Cambridge Catalogue  
  • Help
Home > Catalogue > Arabic Literature in the Post-Classical Period
Arabic Literature in the Post-Classical Period
Google Book Search

Search this book

Details

  • Page extent: 492 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.88 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 892.7/09
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: PJ7558 .A73 2006
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Arabic literature--1258-1800--History and criticism

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521771603 | ISBN-10: 0521771609)




Index




Abaqa (Ilkhanid ruler), 152

al-῾Abbāsī, ῾Abd al-Raḥīm, 412

Abbott, Nabia, 270, 271

῾ Abd Allāh ibn Abī ᾽ l-Faraj ibn Mūsā al-Qibṭī, 211

῾ Abd al-῾ Azīz al-Anṣārī, 74–5

῾ Abd al-Bāqī al-῾ Umarī, 235

῾ Abd al-Ghaffār al-Akhras, 90, 235

῾ Abd al-Ghanī Jamīl, 237

῾ Abd al-Ḥamīd al-Kātib, 103–4, 139

῾ Abd al-Majīd, Sultan, 383

῾ Abd al-Qādir, 242

῾ Abd al-Raḥīm al-῾ Abbāsī, 412

῾ Abd al-Raḥīm al-Baysānī, see al-Qāḍī ᾽ l-Fāḍil

῾ Abd al-Raḥīm al-Bura ῾ ī, 333–4

῾ Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Ibrāhīm al-῾ Alawī, 216

῾ Abd al-Raḥmān ibn al-Shākir (al-Bahlūl), 69

῾ Abd al-Raḥmān al-Ānisī, 216

῾ Abd al-Raḥmān al-Fāsī, 70

῾ Abd al-Raḥmān Katkhudā, 237

῾ Abd al-Ra᾽ ūf ibn al-Ḥusayn al-Jadhafsī, 90

῾ Abd al-Ṭāhir family, 109–10, 111

῾ Abd al-Wahhāb, son of Dhāt al-Himma, 292

῾ Abd al-Wahhāb al-Sha῾ rānī, 181

῾ Abd al-Waḥīd al-Marrākushī, 192

῾ Abdallāh ibn Ja῾ far, 305–6

al-Abī, 352

Abraham, prophet, 330, 337

Abraham ibn Hasday of Barcelona, 256

Abū᾽ l-῾ Atāhiya, 31n11, 334

Abū Bakr, caliph, 338

Abū Bakr ibn ῾ Abd Allāh al-Mazzāḥ, 216

Abū᾽ l-Faḍl ibn al-῾ Amīd, 10

Abū᾽ l-Fidā, al-Malik al-Mu᾽ ayyad ῾ Imād al-Dīn, 55, 124, 160, 163, 164, 203

Abū Firās al-Ḥamdānī, 31n11

Abū Ḥāmid al-Gharnāṭī, 263

Abū Ḥamzih al-῾ Amrī, 215

Abū Ḥayyān, 75–6

Abū᾽ l-Ḥusayn al-Jazzār, Jamāl al-Dīn, 34–5, 223–5

Abū Isḥāq al-Ṣābī, 106

Abū᾽ l-Maḥāsin ibn Taghrībirdī, see Ibn Taghrībirdī, Abū᾽ l-Maḥāsin

Abū Manṣūr ibn Nuqṭa al-Muzaklish, 212

Abū Naḍḍāra Zārqā ᾽ (newspaper), 242

Abū Nuwās, 199, 201, 225, 271, 390–1

Abū Sādāt Muḥammad, Sultan, 364

Abū Sa ῾ īd, miracles of, 146

Abū Shāma, Shihāb al-Dīn Abū᾽ l-Qāsim, 123, 161

Abū Sinn, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, 216

Abū Ṭabikh, 90

Abū Tammām, 33, 389, 409

   language and imagery, 10–11, 31n11, 32, 37

   naqd works on, 388–9, 390, 391, 392

Abū Yaḥyā al-Zajjālī, 262–3

Abū Zaydiyya (reciters), 367

adab, 18, 389, 390, 394–401

   Ibn al-Athīr, 394–7

   (other critics’ responses), 397–8

   later, 398–401

   popular elements in, 18, 247

   see also under historiography

al-῾ Adawī, Shaykh Muḥammad, 118

῾ Aḍīd al-Dawla, 234

Adunīs (῾ Alī Aḥmad Sa ῾ īd), 38

Afrāsiyab, governor of Basra, 234

age, bewailing of old, 39, 48, 56

aḥādīth (anecdotes), 250

ahl al-khaṭwa (saints capable of miraculous transportation), 343

Aḥmad ibn Burd al-Aṣghar, 113

Aḥmad ibn Mājid, 132

Aḥmad al-Danif, sīra cycle of, 323–4, 326

al-Ahwāzī, Aḥmad ibn al-Faḍl, 104

῾ Ā ᾽ isha al-Bā ῾ ūniyya, 85–6

῾ ajā ῾ ib literature, see mirabilia

al-Akhṭal, 33

Aladdin, tale of, 278, 282, 286–7

alchemy, 162

Aleppo, 10, 179, 231

Alexander the Great: in Koran, 249

   popular tales of, 249, 254, 258, 264, 320–1, 323, 324

   and story-tellers, 250

Alexandria, 165, 381

Alf layla wa-layla, see Thousand and One Nights

al-Alfānī, 104

Algeria: Banī Hilāl and, 307

   drama, 376–7, 379, 381

   (effect of French occupation), 372–3, 381, 382

   (modern), 381–2

   Jews, 381–2

   oral recitations, 336

   political popular poetry, 242

῾ Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib, 258, 320, 323, 332, 338

῾ Alī ibn Khalaf, 109

Ali Baba, tale of, 278, 282

῾ Alī Bey Bulut Kapan, 175

῾ Alī Zaybaq or Zībaq, tales of, 261, 323–4, 326

aljamiado texts, 258

Almohads (al-Muwaḥḥidūn ), and Banī Hilāl, 307

alternatives, principle of, 73

῾ Alwān, ῾ Alī ῾ Abbās, 91

al-A῾ ma al-Tuṭīlī, 196

ambiguity, see tawriya

al-῾ Āmidī, Abū ᾽ l-Qāsim, 388–9

al-῾ Āmilī (author of band ), 90

al-῾ Amilī, Bahā ᾽ al-Dīn, 83

Amīn, Aḥmad, 2, 11

al-Amīr al-Ṣan῾ ānī, 71

al-῾ Āmirī, Abū ᾽ l-Ḥasan Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf, 10

῾ āmma (common people): direct contact with ῾ ulamā ᾽, 236–7

   poetry by, 192

῾ Amr ibn Kulthūm, 304

al-Amshāṭī, Shihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn ῾ Uthmān, 217

῾ Anātira (story-tellers), 301–2

al-Anbūṭī, al-Shaykh ῾ Āmir, 236

Andalusia: aljamiado texts, 258

   critics, 28–9

   Ibn Zaydūn’s influence, 29

   Jews, 200

   popular poetry, 192, 195–9

   (muwashshaḥ ), 87, 195–6, 201, 202

   (zajal ), 87, 197–8

   religious verse, 74

   Romance language, 195–6, 202

   shadow plays, 357

al-Andalūsī, Muḥammad, 399

anecdotes, 250, 353

animals: fables of, 247, 248–9

   talking, 257, 271, 343, 355–6

al-Anṣārī, Mūsā, 181n28

al-Anṣārī al-Ṣūfī al-Dimashqī, Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm, 153

῾ Antar ibn Mu ῾ āwiya ibn Shaddād: as archetypal hero, 292

   al-Ḥamdānī on, 300

   historical figure, 292, 303

   Islamic reworking of story, 320

   place names referring to, 292

   see also Sīrat ῾ Antar ibn Shaddād

al-῾ Antarī (al-Mu᾽ ayyad Muḥammad ibn al-Mujallī ibn al-Ṣā ᾽ igh al-Jazarī), 266

