-century poetry, 687–688

      twentieth century, 692, 693–694, 695–697

      twentieth-century women’s writing, 700–704

      early descriptions, 675–677

      early poetry, 675

      Modernismo, 688–690

      Movimiento Antillano, 691

      Naturalist fiction, 685–687

   printing, 680

Puig, Manuel, 697

Punic, 49–50, 51, 61

punning, 122

puppets, 38, 52

Purkey, Malcolm, 519

Pushkin, Alexander, 233

Pyne-Tomothy, Helen, 745

Pythagoras, 166


Qabula, Alfred Temba, 95

qasida, 62

qoosa-taapaa, 14

Quadros, António, 608

Quakers, 267

Quayson, Ato, 845

quddisim, 57

Quenum, Maximilien, 533

quest-romance, 258–259, 260, 272, 279, 281, 284, 446–448, 511

Quilla-Villéger, Alain, 274

quinine, 271

Qu’ran, 51, 182, 310, 331–332, 371


Rabéarivelo, Jean-Joseph, 401, 573

Rabemananjara, Jacques, 571, 573

Rabi’, Mubarak, 192

Rabie, Jan, 414

race

   barbarian discourse, 271

   centrality, 257

   eugenics, 271

   interracial sex, 452, 515, 517

   Manicheanism, 257, 271

   miscegenation, 514

racism

   nineteenth-century eruption, 270

   America, 477

   British racism in Caribbeans, 718

   Kurayyif, 193

   and Magreb writers, 559

   scientific racism, 259

   white Rhodesia, 450–451, 459

Radin, Paul, 20, 27

radio, 3, 13

Rafenomanjato, Charlotte, 574

Raharimanana, Jean-Luc, 574, 812, 814

raï music, 50, 816

rain rituals, 61

Rakotoson, Michèle, 574, 813

Ramaila, E. M., 72

Ramangason, Bodo, 574

Ramarosa, Liliane, 574

Ramchand, Kenneth, 727, 730, 732, 736

Ramos Otero, Manuel, 696

Ramoshoana, David, 386

Rampersad, Arnold, 766

Ranger, Terence, 383, 391, 448

Rapetloane, Filimone, 295

rapping, 127

Rastafarians, 728

Ratsiraka, Didier, 574

Rattray, R. S., 19, 23

Raum, O. F., 155, 156

Rauville, Camille de, 573, 575

Ravenscroft, Arthur, 495

Read, Margaret, 72, 76, 94

Reader, John, 260, 261

Rebelo, Jorge, 608

Redcam, Tom, 732

Redlegs, 714

reggae, 119, 120, 148, 722, 729

Reichmuth, Stefan, 196

Reid, Margaret Ann, 764, 765

Reid, V. S., 733

Reisman, Karl, 117, 127

religious ballads, 61

Relouzat, Raymond, 129

Renaissance, and Africa, 227–232

Renart, Edouard, 531

Reno, Fred, 650

Réunion

   francophone literature

      colonial literature, 571, 577

      créolité, 578

      fiction, 578

      generally, 577–579

      poetry, 578–579

      travel accounts, 577

   geography, 569

   history, 570, 577

   languages, 571, 577

   Rodrigues, 569

Rhodes, Cecil, 276, 447, 452, 453, 513

Rhodesia. See Zimbabwe

Rhone, Trevor, 741

Rhys, Jean, xvii, 718, 724, 733, 735, 736, 737, 738, 743

Ricard, Alain, 160

Richards, Glen, 713

Richards, Jo-Anne, 523

Richardson, Samuel, 635

riddles, 19, 58, 63, 458

Riefenstahl, Leni, 281

rights of man, 267

Riley, Joan, 725

Riloha, Maria Caridad, 598, 599

Rimbaud, Arthur, 655

Risco Bermúdez, René del, 697

Rivas, Duke of, 681

Rive, Richard, 402

Rivera Chevremont, Evaristo, 690

Robbe-Grillet, Alain, 827

Robert, Admiral, 650

Robert, Shaaban, 201, 209–211, 212, 384, 425

Roberts, John, 121

Roberts, Paul, 241

Roberts, Peter, 715, 721

Roblès, Emmanuel, 553

Robottom, John, 246

Rocha, Jofre, 607

Rodney, Walter, 381, 439, 719

Rodriguez de Aridilla, Gabriel, 232

Rodriguez de Tió, Lola, 687, 688

Rodríguez Julià, Edgardo, 697

Rodríguez, Luis Felipe, 693

Roger II, King of Sicily, 181

Roger, Jacques-François, 532

Rohler, Gordon, 120, 712, 720, 722

Rollins, Jack, 207, 208, 209

roman colonial, 274

Romans, 51, 53, 54

Romanticism, 267–268, 269

   and antislavery debate, 677, 679–680

   romantic anti-capitalism, 448

Rope Bomabá, Jerónimo, 598

Roqué de Duprey, Ana, 681, 686–687

Rosberg, Carl, 307

Roscoe, Adrian, 457

Ross, John, 389

Rotimi, Ola, 43, 489, 493

Roumain, Jacques, 649, 656, 770, 771, 788–789

Roumer, Emile, 649

Roussan, Camille, 771

Routledge, Katherine and William, 309

Roy, Jules, 553

Royal African Company, 238

royalty, and poetry, 2

Rubadiri, David, 402, 428, 429, 433, 435, 437, 456, 457, 458

Rubusana, Walter, 72, 294, 513

Ruedy, John, 552–553

Ruganda, John, 438, 440

Ruheni, Mwangi, 438

Ruhumbika, Gabriel, 213, 438

Rui, Manuel, 607, 610, 611

rumba, 120

Rupaire, Sonny, 660

Rutayisingwa, John, 214

Rutherford, Anna, 483, 484

Rutuku, J. M., 317

Rwabukumba, Joseph, 1

Rwanda

   court poetry, 2, 3–4

   genocide, 15

