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An Introduction to Word Grammar

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  • 106 b/w illus. 12 tables
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 (ISBN-13: 9780521721646)

An Introduction to Word Grammar
Cambridge University Press
9780521896900 - An Introduction to Word Grammar - By Richard Hudson
Index

Index

Aarts, B. 305

Abbott, B. 218

accessibility 70, 194

activation 54

background 84

and brain 195

converging 75

direction 201

and experience 72

and meaning 232

and node building 88

and retrieval 194

spreading 74

See also spreading activation

activation level 72

resting and current 73

active 314

addressee 115, 165, 166, 238

adjective 117, 251

membership test 266

adjunct 152

and valent 282

adverb 117, 251

membership test 266

ad-word 254

agreement 46, 163

in English 296

Allan, K. 116, 221

Allerton, D. 154

alphabet 104

Altmann, G. 107

ambiguity

in syntax 217

removal 35

analysis

benefits of syntactic analysis 285

grammatical 255

anaphora 219

identity-of-sense and identity-of-reference 225

antecedent

of pronoun 218

anthropology 243

anticipation 92, 98

and parsing 216

Anward, J. 117

apposition 191

and meaning 230

Arabic 299

architecture

of language 142

argument 39, 48

as primitive 42

article 117

as word-class 251

artificial intelligence 7, 28, 39, 40, 44, 89, 105

association 38, 145, 223

astronomy 105

attention 65, 76, 81

autonomy

of syntax 190

auxiliary verb 120, 262

and inversion 308

and meaning 230

Ayto, J. 234

Babylon 103, 105

background 52

Balota, D. 201

Barsalou, L. 11, 115

base

See stem

Basque 125

Bauer, L. 141

being 233

Best Fit Principle 94, 213

in parsing 217

best fit search 94

best global candidate 79

Best Landmark Principle 53, 190

in syntax 171

Biber, D. 249, 304

bilingualism 137

binding 91

and ellipsis 219

in linguistics, logic, psychology 97

See binding problem

by merger 96

and parsing 216

of pronoun antecedents 218

and word recognition 213

binding problem 86

Blevins, J. 315

blocking 211

Bloomfield, L. 148

Bock, K. 198, 201

Bouma, G. 29

brain 36

language centres 64

and mind 65, 71, 80

brain scan 36

Broca’s area 64, 65

Brown, K. 50

Butler, C. 188

Cain, K. 201

Carter, R. 249

case 124, 158, 162

case agreement

and unrealized lexemes 167

categories

and learning 84

linguistic 104

categorization 9, 74, 80, 91, 113, 128

category 11, 110, 111

classical theory 25

and exemplar 83

as prototype 26, 27

and sense 224

target 93

Chinese 132, 256

choice 44

See choice set

choice set 23, 46, 55, 62, 126, 165

and word order 184

Chomsky, N. 33, 64, 107, 138, 148, 166

chunk 56, 175

classification

and recognition 213

of words 255

See categorization

clause 305

cleft sentence 231, 312

cliché 176

clitic 290

cognate 116

cognition 7

and language 48

Cognitive grammar 108

cognitive linguistics 1, 67, 108

cognitive network

and mind/brain 72

cognitive science 7

Coleman, J. 143

Collinge, N. 256

common noun

membership test 264

communication 188, 201, 222

comparative

as lexical relation 259

competence 107

competition 61

complement 145, 159

and adjunct 291

and subject 282

computational theory of mind 72

concept 9, 58

for co-occurring properties 26, 27

entity 40

multi-modal and digital 35

and neurons 72

relational 40

concept formation 26

Conceptual Graph 40

conceptual structure 10, 44

and language 109

conflict resolution

in multiple inheritance 23

conformity 30, 277, 315

conjugation 125

conjunction 117, 251, 306

coordinating conjunction membership test 268

connectionism 59

consistently mixed order 172

constituent 148

constituent structure grammar 148

constraint-based parsing 217

Construction grammar 108

context 79, 89

convergence 184

coordinating conjunction 178

See conjunction

coordination

and dependency 176

and subordination 176, 305

coreference 228, 229

and binding 230

Cornish, F. 218

correlative conjunction 307

cortex

motor 36

Cowie, A. 176

Creider, C. 132, 167

cross-classification 47, 50, 163

Crysmann, B. 307

culture 27, 241

and language 240

Dabrowska, E. 211

Davies, W. 161

De Houwer, A. 137

declension 125

default 165

default inheritance 28, 107, 142

