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Human Evolutionary Biology

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  • 98 b/w illus. 28 tables 200 exercises
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 (ISBN-13: 9780521705103)

Human Evolutionary Biology
Cambridge University Press
9780521879484 - Human Evolutionary Biology - Edited by Michael P. Muehlenbein
Frontmatter/Prelims

Human Evolutionary Biology

Wide-ranging and inclusive, this text provides an invaluable review of an expansive selection of topics in human evolution, variation, and adaptability for professionals and students in biological anthropology, evolutionary biology, medical sciences, and psychology. The chapters are organized around four broad themes, with sections devoted to phenotypic and genetic variation within and between human populations, reproductive physiology and behavior, growth and development, and human health from evolutionary and ecological perspectives. An introductory section provides readers with the historical, theoretical, and methodological foundations needed to understand the more complex ideas presented later. Two hundred discussion questions provide starting points for class debate and assignments to test student understanding.

Michael P. Muehlenbein is an Assistant Professor of anthropology at Indiana University, Bloomington. He holds an MsPH in both tropical medicine and biostatistics from Tulane University, as well as an MPhil and PhD in biological anthropology from Yale University. His research interests are focused most recently on (1) evaluating hormone-mediated immune functions in reference to evolutionary and life history theories, and (2) investigating potential zoonotic and anthropozoonotic pathogen transmission associated with primate-based ecotourism. He has received teaching awards for his graduate and undergraduate courses on human biological variation, behavioral endocrinology, evolutionary medicine, and global health. In addition to running an endocrinology and infectious disease laboratory in Indiana, he presently conducts fieldwork in the United States, Malaysia, Dominica, and the Dominican Republic.


Human Evolutionary Biology

Edited by

Michael P. Muehlenbein

Indiana University, Bloomington


CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
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Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York

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Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521879484

© Cambridge University Press 2010

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2010

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication data

Human evolutionary biology / edited by Michael P. Muehlenbein.
p. cm.
ISBN 978-0-521-87948-4 (hardback) – ISBN 978-0-521-70510-3 (pbk.)
1. Human evolution. 2. Human biology. I. Muehlenbein, Michael P., 1976–
II. Title.
GN281.H8477 2010
599.93′8–dc22
2010016390

ISBN 978-0-521-87948-4 Hardback
ISBN 978-0-521-70510-3 Paperback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.


Contents

List of contributors
vii
Preface
ix
Part I    Theory and Methods
1
1         Evolutionary Theory
Douglas J. Futuyma
3
2         The Study of Human Adaptation
A. Roberto Frisancho
17
3         History of the Study of Human Biology
Michael A. Little
29
4         Genetics in Human Biology
Robert J. Meier and Jennifer A. Raff
48
5         Demography
James Holland Jones
74
6         History, Methods, and General Applications of Anthropometry in Human Biology
Noël Cameron and Laura L. Jones
92
7         Energy Expenditure and Body Composition: History, Methods, and Inter-relationships
Peter S. W. Davies and Alexia J. Murphy
113
8         Evolutionary Endocrinology
Richard G. Bribiescas and Michael P. Muehlenbein
127
9         Ethical Considerations for Human Biology Research
Trudy R. Turner
144
Part II   Phenotypic and Genotypic Variation
155
10        Body Size and Shape: Climatic and Nutritional Influences on Human Body Morphology
William R. Leonard and Peter T. Katzmarzyk
157
11        Human Adaptation to High Altitude
Tom D. Brutsaert
170
12        Skin Coloration
Nina G. Jablonski
192
13        Classic Markers of Human Variation
Robert J. Meier
214
14        DNA Markers of Human Variation
Michael E. Steiper
238
15        Ten Facts about Human Variation
Jonathan Marks
265
16        The Evolution and Endocrinology of Human Behavior: a Focus on Sex Differences and Reproduction
Peter B. Gray
277
Part III  Reproduction
293
17        Human Mate Choice
David P. Schmitt
295
18        Mate Choice, the Major Histocompatibility Complex, and Offspring Viability
Claus Wedekind and Guillaume Evanno
309
19        Why Women Differ in Ovarian Function: Genetic Polymorphism, Developmental Conditions, and Adult Lifestyle
Grazyna Jasienska
322
20        Pregnancy and Lactation
Ivy L. Pike and Lauren A. Milligan
338
21        Male Reproduction: Physiology, Behavior, and Ecology
Michael P. Muehlenbein and Richard G. Bribiescas
351
Part IV   Growth and Development
377
22        Evolution of Human Growth
Barry Bogin
379
23        Variation in Human Growth Patterns due to Environmental Factors
Stanley J. Ulijaszek
396
24        Evolutionary Biology of Hormonal Responses to Social Challenges in the Human Child
Mark V. Flinn
405
25        Human Biology, Energetics, and the Human Brain
Benjamin C. Campbell
425
26        Embodied Capital and Extra-somatic Wealth in Human Evolution and Human History
Jane B. Lancaster and Hillard S. Kaplan
439
Part V    Health and Disease
457
27        Evolutionary Medicine, Immunity, and Infectious Disease
Michael P. Muehlenbein
459
28        Complex Chronic Diseases in Evolutionary Perspective
S. Boyd Eaton
491
29        Evolutionary Medicine and the Causes of Chronic Disease
Paul W. Ewald
502
30        Beyond Feast–Famine: Brain Evolution, Human Life History, and the Metabolic Syndrome
Christopher W. Kuzawa
518
31        Human Longevity and Senescence
Douglas E. Crews and James A. Stewart
528
32        Evolutionary Psychiatry: Mental Disorders and Behavioral Evolution
Brant Wenegrat
551
33        Industrial Pollutants and Human Evolution
Lawrence M. Schell
566
34        Acculturation and Health
Thomas W. McDade and Colleen H. Nyberg
581
Index
603