   kings, 2

   political breakdown, 282

   ubwwiiru, 1, 2

Rycroft, David, 72, 77


Sabir, Ahmed, 351

Saddiki, Tayeb, 195

Sadeeq, Wasiu Kayode, 371

Sahel, 99, 102

Sahle-Sellassie, B. M., 173, 176, 433, 440

Said, Edward, 384

Saidi, William, 455

Saint Augustine, 227

Saint-Aurèle, Poirié, 648

Saint-Exupéry, Antoine de, 813

Saint John, Bruce, 721, 728

Saint-John Perse, 647, 648–649, 650, 659, 660

Saint Kitt’s, slave revolts, 246

Saint Lucia, 246

Saint Omer, Garth, 737

Saint-Pierre, Bernardin de, 571, 575

Saint Vincent Islands, 28, 246, 248

Sainville, Léonard, 655

Sala-Molins, Louis, 646

Salaga, Imam Umaru, 352–353

Salazar, Ambrosio, 232

Salazar de Alarcón, Eugenio, 673

Saldenah, Harold, 145

Salhi, Zahia Smail, 555

Salick, Roydon, 734

Salih, Tayeb, 189–190, 194, 196, 825, 828

Salkey, Andrew, 730, 737, 816

Salomon, Job ben, 229

Salústio, Dina, 616

Sam-Long, Jean-François, 578

Samarin, 127

Samkange, Stanlake, 453–454

Sampson, Anthony, 404

Samupindi, Charles, 464

Samy, Domingas, 617

San peoples, 264

Sánchez, Luis Rafael, 695–696

Sancho, Ignatius, 229, 239–240

Sander, Reinhard, 726, 732

Sanders, P. B., 72

Sangiro (A. A. Pienaar), 410

Sankey, Ira, 121

Sankore University, 331, 332

Santa Ana, General, 688

Santa Clara, Antonio de, 672

Santana, Ana de, 610

Santos, Arnaldo, 606, 611

Santos, Artur Pestana dos, 610

Santos Febres, Mayra, 700, 703–704

Santos Lima, Manuel dos, 606

Santos, Marcelino dos, 608

Sao Tomé

   literary criticism, 619

   lusophone writers, 604, 609, 617–618

   Portuguese in, 228

Sara, folktales, 27

Sarduy, Severo, 695

Sarjous, Dr., 538

Saro-Wiwa, Ken, 406, 458, 474, 832

Sarrault, Albert, 393

Sartre, Jean-Paul, 400, 401, 540, 541–543, 655, 658, 779

Saul, John, 413

Saunders, Christopher, 4, 12

Savory, Elaine, 716, 733, 740, 745, 746

Schapera, I., 72, 75

Scharfman, Ronnie, 647

Schelling, F. W. J. von, 681

Scheub, Harold, 25, 72, 130

Schmidt, Nancy, 633

Schoelcher, Victor, 269

Schoeman, Karel, 410, 413, 419

Schoeman, P. J., 410

Scholtz, A. H. M., 412, 417, 418

Schön, Jacob Friedrich, 340

Schreiner, Olive, 281, 511, 512–513

Schrijfer, Isaq, 409

Schwab, Janet, 317

Schwartz, José Carlos, 616

Schwarz-Bart, André, 658

Schwarz-Bart, Simone, xvii, 131, 652, 658

Scobie, Alexander, 49

Scott, Dennis, 730, 737, 741

scripts

   African scripts, 153–162

   ajami scripts, 159, 330, 332–333, 339–340

   Malagasy, 572

   and missionaries, 159

sea, and Caribbean literature, 716, 792

Seacole, Mary, 719, 742

Seaga, Edward, 121

Sealy, Godfrey, 149

Sebastião, King, 263–264

Sebbar, Leila, 815–816, 818

Sebeta, Cranmer ’Matsa, 293

Seboni, M. O. M., 301

Sefrioui, Ahmed, 555

Segoete, Edward Lechesa, 297

Sehoza, Samuel, 217

Seitel, Peter, 25, 29

Sekese, Azariele, 72, 295–296, 297

Sekoni, Ropo, 25

Sekyi, Kobina, 493

self-determination, 259, 277, 281

Selormey, Francis, 482

Selous, Frederick Courtney, 446, 448, 511

Selvon, Samuel, 724, 733, 734, 735, 736, 737, 816, 817

Sembène, Ousmane, 546, 780, 837

Seme, William, 217

Senegal

   Arabic Sufi writing, 182

   Dakar, 400

   Dakar-Niger Railway strike, 546

   folktales, 532, 533

   French colonization, 530, 536

   Gorée, 536

   journals, 399, 400

   Lycée William Ponty, 391

   tirailleurs sénégalais, 531

   Wolof aristocracy, 544

Senegambia, 119, 261

Senghor, Lamine, 399

Senghor, Léopold Sédar

   anthology, 541–543, 573, 609, 772

   and Césaire, 774, 776

   Hosties noires, 543

   intellectual tradition, 779

   journalism, 400, 538, 655

   and Negritude, 539, 654, 655, 773, 775–777, 826

   politics, 540

   and Shaka epic, 110

Sengo, T. S. Y., 211

Senior, Olive, 131, 730, 743, 819

Senzangakhona, 83, 85

Sepamla, Sipho, 405, 519

Sephocle, Marilyn, 233

Serhane, Abdelhak, 562, 563

Serote, Mongane, 405, 519

Serumaga, Robert, 437, 438, 440

Sesa, Gonzalo, 3rd Duke of, 230, 231

Sesotho

   authors, 289, 290, 294–297, 384

   language group, 292

   orthography, 293

   praise poetry, 72

   spellings, 160

Setswana

   language group, 292

   praise poetry, 71, 72

   proverbs, 302

   Shakespeare translations, 386

   writers, 290, 300–301, 508

Severus of Antioch, 164

Seville, 231

Seychelles

   history, 569, 570, 579–580

   languages, 579

   literary modes, 571

   size, 569