anthologies, 11, 12, 17, 389, 390, 415

antithesis (ṭibāq ), 38, 68

apocalyptic and eschatology, 162, 166, 168

apology for own work, criticism as, 416

Arabic language: classical and colloquial, 18, 66, 193, 246–7, 255, 308–9

   connection between poetry, ethnicity and Islamic identity, 221–2

   contact with other languages, 65–6, 108–9, 355, 372

   critics’ interest in, 117, 230, 262, 394, 417

   displays of expertise or eloquence, 137, 147–8, 151–3

   foreign conquests and, 65–6

   and Koran, 57, 117, 417

   mocking of broken or strangely accented, 372

   moralists’ concern over figurative use, 154, 155

   in Ottoman era, 57, 231

   see also colloquial language

Arabization and Islamization, 26

Arāgūz (Egyptian marionette theatre), 374

Aristotle, 350, 355, 360, 388, 409–11

Artuqid dynasty of Mārdīn, 202–3

῾ arūḍ al-balad, 87

aṣāla (cultural authenticity), 16

ascetic poetry (zuhdiyya, 74–5

al-A῾ shā, 304

al-῾ Asharī, 62, 90

al-Ashraf Khalīl, Sultan, 161, 162, 163

Āsiyā (Pharaoh’s wife), 334, 335

al-῾ Askarī, Abū Hilāl, 104

al-Asmā ῾ ī, 294–5

asmār (evening entertainments), 250, 251

῾ aṣr al-inḥiṭāṭ, see Decadence, Period of

῾ Assāf, Roger, 383

al-Aswānī, ῾ Abbās, 145n2

al-῾ Aṭṭār, Abū ᾽ l-Qāsim (ibn), 195n9

῾ Attār, Shaykh Farīd al-Dīn, 79, 272

al-῾ Aṭṭār, Shaykh Ḥasan ibn Muḥammad, 115, 116, 136, 141, 158

Aulneuil, Louise, Comtesse d’, 279

Aulnoy, Marie-Catherine Le Jumel de Barneville, Comtesse d’, 279–80

authorship, 3–4

autobiography, 116, 139–40, 180

   on childhood reading, 253–4, 272, 294, 320–1

   in histories, 160, 163–4

Averroes (Ibn Rushd), 408–9

awlād al-nās (descendants of mamlūks), 113, 164, 169–70, 221, 227

Awlād Rābiya (Egyptian farces), 369, 376–7

al-῾ Aydarūs, Abū Bakr, 216

῾ Ayn al-Hayat, 325

῾ Ayn Jālūt, battle of, 119

al-῾ Aynī, Abū; Muḥammad Badr al-Dīn, 159, 167–8, 169

Ayyām al-῾ Arab, 320, 324

῾ ayyār, see rogue and trickster figure

Ayyubids: and statecraft, 102

   Sunnism reinstated by, 84

   see also individual rulers

῾ Azab ojaq (regiment in Cairo), 174–5

al-Azdī, Abū ᾽ l-Muṭahhar, 264, 349–51, 352

al-Azdī, ῾ Alī, 398

al-Azhar, 233–4, 236, 238

῾ Azīza and Yūnus, tale of, 312

al-῾ Aẓm family, governors of Damascus, 182, 183

al-῾ Azzāwī, ῾ Abbās, 92

Baalbek, 160

bābāt (shadow plays), see Ibn Dāniyāl

al-Badawī, Aḥmad, 338, 343, 378

Badawī al-Jabal, 38

badī ῾ , ῾ ilm al-badī ῾ (‘new style’), 14, 53, 80, 103, 404

   critical works on, 12, 402–3, 405–8, 417

badīha (extemporaneous verse), 398

al-Badī ῾ ī, Yūsuf, 132, 390, 393–4

badī ῾ iyya (panegyric of Prophet), 36, 46–7, 50, 407–8, 416

al-Badr Nār, tale of, 323

Baghdad: caliphate, 9, 10

   histories, 186, 187

   and kān wa-kān, 212

   Karākūz performances, 370

   mawāliyya and, 208–9

   Mongol sack, 76, 102

   Mustanṣiriyya Madrasa, 152

   paper market, 245–6

   tales in Thousand and One Nights, 271

   topographical narratives, 125

al-Baghdādī, Muḥammad ῾ Awwād, 62

Bahā ᾽ al-Dīn Zuhayr, 47–50, 54

al-Bahlūl (῾ Abd al-Raḥmān ibn al-Shākir), 69

al-Bahlūl, Aḥmad, 62

Bahrām Gūr, story of, 323

Bahrein, 380

Baḥrī period in Egypt, 119–20, 132

al-Bakātūsh, Egypt, 315–17

Bakhr, Banū, 323

al-Bakrī, Abū ᾽ l-Ḥasan, and works attributed to, 170, 257, 260

al-Bakrī, Muḥammad, 231

al-Balādhurī, Aḥmad ibn Yaḥyā, 320

balāgha, ῾ ilm al-balāgha, 387, 388, 389, 390, 401–5

   and adab works, 394

   on badī ῾, 406

   Ibn Khaldūn on, 414–15

   al-Jurjānī, 389, 401–2

al-Balaṭī, ῾ Uthmān ibn ῾ Īsā, 115

ballad, 235–6, 317

al-Banawānī, Jamāl al-Dīn ibn Yūsuf, 217–18

band, 87–96, 255

   by Ibn al-Khilfa, 97–8

   origins, 87–8, 89–90

   prosaic features, 95–7

   and puzzle genre, 88–9

   rhythmic structure, 88–9, 90–4

Banī, Banū, see under individual names

banishment of Ibn ῾ Unayn for satire, 43

al-Bāqillānī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad, 89

al-Bāranbārī, Tāj al-Dīn, 139

barber, history by, 182

Barde, Paul, 281

al-Bārizī, Kamāl al-Dīn Muḥammad (ibn), 110

Barlaam and Josafat (Bilawhar wa-Yudasaf ), 249, 256–7

Barmakī family, 10, 271

Barqūq, Sultan, 166

Barsbay, Sultan, 159

barter, silent, 295

al-Barzanjī, al-Sayyid Ja‘far, 333

Bashīr II, Shihābī ruler of Lebanon, 184, 185

Basra, 186, 234, 332

al-Bāṣrī, Abū ᾽ l-῾ Abbās Yaḥyā ibn Sa ῾ īd ibn Mārī, 153

Basus, War of, 323

Bayād and Riyād, 263, 264

bayān, ῾ ilm al-bayān, 389, 403–4, 406, 417

Baybars I, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir, 119, 138, 168

   histories of, 159, 162, 163, 164

   see also Sīrat (al-Malik al-Ẓāhir) Baybars

Baybars II, 223

Baybars al-Manṣūrī, 124, 160, 163, 164

bedouin: burlesque, 376

   poetry and values, 38

   see also tribes

beggars, professional (Banū Sāsān), 148–9, 353, 362

Beirut, 383

belles-lettres, see prose, belletristic

Berbers, 311

al-Biktashī, 90

Bilawhar wa-Yudasaf (Barlaam and Josafat ), 249, 256–7

al-Bilbaysī, Muḥammad, 220

biography, 122–5

   dictionaries, 136, 161, 162, 168, 169, 180, 201

   (al-Ghazzī), 173, 181

   (Syrian), 181–2, 183–4

   and historical writing, 122–5

   in maqāma, 116

   of the Prophet, 257, 333, 334

   royal, 123–4

   see also autobiography

al-Biqā ᾽ ī, Burhān al-Dīn ῾ Umar, 128

al-Birzālī, ῾ Alam al-Dīn, 159, 160–1

bisāṭ, 369, 377

al-Bishārī, Shihāb al-Dīn, 117–18

al-Bisṭāmī, Abū Yazīd, 338

Blida, Algeria, 377

booksellers, 245, 267, 268, 273

bourgeoisie, petite, 193–4, 219–20, 222

Bowring, John, 375

‘Box of the World’ (ṣandūq al-dunyā, popular entertainment), 262

Breik, al-Khūrī Mīkhā ᾽ īl, 183

Brethren of Purity (Ikhwān al-Ṣafā ᾽ ), 89–90

British East India Company, 283, 287

Browne, Edward, 3

al-Budayrī al-Ḥallāq, Aḥmad, 182

buffoons, 378

al-Buḥturī, Abū ῾ Ubāda, 33, 388–9

al-Bukhārī, 337

Bulāq press, 238

   Thousand and One Nights, 118, 284, 286, 288–9

bullayq (poetic form), 205, 206–8, 223, 255

Burckhardt, Johann Ludwig, 292, 302, 304

al-Būrīnī, Ḥasan ibn Muḥammad, 181

burlesque, 376, 377, 379

Burton, Isabel, 287

Burton, Richard Francis, 284, 287–8, 289, 379

al-Burullusī, Aḥmad al-Darwīshī, 237

al-Burullusī al-Sa ῾ dī, Muḥammad, 174

al-Būṣīrī, Sharaf al-Dīn Muḥammad, 12, 46–7, 74, 83, 84, 86

al-Bustānī, Buṭrus, 185

al-Bustī, Abū ᾽ l-Fatḥ, 40

Buyid dynasty, 9, 10–12

Cabinet des fées, 280, 282

Caesarea, Baybars I’s conquest of, 138

Cahen, Claude, 8

Cairo: caliphate, 9

   as cultural centre, 10, 102, 123, 130–1, 232

   drama, 357n53, 370, 381

   Geniza documents, 271

   recitations, 267, 273, 367

   religiously motivated riot (1123/1711), 176

   al-Sayyida Nafīsa and, 339–40, 344

   Thousand and One Nights and, 271

   topographical narratives on, 126, 167

caliphate, decentralization of, 8–9, 102, 104

calligraphy, 134–5

Camel’s Utterance (Nuṭq al-jamal ), 336–7

Cantor, Norman, 7

caricature in belletristic prose, 117–18

carpet, flying, 278

cassette tapes of oral performances, 268

Caussin de Perceval, Armand Pierre, 282, 284–5, 293

Cazotte, Jacques, 281–2, 284–5

celebrations, domestic: dramatic performances at, 370, 375, 377–8, 380

   occasional verses for, 265

   sīra recitations, 312

cemeteries, quṣṣāṣ perform in, 332–3

certification of scholars, 9–10

Chad, 307

chancery (dīwān al-rasā ᾽ il ), 21, 101, 103–4, 105–6, 110, 112, 113

change: origins before post-classical period, 8–13, 21, 61, 68, 71

   surrounding end of period, 8, 13–17

chapbooks (kutub ṣufrā, ‘yellow books’), 259, 268–9

   Coptic Christian, 342

   sīras, 268–9, 308–9, 317–18, 322

Chavis, Dom Denis (Dionysius Shāwīsh), 281–2, 284–5

chess, Ibn al-Athīr on, 136

chiding, poetry of (῾ itāb ), 28, 53

China, 131, 152, 245

Christians: in bureaucracy, 83

   clerics, 83, 179, 183, 184, 185, 239–40

   Coptic, 176, 340–2, 343

   divisions in Damascus, 183

   in Egypt, 176

   liturgy, 240

   missionaries, 19th-century, 238

   mocked in popular drama, 372

   popular religious narrative, 340–2

   poetry, 75, 82, 83, 86, 153, 239–40

   saints’ days, 341–2

   see also Crusades and Crusaders and under drama; historiography; Lebanon; religious narrative, popular

chronicles, popular, 173, 174–5, 176–7, 369

cinema, 322, 380–1

cities: elegies for fallen, 76

   see also topography (urban) and under historiography

civil servants, see chancery; officials; scribes, clerks and secretaries

class, social: Karākūz audiences, 370

   and literacy, 230

   widening of gaps, 19th-century, 238

   see also ῾ āmma; bourgeoisie, petite; middle classes; ῾ ulamā ᾽; and under poetry, popular

classical period, 7

   criticism in, 388–90

   drama, 357

   post-classical criticism and, 390, 393–4

codes, linguistic, 105

coffee, 137, 215, 231

coffeehouses, entertainments in, 231, 236, 273, 364

colloquial language: awlād al-nās and, 221

   in Christian liturgy, 240

   and classical language, 18, 66, 193, 255, 256, 308–9

   coarse, 115, 118

   dialects, 262, 358

   in ḥikāya, 350–1

   in histories, 164–5, 166, 230

   Ibn Khaldūn on, 307–8

   in muwashshaḥ, 195–6, 201, 202

   in Ottoman era, 230

   in poetry, (elite), 30, 31, 43, 49, 57, 191

   (popular), 193, 196, 228, 413

   resistance to literary use, 18, 31, 43, 66, 191

   romances in, 57

   Ṣafī ᾽ al-Dīn al-Ḥillī on, 414, 416, 417

   scholarly interest in, 220, 230, 262

   in sīra, 301, 302, 308–9

   in Thousand and One Nights, 275–6

   transcription conventions, 192, 215, 246–7, 256, 262, 267

comedy, 355, 360, 367

commentary, critical, 150, 389, 390, 412–13

   Koranic, 163, 272, 337–8, 398–9

common people, see ῾ āmma

Companions of the Prophet, popular literature on, 320, 338

compendia, 101, 102–3, 124–5, 130–1

competition, literary: belletristic ethos, 113–15, 116

   zajjālūn, 214, 217

compilations and anthologies, 11, 17, 389, 390, 415

conceits, poetic, 32, 37

conquests, Islamic, 65–6, 320

   letters of conquest, 138–9, 144

contes des fées’, French, 279–80, 282

continuity, cultural, 102

Coptic Church, 176, 340–2, 343

copyists: alterations by, 192, 256

   marketplace, 266

   paper-making and rise of, 245

   see also written texts

Cordoba, 9, 10

correspondence of the senses, 45

countryside, 209–10, 231–4

court culture, 9, 10, 159, 221, 222, 234–5

criticism, literary, 387–416

   on Abbasid literature, 390, 393–4

   Andalusian, 28–9

   as apology for writer’s own work, 416

   applied, see naqd; and Arabic language, 117, 230, 262, 394, 417

   as archive for Arab tradition, 416

   classical period, 388–90

   in East and West, 414–15

   New Critics, 20th-century, 3–4

   philosophical approach, 388, 389–90, 408–12

   on poetics, 398–401

   on prosody, 399, 413–14

   on style, 108, 127, 393, 394, 398–401, 414–15

   use of term, 388

   see also adab; anthologies; badī ῾; balāgha; commentary, critical; grammar; i ῾ jāz al-Qur᾽ ān; naqd; individual critics, and under poetry, popular

criticism, social and political, in drama, 367, 372–3, 375–6, 377, 379

Croce, Benedetto, 4

Crocodile Play (Li ᾽ b al-timsāḥ ), 233, 261–2

Crusades and Crusaders, 26, 74, 101–2, 119, 160, 165

   sīras and, 294, 296–7, 328–9

cryptograms, 62–3, 67–9, 88–9

Cuno, Kenneth, 16

Daf ῾ al-shakk wa᾽ l-mayn fī taḥrīr al-fannayn (anonymous manuscript), 217–18

Daḥlān, Aḥmad ibn Zaynī, 335

dalā ᾽ il, books of, 333

Damascus: al-῾ Aẓm governors, 182, 183

   Christians, 183

   as cultural centre, 102, 179

   drama, 373, 383

   histories, 172n2, 180–1, 182, 183

   Ibn ῾ Unayn’s poems of longing for, 43–4

   recitations, 267, 268, 302

   al-Ṣāliḥiyya suburb, 180, 182

   topographical narratives, 125

   zajjālūn, 217

al-Damīrī, Muḥammad ibn Mūsā, 335–6

Damurdāshī group of chronicles, 174–5, 176–7

al-Damurdāshī Katkhudā ῾ Azabān, Aḥmad, 177

dancers, 380

Daninos, Abraham, 382

al-Darā ᾽ , Mūsā, 363

Darwīsh, Maḥmūd, 38

al-Dasūqī, Ibrāhīm, 338, 343

dating, historical, 68–9

dawāwīn (term applied to siyar ), 254

debate, literary (al-munāẓara ), 135, 136–7, 138, 141–4, 351–2

   and maqāma, 158

   of sword and pen, 113, 142n44, 143, 158

‘Decadence, Period of ’ (῾ aṣr al-inḥiṭāṭ ), 1–2, 5, 6–8, 60–71, 237–8

   changes preceding, 8–13, 61, 68, 71

   changes surrounding end of, 8, 13–17

   as ‘decline in poetry’, 71–3

decentralization of authority, 8–9, 230–1

   see also regionalization and under prose, belletristic

Della Valle, P., 364

dervishes, 178, 226, 233

description (waṣf ), 28, 36–7, 96

Devic, L. U., 293

al-Dhahabī, Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, 123, 159, 160, 161, 257