Contributors

Barry Bogin

Department of Human Sciences
Loughborough University
Loughborough, UK

Richard G. Bribiescas

Department of Anthropology
Yale University,
New Haven, CT, USA

Tom D. Brutsaert

Department of Exercise Science
Syracuse University
Syracuse, NY, USA

Noël Cameron

Department of Human Sciences
Centre for Human Development and Ageing
Loughborough University
Loughborough, UK

Benjamin C. Campbell

Department of Anthropology
University of Wisconsin
Milwaukee, WI, USA

Douglas E. Crews

Department of Anthropology
Ohio State University
Columbus, OH, USA

Peter S. W. Davies

Children's Nutrition Research Centre
Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health
The University of Queensland
Royal Children's Hospital
Herston, Australia

S. Boyd Eaton

Department of Anthropology
Emory University
Atlanta, GA, USA

Guillaume Evanno

Department of Ecology and Evolution
University of Lausanne
Lausanne, Switzerland

Paul W. Ewald

Department of Biology
University of Louisville
Louisville, KY, USA

Mark V. Flinn

Department of Anthropology
University of Missouri
Columbia, MO, USA

A. Roberto Frisancho

Department of Anthropology
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI, USA

Douglas J. Futuyma

Department of Ecology and Evolution
State University of New York, Stony Brook
Stony Brook, NY, USA

Peter B. Gray

Department of Anthropology and Ethnic Studies
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Las Vegas, NV, USA

Nina G. Jablonski

Department of Anthropology
Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA, USA

Grazyna Jasienska

Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies
Institute of Public Health
Jagiellonian University, Collegium Medicum
Krakow, Poland

James Holland Jones

Department of Anthropological Sciences
Stanford University
Stanford, CA, USA

Laura L. Jones

Division of Epidemiology and Public Health
Nottingham City Hospital
Nottingham, UK

Hillard S. Kaplan

Department of Anthropology
University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, NM, USA

Peter T. Katzmarzyk

Pennington Biomedical Research Center
Baton Rouge, LA, USA

Christopher W. Kuzawa

Department of Anthropology
Northwestern University
Evanston, IL, USA

Jane B. Lancaster

Department of Anthropology
University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, NM, USA

William R. Leonard

Department of Anthropology
Northwestern University
Evanston, IL, USA

Michael A. Little

Department of Anthropology
State University of New York, Binghamton
Binghamton, NY, USA

Jonathan Marks

Department of Anthropology
University of North Carolina, Charlotte
Charlotte, NC, USA

Thomas W. McDade

Department of Anthropology
Northwestern University
Evanston, IL, USA

Robert J. Meier

Department of Anthropology
Indiana University
Bloomington, IN, USA

Lauren A. Milligan

Department of Anthropology
University of California, Santa Cruz
Santa Cruz, CA, USA

Michael P. Muehlenbein

Department of Anthropology
Indiana University
Bloomington, IN, USA

Alexia J. Murphy

Children's Nutrition Research Centre
Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health
The University of Queensland
Royal Children's Hospital
Herston, Australia

Colleen H. Nyberg

Department of Anthropology
University of Massachusetts Boston
Boston, MA, USA

Ivy L. Pike

Department of Anthropology
University of Arizona
Tucson, AZ, USA

Jennifer A. Raff

Department of Anthropology
University of Utah
Salt Lake City, UT, USA

Lawrence M. Schell

Department of Anthropology
State University of New York, Albany
Albany, NY, USA

David P. Schmitt

Department of Psychology
Bradley University
Peoria, IL, USA

Michael E. Steiper

Department of Anthropology
Hunter College
New York, NY, USA

James A. Stewart

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences
Columbus State Community College
Columbus, OH, USA

Trudy R. Turner

Department of Anthropology
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Milwaukee, WI, USA

Stanley J. Ulijaszek

Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology
University of Oxford
Oxford, UK

Claus Wedekind

Department of Ecology and Evolution
University of Lausanne
Lausanne, Switzerland

Brant Wenegrat

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Stanford University
Palo Alto, CA, USA


Preface

In review of a different text, Moses Hadas (1900–1966) remarked that “this book fills a much-needed gap.” Unlike the text he was referring to, the topic of human evolutionary biology deserves no such gap in our understanding. To identify one's place in nature and to appreciate how human evolution has been guided by the same evolutionary principles that guide other organisms is humbling and necessary. We are products of evolution, and this is reflected throughout our biology and behaviors.