Seydou, Christiane, 24

Seymour, A. J., 398, 403, 730

Shadd Cary, Mary Ann, 242

Shafi, Shafi Adam, 219, 220

Shah, Krishna, 525

Shaka Zulu, 79, 84, 85–90, 95, 110, 160

Shakespeare, William

   African adaptations, 351

   Caliban, 719, 731

   Kenyan productions, 386

   and Onitsha Market pamphlets, 636

   translations into African languages, 208, 216, 386–387, 514

Shamuyarira, Nathan, 454

Shanga, folktales, 24

Shariff, Ibrahim, 200, 203

Sharpe, Granville, 240

Sharpley-Whiting, T. Denean, 773

Shaw, Angus, 463

Shawqi, Ahmad, 185, 186

Shembe, Isaiah, 11, 297

Shepherd, Robert, 389

Shepherd, Verene, 713, 714

Shepstone, Theophilus, 511

Sherlock, Philip, 716

Sherwood, Marika, 720

Shi’itu, Malam, 352

Shillingford, Toni, 130

Shinebourne, Jan, 725, 737

Shomari, Mwengo, 205

Shona

   culture, 454

   fiction, 454, 461, 462

   praise poetry, 4, 6

   rebellion, 448

   relations with Ndebele, 448

   tradition, 464

Showalter, Elaine, 350

Shungwaya, 209

Si Kaddour ben Ghabrit, 55

Sibale, Grieve, 456

Sicherman, Carol, 386, 387, 428, 429

Sierra Leone

   1970s literature, 498

   Creole writers, 498

   Limba tales, 19, 25, 27, 30

   and pan-Africanism, 476

   repatriation of slaves, 250

   theater, 42

Sigüenza y Góngora, Carlos de, 675

Sikka, Abdullahi, 331

Sila, Abdulai, 617

Silva, Rosária da, 611

Silveira, Onésimo, 606

Silvestre, Gregorio, 230

Simon, Barney, 519, 525

Simon, Paul, 13, 740

Simpson, George, 121

Sinclair, Cecelia, 130

Singh, Amritjit, 766

Sinxo, Guybon, 290

Sinyangwe, Binwell, 832

Sipikin, Mudi, 354

sira, 59, 61

Sisoko, Fa-Digi, 112

Sissoko, Fily, 536

Sistren, 743, 744

SiSwati, language group, 292

Sithole, Ndabaningi, 453, 454

siyar, 59

ska, 712

Skendes, 166–167

Skinner, Neil, 340

Slater, Montagu, 315

slave trade

   1808 British abolition, 246

   Caribbeans, 715

   defense, 271

   European attitudes, 229, 232

   generally, 238–239

   Indian Ocean, 569

   Middle Passage, 238, 653, 714, 818

   origins, 261

   period, 259

slavery

   1787 prohibition, 241

   abolitionists, 235, 239

      antislavery discourse, 266–269

      Anti-Slavery Society, 240, 247, 512

      Ladies’ Anti-Slavery Societies, 247

      and Romanticism, 267–268

      United States, 244

      victory, 269

   and African writers, 380

   British emancipation, 246

   and capitalism, 266, 718

   Caribbeans, 653–654, 719

   debate, 269

      hispanophone Caribbeans, 677

   and emergence of New World culture, 760

   and Enlightenment, 748

   European attitudes, 229

   Fugitive Slave Law 232, 243

   proslavery discourse, 268–269

   and rights of man, 267

   Toussaint L’Ouverture, 269, 656, 720, 769

   United States, 241

slaves

   Afro-American plantation folktales, 129

   Caribbean revolts, 246–247

   code noir, 646

   common experience, xvi

   maroons. See maroons

   narratives, xvi, 249, 719

   and Negritude movement, 656

   writers

      Africans in Britain, 238–241

      Africans in the Caribbeans, 245–249, 742

      Afro-Americans, 241–245

      generally, 238–250

      West Africa, 474–476

Slyomovics, Susan, 59

Small, Adam, 417, 418

Smethurst, James Edward, 765, 767

Smit, Bartho, 414

Smith, Edwin, 295

Smith, Ian, 110, 446, 454

Smith, M. G., 714

Smith, Mikey, 721, 729, 731, 737

Smith, Pauline, 515

Smith, Robert P., 773

Smith, Samuel, 719

Smith, Wilbur, 451, 511

Smith, Zadie, 726, 737, 743

Snelling, John, 452

Socé, Ousmane, 533, 544

socialism, and empire, 259

Socrates, 167

Sofola, Zulu, 43, 487

Soga, John Henderson, 294

Soga, Tiyo, 292, 389, 513

Soga, Zaze, 291

Sollors, Werner, 763

Sols, Loit, 418

Somalia

   balwo, 13

   dictatorship literature, 440

   heello, 13

   language, 159

   Leexo, 13

   military dictatorship, 439

   Mogadishu, 13

   oral poetry, 13, 14

   political breakdown, 282

   postcolonial, 436, 805–806

   written literature, 330

Somerset, James, 239, 240

Songhai, Askia Mohammed, 803

songs

   Arabic tradition, 61–62

   blues, 120

   diaspora, 117–122

      themes, 119–122

   and folktales, 31

   freedom songs, 14

   harvest songs, 120

   mmoguo songs, 31

   moans, 120

   and oral tradition, 1

   religious ballads, 61

   spirituals, 119, 120

   West Africa, 534

   work songs, 120

Sontonga, Enoch, 294