Dhāt al-Himma, see Sīrat Dhāt al-Himma

Dhū᾽ l-Nūn al-Miṣrī, 338

Dhū ᾽ l-qarnayn, see Alexander the Great

diachronic and synchronic approaches, 3

dialects: poetry, in shadow plays, 358

   medieval scholarly interest, 262

dialogues, invented, in histories, 164

didactic literature, 239–40, 252

Disciplina Clericalis, 256

dīwāns: al-inshā ᾽, 103–5

   al-rasā ᾽ il, see chancery

al-Diyārbakrī, ῾ Abd al-Ṣamad, 173n3

Donoghue, Denis, 4

double entendre, see tawriya

drama, 347–67, 383n60

   Aristotelian concepts, 355, 360

   (see also mimesis ); buffoons, 378

   censorship and suppression, 372–3

   Christian religious, 356–7

   classical antecedents, 347, 357

   cross-dressing, 375, 376, 377

   dancers, 380

   dramatic elements in non-dramatic genres, 348

   European influence, 347, 348, 369, 372, 381

   at festivals, 370, 378

   Hellenistic, 356–7

   and ḥikāya, 349–51

   and imitation, 347, 349, 350, 351

   impromptu performances, 366

   indigenous culture revived by, 347–8, 369, 381, 383

   Jewish, in pre-Islamic period, 356–7

   masks, 375, 378

   mocking of minorities and foreigners, 372

   modern, 368, 380–3

   (revival of indigenous tradition), 347–8, 369, 381, 383

   and Naḥda, 347–8

   origins of post-classical, 348–56

   popular/elite distinction, 355n41, 367–8, 370

   popular live performances, 356–7, 366–8, 374–80

   pre-Islamic, 356–7

   pre-modern period, 383n60

   religious, 356–7, 380

   and risāla, 355–6

   satire and social comment, 367, 372–3, 375–6, 377, 379

   sources on popular, 369

   survey of types, 356–68

   Turkish-language, 371

   20th-century state of popular, 380–1

   venues and occasions, 370

   (see also celebrations, domestic; festivals); see also Awlād Rābiya; bisāṭ; burlesque; comedy; farce; fattāla; ḥabābẓiya; ḥalqa; ikhbārī; Karagöz; Karākūz; khayāl; marionette theatre; masqueraders; mime; muḥabbaẓūn; sailors; sāmir; shadow plays; story-telling; and under Algeria; celebrations, domestic; Egypt; Iraq; licence; maqāma; Morocco; Syria; Tunisia; Turkey

dreams and visions, 164, 165, 343

drugs, 137, 226, 265

Druzes, 184

dūbayt, 54, 87, 216, 228, 255

al-Dujaylī, 91

Dukhūl, Jūrj, 381

al-Dunaysarī, al-Shaykh Amīn al-Dīn ibn Mas῾ ūd, 211

al-Duwayhī, Patriarch Isṭifān, 184–5

East India Company, British, 283, 287

editing as part of poetic process, 399–400

education: in Cairo, 232

   certification of scholars, 9–10

   chancery, 101, 105–6

   in Damascus, 180–1

   Koranic tales and, 331

   Muslim paideia, 394, 408

   obligatory, and oral tradition, 314

   Ottoman extension of, 230

   secular, 238, 240–1

   voice training of singers, 199

   see also al-Azhar; madrasas; sabīls; and under mamlūks

Egypt: Baḥrī period, 119–20, 132

   and Banī Hilāl, 307

   caliphates, 9

   divisions in military society, 175

   drama, 374, 375, 376–8, 380

   (modern), 369, 380, 381, 383

   (shadow plays), 362, 363–4, 366, 370–1, 373

   education, 232, 240–1

   French occupation, 175, 177–8, 185, 237, 238

   (al-῾ Aṭṭār and), 116, 158

   (and drama), 369, 372

   (al-Jabartī and), 122, 177–8

   histories, 122, 159, 162–70, 172–9

   Jews and Christians, 176

   maddāḥīn, 335–6, 338

   mawwāl, 211–12, 268

   muwashshaḥ, 196

   Ottoman conquest, 171–2

   politics and popular literature, 237, 242

   sīra recitation, 273, 314–18

   (modern), 268, 308, 321

   Thousand and One Nights banned for obscenity (1985), 290

   see also individual places

elaboration (i ῾ nāb ), 11–12, 106

elegy (rithā ᾽ ), 28

   al-Ḥillī, 53

   Ibn Nubāta, 55, 56

   Ibn Sanā ᾽ al-Mulk, 42, 43

   popular forms, 211, 225–6

   religious, 75–6

elite and popular culture, relationship between 14, 17; and drama, 355n41, 367–8, 381

   elite attitudes to popular, 191–2, 194, 241

   intersection, 18, 21, 118–19, 193–4, 213, 228–9, 236–7, 241, 247

   narrative in elite literature, 138

   shift of creative impulse to popular, 72

eloquence; display in maqāma, 147–8, 151–3

emotion, literary expression of, 15, 127

   see also under poetry, elite

epic, popular, see sīra, popular

epistolography, 111–12, 134–5

   functional letters, 135–6

   hybridization with other genres, 115, 129

   ikhwāniyya and dīwāniyya, personal and official, 111, 135

   letters of conquest, 138–9, 144

   manuals of, 135, 136

   professional letter-writers, 267

   royal letters, 138–9

   truce letters, 108–9

eroticism, Ibn Sanā ᾽ al-Mulk’s, 41

eschatology and apocalyptic, 162, 166, 168

essay, prose, see risāla

ethnicity, Islam and, 27, 65–6, 221–2

eulogy, poetic (madḥ ), 28, 32–5

   classical, 26–7, 30, 33, 71

   conventionality, 32–3, 34

   divine references, 29

   Ibn Nubāta al-Miṣrī, 55

   Ibn Sanā ᾽ al-Mulk, 42

   Ibn ῾ Unayn, 43

   innovatory, 62–3

   loss of vigour, 33–4, 35, 42

   payment for, 33, 34–5, 52, 55, 230

   in popular forms, 209–10, 222, 237

   of the Prophet, 83–6, 203

   (see also badī ῾ iyya ); al-Qalqashandī, 112

   of regional rulers, 33, 34

   Ṣafī ᾽ al-Dīn al Ḥillī, 52, 53, 202–3

   and tradition, 62, 71

   in zajal, 222, 237

   see also badī ῾ iyya; maddāḥ; and under religious poetry

eulogy, prose: in debate genre, 142

   in risāla, 138, 139

Europe, see West

evening entertainments, see asmār

evil eye, 120

Evliyā Celebi, 365n98

excerpts (taḍmīn ), 55

exemplary stories, popular, 252

extemporaneous verse (irtijāl or badīha ), 398, 400

fables, animal, 247, 248–9

Faḍl Allāh al-῾ Umarī, family of, 109–10, 111, 112

Faḍlōn the Ascetic, Tale of, 342–3

al-Faḥḥām, Abū Muḥammad ῾ Abd Allāh ibn Ibrāhīm, 238–9

faḥl (major poet), 28–9, 39

fairy tales (‘contes des fées’), French, 279–80, 282

fakhr (boasting) poetry, 28, 35, 42, 52, 53

Fakhr al-Dīn II, Ma῾ nid ruler of Lebanon, 184

Falyadj (or Palache), Isaac Ben Joseph, 381–2

al-Fār, Aḥmad Fahīm, 381

al-Fārābī, Abū Naṣr, 408

farce, 353, 372, 374–7

Farḥāt, al-Muṭrān Germanus, 62

al-Fāsī, ῾ Abd al-Raḥmān, 61

faṣls (‘paragraphs’), Ibn Ḥabīb al-Ḥalabī’s, 144

Fāṭima al-Jamāliyya, 213

Fatimids, 84, 102, 167

fattāla (Tunisian burlesque), 377

fatwā against works of Abū ᾽ l-Ḥasan al-Bakrī, 257

fées, contes des’, French, 279–80, 282

festivals, public, 357n53, 370, 378

   see also mawlids

Fez, 102, 377, 380

Firdawsī, 397

Fīrūz, see Sīrat Fīrūz-Shāh

al-Fishālī, ῾ Abd al-῾ Azīz, 62, 71

fishing, risāla on, 139

flea and monk, conversation between, 239–40

flower/nature poetry, 53

folklore, burlesque based on, 379

formulaic nature of popular literature, 213, 321, 325

Fort William College, 283

fowling, description of (qidmat al-bunduq ), 139, 144

frame-tales, 252, 256–7, 273–4, 279–80

   see also Thousand and One Nights

Franks: in Sīrat ῾ Antar, 296

   truce letters to, 108–9

   see also Crusades and Crusaders

Frederick II Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor, 126–7, 128–9

friendship, theme of, 41, 53

Frye, Northrup, 4, 5

fuḥūla, 31

fuṣḥā, 18, 414, 417

   in muwashshaḥ, 194, 413

futūḥāt, 324

Gabrieli, Francesco, 289

Galland, Antoine, 268, 273, 276

   Voyages of Sindbad, 276–7

   Thousand and One Nights translation, 276–9, 284, 289

   additional tales, 278–9, 281, 288, 289

   dedication to Marquise d’O, 276–7, 280

   Lane’s reaction to, 286

   manuscripts, 276–8

   Preface to first volume, 289

   translation into other languages, 280–1

Gauttier, Eduard, 285

gazelle and the Prophet, story of, 335–6

genre(s), 4–5

   band and notion of, 87–96

   fusion and overlap, 116, 129, 351–2, 359

   (historical writing), 121–5

   (maqāma and risāla ), 114, 115, 118, 129, 135, 143, 351–2, 355, 359

   new, 87, 255–6, 413–14, 417

geography, 132, 295

George, Saint (Coptic Mari Girgis), 343, 344

al-Ghamrī, Sa ῾ d al-Dīn, 174

Ghānim, Shukrī, 293

al-Ghār al-Shaṭaranjī (Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad Shihāb al-Dīn), 211

al-Gharnāṭī, Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf ibn Ḥayyān Athīr al-Dīn, 217

Ghassanids in Sīrat ῾ Antar, 296

al-Ghaytī, Najm al-Dīn, 128

al-Ghazāfī, Abū ᾽ l-Faḍl Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad, 158

ghazal (love poetry), 35, 42, 43, 50, 51, 53

   decline, 28, 42, 51

al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad al-Ṭūsī, 146, 261, 332

al-Ghaznavī, Sadīd al-Dīn, 146n4

Ghazwat al-Arqat, 323

al-Ghazzī, Najm al-Dīn, 173, 180n24, 181

al-Ghīthāwī, Yūnus, 137

al-Ghubārī, Abū ῾ Abd Allāh Khalaf ibn Muḥammad, 218–20, 222

al-Ghurāb, ῾ Alī, 61

al-Ghurābī, Aḥmad ibn ῾ Abdallāh, 186

al-Ghuzūlī, ῾ Alī ibn ῾ Abd Allāh, 131, 163, 358

Gibb, H. A. R., 107–8, 159–60

Gibrān, Gibrān Khalīl, 38

Girgis, Mari (St George), 343, 344

Giṭan ibn Giṭan, 215

governors, local Ottoman, 182, 183, 186–7, 234–5

grammar, critical works on, 389, 399, 400, 401

Gran, Peter, 16

Greek world, see Hellenistic world

guilds, performers’, 357n53

Gurevich, Aron, 194, 195

ḥabābẓiya, 369

al-Ḥabasī, 62

Habicht, Christian Maximilian, 283–4, 286

Haddawy, Husain, 289

ḥadīth, 149, 330, 351–2

ḥadīth-majlis, 149

al-Ḥāfī, Aḥmad, 137

al-Hā ᾽ irī, 90

hajaz metre, 88, 90–2

al-Ḥajj Ḥasan, 183

Ḥājjī Khalīfa, Muṣṭafā ibn ῾ Abdallāh al-Rūmī Mulla Kātib al-Chalabī, 123, 134

ḥakawātī s (story-tellers), 367, 380

al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh, 321, 323

al-Ḥalabī, Abū ᾽ l-Ḥasan ῾ Alī, 105

al-Ḥalabī, Maḥmūd ibn Salmān, 139

al-Ḥalabī, Shihāb al-Dīn Maḥmūd (Ibn Fahd), 111

al-Ḥalabī al-Shāfi ῾ ī, ῾ Alī ibn Burhān al-Dīn, 334–5

Ḥalīma (Prophet’s wet-nurse), 335

ḥalqa (type of drama), 369, 377

al-Hamadhānī, Badī ῾ al-Zamān (Aḥmad ibn al-Ḥusayn), maqāmāt of, 12–13, 115, 146–7, 350, 352–4

   and Banū Sāsān, 353

   as originator of genre, 12, 145

   as parody of ḥadīth, 149

   possible running gag, 354

   shadow plays and, 358, 362

Hama, 179, 217

al-Ḥamawī, ῾ Alawān ibn ῾ Aṭiyya, 143

al-Ḥamawī, Yāqūt, 122–3

al-Hamdānī, 294, 300

Hamilton, Terrick, 292, 293, 295, 302, 304

Hammer-Purgstall, Joseph von, 285, 293

Ḥamza ibn ῾ Abd al-Muṭṭalib, see Sīrat Ḥamza al-bahlawān

al-Ḥanafī, Aḥmad ibn Abī Bakr al-Rāzī, 150, 157

al-Ḥanafī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Iyās, 260–1

Hanbalism, 160–1, 162

Ḥankash, Najīb, 145n2

Ḥannā (Syrian Maronite priest), 278–9

al-Ḥārawī, ῾ Alī ibn Abī Bakr, 125

ḥārdallu (popular poetic form), 216

al-Ḥarīrī, Abū Muḥammad al-Qāsim ibn ῾ Alī, maqāmāt of, 13, 101, 114–15, 145, 146–8, 354, 355