and language 209

definite pronoun 218

and identity-of-sense anaphora 225

definition 25, 114, 127

non-existence 221

and semantic analysis 236

deixis 237

dependency 268

and English grammar 279

long-distance

See long-distance dependency

mutual

See mutual dependency

non-landmark

See non-landmark dependency

syntactic 146

tests 283

and word order 169, 170

dependency distance 151, 182, 187, 302, 311, 313

and extraction 187

in parsing 218

and word order 281

dependency grammar 146

dependency-sharing

in coordination 305

dependency structure

evidence 151

dependent 145, 146

dependent-valency 158

in English 286

description

in grammar 250

determiner 163, 252

and change of shape 289

and meaning 230

as pronoun 253

determiner as head 289

determiner as parent

See determiner as head

dictionary 25, 34, 116, 120, 123

difference

individual 130

displacement 313

distance

dependency

See dependency distance

distributed interpretation 235

ditransitive verb 293

dot

as notation

See notation: dot

dreaming 77

Dubinsky, S. 161

dummy auxiliary 308

education

and attention to syntax 210

and English grammar 249

efficiency 129

E-language 33

ellipsis 156

and binding 219

and identity-of-sense anaphora 226

in coordination 307

in English 299

emotion 36

and accessibility 70

in language 138

and words 115

empty category 166

empty node 213, 218

encyclopaedia 25

encyclopaedia of English grammar and Word Grammar 3

Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics 3

end-weight 303

English 120, 123, 182, 243, 249

and I- or E-language 277

Standard 104

word order 172

as world language 277

enrich 91

entity

or entity concept 40

See concept: entity

environmental contamination 199

episodic memory 56

E-society 33

etymology 115, 196, 201

folk

See folk etymology

and lexical morphology 271

Evans, N. 239

event 11, 56

exception 25, 127, 142, 156

in word order 172

See under inheritance: default

exceptions 132

executive system 77

exemplar 11, 56, 61, 73, 111

and categorization 74

of an individual 31

as new category 82

and node building 80

exemplar node 81

exemplars 19

exophora 219

experience curve

See learning curve

experiment 202

for priming 75

psychological 193, 211

explanation

functional 157, 182

extractee 183, 309

extraction 183, 308

extraction island 186

extraposee 314

extraposition 312

Falk, Y. 185, 186

feature 45

and comparison 163

in English 297

and taxonomy 164

See morpho-syntactic feature

features

and taxonomies 46

feed-back 143

and language variation 277

figure 52

finite verb 156

finiteness

finite and non-finite verbs 257

firing 74

flexibility 315

folk etymology 141

forgetting 81

forgetting curve 71

form 115, 133

as a level 140

formality

in English 278

formulaic word string 176

frame

in membership test 264

Frankish 28

free relative 312

French 125, 157, 163, 166, 272

frequency

and recall 193

of words 115

frequency effect 70

functional explanation 187, 302, 310, 314

and syntax 188

gapping 307

gender 162

generalization, 16, 128

and concept 146

and levels 143

and word-class 251

genetics

See nativism

German 157, 162, 164, 182

gerund 258, 286

gesture 192

Gleitman, H. and L. 211

global search 94

goal 78

Goddard, C. 237

Goldberg, A. 108

Gragg, G. 103

grammar 120

history 103

as a level 139

rule or tool 315

traditional 117, 129, 146, 262

grammatical word

and lexical word 230

grammaticality 120, 155

and nonsense 191

graph theory 66

Greece 128

Greek 104, 163, 167, 249, 251, 272

Greeks 103, 117

Green, K. 237

greeting 243, 278

ground 52

Hanks, P. 249

Harley, T. 71, 194, 199

Hassler, G. 220

head 150

Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar 107

head-final order 172

head-initial order 172

head-medial order 172, 280

head-word 34

hearing

and word order 171

Heath, J. 243

heavy dependent 313

Hebbian learning 86

Herbst, T. 286

hierarchy

of levels 139

homonymy 126

hopping 185

Huang, Y. 225

hub 66

Huddleston, R. 249, 267, 273, 292

Huddleston R. and Pullum, G. 296, 299

Hudson, R. 30, 33, 36, 106, 108, 132, 135, 138, 140, 150, 167, 168, 172, 173, 186, 191, 208, 226, 235, 241, 243, 244, 249, 250, 253, 254, 259, 269, 277, 289, 307