Sophocles, 376

Soromenho, Castro, xv, 603

Sotho

   grammar, 71

   kings, 72, 90

   language, xiii

   language group, 292

   lifela genre, 5, 12

   praise poetry, 71, 72

   publishing, 160

   scattering of people, 85

   southern Sotho. See Sesotho

Soto, Pedro Juan, 694

Sousa, Noémia de, 607

Sousa, Teixeira de, 615

South Africa

   1985 State of Emergency, 516

   1994 watershed, 505

   African-language literatures, 289

   African National Congress, 95, 514, 518

   Afrikaans. See Afrikaans literature

   AmaNazaretha church, 11

   apartheid, 4, 281, 412, 516–522, 523–524

   authors of European descent, xv

   Bantu Education, 517, 518

   Bantustans, 301

   Black Conciousness, 518–519, 521

   Boer War, 300, 412, 413

   colonization, 412–415

   Eastern Cape, 511–514

   freedom songs, 14

   gold, 413

   Grahamstown, 521

   history, 11

   isicathamiya, 13

   Johannesburg, 12

   journals, 399, 401, 404, 453, 515

   KwaZulu Natal, 91

   Liberal Party, 516

   literary historiography, 504

   literature in English. See anglophone literature

   Lovedale Mission, 389–390

   maskanda, 13

   mfecane, 73, 85, 90, 391

   migrant workers, 12–13, 301

   mines, 12

   missionaries, 513, 518

   Natal, 85

   Natives Land Act, 298, 514

   political disenfranchisement, 300

   praise poetry, 4, 71–95

   radio, 13

   Reed township, 508

   Rivonia trials, 404

   Sharpeville, 404, 516

   shebeens, 12

   Sophiatown, 404, 419

   Soweto, 405, 412, 516, 519

   theater, 39, 40, 44

   Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 523

   Witwatersrand, 276

   Zulus. See Zulus

South West Africa, Herero flight from, 10

southern Africa

   African-language literatures, 289

   language groups, 292

Southern, Eileen, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122

Southey, Robert, 267

Souza, Carl de, 576

Sowande, Bode, 376

Sowden, Lewis, 519

Soyinka, Wole

   1960s, 495

   and Achebe, 486–487

   art theater, 43

   and Christianity, 481

   colonialism and African art, 392

   A Dance of the Forests, 473, 478, 491, 496

   Death and the King’s Horseman, 376, 480, 491, 497

   drama, 37, 825, 837

   and festival theater, 38–39

   Guerrilla Theatre Unit, 42

   The Interpreters, 437, 491, 494, 827

   Jero Plays, 489

   journalism, 401, 402, 403

   Kongi’s Harvest, 491

   literary renaissance, xii

   literary traditions, 472

   Madmen and Specialists, 497

   modernism, 831

   modernism debate, 826–827

   and Negritude, 539

   and Ouologuem, 803

   and pan-Africanism, 477–478

   A Play of Giants, 440

   political journey, 496

   postcolonial disappointment, 798

   and religion, 480

   The Road, 491, 739

   role of writers, xii

   Season of Anomy, 497

   and Shaka epic, 110

   The Strong Breed, 489, 491

   The Swamp Dwellers, 473

   translations, 376, 478

   The Trials of Brother Jero, 195

   use of English, 46, 480

   and Yoruba culture, 45, 486, 490–491

Spain, colonial cruelty, 671

Spanish. See hispanophone literature

speech, oral traditions, 122

Speke, John, 271

Spencer, Herbert, 512, 682, 685

Spencer, John, 474

Spengler, Oswald, 791

spiders, 27–29

spirituals, 119, 120

Spratlin, Valurez, 232

Staffrider, 405, 519

Stahl, 235

Stanley, Henry, 22, 272–273, 274, 428

Star Wars, 719

Starling, Marion, 241

steelbands, 140, 745

steelpan, 149

Stein, Gertrude, 832

Stephenson, Elie, 660

Sterne, Lawrence, 240

Stevens, Thomas, 510

Stevenson, R. L., 208

Stiff, Peter, 451

Stock, Brian, 391

Stockley, Cynthia, 448, 449–450

Stone, Judith, 738, 740, 741, 742

Stone, Norman, 282

storytelling, folktales, 29–32

Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 678

Strachan, Alexander, 419

street sellers, 58

Strong-Leek, Linda, 745

structuralism, 25

Stuart, James, 72, 76, 83, 86

Stumme, Hans, 54

Suárez y Romero, Anselmo, 678

Sudan

   Arabic fiction, 189–190

   Arabic literature, 196

   Arabic poetry, 186

   Azande folktales, 27

   desert inscriptions, 157

   Hausa diaspora, 329, 339

   Luo folktales, 27

   Mata Kharibu court, 473

Sufis, 57, 62, 181–184, 331, 335

Sumangru, 101–102, 112

Sumner, Claude, 165, 166, 167

Sundiata, xiii

Sunjata story, 13, 99–100, 101–102, 104, 105, 106, 108, 110, 111–113, 124, 129

supernaturalism, 834–835