   commentaries on, 134, 412

   imitations of, 150–4, 155

   intellectual context, 114–15, 116

   moral tone, 154

   shadow plays and, 358

   structure, 146–8

   verbs of transmission, 150

al-Ḥarīzī, 115

Hārūn al-Rashīd, caliph, 271

Ḥasanzāde (puppeteer), 365

al-Hāshimī, Muḥammad, 89, 90–1, 92

al-Ḥaṣkafī, Yaḥyā ibn Ja ῾ far, 139

Hatādī (or al-Hatātī), Muḥammad, 81–2

Ḥātim, Mīkhā ᾽ īl, 82

al-Ḥayā ᾽ ī, Fakhr al-Dīn Abū Sa ῾ īd ῾ Uthmān, 235

Ḥāyil, Rashidi dynasty of, 215

Ḥays Bayṣ (Shihāb al-Dīn al-Tamīmī), 34

al-Ḥayya᾽ ī al-Jalīlī, Muḥammad Sa ῾ īd ibn al-Ḥājj ῾ Uthmān, 235

Hazār Afsān (A Thousand Stories, lost Persian collection), 270, 271, 272

Ḥāzim al-Qarṭājannī, see al-Qarṭājannī, Ḥāzim

hazliyyāt (humorous letters), 138

Hebrew literature: Hellenistic drama, 356–7

   Hispano-Hebrew poets, 200

   maqāma, 145, 157

   translation of Kalīla wa-Dimna, 256

   see also Jews

Hellenistic world, 10

   drama, 356–7

   philosophy, 388, 389–90, 408–12

Henning’s translation of Thousand and One Nights, 284

heritage, current re-examination of cultural, 16

hero figure, 354

   see also under sīra

heroic narratives, shorter, 319

al-Hiball Amīr Shu῾ arā ᾽ al-Yaman, 62

hijā ᾽, see satire

al-Ḥijāzī, ῾ Alī ibn Nāṣir, 158

al-Ḥijāzī al-Anṣārī (Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn ῾ Alī), 211

ḥikāya, 349–51, 352

   al-Azdī’s, 349–51, 352

Hilāl, Banī: annihilation, 307, 312–13

   geographical distribution of tales of, 307

   groups claiming descent from, 307

   Ibn Khaldūn on, 307–8

   range of oral genres concerned with, 314

   westward migration, 307, 312

   see also Sīrat Banī Hilāl

al-Ḥillī, Muḥammad Ḥasan, 89–90, 91

al-Ḥillī, Ṣafī al-Dīn, see Ṣafī al-Dīn al-Ḥillī

Hims 179

Ḥīra, 296

historicism in literary studies, 3, 17

historiography, 120–5, 159–60, 171–87

   adab prose, 120–5, 160, 161

   autobiographical reminiscences, 160, 163–4

   biography combined with, 122–5

   Christian, 176, 179, 183, 184–5

   on cities, 186

   (see also topography (urban) and under Baghdad; Damascus; Mosul); colloquial language, 164–5, 166, 230

   coverage, 179, 187

   dating in poetry, 68–9

   dialogues, invented, 164

   dreams in, 164, 165

   early ‘erroneous’ accounts, 320

   fantastic, 159, 170

   fusion with other genres, 121–5

   Hanbalism and, 160–1

   Ibn Khaldūn’s theories, 120, 121, 127, 166, 415

   law schools and, 161–2

   legendary, 159, 250, 252, 253, 264

   Mamluk period, 120–2, 159–60, 172, 173

   moralizing, 165

   obituaries, 160, 161, 178

   Ottoman period, 122, 171–87

   on pilgrimage, 179, 182

   in poetic form, 62–3, 68–9

   (popular forms), 222, 226–7, 237

   poetry in, 123, 160, 161, 162, 163, 165

   popular, 159, 170, 250, 252, 253, 264

   (chronicles), 173, 174–5, 176–7, 369

   (verse), 222, 226–7, 237

   (see also religious narrative, popular); religious polemic in, 165

   saj ῾, 162, 163, 165

   story-tellers’ influence on, 320

   tales in, 164, 170

   tawārīkh, 250

   Turkish-language in Iraq, 186

   see also under Egypt; Iraq; Lebanon; mirabilia; sīra, popular; Syria

history, literary; methods and issues, 3–6

Hodgson, Marshall, 6

Hoenerbach, Wilhelm, 217, 218

home, poems of yearning for, 43–4, 56

homosexuality, 35, 39

   female, 250, 251, 252

    Ḥasan al-῾ Aṭṭār, 116

   al-Ḥillī, 53–4

   Ibn Sanā ᾽ al-Mulk, 41, 42

   Ibn Sūdūn, 265

    popular poetry on, 211

   popular tales of, 252

   al-Ṣafadī, 141, 162

Hūd (prophet), 330, 337

ḥumaq (poetic form), 255

humaynī (poetic form), 87, 215–16, 255

humour: in maqāma, 148

   popular tales, 260–1

   risāla, 138, 140

Hunt, Leigh, 290

hunting, writings on, 136, 138, 139

al-Ḥusayn, death of, 84, 233, 338, 380

Ḥusayn, Ṭāhā, 14, 15

al-Ḥusaynī, Abū ῾ Alī, 400–1

al-Husaynī, Balīl, 90

al-Ḥuwayzī, ῾ Alī, 186

hybridity (῾ ujma ) of language, 108–9

Ibn ῾ Abbād, ‘al-Sāḥib’, 10, 106

Ibn ῾ Abd al-Ghanī, Aḥmad Shalabī (Çelebi), 175–6, 177

Ibn ῾ Abd Kān, 105

Ibn ῾ Abd Rabbih, 252–3

Ibn ῾ Abd al-Wahhāb, 128

Ibn ῾ Abd al-Ẓāhir, al-Qāḍī Muḥyī al-Dīn, 111–12, 123, 138, 159, 162–3, 167

Ibn ῾ Abdūn, 332

Ibn Abī ᾽ l-Afrāḥ, 226

Ibn Abī ᾽ l-Ḥadīd, ῾ Abd al-Ḥamīd, 106, 397–8

Ibn Abī Ḥajala (or Ḥijla), Aḥmad ibn Yaḥyā al-Tilimsānī, 117, 123, 165

Ibn Abī ᾽ l-῾ Iṣba῾ , 224, 406

Ibn Abī ᾽ l-Khiṣāl, Abū ῾ Abd Allāh, 150–1

Ibn Abī ᾽ l-Surūr al-Bakrī al-Ṣiddīqī, Muḥammad, 174

Ibn Abī Ṭāḥir Ṭayfūr, 109, 125

Ibn Abī Uṣaybi ῾ a, Aḥmad ibn al-Qāsim, 123, 266, 294

Ibn al-῾ Adīm, see Kamāl al-Dīn ibn al-῾ Adīm al-Kātib

Ibn al-Aḥnaf, al-῾ Abbās, 31n11

Ibn al-῾ Amīd, Abū ᾽ l-Faḍl, 12, 103

Ibn ῾ Āmir al-Baṣrī, ῾ Āmir, 80–1, 82

Ibn al-῾ Arabī, Muḥyī al-Dīn, 45, 45n37, 77–8, 79, 127, 128, 261

Ibn ῾ Arabshāh, Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad, 124, 168–9

Ibn ῾ Arūs, 235–6

Ibn ῾ Asākir, Shafī ᾽ ibn ῾ Alī, 122

Ibn al-Ashtarkūwī (Abū Ṭāhir Muḥammad al-Tamīmī al-Sarāqusṭī al-Ashtarkūwī), 115, 150, 151–2

Ibn ῾ Āṣim al-Gharnāṭī, Abū Bakr, 262–3

Ibn al-Athīr, Abū ᾽ l-Ḥasan ῾ Alī ibn Abī ᾽ l-Karam, see Ibn al-Athīr, ῾ Izz al-Dīn

Ibn al-Athīr, Ḍiyā ᾽ al-Dīn, 105–6

   adab works, 113–14, 387, 394–8, 400–1

   (al-Mathal al-sā ᾽ ir ), 104, 105–6, 113–14, 387, 400–1

   on Arabic language, 394

   argumentativeness, 394–5, 397

   on fishing, 139

   and grammar, 400, 401

   on al-Ḥarīrī, 114

   and Ibn Rashīq, 389

   letters, 136

   and al-Mutanabbī, 390, 416

   naqd work, Istidrāk, 390, 391–4

   on plagiarism, 394

   on prose as superior to poetry, 395–7, 416, 417

   responses to, 106, 397–8

   Washy al-marqūm collection, 105

Ibn al-Athīr, ῾ Imād al-Dīn, 407, 415–16

Ibn al-Athīr, ῾ Izz al-Dīn (Abū ᾽ l-Ḥasan ῾ Alī ibn Abī ᾽ l-Karam), 123–4, 331

   source for Abū ᾽ l-Fidā and Baybars al-Manṣūrī, 164

Ibn Bājja, 196

Ibn al-Bannā ᾽ , Aḥmad, 411–12

Ibn Baqī, 196

Ibn Bassām, 195

Ibn al-Batanūnī, 342–3

Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, 131, 132

Ibn al-Dabāhī, al-Ṣāḥib, 209–10

Ibn al-Dahhān, 390, 392, 416

Ibn Dāniyāl, Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad, 19, 220, 224, 261, 265, 350, 352, 358–63

Ibn al-Dawādārī, 164, 165

Ibn Durayd, 89

Ibn Fahd (Shihāb al-Dīn Maḥmūd al-Ḥalabī), 111

Ibn Falīta (Aḥmad ibn ῾ Alī), 215–16

Ibn Farfūr, ῾ Abd al-Raḥmān, 81

Ibn al-Fāriḍ, ῾ Umar, 12, 45, 45n36, 74, 78–80, 333–4

   al-Nābulusī and, 81, 128

   Naẓm al-sulūk, 78–80, 84

   on shadow plays, 261, 357–8

   al-Suyūṭī’s apologia for, 128

   al-Tā ᾽ iyya al-Kubrā, 44, 357–8

Ibn al-Furāt, Muḥammad, 166, 167

Ibn Ghānim al-Makdisī, 144

Ibn Ghurla, 204

Ibn Ḥabīb al-Dimashqī, 123

Ibn Ḥabīb al-Ḥalabī, 144, 158

Ibn Ḥāfī (or Khāfī) al-Mutaṭabbib (Sha ῾ bān ibn Isḥāq al-Isrā ῾ īlī), 137

Ibn Ḥajar al-῾ Asqalānī, 165, 169, 257, 336

Ibn al-Ḥājj, 258

Ibn al-Ḥajjār, 220

Ibn Ḥajr al-Haytamī, 128

Ibn Ḥayqal al-Jazarī, 115

Ibn al-Haytham, 261, 357

Ibn Ḥazm, Abū Muḥammad ῾ Alī, 261, 357

Ibn Ḥazm, ῾ Alī ibn Aḥmad, 129–30

Ibn Ḥijja al-Ḥamawī, 50–1, 216–17, 218, 398, 413

Ibn al-Ḥimṣī, 181

Ibn Hishām, Abū Muḥammad ῾ Abd al-Malik, 126, 333

Ibn al-῾ Imād, 181

Ibn Isḥāq, Muḥammad, 126, 333, 334

Ibn Iyās, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, 121–2, 164, 169–70, 172–3