The purpose of our text is to provide thorough and modern reviews of a wide range of pertinent aspects of human evolutionary biology and contemporary human biological variation. The history of research on human biological variation is a long one, and includes studies on general human adaptability, variations in growth patterns, body sizes and shapes, genetic diversity, and race concepts. More recently, the study of human biology has included analyses of reproductive physiology and behavior within evolutionary and ecological frameworks. Other advancements include the science of evolutionary medicine, in which evolutionary research on health and disease is used to elucidate medical research and practices.

The text before you is different from most others. Unlike traditional texts on evolutionary biology, our book focuses specifically on humans and the application of evolutionary theories on understanding modern human variation and adaptability. Unlike traditional texts on human biology, our book does not include detailed descriptions of all human physiological and anatomical systems. You will also not find detailed accounts of the history of human evolution, where we came from and how we are related to other species. What you will find are historical perspectives on the study of human evolutionary biology, detailed reviews of modern methods for studying human evolutionary biology, descriptions of fundamental research on genotypic and phenotypic variation within and between contemporary human populations, comprehensive discussions on human reproductive physiology and behavior as well as evolutionary medicine.

It is not possible to produce one single inclusive text on such a diverse topic. Supplemental materials to our book would include, among others, detailed reviews of basic evolutionary biology, molecular biology, biological anthropology, behavioral ecology, and statistics. We have, however, tried to produce a text readable to a wide audience and organized in an intuitive fashion. Part I of the book begins where it should, with basic and detailed reviews of theory, history, and methods in human evolutionary biology. This includes introductions to evolutionary theory, human adaptability, genetics, demography, evolutionary endocrinology, anthropometry, and nutrition/energetics, as well as the history of the study of human biology. We even introduce readers to some of the ethical considerations for human biology research. Clearly the purpose of Part I is to provide readers with a basic foundation in theory and methodology that can be used as a basis for understanding some of the more complex problems presented by authors throughout the remainder of the volume.

Part II of the book focuses on phenotypic and genotypic variation. This has been the bread and butter of research on contemporary human biological variation. Body size and shape, skin color, and adaptations to high altitude are all revisited. Chapters 13 and 14 provide detailed accounts of classic (e.g., serological, etc.) and DNA markers of human variation, and Chapter 15 importantly addresses the “race concept,” a long-held discussion in physical and cultural anthropology. A chapter on human behavioral endocrinology logically bridges our section on phenotypic/genotypic variation with the following Part III: reproduction. This section begins with more discussion on human behaviors, specifically mate choice. Female reproductive ecology/physiology is addressed in Chapters 19 and 20, and male reproductive ecology/physiology in Chapter 21. Unfortunately, we were unable to provide at this time a chapter on female reproductive senescence (i.e., menopause).

As Part IV focuses on growth and development, it contains discussions on the evolution of, and variation in, rates and patterns of somatic growth. This includes classic and modern ideas on the sensitivity of human development to environmental factors like nutrition, disease, and even social challenges. Chapter 26 shows us how human life histories, cognition, and body/brain development are intimately intertwined. Its discussion on human longevity also serves as a logical transition to our final section of the book. Part V focuses on various aspects of human health from evolutionary and ecological perspectives. This includes basic discussions of immunity and infectious diseases, the evolution of chronic diseases (including the metabolic syndrome and mental disorders), the infectious causes of some chronic diseases, and human senescence. We conclude the section and book with discussions on some of the cultural determinants of health that have and will continue to be influential on human evolution.

We have intended this text to be used as a general reference for professional scholars as well as graduate/postgraduate students and advanced undergraduates in evolutionary biology, biological anthropology, and other academic programs. The ultimate goal is to forward research on human evolutionary biology by identifying gaps in our understandings of this inclusive discipline. Admittedly, it may be difficult to cover all chapters of this book in a single semester in a classroom setting. In this case, instructors may choose to focus only on certain sections. Alternatively, instructors may choose to have different students present the contents of different chapters to their classmates. It is never too early to learn how to give an effective presentation. Readers are also encouraged to utilize the questions listed at the end of each chapter to facilitate discussion. Identifying and stimulating future directions of research should be the primary goal.

Lastly, credit must be given where credit is due. Acknowledgments belong to Dr. Dominic Lewis and others at Cambridge University Press for being brave enough to tackle this project. The friends, families, and colleagues who assisted each contributing author are too numerous to list, but all deserve recognition. We do not do this by ourselves or for ourselves.

Michael P. MuehlenbeinIndiana University

“. . . And we must acknowledge, as it seems to me, that man with all his noble qualities, with sympathy which feels for the most debased, with benevolence which extends not only to other men but to the humblest living creature, with his god-like intellect which has penetrated into the movements and constitution of the solar system – with all these exalted powers – Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin.”

Charles Darwin (1809–1882), The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871)




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