Surinam, 28, 119

surrealism, xvii, 532, 538–539, 540, 542, 546, 774, 778, 787

Suso, Bamba, 14, 112

Susu, kingdom, 101

Sutherland, Efua, 43, 485, 493

Sutho, Northern Sutho, praise poetry, 72

Swahili

   Al inkishafi, 159

   Arabic script, 330

   and Christian missionaries, 207

   development of language, 207–209

   and Gikuyu literature, 306–307

   literature. See Swahili literature

   narratives, 159

   Shakespeare translations, 387

   in Uganda, 436

   vocabulary, 159

Swahili literature

   ajami, 200, 202

   chronicles, 209

   colonial period, 207

   drama, 214–216

   East African Literature Bureau, 208

   European influences, 200

   generally, 199–221

   Hamziya, 200, 201

   indigenous contribution, 199

   influences, 199

   inkishafi, 202

   Islamic legacy, 199, 200, 201–204, 206–207

   Kenyans, 318–319

   origins, 200–205

   poetry, 216–217

   political writers, 206

   postcolonial period, 205–207

   shairi, 204

   short story, 212–214

   tenzi, 201

   themes, 217–221

   ukawafi, 201

   ulamaa, 202, 206

   utenzi, 201

   wajiwaji, 201

   and women, 203–204

Swanepoel, C. F., 506

Swaziland, 73, 275

Swift, Jonathan, 208

syllabaries, 158

Sylvain, Georges, 659

Symbolists, 689

Szwed, John, 122


Tabaï, Alia, 193

Tabbal, Abd al-Karim, 186

Tabwa, folktales, 25

Tafida, J, 473

Tafida, Malam, 342

Taínos, 670

Takawira, Leopold, 453

Talboom, Léon, 648

Tamajaq, Hausa assimilation, 329

Tamasheq language, 194

Tamazight, 51

Tambiah, Stanley, 131

Tanco y Bosmeniel, Félix, 677

Tanganyika

   and fiction in English, 432

   Germans in, 207

   Maji-Maji war, 215

   union with Zanzibar, 218

Tanna, Laura, 129

Tansi, Sony Labou, 43

Tanzania

   anglophone writers, 438

   cave paintings, 154

   Haya folktales, 29

   Maji-Maji rebellion, 438

   Meru people, 438

   political failures, 439

   praise poetry, 91

   and Shaka Zulu, 85

   socialism, 436

   Swahili drama, 214–216

   Swahili language, 209, 436

   Swahili literature, 210–213, 218–221

   Swahili poetry, 216–217

   Ujamaa, 206, 211, 215, 218, 219, 220

Tapia y Rivera, Alejandro, 679–682, 687

Tar Baby, 130

Tarzan, 259

Tavares, Ana Paula, 610, 611

Taylor, Patrick, 715

Tcheka, Tony, 616

Tchicaya U Tam’si, Gérald Félix, 401, 544

Tedlock, Dennis, 109

Teilanyo, Diri, 109

Teilhard de Chardin, 779

Teixeira de Sousa, Henrique, 605

television, 3, 374

Tempels, Placide, 541

Temu, A. J., 390

Tenreiro, Francisco José, 609

territorial imperative, xix

Tertre, Jean-Baptiste du, 647

Thaly, Fernand, 648

theater, 24

   African traditions, 37, 535

   art theater, 43–46

   Cameroon, 536

   Caribbeans, 139

   and carnival, 139, 143–144, 145–146, 149–151

   development theater, 41–43, 45

   Equatorial Guinea, 599

   ethnocentric claims, 36

   festival theater, 37–39, 44

   francophone Africa, 536–537

   guerrilla theater, 41–42

   improvisations, 40

   indigenous theater, 536–537

   languages, 46

   Malawi, 42, 44

   oral traditions, 535

   popular theater, 39–40, 45, 628

   protest theater, 44

   South African, 20, 39, 40, 44, 519–520

   traveling troupes, 40, 44

   Trinidad, 150, 739

   Uganda, 44

   University of Ibadan Travelling Theatre, 36, 44

   western medium, 43–44, 45–46

   Yoruba, 30, 36, 43, 372–373

   Zambia, 39, 42, 44

Themba, Can, 404

Thembi, Princess, 85

Theroux, Paul, 401

Thésée, Lucie, 650

Theunissen, Isak, 412, 418

Third World, xvii

Thistlewood, Thomas, 719

Thoby-Marcelin, Philippe, 649

Thomas, I. B., 366, 367

Thomas, J. J., 718, 719, 786

Thomas, Thomas Morgan, 446

Thomasius, Christian, 234

Thompson, Adebisi, 369

Thompson, Leonard, 294

Thompson, Stith, 23, 25

Thornton, Henry, 267

Thousand and One Nights, 50, 53, 344

Thue-Tune, Carmen, 579

Thuku, Harry, 307

Thurman, Howars, 121

Tidjani-Serpos, Nouréini, 773

Tifinagh, script, 158

Tigrinya language, 320

Tijaniyya brotherhood, 335, 352

Timbuktu, 158, 228, 233, 331

Tio Tiofe, Timotéo, 614

Tippu Tip, 159

Tirolien, Guy, 660

Tlali, Miriam, 405, 519, 521

Tlili, Mustapha, 559

Tobago, slave revolts, 246

Todd, Olivier, 554

Toerien, Barend, 414

Toihiri, Mohamed, 579

Tolson, Melvin, 779

Tompkins, Joanne, 742

Tonga language, 455

Toomer, Jean, 771, 779

Topan, Farouk, 217

Torres-Seda, Olga, 745, 747