   popular poetry quoted by, 192, 218, 223

   on shadow plays, 359, 364

Ibn Jābir al-Baghdādī, 226

Ibn al-Jawzī, Abū ᾽ l-Faraj ῾ Abd al-Raḥmān, 155–7, 160, 212, 336

   on quṣṣāṣ, 248, 330, 332

Ibn al-Jawzī, Sibṭ, 107, 128–9, 159, 160, 164

Ibn Jubayr, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, 131

Ibn Kamāl-Pāshā, Shaykh al-Islām, 136–7, 141

Ibn Kannān, Muḥammad ibn ῾ Īsā al-Ṣāliḥī, 182

Ibn Kathīr, al-Imām Abū ᾽ l-Fidā Ismā ῾ īl, 160, 162, 257, 260

   stories of the Prophet, 333, 335, 336, 337

Ibn Khalaf, ῾ Alī, 104, 105, 128

Ibn Khaldūn, ῾ Abd al-Raḥmān, 166, 414–17

   on Cairo, 102

   and Fatimids, 167

   historical theory, 120, 121, 127, 166, 415

   on impact of Islam on literature, 64, 415

   on muwallada, ‘modernist genres’, 87

   on popular poetry, 87, 200, 201, 216, 266, 307–8

   on pre-Islamic poetry, 415

   on prose style, 108, 127, 414–15

   al-Sakhāwī criticizes, 169

   and Sīrat Banī Hilāl, 266, 307–8

Ibn al-Khalfa, Muḥammad ibn Ismā ῾ īl, 235

Ibn Khālid Aghā, Shaykh Amīn, 239

Ibn al-Khallal, Muwaffaq, 105

Ibn Khallikān, Abū ᾽ l-῾ Abbās, 121, 123, 154

Ibn al-Khashshāb, 150

Ibn al-Khaṭīb, Abū ῾ Abd Allāh Lisān al-Dīn, 108, 140, 196

Ibn al-Khilfa, 90, 97–8

Ibn al-Kūfī al-Wā ῾ iẓ, Shams al-Dīn, 212

Ibn Malik, Badr al-Dīn, 405

Ibn Mammātī, Abū ᾽ l-Makārim As῾ ad al-Muhadhdhab, 104, 117

Ibn Manẓūr, 66, 101, 112, 390–1

Ibn Ma῾ ṣūm, 407

Ibn al-Mukānis, Fakhr al-Dīn ῾ Abd al-Raḥmān, 140

Ibn al-Munawwar, Muḥammad, 146

Ibn al-Muqaffa῾ , see Kalīla wa-Dimna

Ibn Muqātil al-Ḥamawī, ῾ Alī, 211, 217

Ibn al-Murābi ῾ , ῾ Abd Allāh ibn Ibrāhīm al-Azdī, 158

Ibn al-Mustawfī, 390, 391

Ibn al-Mu ῾ tazz, Abū ᾽ l-῾ Abbās ῾ Abd Allāh, 36, 37, 394, 405–6, 407, 416

Ibn al-Nabīh, 211

Ibn al-Nadīm, 249–52, 254, 266

   no mention of sīra, 294, 320

   on Thousand and One Nights, 250, 270–1, 272

Ibn al-Naḥḥās al-Ḥalabī, 61, 63, 69, 70–1

Ibn al-Naqīb al-Ḥusaynī, 62, 70

Ibn Nāqiyā, ῾ Abd Allāh ibn Muḥammad, 149–50, 154

Ibn Nāẓir al-Jaysh, Taqī al-Dīn, 109, 131

Ibn Nubāta al-Miṣrī, Jamāl al-Dīn, 29, 55–6, 111, 217

Ibn Nubāta al-Sa ῾ dī, 40

Ibn Numāra, Akhṭal, 197

Ibn Nuqṭa, 214

Ibn al-Qārī, Sayyid Raslān, 183

Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr, 129–30

Ibn Qutayba, 12, 394

Ibn Quzmān, ῾ Abd al-Malik, 196, 196n10, 197, 202, 204

   and development of zajal, 196–7, 198, 204, 265

   inflected and uninflected speech, 205, 209

Ibn Raḥma al-Ḥuwayzī ( ῾ Abd ῾ Alī ibn Nāṣir), 234

Ibn Rashīd, ῾ Abdallāh, 215

Ibn Rāshid, Yakhlif, 204

Ibn Rashīq al-Qayrawānī, 28, 33n15, 389

Ibn Rushd (Averroes), 408–9

Ibn Ṣāfī, Ḥasan, 154

Ibn Sahl, Ibrāhīm, 196

Ibn Sahl al-Balkhī, 104

Ibn Saḥlūl, al-Bahā ᾽ Khiḍr, 226–7

Ibn Sa ῾ īd al-Maghribī, 197, 198

Ibn al-Ṣā ᾽ igh al-῾ Antarī, 294

Ibn al-Ṣā ᾽ igh al-Ḥanafī, Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad, 139

Ibn Sanā ᾽ al-Mulk, Abū ᾽ l-Qāsim, 41–3, 54, 196n10, 201, 202, 204, 413–14

Ibn Ṣaṣrā, 165

Ibn Ṣayqal al-Jazarī, 13, 150, 151, 152–3, 154

Ibn al-Ṣayrafī, Ibn Munjib, 105

Ibn Sayyid al-Nās (Fatḥ al-Dīn ibn Abī ᾽ l-Fatḥ), 217

Ibn Shaddād, Bahā ᾽ al-Dīn, 123

Ibn Shaddād, ῾ Izz al-Dīn, 123, 125, 163

Ibn Shākir al-Kutubī, 123

Ibn Sharaf al-Dīn, Muḥammad ibn ῾ Abd Allāh, 216

Ibn Shuhayd, Abū ῾ Āmir, 357

Ibn Sīnā, Abū ῾ Alī al-Ḥusayn, 65, 408

Ibn Sīnān al-Khafājī, 411–12

Ibn Sūdūn al-῾ Alā ᾽ al-Bashbughāwī al-Qāhirī (later al-Dimashqī) al-Ḥanafī, ῾ Alī, 140, 227–30, 233, 234, 265–6, 269, 364

Ibn al-Ṣuqā ῾ ī, 123

Ibn Suwaydī of Damascus (῾ Izz al-Dīn Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm Muḥammad Ṭarkhān), 211

Ibn al-Ta῾ āwidhī, 34

Ibn Ṭabāṭabā, 28, 33n16, 66, 399

Ibn Taghrībirdī, Abū ᾽ l-Maḥāsin, 76n7, 125, 168, 169

   biographical writings, 124, 168

   mamlūk descent, 113, 164

Ibn al-Tansī, 75, 82

Ibn Taymiyya, Taqī al-Dīn Aḥmad, 127–8, 129–30, 160–1, 162, 260

Ibn Ṭūlūn al-Ṣāliḥī al-Dimashqī al-Ḥanafī, Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn ῾ Alī, 172n2, 179–80, 181

Ibn ῾ Unayn, 38, 43–4, 54

Ibn Uṣaybi ῾ a, 123

Ibn Wafā ᾽ , ῾ Alī ibn Muḥammad, 258–9

Ibn al-Wakīl (Yūsuf al-Mallawānī), 175

Ibn al-Wardī, ῾ Umar, 141, 158, 227

Ibn Yakhlif, 197

Ibn Yūsuf, Sīdī Aḥmad, 379

Ibn Zakī, Muḥyī al-Dīn, 129

Ibn al-Zamlakānī, ῾ Abd al-Wāḥid, 405

Ibn Zārkah, 62

Ibn Zaydūn, 29, 200, 412

Ibn Zuhr, 192

Ibn Zumruk, 196

Ibn Zurayq, 40

Ibrāhīm ibn Adham, 338

Ibrāhīm al-Mawṣilī (d.235/850), 191–2, 199

Ibrāhīm al-Shāfi ῾ ī, 237

al-Ibshīhī, Shihāb al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, 117, 218

identity: common Arab literary, 39

   intellectuals and writers and, 114–15

   Islamic and ethnic, 221–2

   maqāmāt and, 116

   regionalization and, 125–6

al-῾ Idharī, 90

al-Idkāwī, ῾ Abd Allāh ibn ῾ Abd Allāh ibn al-Salama, 230

Idrīs, Yūsuf, 383

Idrīs al-Bidlīsī, 141

al-Idrīsī, Ibn Maymūn, 258

i ῾ jāz al-Qur᾽ ān (inimitability of Koran), 153, 389, 390, 402

ijāza (certificate of authorized transmission), 267

ikhbārī (dramatic form), 376

Ikhwān al-Ṣafā ᾽ , 89–90

῾ilm, see under badī ῾ ; balāgha; bayān; inshā ᾽ ; ma῾ nā; tarassul

῾ Imād al-Dīn al-Kātib al-Iṣfahānī, 106, 113, 116

   prose style, 12, 103, 107–8, 113, 123–4, 132

   royal biography, 123–4

imagery: classical tradition, 26, 32, 43, 71, 392–3, 402–3

   see also individual types

imitation, 347, 349, 350, 351

   see also mimesis

improvisation, 199, 315–17, 348

Imru᾽ al-Qays, 224–5, 304

i ῾ nāb (elaboration), 11–12, 106

India, 250, 271, 296–7

   Panchatantra, 248–9, 273–4

indigenous traditions, 14, 16; Andalusian popular verse, 198, 199

   drama and, 347–8, 369, 381, 383

individual action in sīra, 328

inflected and uninflected language, 193, 203, 205, 207, 209, 210

inimitability of Koran, 153, 389, 390, 402

inquisition (miḥna ), 9–10

inshā ᾽ , ῾ ilm al-inshā ᾽, 134–5

   inshā ᾽ dīwanī school of prose-writing, 12

instability, social, 27

intercessions, introductory, 96

Intiṣar ῾ Abd al-Fattāḥ, 383

invective, 83, 139, 142, 192

iqṭā ῾ system of land distribution, 220

Iran, see Persia

Iraq: band in, 87–8, 89

   drama, 376, 380

   histories, 186–7

   modernists, 16

   Ottoman conquest, 171

   see also individual places

al-῾ Irāqī, Zayn al-Dīn, 258

al-Irbilī, Bahā ᾽ al-Dīn, 141

irtijāl (extemporaneous poetry), 398, 400

al-Iṣfahānī, Abū ᾽ l-Faraj; Kitāb al-Aghānī, 191–2, 300, 398

al-Iṣfahānī, Abū Nu῾ aym, 333, 335–6, 337

al-Iṣfahānī, Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf, 104

al-Iṣfahānī, ῾ Imad al-Dīn al-Kātib, see under ῾ Imad al-Dīn

al-Isḥāqī, Muḥammad ῾ Abd al-Mu ῾ tī, 174

Islam: effect of advent on literature, 64–5, 108, 415

   and ethnicity, 27, 65–6, 221–2

   Ottomans and, 171

   and popular culture, 118–19, 120, 252–3, 375, 381

   popular practices, 119, 120, 178

   popular preaching, 118, 213

   and sīra, 253, 297, 301, 328–9

   and tribal structure, 320

   see also drama (religious); Koran; religious narrative, popular; religious poetry; Shi ῾ ism; Sufism;

    and under saints

Ismā ῾ īl ibn Abī Yusar, 76

Ismā ῾ īl ibn ῾ Alī, al-Malik al-Afḍal, 211

isnād, fictitious, in risāla, 143

isrā ᾽ īliyyāt (legends of ancient Israel), 248, 330

Istanbul: booksellers, 268, 273

   Bosco theatre, 381

isti ῾ āra (metaphor), 389, 394, 406

῾ itāb (complaints and chiding), 28, 53

῾ Iyāḍ, al-Qāḍī, 336, 337

iyṭa (Moroccan popular poetic form), 216

῾ Izz al-Dīn ibn Shaddād, 123, 125, 163

al-Jabartī, ῾ Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Ḥasan, 121–2, 177–8, 179, 183, 231

Jaffa, 185

al-Jāḥiẓ, Abū ῾ Uthmān al-Baṣrī, 11, 27–8, 248, 353, 356n46, 395

   on imitation, 349, 350

al-Jahshiyārī, Abū ῾ Abd Allāh, 250, 252, 266

Jalāl, Muḥammad ῾ Uthmān, 240–1

Jalīlī dynasty of Mawṣil, 234–5

al-Jalīlī, Muḥammad Amīn Bāshā, 235

Jamāl al-Dīn, Muṣṭafā, 91

Janissaries, 174–5

Jaqmaq, Sultan al-Ẓāhir, 124, 169, 363–4

Jarmānus, Jibrā ᾽ īl ibn Farḥāt, 407

al-Jawbarī, Zayn al-Dīn, 117

al-Jazā ᾽ irī, 90

al-Jazarī, Abū ᾽ l-Khayr Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad, 124

al-Jazarī, Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm, 125, 159, 160–1