humour 218

Iacobini, C. 132

identity 97

identity-of-reference anaphora 225

identity-of-sense anaphora 226

idiom 228, 234

I-language 33, 107, 138

illocutionary force 157, 286

imperative 165

and unrealized subject 297

Indian linguistics 117

Indians 128

Indo-European language family 256

induction 84, 206

inertia 315

inference

See inheritance

inflection 122

and English 256

membership tests 269

and morphology 134

and paradigm 163

and sense and referent 226

in valency 158, 159

inflectional category

See inflection

inflectional morphology

and lexical morphology 226

information

and mind 72

informationally encapsulated 64

inheritance 10, 16, 80

and adjunct/valent 152

default inheritance and connectionism 59

and exemplars 29

how it works 61, 90

and language 209

multiple 122

See multiple inheritance

multiple default 51

normal

See default inheritance

only for exemplars 19

searching and copying 90

selective 89, 210

or storage 18

and valency 159

from word-classes 129

interest 78, 210

interpersonal relation

See social–interaction

intimacy

See solidarity

intimate relation 51, 243

intonation 142

inversion

and auxiliary verbs 262

of subject and auxiliary

See subject–auxiliary inversion

irregularity 133

in morphology 132

isA 12, 59

between referent and sense 225

for classifying exemplars 81

in ellipsis 300

used instead of labels 41

island

See extraction island

I-society 33, 47, 50, 137, 241, 244

Italian 152, 182, 299

Jacobson, P. 148

Japanese 299

joint interpretation 235

Joseph, J. 244

Juhasz, B. 201

Julien, M. 122

Jun, J. 109

kinship 241

knowledge 10

declarative or procedural 12

of language

declarative or procedural 110

as long-term memory 73

as network 39, 67

See memory: long-term

Koskela, A. 126

Kruijff, G.-J. 146

Kuiper, K. 176

label 58

Lamb, S. 59

landmark 53, 59, 302, 311

in coordination 177

and parent 169

Langacker, R. 140

language 28, 30

of a community 107

and conceptual structure 109

and emotion 36

lack of boundaries 64

as ordinary cognition 8

and percepts 36

as procedural knowledge 12

and social interaction 50

of a word 115

language instinct 1

Language Networks: the new Word Grammar 3

Lasnik, H. 140

Latin 104, 117, 124, 158, 163, 216, 249, 252, 262, 272

Latinate grammar 250

layering

in coordination 180

learning 129

and exemplars 82

of generalizations 205

of syntax 207

of taxonomies 84

of words 204

See induction

learning curve 71

letter 115

levels of analysis 139, 222

Levinson, S. 239

lexeme 122, 135

and membership tests 261

recognizing 131

unrealizable or unrealized 166

unrealized

See unrealized lexeme

in valency 158

and word string 176

lexical category

See word-class

lexical decision 194

lexical diversity 111

Lexical Functional Grammar 107

lexical identity 113

lexical morphology 135

in English 271

lexical relation

and sense 227

See relation: lexical

Lieven, E. 206

linguistics 7, 8, 39, 40, 44, 103

cognitive

See cognitive linguistics

description not prescription 103

and detail 104, 106, 114

and modularity 67

structural or structuralist 107

linguists 211

listening 79, 200

logic 28

cold or warm 210

and inheritance 20

long-distance dependency 184, 309

longest word 275

McCarthy, M. 249

MacLeod, C. 214

McNeill, D. 192

main verb 262

Malapropism 199

Malouf, R. 259

markedness 124, 165

Marslen-Wilson, W. 141

Martin, R. 220

mass noun 252, 263

mathematics 39, 105

Matthews, P. 149

Mattys, S. 201

maturity

in grammar 269

meaning 11, 109, 114, 140, 147, 220

and association 223

described by properties 222

and learning 207

as a level 139

and motor skill 36

as relation, not entity 221