Torres Vargas, Diego de, 676

Tortola, slave revolts, 246

Tosh, Peter, 729

Totius (J. D. du Toit), 412, 413

Touareg, 194

Touareg poetry, 61

Touba, 182

Touré, Ahmed Sékou, 813

Toussaint L’Ouverture, 269, 656, 720, 769

town criers, 58

Tracey, Hugh, 8

Tracy, Steven, 766

trade unions, 95

tradition

   and African literature, 394

   invention of tradition, 391

   oral. See oral traditions

Traoré, Bakary, 37, 535

Tremearne, A. J. N., 23

tribal dancing, 291

tricksters

   Akan, 21

   Arabic folktales, 56

   Caribbeans, 130

   Egypt, 27

   folktales, 24, 26, 27–29

   Fon tales, 21, 27

   Jamaican tales, 24

   United States, 24

   West Africa, 21

   Yoruba, 21, 360

Trinidad

   Ananse, 28

   banter and abuse, 126, 127

   boasting, 128

   calypso. See calypso

   carnival, 137–138, 139–151, 740, 745

   conquest, 673

   indentured workers, 714

   Indo-Caribbean culture, 714

   journals, 399, 403, 724

   Jouvay Process, 150

   languages, 715

   Lordstreet Theatre, 150

   orisha, 121

   shango, 121

   slave revolts, 246

   slavery, 716

   stickfight songs, 119

   Trinidad Tent Theatre, 150

   Trinidad Theatre Workshop, 739

   Yoruba survivals, 715, 721

Trollope, Anthony, 718

Tropiques, 650

tsaddiquim, 57

Tsang Mang Kin, Joseph, 576

Tsiranana, Philibert, 574

Tsonga writers, 613

Tswana. See Setswana

Tukur, Muhammad, 334

Tuma, Hama, 440

Tunau, Abubakar, 351

Tunisia

   Arabic literature

      drama, 195

      fiction, 193

      periodicals, 184

      poetry, 185–186

   Berbers, 51

   Djerba, 62

   francophone literature

      1950s, 556–557

      1960s, 558–559

      1970s/1980s, 559

   French colonization, 50, 552

   Ibn Khaldun, 51, 99, 180, 228

   Kalam al-layl, 52

   Kerkennah, 60

   oral traditions

      folklore, 52

      lullabies, 61

      riddle, 58

      speech play, 63

   Tunis, 179

Turino, Thomas, 3

Turks Island, 247

Turner, Jann, 523

Turner, Victor, xiii

Tutsi language, 4

Tutuola, Amos, xi, 130, 384, 474, 478–479, 494, 844, 846

Twa language, 4

Twi folktales, 22

tyrants, 26

ubwwiiru, 1, 2

Uganda

   British colonization, 207

   Budo, 389, 391

   historical songs, 98

   Idi Amin, 439–440

   journals, 401, 402–403

   Kampala, 402, 403

   Kiganda tales, 27

   literature in English. See anglophone literature

   Lwo poetry, 433, 434

   Makerere Free Travelling Theatre, 44

   Makerere University College, 387, 427, 394–429, 431

   postcolonial, 436

   schools, 389, 391

Ugonna, Nnabuenyi, 39

uKhozi, 13

Umar, King Ali, 332

Umslopogaas, 275

UN agencies, 42

underdevelopment, 439, 661

United States

   abolition of slavery, 269

   and African folktales, 23, 25

   anti-Americanism, 694

   black folktales, 30

   diaspora. See Afro-Americans

   Fugitive Slave Law, 1850, 243

   Harlem. See Harlem Renaissance

   Harvard, 763

   imperialism, 689, 788

   pan-Africanism, 476

   slavery, 241

   trickster tales, 24

universities

   Ahmadu Bello, 42

   Al-Azhar University, 331

   colonial universities, 394

   emergence of African universities, 392

   Ibadan, xii, 36, 44, 394, 484, 492–493

   Lagos, 401

   Makarere University College, 387, 394–395, 427–429, 431

   Obafemi Awolo, 42

   Sankore, 331, 332

University of Ibadan Traveling Theater, 36, 44

Upper Volta. See Burkina Faso

Ureña, Salomé, 687

Urhobo people, 492–493

Utrecht, Treaty of, 238


Vai syllabary, 158

Vail, Leroy, xix, 5, 7, 72, 78, 79, 160, 162

Valdés, Zoé, 699

Valentyn, François, 409

Valéry, Paul, 573

Vambe, Lawrence, 453–454

Vambe, Maurice, 6

Van den Heever, C. M., 410

Van der Merwe, I. W., 416

Van der Post, Laurens, 451, 515

Van-Dunèm, Domingos, 613

Van Heerden, Ernst, 416

Van Heerden, Etienne, 410, 419

Van Linschoten, Jan Huygen, 408

Van Niekerk, Annemarie, 506

Van Niekerk, Marlene, 419

Van Reenen, Willem, 409

Van Rensburg, Christo, 410, 411–412

Van Riebeck, Jan, 410

Van Rooyen, Piet, 410

Van Sertima, Ivan, 716

Van Wyk Smith, Malvern, 506, 507, 510

Vansina, Jan, 2, 3, 129

Varela, Consuelo, 231

Vassa, Gustavus. See Equiano, Olaudah

Vassanji, M. G., 441

Vastey, Baron de, 654

Vaxelaire, Daniel, 578

Vega, Ana Lydia, 701

Veiga, Manuel, 615, 619

Veit-Wild, Flora, 453, 461

Velásquez, Diego, 229

Veloso, Fernão, 262

Venda people, 9–10

Venter, Eben, 410