al-Jazīrī, ῾ Abd al-Qadīr, 173

al-Jazūlī, 333

Jericho, 376

Jerusalem, 126–7, 179, 183, 370

   in Crusades, 106, 126–7, 128–9

Jesus Christ, in Tale of the Skull, 338

Jews: Algerian, 381–2

   drama in pre-Islamic period, 356–7

   Egyptian, 176

   Hispano-Hebrew poets, 200

   isrā ᾽ īliyyāt, 248, 330

   quṣṣāṣ’ use of legends, 332

   Tunisian, 381

   see also Hebrew literature

jiddiyyāt, 138

al-Jīlī, 128

jinās, see paronomasia

jokes and joke books, 251–2, 260–1

Joseph, 330, 337

journals, 19th-century, 238

Juḥā, 251–2, 260–1

jumal (composite) elements, critical idea of, 394, 400, 402, 403

al-Jundī, Amīn, 70

jurisprudence, 102

   see also Hanbalism

al-Jurjānī, ῾ Abd al-Qāhir, 401–4

   critical works, 12, 134, 135, 389, 401–2

   on inimitability of Koran, 331, 389

   post-classical authors’ organization of ideas, 402–4

al-Jurjānī, al-Qāḍī (῾ Alī ibn ῾ Abd al-῾ Azīz Abū ᾽ l-Ḥasan), 392

al-Jurjānī, al-Sayyid al-Sharīf, 405

al-Juwaynī, ῾ Alā ᾽ al-Dīn and Shams al-Dīn, 152

Ka῾ ba, ῾ Antar’s hanging of poem on door of, 300, 303–4

Kalīla wa-Dimna, 247, 253, 256, 257, 273

   Indian origins, 248–9, 250

Kama Shastra Society, 288

Kamāl al-Dīn ibn al-῾ Adīm al-Kātib, 132, 224

kān wa-kān (popular poetic form), 87, 209, 212–13, 227, 237, 255–6

   Ṣafī ᾽ al-Dīn al-Ḥillī on, 203, 212

Karagöz (Turkish shadow theatre), 361–2, 365–6, 370

Karākūz (Arabic shadow theatre), 365, 369–73

al-Karmalī, Father Anastas Mīrī, 88, 89

al-Kassār, ῾ Alī, 381

kātib al-amwāl (financial secretary), 112

al-Kātib al-Chalabī, see Ḥājji Khalīfa

kātib al-sirr (confidential secretary), 102, 111, 162

Katkhudā ῾ Azabān, Aḥmad al-Damurdāshī, 177

al-Kawkabānī, 62

al-Kaywānī al-Dimashqī, 61, 64, 69, 70

Kāẓim al-Azrī, al-Shaykh, 234

al-Khabbāz al-Baghdādī, 209–10

al-Khafājī, Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn ῾ Umar, 116, 117, 218

al-Khafājī, Shihāb al-Dīn, 13

al-Khāl al-Talwī, 69, 70

Khālid ibn al-Walīd, 320

Khalwatiyya (Sufi order), 178

khamriyya (wine poetry), 28

al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī, 122, 125

al-Khaṭṭābī, 331

khayāl (oral dramatic performance), 352, 356

   al-ẓill, 352, 356, 357

al-Khayālī, ῾ Alī ibn Mawlāhum, 358

al-Khayālī, Muḥammad ibn Mawlāhum, 359

al-Khāzindārī, Qirṭāy al-῾ Izzī, 164–5

Khudādād, tale of, 278

al-Khufanjī, ῾ Alī ibn Ḥasan, 216

khurāfāt (fictional stories), 250, 251

khuṭba (sermon), 135, 331

al-Khwārizmī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn al-῾ Abbās, 12

al-Kīlānī, Muḥammad Sayyid, 57

Kilito, Abdelfattah, 11, 19

kināya (metonymy), 389

al-Kindī, Tāj al-Dīn, 115

Kirkuk, 186

al-Kisā ᾽ ī, 338

kitāb; difference from risāla, 134

Kitāb al-aghānī, 191–2, 300, 398

Kitbugha, 160

Koran: Arabic as language of, 57, 117, 417

   and belletristic prose, 105, 107, 111

   commentaries on, 163, 272, 337–8, 398–9

   Ibn Khaldūn on effect on literature, 64

   inimitability (i ῾ jāz ), 153, 389, 390, 402

   in Ottoman period, 57

   and poetry, 31, 37, 57, 64, 105, 400–1

   saj ῾, 396

   on stories and story-tellers, 248, 249, 330–1, 332, 337–8

   Sūras: (7:101) 330

   (8:31) 253

   (12) 248

   (12:111) 330–1

   (23:3) 253

   (28:11) 330

   (83:13) 253

   (100:1–3) 396

Krachkovski, Ignati I., 130

Kulthūm, sister of prophet Mūsā, 335

kuttāb-sabīl schools, 220

   see also sabīls

kutub ṣufrā, see chapbooks

al-Kutubī, Abū ῾ Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Shākir, 123, 162

Labīd ibn Rabī῾ a, 304

lafẓ (sound), 394–5, 398, 401–2

Lakhmids in Sīrat ῾ Antar, 296, 298

Lamb’s translation of Thousand and One Nights, 285

lāmiyya, 236

lamp, magic, 278

land distribution; iqṭā ῾ system, 220

Lane, Edward W., 285–6, 364

   on oral recitations, 267, 301–2, 303, 313–14, 321

   translation of Thousand and One Nights, 284, 285–6, 289

Langlès, Louis-Mathieu, 283

language, see Arabic language; colloquial language

lantern, magic, 261, 357

law, schools of, 161–2

   see also Hanbalism

Lebanon: Christians, 179, 184, 185

   cultural centre, 179

   drama, 380, 383

   Druzes, 184

   dynasties, 184, 185

   histories, 179, 184, 185

lectures, 102, 149

legends: popular narratives, 257–9, 332

   see also historiography (legendary)

leisure activities, books about, 252

leisured classes, and compendia, 130, 131

letters, see epistolography

Lhéritier, Marie-Jeanne, 279

Li ῾ b al-timsāḥ (The Crocodile Play), 233, 261–2

El libro de las batallas, 258

Libya, 373, 374

licence: bawdy stories, 252

   drama, 350, 365, 366, 367–8, 371–2

   ḥikāya, 350

   mujūn literature, 350

   see also obscenity; sexuality

linguistics, 3, 58

literacy: orality, 3, 18

   spread, 220, 222, 230, 309

literary history, methods and issues in, 3–6

Littmann, Enno, 284, 289

liturgy, Christian, 240

livelihood, literature as means to, 66, 72, 114, 196, 265–6

   eulogies, 33, 34–5, 52, 55, 230

   see also patronage

love: belletristic prose on, 129–30, 141

   popular stories of, 250–1, 252

   in sīra, 326, 327, 328

   see also ghazal

Luqmān al-Ḥakīm, 338

ma῾ ānī, ῾ ilm al-ma῾ ānī, 403, 417

al-Ma῾ arrī, Abū ᾽ l-῾ Alā ᾽ , 11, 33n15, 39–40, 74–5, 132, 355–6

MacDonald, D. B., 267, 290

maddāḥ (eulogiser, story-teller), 335–6, 338, 367, 380

Madghallīs (or Mudghalīs), 204, 206

madḥ, madīḥ, see eulogy, poetic

madrasas, 152, 227, 267, 379

maghāzī narratives, 305–6, 323, 324

magic, 120, 251, 260, 295, 324

magic lantern show, 261, 357

Mahdī, Ḥusayn al-Ḥājj, 237

Mahdi, Muhsin, 289

majālis literature, 353

majlis, 149, 221

Majnūn Laylā, 250, 263

Makridāj al-Kasīh, 75

malāḥim (eschatological disasters), 162

al-Malā ᾽ ika, Jamīl, 91–2

al-Malā ᾽ ika, Nāzik, 91, 92, 95

al-Mālaqī, ῾ Umar, 158

Mālaṭī, Ḥabīb Ablā, 383

al-Malik al-Kāmil ibn Ayyūb, 128–9

al-Malik al-Ẓāhir, see Baybars I

al-Mallawānī, Yūsuf (Ibn al-Wakīl), 175, 176

Mamluk period, see individual rulers and under individual genres and patronage

mamlūks: education, 119, 126, 159

   importation, 112

   sons and descendants (awlād al-nās ), 113, 164, 169–70, 221, 227

ma῾ nā (idea), 394–5, 398, 401–2, 410

   ma῾ ānī, ῾ ilm al-ma῾ ānī, 403, 417

   ma῾ nā al-ma῾ nā, 401–2

al-Manāwī, Dāwūd, 363

Ma῾ nid dynasty of Lebanon, 184

Manjak Pāshā al-Yūsufī, al-Amīr, 61, 64, 68–9, 70–1

manuscripts: Manzala, of shadow plays, 362, 363

   pictorial miniatures, 263

   popular poetry circulated in, 204, 229

   popular prose, 247, (see also sīras (oral and written traditions), and under Thousand and One Nights ); see also oral tradition (and written tradition); written texts

maqāla, 134

maqām (harangue or sermon), 146, 154–5, 157

maqāma (narrative genre), 12–13, 114–17, 145–57

   characteristics, 145–50

   and drama, 348–9, 352–5, 358, 360, 362

   eloquent display in, 147–8, 151–3

   fusion with other genres, 115, 118, 158, 351, 352

   (maqām ), 146, 154–5, 157

   (risāla ), 114, 135, 143, 355

   and ḥikāya, 348, 350–1

   Ibn Sūdūn, 265

   language, 147–8, 154, 348

   moralizing, 154–7

   narrator figure, 354

   in other languages, 145, 157

   parodic nature, 148, 149

   performance, 150, 351, 354–5

   popular elements, 247

   running gags, 145, 354

   al-Ṣafadī’s on wine, 162

   saj ῾, 13, 155, 157, 158, 353

   sermons, 147–8, 152–3

   status, 114–17, 253

   structure, 146–7, 148

   verbs of transmission, 149–50, 155–6

   vulgar and serious coexist, 359

   see also al-Hamadhānī, Badī ῾ al-Zamān; al-Ḥarīrī, Abū Muḥammad al-Qāsim ibn ῾ Alī

al-Maqarrī, Ibn Jum῾ a, 183

al-Maqdisī, ῾ Īsā ibn Muḥammad, 218

al-Maqrīzī, Taqī al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn ῾ Alī, 120–1, 134, 166–7

   on Baḥrī period, 132

   on Cairene topography, 126

   criticism of, 168, 169

   on education of mamlūks, 119

   and fantastic history of Pharaonic Egypt, 159

   on ῾ ulamā ᾽, 120

   on word dīwān, 103

Mardin, 52, 202–3

Mardrus, J. C., 284, 288–9

marginalia in written texts, 267

Mar ῾ ī ibn Yūsuf al-Ḥanbalī al-Maqdisī (al-Karmī), 174

marionettes, 231, 373–4

   puppeteers, 363, 365, 366

   see also shadow plays

marketplace, 266, 332–3

   cultural milieu of time as, 113–14

Marrakesh, 268, 273, 298, 302–3, 377

marvels, see mirabilia

Mary (mother of Jesus), 330, 334, 335

Maspéro, Gaston, 192

masqueraders, 378

al-Mas῾ ūdī, Abū ᾽ l-Ḥasan ῾ Alī ibn al-Ḥusayn, 271

mawālid works, in praise of Prophet, 333

mawāliyyā (popular poetic form), 87, 208–12, 255

   Ibn Sūdūn, 228

   Iraqi, 234, 237

   Moroccan form, 216

   sabā ῾ ī form, 211–12

   al-Ṣafadī, 220

   Ṣafī ᾽ al-Dīn al-Ḥillī and, 203–4, 208–10

   in shadow plays, 358

   Shaykh Amīn ibn Khālid Aghā, 239

   Sudanese forms, 216

   use to record historical events, 226–7

mawlids, 84, 341–2, 370, 378

al-Mawṣilī, ῾ Abd al-Raḥmān, 62

al-Mawṣilī, Ibrāhīm (d.235/850), 191–2, 199

al-Mawṣilī, Isḥāq ibn Ibrāhīm, 199

al-Mawṣilī, al-Shaykh Muḥammad al-῾ Umarī, 237

mawwāl (popular poetic form), 211–12, 216, 268

al-Maydānī, Aḥmad, 262

Mecca, pilgrimage to, 131, 287

médersas, Algerian, 379

media, modern: effect on popular culture, 314, 322, 380–1

   stock themes, 298, 325

   see also newspapers; recording, audio

Mehmet Pasha, 174

melisma, 316

merchants: wealthy, 238

   see also bourgeoisie, petite

Messianic movements, 80–1

metaphor (isti ῾ āra ), 389, 394, 406

metonymy (kināya ), 389

‘Middle Ages’, 1, 6–8

middle classes, 193–4, 220, 238

   see also bourgeoisie, petite

miḥna (inquisition), 9–10

Miḥyār al-Daylamī, 40

al-Mīlāwī, Yūsuf ibn al-Waklī, 260

al-Mi ῾ mār, al-Shaykh Ibrāhīm al-Ḥā ᾽ ik, 83, 211, 212

mime, 357, 366, 367, 379, 380

mimesis (muḥākā ), 350, 351, 408–9, 410, 411, 417

miniatures, manuscript, 263

mirabilia (῾ ajā ᾽ ib ), 251, 252, 263, 295, 330, 338

   in histories, 161, 164, 170, 295

miracles (mu ῾ jizāt ); in orthodox religious texts, 253, 257

   in popular religious narrative, 257, 330, 343, 344

   (of Coptic Patriarch Mittawus IV), 341

   (of the Prophet), 333, 335–6

‘mirror for princes’ genre, 169

Miskawayh, 10

al-Miṣrī, Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-Naḥḥās, 104

missionaries, 19th-century Christian, 238

Mīt Damsīs, 344

Mittawus IV, Coptic Patriarch, 340–2

modernity, 6, 7, 15, 16

Mongol invasions, 26, 74, 101–2, 119, 160

   sack of Baghdad, 76, 102

moral tales, 259

Morocco, 102, 132, 216, 307

   drama, 371, 374, 377, 380, 383

Moses Sephardi (Petrus Alfonsi), 256

Mosul, 234–5

   histories of, 186, 187

Mu ῾ allaqāt, 247, 304

al-Mu᾽ ayyad, Shaykh, 124, 168

al-Mu᾽ ayyad al-῾ Alawī, Yaḥyā ibn Ḥamza, 405

al-Mu᾽ ayyad al-Ayyūbī, see Abū ᾽ l-Fidā

al-Mu᾽ ayyad fī ᾽ l-Dīn, 34n17

al-Mu᾽ ayyad Muḥammad ibn al-Mujallī ibn al-Ṣā ᾽ igh al-Jazarī (al-῾ Antarī), 266