of sentence

See sentence meaning

social and referential

See social meaning

and syntax 227

and valency 158

member definition 57

membership test 130, 260

memory

associative 38

and experience 70

long-term 76

long-term and short-term 73

selective 83

semantic or episodic 11

short-term and working 73

and word string 176

working 74, 151

working and activation 76

working and syntax 188

memory load 151

mental capacity

limited 315

Mesthrie, R. 241

metalanguage 104, 221

metaphor 139

methods 105

mind

and brain 65

coordinated by meaning 223

minimalism 107

Modern Greek 299

modification

of meaning by dependent 228

modifier 145

modularity 63, 98, 108

and syntax 189

monotonic logic 28, 29

mood 125

in meaning 235

See illocutionary force

morph 132

and cognition 141

and meaning 274

morphology 113, 132, 276

inflectional and lexical 276

as a level 143

lexical

See lexical morphology

and morpho-syntax 163

morpho-syntactic feature 47, 163

morpho-syntax 163

motor skill 36, 142

and procedural knowledge 12

multiple inheritance 22, 159

and gerunds 259

and language 210

multi-word sequence

and learning 204

Murphy, L. 126

mutual dependency 187, 291, 310

name 243

and referent 224

naming

in experiments 214

nativism 64

and syntax 189

Natural Semantic Metalanguage 237

nearness 53

Necker cube 35

negation

and auxiliary verbs 262

network 59

and activation 195

conceptual 66

and inheritance 59

in social relations 243

in syntax 154

network notion 57

and working memory 74

networks

of brain and mind 71

neuroscience 7, 105

next 57, 175

Nippold, M. 207

Nixon diamond 23, 32, 123

node

empty 93

node-building 80, 93, 203

and activation 88

in inheritance 87

node-creation 74

See node-building

non-constituent coordination 179

non-landmark dependency 173

non-monotonic logic 29

non-word

and syntax 191

notation

abbreviated name for pre- or post-adjunct 282

abbreviated names for inflections 256

activation 75, 195

for activation 75

binding in syntax 216

choice sets 45

coordination 177

dot 43

empty node 93

identity 97

isA 13

landmark 170

language

writing 104

lexemes 122

links 38

non-landmark dependencies 170

optionality in examples 287

or 46

phrase structure 149

relation 39, 41, 42

set in coordination 177

super-isA 93

ungrammaticality 120

value 39

vertical arrow 156

noun 117, 251

common, proper and pronoun 254

and valency 288

noun phrase 149

null-subject language 299

number 124, 162

Oakhill, J. 201

object 125, 145, 146

direct and indirect 292

order of direct and indirect 304

Old English 256, 272

Optimality Theory 107

or 45, 55

ordering

serial 56

other 51

overriding 28, 29, 126, 182

paradigm 163

parallel distributed processing 72

parent 147

potential 169

in valency

See parent-valency

parent-sense 229, 234

parent-valency 155, 157, 285

parsing 216

part 57

part of speech

See word-class

participle

present and passive 258

particle

as type of complement 294

part–whole

as relation 151

passive verb 134, 295, 314

pattern matching 94

Payne, J. 289

Pensalfini, R. 172

percept 34, 52, 142

and exemplar node 80

Percival, K. 148

perfect 134

and past participle 258

performance 107

person

in grammar 105, 125

philosophy 7, 8, 105

Phoenicians 104

phonology

and generalization 143

phrasal verb 294

phrase 148

continuity 170

as informal term 149

and word string 179

phrase structure 147

in semantics, not syntax 235

and word order 170

phrase structure grammar 148

phrasing

semantic

See semantic phrasing

Pinker, S. 1, 64, 66, 200, 207, 211, 223

place 238

planning 82, 92

plural 122

joint or distributed 235

and semantics 226