Venter, F. A., 413

Vera, Yvonne, 465, 838, 840–844

Verger, Pierre, 129

Vergés, Pedro, 697

Verne, Jules, 274

Vesey, Denmark, 241

vhusha, 9

Viatte, Auguste, 644

Vico, Giambattista, 180

Vieira, Arménio, 614–615, 616

Vieira, Luandino, 155

Vieira, Sérgio, 608

Vietnam, language, 158

Vilaire, Etzer, 659

Vilakazi, Absalom, 297

Vilakazi, B. W., 299

village, importance, 190

Villaverde, Cirilo, 678

Virgil, 231, 727

Vitoria, Francisco de, 672

Vladislavi, Ivan, 524

Vorster, John, 414

vowels, 158


Waberi, Abdourahman, 812, 814

Wachill, Hassam, 576

Wacira, Mathenge, 311

Wagner, Jean, 771

Waithira wa Mbuthia, 324

Wako, Fugich, 14

Walcott, Derek

   and Caribbean identity, 790

   The Charlatan, 149

   drama, 739, 740, 742

   exile, 724

   and history, 713

   home, 820

   importance, 727

   influence, 712

   intellectualism, 729

   journals, 403

   metaphors, 716

   Nobel prize, xvi

   and oral tradition, 131

   and pentameter, 729

   privacy, 730

   and race, 713

   revisionism of European classics, 718

Walcott, Roderick, 131, 740, 741

Walker, David, 244–248

Wall, A., 447

Wallerstein, Immanuel, xvii

Walmsley, Anne, 717

Walving, James, 717

Wambu, Onyekachi, 816

Wanjiku Mukabi Kabira, 316

Wanou, Adrien, xix

Warner, Ashton, 245, 248

Warner, Earl, 740

Warner, Keith, 147

Warner-Lewis, Maureen, 119, 721

Warner-Vieyra, Myriam, 652, 658

Washington, Booker T., 298

water carriers, 59

Watson, Stephen, 520

Watt, Ian, 162

Wattar, Tahar, 191

Waugh, Evelyn, 277, 278

Wauthier, Claude, 383

Webber, Sabra, 52, 55, 58, 63

Weeks, John, 126, 130

Welensky, Roy, 452

Werner, Alice, 20

West Africa

   anglophone writing. See anglophone literature

   Christian missions, 478

   epics, 13

   folktales, 22, 23, 24

   francophone. See francophone Africa; francophone literature

   griots, 14, 105, 190, 533–535, 545, 546, 655, 801, 803, 804

   Hausa. See Hausa literature

   Islamic influences, 473

   map, xli

   tricksters, 21

   Yoruba. See Yoruba literature

West Indies. See Caribbeans

Wheatley, Phillis, 229, 242, 530

Whitaker, Thomas, 486

White, Edgar, 741

White, Eduardo, 613

White, Hayden, 81

White, Landeg, xix, 5, 7, 72, 78, 79, 160, 162, 457

Whiteley, Wilfred, 159, 202

Whylie, Marjorie, 119

Wicomb, Zoë, 522

Wikar, Hendrik, 409

Wilberforce, William, 267, 270

Willan, Brian, 387

Williams, Eric, 266, 714, 718, 719

Williams, Francis, 229, 247

Williams, Raymond, 6, 631

Williams, Rev. Joseph, 291, 292

Wilson, Harriet, 242, 243

Wilson, Monica, 294

Wilson, Woodrow, 259, 277

Windrush generation, 816

Winkler, Anthony, 737

Wishaw, Fred, 447

witchcraft, 373, 409, 845

Wittboi, Hendrik, 383

Wittenburg, 233

Wokabi, Victor Murage, 311

Wolff, Christian von, 234

Wolff, Maria, 228, 230, 231, 232

Wolof, 533, 534, 544

women

   Algeria, 190, 191, 562

   Arabic songs, 61

   Basotho, 12

   Caribbean literature, 742–745

   circumcision, 308, 309, 390

   Cuba, 678

   Douala, 6

   Egypt, 189

   francophone Africa, 546

   literary portrayal, 484–485

   marginality, 14

   Moroccan writing, 193, 563

   postcolonial Hausa literature, 348–350

   praise poetry, 75

   South African migrants, 12

   Swahili literature, 203–204

   Trinidad carnival bands, 148

   Tunisia, 193

   Venda, 9–10

   Zimbabwe, 463, 465

Woodard, Helena, xvi

Woodhull, Winifred, 815

Woodson, Carter, 20, 763

Woolf, Virginia, 827

Wordsworth, William, 269

Worku, Daniachew, 173, 433

World Bank, 42

Wren, Robert, 394, 492

Wright, David, 521

writing

   African purpose, 380, 475

   African scripts,

   anticolonial weapon, 383

   and cave paintings, 153–156

   definition, 153

   graphic symbolism, 156–157

   “illiterate writing,” 155

   and power, 719

Wyndham, Francis, 734

Wynter, Sylvia, 720


Xasan, Maxamed Cabdille, 14

Xhosa

   cattle-killing movement, 524

   chiefs, 291

   colonial practices, 512

   language group, 292

   and missionaries, 513–514

   newspapers, 389

   ntsomi, 25

   praise poetry, 4, 72, 95, 291

   printing presses, 389, 398, 513–514

   speakers in South Africa, 412

   writing, 289, 290, 292–294

Xitu, Uanhenga, 611


Yacine, Kateb, 557, 561

Yacou, Alain, 645

Yahaya, Ibrahim Yaro, 351

Yahya, Saad, 213, 217

Yai, Olabiyi, 2, 375, 639

Yali-Manisi, David, 95