al-Mu ῾ aẓẓam ῾ Īsā, 126–7

Mubārak, ῾ Alī Pasha, 381

Mudghalīs (or Madghallīs), 204

mufassirūn (Koranic commentators), 337–8

mufrad (single) elements, critical idea of, 394, 400, 402, 403

muḥabbaẓūn (performers of farces), 374–6

muḥaddithūn (story-tellers), 367

muḥākā, see mimesis

Muḥammad, the Prophet: birth and infancy, 334–5

   and Camel’s Utterance, 336–7

   classical biographies, 257, 333, 334

   dalā ᾽ il works, 333

   eulogy of, 83–6, 203

   (see also badī ῾ iyya ); and gazelle, 335–6

   Ibn Kathīr on al-Bakrī’s life of, 260

   Libro de las batallas on, 258

   mawlid, 84, 370

   miracles, 257, 333, 335–6

   popular religious narrative on, 248, 333–7

   on preaching, qaṣṣa, 331

   primordial light of, 84, 334

   shamā ᾽ il works, 333

   and sighing tree-trunk, 337

   in sīra, 297, 301, 320

   and Tamīm al-Dārī’s tales, 332

   see also badī ῾ iyya

Muḥammad, son of Sultan Jaqmaq, 168

Muḥammad ibn ῾ Abd Allāh, Sultan of Morocco, 377

Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, Abū Sinn, 216

Muḥammad ῾ Alī Pasha, 178, 284

   and drama, 375–6, 381

   and education, 238, 240–1

Muḥammad al-Nayfar, Shaykh, 70

Muḥammad Rashīd Bey, 62

Muḥarram, masquerades during, 378

muḥāwara, 351–2

al-muḥdathūn (‘modernists’), 28

al-Muḥibbī, Muḥibb al-Dīn Muḥammad al-Amīn ibn Faḍl Allāh, 61–2, 70–1, 181–2, 218, 256

muḥtasibs (market inspectors), 332–3

Muḥyī al-Dīn Abū ᾽ l-Faḍl Yaḥyā, 140

mujtalab prosodic system, 91

mujūn literature, 350

mukaffir (poetic form), 205

mukhammas (poetic form), 199

mulā ᾽ ama (balance between pairs of phrases or sentences), 32

al-Munāwī, ῾ Abd al-Ra᾽ ūf, 333, 339–40

Munayyar al-Zawqī, Father Ḥanāniyyā, 239–40

al-Munayyir, Ḥananiyā, 185

al-munāẓara, see debate, literary

munshid (reciter, story-teller), 367

muqābala (contrasting strategy in poetry), 32

al-Muqaddisī, ῾ Izz al-Dīn ibn ῾ Abd al-Salām, 382

muqallidūn (mimes), 366

murabba῾ (poetic form), 199

   kāmil, 211

Murād IV, Sultan, 365

Murād ibn al-Najjār, 283

al-Murādī, Muḥammad Khalīl ibn ῾ Alī, 122, 183

murāja ῾ a, 212

al-Murtaḍā al-Shahrazūrī, 45, 45n34

musaḥḥirūn, poems for use by, 208, 213–14

musammaṭ (poetic form), 54, 199–201, 228, 303

al-Mūsawī, Ma ῾ tūq, 62, 70, 90, 93–4, 234

music: Arab influence in Andalusia, 198–9

   Ibn Sūdūn specifies modes, 228

   and muwashshaḥ scansion, 202

   shadow plays accompanied by, 370

   Shaykh Amīn ibn Khālid Aghā’s songs, 239

   and zajal, 206, 219

   see also under sīra, popular

al-Mustanṣir, 34n17

al-Mutanabbī (Abū Ṭayyib Aḥmad ibn al-Ḥusayn), 10

   Averroes on, 409

   al-Badī ῾ ī’s biography of, 132, 390

   eulogies, 30, 33

   importance, 10–11, 29, 30, 393–4

   naqd works on, 390, 391, 392, 393–4, 416

al-Muṭarrizī, 150

Mūtārūs (doctor in Spain), 137n16

al-Muwaḥḥidūn, see Almohads

muwallada (‘modernist genres’), 87

muwashshaḥ (popular poetic form), 41–2, 195–6, 255

   Andalusian connections, 87, 195–6, 201, 202

   eastward dissemination, 201

   elite prejudice against, 192

   hubāliyya, 228, 229

   Ibn al-῾ Arabī, 78

   Ibn Sanā ᾽ al-Mulk, (compositions), 201, 204

   (criticism on), 196n10, 201–2, 413–14

   Ibn Sūdūn, 228, 229, 265

   language, 194, 195–6, 201, 202, 413

   musammaṭ as possible precursor, 199–201

   music and scansion, 202

   parody on wine song, 231

   Ṣafī al-Dīn al-Ḥillī and, 54, 197, 203, 204, 205

   al-Shābb al-Ẓarīf, 50

   in shadow plays, 262, 358

   structure, metre and form, 195–6, 201–2, 413

   religious content, 82

   and zajal, 197, 200–1, 204

al-Muwayliḥī, Muḥammad, 115, 116

al-Muẓaffar, 90

muzannam (poetic form), 205

muzdawija (poetic form), 200

nabaṭī poetry, 215

al-Nābulusī, ῾ Abd al-Ghanī, 62, 81, 120, 128, 182n31, 212–13

   al-Bahlūl’s panegyric of, 69

   cryptogram, 67–8

   introduction to Dīwān, 70

   religious poetry, 81

al-Nābulusī, ῾ Uthmān ibn Ibrāhīm, 104

al-Nadīm, ῾ Abd Allāh, 241–2

al-Nadr ibn al-Ḥārith, 253

Nafīsa, al-Sayyida, 338–40, 344

al-Nafzāwī, Shaykh ῾ Umar ibn Muḥammad, 130

al-nahḍa, 7, 14, 30

   developments leading to, 238, 347–8

al-Nahrawālī, Qutb al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, 173

Najm al-Dīn Ghāzī, al-Malik al-Manṣūr, 52

Napoleon I, Emperor of France, 122, 238

naqd (applied criticism), works of, 388–9, 390–4, 416

al-Naqqāsh, Mārūn, 383

narrative, 4, 19

   in band, 96

   in kān wa-kān, 255–6

   popular, creativity in, 72

   in risāla, 138

   royal letters and debates, 138

   structure in sīra, 293, 296, 297–8, 307, 309, 311–13, 321, 327–8

   see also religious narrative, popular; story-telling

narrator figure in drama, 361

Nāṣīf al-Yāzijī, see under al-Yāzijī

al-Nāṣir, caliph, 214

al-Nāṣir Ḥasan, Sultan, 165

al-Nāṣir Muḥammad ibn Qalāwūn, al-Malik, 163, 203, 217, 223

al-Nāṣirī, Yalbughā, 226–7

Na῾ ῾ ūm Efendi, Mīkhā ᾽ īl, 381

navigation, writings on, 132

al-Nawājī, Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Ḥasan, 218, 399–400

nawriyyāt (flower poems), 36

Nerval, Gérard de, 364–5, 375

New Critics, 3–4

newspapers, 238, 241–2

Nicholson, R. A., 3

Niebuhr, Ch., 364

Nile: Burton and Speke’s expedition, 287

   dramatic performances on, 378–9

   floods, 121, 140, 176, 220, 223

Niqūlā al-Turk, 185

novel, maqāma and, 145

al-Nu῾ ayma, Mīkhā ᾽ īl, 15

al-Nu῾ aymī, ῾ Abd al-Qādir, 125, 180, 180n27, 181

numerology, 165

Nūr Muḥammad, ‘Light of Muḥammad’, 84, 334

Nuṭq al-jamal (The Camel’s Utterance), 336–7

al-Nuwayrī, Shihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn ῾ Abd al-Wahhāb, 12, 131, 135, 165–6

al-Nuwayrī al-Iskandarānī, 165

Nuzhat al-udabā ᾽, 260–1

obituaries, 160, 161, 178

obscenity, 43, 115, 118

   see also licence; sexuality; and under Thousand and One Nights

occasional verses, 213, 228, 233, 265

officials, 83, 101, 239

   see also chancery; governors; scribes, clerks and secretaries

ojaqs (regiments in Cairo), 174–5

oral tradition, 3, 18

   apprenticeship of poets, 314, 315

   band and, 90, 92

   belles-lettres interact with, 359–60

   literary debate genre in modern, 144

   modern media and, 314

   music transmitted by, 199

   oral-formulaic techniques, 317–18

   and popular poetry, 204, 229

   in popular prose, 266

   (see also under sīra, popular)

   AND WRITTEN TRADITION, 252

   copying direct from oral sources, 204, 266, 268–9, 308

   and popular prose, 252, 254–5, 267–9

   written-oral-written transmission, 267

   see also under sīra, popular

oratory, 128–9

organization of current volume, 17–21

Oriental Tale genre, European, 278–9, 285

Ott, Claudia, 289

Ottoman period, 5–6

   Arabic language in, 57, 231

   turkicization, 17, 57, 61, 231

   see also individual rulers and under individual genres and patronage

Ouargla, Algeria, 378

Palache (or Falyadj), Isaac Ben Joseph, 381–2

palm tree, sighing, 257

Panchatantra, 248–9, 273–4

panegyric, see eulogy, poetic; eulogy, prose

paper-making, 245, 246

Paret, R., 302

parody: in maqāma, 148, 149

   in popular poetry, 224–5, 231, 233, 236

paronomasia (jinās, tajnīs ), 38, 68, 394, 407

   in popular poetry, 207, 210, 211–12

partisanship (ta῾ aṣṣub ), 392–3

patriotism, 187–8

patronage: Ayyubid, 47

   Buyid era, 10

   by caliph and court, 10

   in chancery, 111, 112

   debate genre and, 142

   eulogizing for pay, 33, 34–5, 52, 55, 230

   by governors, 234–5

   Mamluk, 166, 169, 220–1, 222

   Ottoman, 230–1, 255

   of popular poetry, 194–5, 196, 209–10, 219–20, 237

   by al-Qādī ᾽ l-Fāḍil, of Ibn Sanā ᾽ al-Mulk, 41

   regional centres, 9, 10, 234–5

   risāla and, 140

pay, writing for, 66, 72, 114, 196, 265–6

   eulogies, 33, 34–5, 52, 55, 230

Payne, John, 284, 286–7, 288, 289

peasants, al-Shirbīnī on, 231–4

Pellat, Charles, 331–2, 333

pen and sword, debate between, 113, 142n44, 143, 158

Penço de la Vega, Joseph, 381–2

performance: Cairene performers’ guilds, 357n53; ḥikāya as destined for, 351, 357n53