pluralia tantum 299

plural-number 165

poetry 201

politeness 243

polysemy 126

possessive pronoun 291

possessive’s 290

post-adjunct

and pre-adjunct 309

post-dependent 183, 250, 281, 302

and pre-dependents 282

power 50

in language 243

pragmatics

and activation 232

in parsing 217

pre-adjunct

and post-adjunct 309

pre-dependent 183, 250, 281, 302

and post-dependent 282

predicate

and subject 293

predicate calculus 21

predicative 228, 233, 293

and meaning 232

of preposition 287

prefix 133

prejudices 32

preposition 117, 251

and meaning 230

membership test 267

and valency 287

prescription

in grammar 250, 315

priming 75, 141, 201

PRO 166

problem solving 92, 98

prominence 53

pronoun 117, 251

and membership test 265

as noun 254

polite 166

pronunciation 138

proper noun

membership test 264

property 9, 16, 34, 57, 58

and activation 195

conceptual 38

and feature 164

linguistic and non-linguistic 137

not static 206

semantic 236

simple and complex 59

of subcategory and supercategory of words 114

prototype 26, 127

prototype effect 27, 90

psycholinguistics 107

psychology 7, 39, 44, 89

Pullum G. 249, 267, 273, 292

punctuation 113, 142

Pustejovsky, J. 237

quantifier 235

quantity

as primitive 43

in valency 158

Quirk, R. 249

raising 161

and lowering 173

Raising Principle 185

Rayner, K. 201

reading 194, 201

realization 114, 132, 140

and unrealized words 168

recognizing 91

words 213

recursion 44, 90

and extraction 185

in morphology 275

and predicatives 294

in syntax and cognition 161

and triangles 174

recycling 226

in kinship 241

in semantics 236

Recycling Principle 61, 83

and semantic roles 237

redundancy 130

and inheritance 19

referent 224

and deixis 238

and token 224

referential meaning 224

referring

and referent 224

register 278

rehearsing 81

Reinhart, T. 235

Reisberg, D. 18

relation 38

conceptual 68

interpersonal 52

isA 40

lexical

See relation: lexical

primitive 40, 42

See identity, super-isA,

social 41

social and syntactic 154

syntactic 145

See concept: relational

relational concept

and activation 196

relations

among relations 48

free

See free relative

interpersonal 50

relative clauses 311

relevance 89

remembering 91, 98

respect

See power

response time 8, 18, 27

retrieval 194

and activation 74, 77

slow 84

Roelofs, A. 65

role 32

root 133

root word 235

and meaning 228

Rudman, J. 111

rule

word order 172

Russian 299

scale-free 66

schema

See category

school, 2

grammar 104

Schütze 106

script 56

searcher 29

selection

lexical 150

self 30

semantic analysis

and definition 236

semantic phrasing 235

with multiple dependents 235

semantic role 237

in valency 158

semantics 218

as level 222

sense 224

and lexeme 224

and referent

See meaning: and syntax

sensory system 64

sentence 305

as complete 156

definition 286

and finite verb 258

in phrase structure 149

sentence meaning 235

sentence-root

in English 286

and finiteness 257

set 45, 57

and plural 226

See choice set

set size 57

Siewierska, A. 172

Siloni, T. 235

singular 123

singular-number 165

Slobin, D. 239

Smith, N. 64

social concepts 30

richness 31

social facts

about words 137

social identity

and language 244

social interaction 137, 243

social meaning 241

and English words 276

social relation 167

and language 115

sociolinguistics 30, 36, 138, 241

quantitative 244

solidarity 50

in language 243

Sornicola, R. 308

sound 115

space 52

Spanish 152, 182, 299

speaker 115, 166, 238

in Word Grammar 243

speaker type 115

speaking 37, 79, 198

and word order 171

speech 169

speech error 141, 199

spelling 210

Spoonerism 199

