This book was the first handbook where the world's foremost 'experts on expertise' reviewed our scientific knowledge on expertise and expert performance and how experts may differ from non-experts in terms of their development, training, reasoning, knowledge, social support, and innate talent. Methods are described for the study of experts' knowledge and their performance of representative tasks from their domain of expertise. The development of expertise is also studied by retrospective interviews and the daily lives of experts are studied with diaries. In 15 major domains of expertise, the leading researchers summarize our knowledge on the structure and acquisition of expert skill and knowledge and discuss future prospects. General issues that cut across most domains are reviewed in chapters on various aspects of expertise such as general and practical intelligence, differences in brain activity, self-regulated learning, deliberate practice, aging, knowledge management, and creativity.
• The first and only handbook on the study of expertise and expert performance • Features the world's foremost authorities on expertise • Detailed coverage of 15 domains of expertise including music, sports, medicine, and software design
Part I. Introduction and Perspective: 1. An introduction to Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance: its development, organization, and content; 2. Two approaches to the study of experts' characteristics; 3. Expertise, talent, and social encouragement; Part II. Overview of Approaches to the Study of Expertise - Brief Historical Accounts of Theories and Methods: 4. Studies of expertise from psychological perspectives; 5. Overview of approaches to the study of expertise: brief historical accounts of theories and methods; 6. Expert systems: a perspective from computer science; 7. Professionalization, scientific expertise, and elitism - a sociological perspective; Part III. Methods for Studying the Structure of Expertise: 8. Observation of work practices in natural settings; 9. Methods for studying the structure of expertise: psychometric approaches; 10. Methods to assess the representations of experts' and novices' knowledge; 11. Task analysis; 12. Eliciting and representing the knowledge of experts; 13. Protocol analysis and expert thought: concurrent verbalizations of thinking during experts' performance on representative tasks; 14. Simulation for performance and training; Part IV. Methods for Studying the Acquisition and Maintenance of Expertise: 15. Laboratory studies of training, skill acquisition, and retention of performance; 16. Retrospective interviews in the study of expertise and expert performance; 17. Time budgets, diaries and analyses of concurrent practice activities; 18. Historiometric methods; Part V. Domains of Expertise: A. Professional Domains: 19. Expertise in medicine and surgery; 20. Expertise and transportation; 21. Expertise in software design; 22. Professional writing expertise; 23. Professional judgments and 'naturalistic decision making'; 24. Decision making expertise; 25. The making of a dream team: when expert teams do best; B. Arts, Sports and Motor Skills: 26. Music; 27. Expert performance in sport: a cognitive perspective; 28. Artistic performance: acting, ballet, and contemporary dance; 29. Perceptual-motor expertise; C. Games and Other Types of Expertise: 30. Expertise in chess; 31. Exceptional memory; 32. Mathematical expertise; 33. Expertise in history; Part VI. Generalizable Mechanisms Mediating Expertise and General Issues: 34. A merging theory of expertise and intelligence; 35. Tacit knowledge, practical intelligence and expertise; 36. Situational awareness; 37. Brain changes in the development of expertise: neuroanatomical and neurophysiological evidence about skill-based adaptations; 38. The influence of experience and deliberate practice on the development of superior expert performance; 39. Development and Adaptation of expertise: the role of self-regulatory processes and beliefs; 40. Aging and expertise; 41. Social and sociological factors in the development of expertise; 42. Expertise and creativity.
'… the definitive tome in what expertise is, how it develops, and what makes experts somehow different from the rest.' Tauno Kekäle, Journal of Workplace Learning