Yamba, C. B., 339

Yáñez, Mirta, 698

Yanka, Kwesi, 19, 21, 28, 30, 31, 32

Yeats, W. B., 824

Yesus, Afework Gebra, 170

Yonker, Delores, 120

Yoruba

   àló, 360–361

   apala songs, 119

   Arabic writers, 183

   art forms, 487

   Bible, 480–481

   bridal chants, 364

   Church Missionary Society, 365–366

   culture

      and Christianity, 480

      and writers in English, 477

   and English, 376

   ese Ifa, 359–360, 366, 490

   films, 373–374

   folktales, 22, 25, 27, 130, 360–361

   funerals, 363

   history, 391

   hunters’ chants, 364

   Ifa divination verses, 359–360, 366, 490

   incantations, 362–363

   ìtàn, 361

   juju music, 371

   literary Yoruba, 489

   literature. See Yoruba literature

   masquerade chants, 364

   newspapers, 366–367, 375

   oba, 488

   ofò, 362–363

   ògèdè, 362–363

   and Okigbo, 479

   oral traditions, 357–365

   oriki, 2, 357–359, 361, 366

   orin, 363

   òwe, 361–362

   playwrights, 487

   praise poetry, 2, 357–359

   printing presses, 398

   proverbs, 125, 361–362

   publishing, 375

   riddles, 360–361, 490

   sacred narratives, 129

   Saro group, 365

   songs, 363

   and Soyinka, 45, 486, 490–491

   strength, 490

   survival in Trinidad, 715

   television, 374

   theatrical tradition, 487–489

   traveling theater, 36

   tricksters, 21, 360

   in Trinidad, 721

   and Tutuola, 478

   writing system, 160

Yoruba literature

   drama, 45, 369–370

   fiction, 367–369, 384

   generally, 357–376

   literary criticism, 375–376

   novels, xiii

   Ogun, 490–491

   oral traditions, 357–365

   poetry, 369

   popular forms, 371–376

   popular poetry, 371–372

   popular theater, 372–373

   written literature, 365–370

Yoruba Popular Travelling Theatre, 39, 43, 372

Young, Dr John, 243

Young, Rodolphine, 579

Yugoslavia, guslari, 106


Zabus, Chantal, 482

Zafzaf, Mohamed, 192–193

zajal, 52, 62

Zakaria, Mufdi, 185

Zambezi River, crossing by Ngoni, 92–93

Zambia

   anglophone literature

      drama, 456

      European origins, 445–452

      first black novelists, 454–456

      journals, 455

   collapsing economy, 456

   Ila folktales, 27

   imperial history, 446

   and King Shaka, 85

   Lusaka, 456

   praise poetry, 91

   theater, 39, 42, 44

Zambrana, Antonio, 678

Zamora, Francisco, 594, 595

Zande, folktales, 23

Zango, Tanko, 345

Zanzibar, 207, 208, 218, 219–220

Zaoui, Amin, 191

Zarma, folktales, 24

zawiyyas, 62

Zeno Grandia, Manuel, 685–686

Zephaniah, Benjamin, 818

Zewde, Bahru, 173

Zhuwarara, Rino, 460

Zimbabwe

   censorship, 453

   chimurenga, 6

   and Doris Lessing, 281

   economic recession, 465

   feminism, 465

   Harare International Festival of Arts, 461

   imperial history, 445

   independence, 461–462

   King Lobengula, 71, 79, 92, 453

   King Mzilikazi, 447

   and King Shaka, 85

   Liberation War, 451, 459, 461, 841

   literature in English

      adventure fiction, 446–448

      black women writers, 465

      first black writers, 453–454

      Liberation War theme, 462, 464

      poetry, 451–452

      poetry journals, 452

      racism, 450–451

      second generation black writers, 459–466

      short stories, 464

      white origins, 452

      white women writers, 449–451

   Matabeleland, 462

   Mugabe regime, 462–463

   music, 3, 6

   Ngoni in, 92

   popular songs, 6

   praise poetry, 73, 91

   publishers, 462, 464

   racism, 459

   Rhodesian politics, 453

   and Samora Machel, 110

   Smith regime, 6

   violent politics, 459

   white nationalism, 445–446

   women, 463

   Zimbabwe International Book Fair, 461

Zimunya, Musaemura, 459, 460, 462, 464

Zinyemba, Ranga, 460, 461

Zirimu, Elvania, 428, 438

Zirimu, Pio, 439

Zobel, Joseph, 656

Zola, Emile, 685

Zoubir, Abdelhamid, 563

zouk, 120

Zulus

   Anglo-Zulu war, 275

   authors, 290, 297–300, 384

   cultures, 477

   izibongo, 4, 71, 72, 73, 74, 78–79

   kings, 7, 72, 76, 85, 297–298, 299, 537

   language group, 292

   migrant workers, 298

   Ohlange Institute, 298

   praise poetry, 4, 72, 75, 77, 79, 95

   radio, 13

   and Rider Haggard, 276, 511

   speakers, 412

Zumthor, Paul, xiii

Zungur, Sa’adu, 353–354

Zwangendaba, 92, 93–94

Zwelethini Zulu, King, 85

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