spreading activation 94, 95, 107

See activation: spreading

Standard English

and adverbs 286

state 234

stem 122, 132

Stemberger, J. P. 141

stereotype 32

strength

as activation 72

of memory 71

stroke 64

Stroop effect 214

style level 115

subclass 13

subclassification 126

subject 125, 145, 146, 165

and complement 282

English and other languages 152

and inversion 262

and predicative 293

in interrogative 183

subject–auxiliary inversion 308

sublexeme 126

in idioms 234

and learning 204

subordinate clause 267, 310

subordinating conjunction

as preposition 267

subordination 150

and coordination 176, 305

See dependency

suffix 133

Sullivan, A. 224

superclass 13, 14, 225

in inflections 257

superior 51

super-isA 93, 156

swooping 186

syllogism 20

synonym

and valency 286

syntax 132, 145

and generalization 143

and morpho-syntax 163

and non-language 190

and working memory 76

tangling 171

taxonomies

only for concepts 35

taxonomy 12

of dependents 152

and feature 46, 164

of forms 133

of inflections 257

in language 206

and multiple inheritance 22

and other properties 38

relation 40

of semantic roles 237

of word-classes 254

of words 117

Taylor, J. 240

tense 125, 162

and deixis 238

as membership test 261

and semantics 226

terminology

linguistic 104

Thai 256

Theakston, A. 111

theme

See stem

thinking

in taxonomies 13

thinking for speaking 239, 241

thought

and language 223

and meaning 239

threshold 74

time 52

of a word 115

token 203

and deixis 237

as exemplar 111

and meaning 228

and speaker 243

topic 308

topicalization 308

Touretzky, D. 23

traditional grammar

and finite verbs 258

transitivity 292

translation 116, 202

‘travelling salesman problem’ 95

tree 149

triangle 60, 287

in dependency grammar 162

and extraction 185

and meaning 232

and predicative 294

in syntax 159

of relations 44

and word order 170, 173

Turkish 132

type

as category 111

type–token ratio 111

unary branching 149

unbounded dependency

See long-distance dependency

understood element 165

Universal Grammar 189

unmarked

See markedness

unrealized lexeme 166

in English 297

valency 115, 153

dependent

See dependent-valency

in determiners 253

in English 285

of prepositions 267

valent 152, 153

and adjunct 282

value 39

and feature 163

as primitive 42

van Gompel, R. 201, 217

Van Valin, R. 280

variant 122, 132, 133, 134

variation

between languages 280

in language learning 207

social 277

verb 117, 119, 251

auxiliary and main

See auxiliary verb

and membership tests 261

verb inflection in English 256

verb phrase 149

verb valency 292

Vietnamese 256

vocabulary 111

and borrowing 272

Volpe, M. 140

Walmsley, J. 249

website 2, 3

weight 72

in syntax 303

well-formedness 155

Wernicke’s area 64, 65

wh-movement 183

wh-pronoun 309

Wikipedia 3

Williams Syndrome 64

word

and generalization 143

and morphology/syntax 132

not defined 114

and phrase 175

word-class 115, 117

and generalizing 128

and non-linguistic categories 190

and sense and referent 225

in valency 158

word-form 133

word-formation rule 273

Word Grammar 3, 19, 67, 108

and English grammar 250

and morphology 132

name 155

and other theories 164

and semantics 236

and sociolinguistics 241

and unrealized lexemes 166

and words 113, 143

word order 55

default 169

in English 280, 301

free or fixed 172

head-final, -initial or -medial 172

non-default 182

in valency 158

word string 175

working memory

See memory: working

Wray, A. 176

writing 37, 112, 138, 169, 201

as a level 139

as notation 104

Wundt, W. 105

Yap, M. 201




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