   maqāma as destined for, 354–5

   popular poetry, 194, 219

   see also drama; music; qaṣṣāṣīn; religious narrative, popular; story-tellers

periodization, literary-historical, 5–6, 17, 415

   blurring, 8–17

Perrault, Charles, 279, 280

Persia: band, 89

   frame-tale collections, 250, 252, 270–1

   histories of, 186–7, 264

   (siyar on pre-Islamic), 296, 320, 323

   maqāma in, 145

   popular epic, 324

   popular literature identified with resistance to Islam, 252–3

   recitations, 268, 273

   strength of cultural influence, 26

   translation of popular prose to Arabic, 248–9, 250, 252, 270–1

Persian language, Ibn Sanā ᾽ al-Mulk’s use in muwashshaḥ, 202

personification in debate genre, 142, 143

Pétis de la Croix, François, 278

Petrus Alfonsi (Moses Sephardi), 256

philological treatises, 117, 394, 417

philosophy, 388, 389–90, 408–12

picaresque narratives, 145, 253, 261

pictorial tradition, 263, 305, 306

pilgrimage, 131, 179, 182, 192, 287

plagiarism (sariqāt ), 392, 393, 394, 404, 411, 416

plague, 166, 220, 223, 225–6

   histories on, 140–1, 165, 176

   (Ibn al-Wardī’s account), 140–1, 158, 227

poetics, adab works on, 398–401

poetry, elite, 25–57, 60–71, 74–86

   and alien discourses, 66–71, 72

   and Arab literary identity, 39, 221–2

   artificiality, 32, 37, 43, 57–8

   classical, 26–7, 31, 57, 58–9, 70–1

   and colloquial language, 30, 31, 43, 49, 57, 191

   communication breaks down, 65–6, 71

   and cryptograms, 62–3, 67–9

   decline, 21, 27–8, 35–6, 37–8, 57–8, 60–71, 118

   (see also under ghazal ); descriptive, 28, 36–7, 42, 53, 56

   development, outline of, 26–32

   diction and syntax, 30–2

   emotional expression, 35–6, 42, 43–5, 46, 47–8

   (decline), 27–8, 35–6, 37, 42, 51, 57–8

   imagery, 26, 32, 43, 71

   impact of Islam, 64–5, 221–2, 400–1

   influence of Koran, 31, 37, 57, 400–1

    internal and external experience in, 29, 30, 35–6, 46, 49, 96

   modern return to Arab tradition, 30, 38

   new forms, 62–3, 78, 82

   ornamentation, 37–8, 41, 42–3, 67–9

   particularity lost, 29, 30

   payment for, 33, 34–5, 52, 55, 66, 72

   poets, 39–44

   (absence of faḥl, major poet), 28–9, 39

   (low status), 63–5

   and political events, 25–6, 61

   prose in ascendancy over, 72, 103, 105, 109, 395–7, 416, 417

   and religious discourse, 29–30, 62–3, 69–70

   (see also religious poetry); and risāla, 137, 139

   in shadow plays, 361

   in sīra, 247

   16th–18th centuries, 56–8, 60–71

   social instability and, 27

   and statehood, 28

   Sufi, 29, 35–6, 44–56, 58

   syntactic loosening, 31–2, 37, 57–8

   theme and meaning, 27–30

   and tribal structure, 64–5

poetry, elite (cont.)

   vigour, 26–7, 31

   (loss of), 27–8, 31–2, 35–6, 37–8

   see also badī ῾ iyyāt; band; conceits; eulogy, poetic; faḥl; ghazal; religious poetry; and under historiography; pre-Islamic period; satire; sexuality; tradition, Arab (poetic); urbanization

poetry, popular, 191–242

   class of audience, 193–4, 219–20, 222

   common people’s production, 192

   critical study of, 201–10, 216–17, 220

   (see also under Ibn Sanā ᾽ al-Mulk; Ṣafī al-Dīn al-Ḥillī); delimitation, 191–5

   elegiac mode, 211, 225–6

   elite attitudes to, 191–2, 194, 241

   elite poets’ compositions, 193, 236–7, 241

   inflected and uninflected language, 193, 203, 205, 207, 209, 210

   language hybrid of colloquial and standard Arabic, 193, 196, 228, 413

   liminal status, 227

   Mamluk era, 218–30

   manuscript circulation, 204, 229

   middle classes and, 193–4

   music and, 198–9, 202, 206, 219, 228, 239

   new forms, 255–6

   occasional verses, 213, 228, 233, 265

   oral circulation, 204, 229

   origins and forms, 195–218

   Ottoman era, 230–42

   patronage, 194–5, 196, 209–10, 219–20, 237

   performance setting, 194, 219

   political content, 222, 223, 226–7, 242

   preachers’ use, 213

   scribes’ alterations, 192, 256

   sexuality in, 206–8

   social complaint, 223–5

   in Sudan, 216

   and Sufism, 226, 237

   transcription conventions, 192, 215, 246–7, 256, 262, 267

   translations from European languages, 240–1

   women’s use, 213

   see also individual forms, especially bullayq; humaynī; kān wa-kān ; mawāliyya; musammaṭ ; muwashshaḥ ; nabaṭī poetry; qūmā; sīra, popular; zajal ; and under Andalusia; historiography; parody

polemic, anti-Christian, 165

politics: events, and literature, 25–6

   popular poetry on, 222, 223, 226–7, 242

   as reason for ‘decadence’, 27, 61, 71

popular culture and literature: attitudes towards, 241, 252–4, 272

   and elite culture, see elite and popular culture; European, 245

   formulaic nature of literature, 325

   and Islam, 118–19, 120, 178, 252–3, 375, 381

   (preaching), 118, 213

   patronage, 220

   (see also under poetry, popular); sīra and wider Islamic, 324

   stock themes of heroism and romance, 325

   see also drama; poetry, popular; prose, popular; and individual genres

‘post-classical period’, use of term, 1

poverty, complaint about, 223–5

praise of self or tribe, see fakhr

preaching, see sermons

pre-Islamic period: drama, 356–7

   poetry, 247, 392–3, 415

   siyar on, 293, 320, 323, 328

‘pre-modern’, use of term, 374

printing, 245, 259, 282–4, 295

   see also chapbooks; Thousand and One Nights (printed editions)

prophets, narratives about, 248, 330, 337–8

prose, belletristic, 101–33

   chancery education, 101, 105–6

   creative impulse shifts to popular prose, 72

   cultural continuity, 102

   decentralization and, 102, 104, 114–15, 125–6, 130

   Dīwān al-Inshā ᾽ and, 103–5

   generic hierarchies, 101

   Koranic discourse in, 105, 107, 111

   on love, 129–30, 141

   lucidity of style, 132

   oral literature interacts with, 359–60

   and poetry, 72, 105

   (critics on superiority of prose), 103, 109, 416, 417

   and popular culture, discursive middle ground, 118–19

   satire, caricature and entertainment, 117–18, 121

   scribal hierarchy, 101, 113–14

   Sufi discourse, 127–8

   ῾ ulamā ᾽ of Baḥrī period, 119–20

   variety, 132

   see also adab; band; chancery; compendia; competition, literary; criticism, literary; debate, literary; epistolography; historiography; maqāma; oratory; risāla; saj ῾ ; scribes, clerks and secretaries; sermons; topography; travel literature

prose, popular, 245–68

   bawdy stories, 252

   creative impulse, 72

   didactic tales, 252

   epic, see sīra, popular; exemplary stories, 252

   historical overview, 247–9, 254–64

   humorous tales, 260–1

   Ibn al-Nadīm on, 249–52, 254

   language, classical and colloquial, 246–7

   by learned writers, 264–6

   lovers, tales of, 250–1, 252

   miscellaneous tales, 251–2

   moral tales, 259

   new genres, post-classical, 256

   oral and written traditions, 252, 254–5, 266

   Persian, 248–9, 250, 252

   production and consumption, 252, 264–9

   proverb collections, 252, 262–3

   sermons decrying, 272

   Sufi, 257

   translations into Arabic, pre-Islamic and early Islamic, 248–9

   see also band; historiography (popular); jokes and joke books; mirabilia; religious narrative, popular; romances; shadow plays; sīra, popular; story-telling; Thousand and One Nights

prosody, 399, 413–14

proverbs: in elite literature, 262

   popular collections, 252, 262–3

psalter in zajal form, 240

publishing, 238, 245–6, 295

   see also Bulaq press; chapbooks; printing

puppets, see marionettes; shadow plays

puzzles, 62–3, 67–9, 88–9

al-Qabrī, Muḥammad ibn Maḥmūd, 195

al-Qāḍī ᾽ l-Fāḍil, Abū ῾ Alī (῾ Abd al-Raḥīm al-Baysānī), 41, 102, 105, 115

   Ibn al-Athīr and, 106

   prose style, 12, 107, 113, 162

   and symbolism of shadow plays, 261, 358

al-Qāḍī ῾ Iyāḍ, 336, 337

Qalāwūn, Sultan, 161, 162, 163

al-Qalqashandī, al-Qāḍī Shihāb al-Dīn, 12, 109–10

   on Abū ᾽ l-Ḥasan al-Bakrī, 257

   on Cairo as cultural centre, 130–1

   on epistolography, 111–12, 135

   and Faḍl Allāh family, 112

   on al-Ḥarīri, 114

   on Ibn ῾ Abd al-Ẓāhir, 163

   literary debates, 113, 142, 142n44, 143

   maqāmāt, 109–10, 112–13

   on prose style, 108–9

   on risāla, 137–40

   on scribal hierarchy, 112–13

   on superiority of prose to poetry, 103, 104–5, 109

Qānṣūh al-Ghūrī, Sultan, 159

Qarāqūsh, Bahā ᾽ al-Dīn, 117

qarqiyy (type of zajal ), 205

al-Qarṭājannī, Ḥazīm, 28–9, 65, 388, 412, 415

    and Hellenistic philosophy, 388, 389–90, 409–11

al-Qashshāsh, Darwīsh, 366

al-Qashshāsh, Ḥasan, 363, 366

Qāsim ibn ῾ Aṭā ᾽ al-Miṣrī, al-Shaykh, 230–1

al-Qāsimī, Shaykh, 182

qaṣṣāṣīn (popular performing groups), 333

al-Qazwīnī (20th-century author of band ), 90

al-Qazwīnī, Khaṭīb Dimashq, 404, 415

al-Qazwīnī, Zakariyyā ᾽ ibn Muḥammad, 263

qidmat al-bunduq (description of fowling), 139, 144

al-Qinālī (or al-Qaynalī), Muṣṭafā ibn Ibrāhīm al-Maddāh, 176–7

Qirṭāy al-῾ Izzī al-Khāzindārī, 164–5

Qiṣaṣ al-῾ anbiyā ᾽ (Stories of the Prophets), 248, 338

qiṣāṣ al-mashāyikh (recitations), 268

qiṣṣa, see religious narrative, popular

Qiṣṣat Miqdād (heroic narrative), 319

Qu῾ ayyid ῾ Āshūrā ᾽ (masquerader), 378

Qudāma ibn Ja ῾ far, 33n16, 69, 399, 406

quests in sīra, 296, 327

qūmā or qawmā (popular poetic form), 87, 203, 208, 209, 213–14, 255

al-Qurayshī, Riḍā Muḥsin, 213, 217

al-Qurṭī, 271

quṣṣāṣ (sing. qāṣṣ, religious story-tellers), see religious narrative, popular

rabāb (spike-fiddle), 267, 313, 314

rabī ῾ iyyāt (spring poems), 36

race, Islam and, 27, 65–6, 221–2

radio, 322, 380–1

al-Rāfī ῾ ī, 92

al-Rāghib al-Iṣfahānī, Abū ᾽ l-Qāsim, 12

al-Raḥabī, Maḥmūd, 186–7

rajaz poetry, 91–2, 200

Ramadan, 82–3, 213–14, 370

ramal metre, 91–2

Rashīd al-Khalāwī, 215

Rashidi dynasty of Hayil, 215

Rasmussen’s translation of Thousand and One Nights, 284

al-Rawḍ al-waḍḍāh…(collection of shadow plays), 261–2

rāwīs (story-tellers), 380

Rayy, 10, 12

al-Rāzī, Badr al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Muẓaffar ibn al-Mukhtār, 153

al-Rāzī, Fakhr al-Dīn, 402–3, 415

reading, process of, 4

readings of maqāma, public, 150

recitation, see story-telling

recording, audio, 192, 268, 380–1

re-examination of cultural heritage, current, 16

regionalization, 10

   and belletristic prose, 102, 104, 114–15, 125–6, 130

   and eulogy, 33, 34

    and identity formation, 125–6

   and patronage, 9, 10, 234–5

   and topographical narratives, 125–6

religious narrative, popular (qiṣṣa ), 247–8, 257–9, 324, 330–44

   characteristics and texture, 343–4

   Christian, 338, 340–2, 343

   on Companions of the Prophet, 338

   contexts and performers, 247–8, 331–3

   controversies over, 247–8, 258–9, 330, 332–3

   decreasing religious content, 252, 333

   on impious men and women, 342–3

   Koranic narratives and references to narratives, 248, 249, 330–1, 332, 337–8

   local connections, 339–40, 344

   on pious men and women, 330, 338–42

   on the Prophet, 333–7

   on prophets, 248, 330, 337–8

   sources, 330

   state-appointed performers, 332

   texts, 333–43

   see also under miracles

religious orders and corporations, 236–7

religious poetry, 29–30, 74–86

   ascetic (zuhdiyya ), 74–5

   al-Būṣīrī, 74, 84–6

   Christian, 75, 82, 83, 86

   elegy (rithā ᾽ ), 75–6

   eulogy, 69–70, 76–7, (prophetic, madīḥ al-nabawī ), 83–6

   (see also badī ῾ iyya ); of holy war, 76–7

   Ibn ῾ Āmir al-Baṣrī, 80–1

   Ibn al-῾ Arabī, 77–8

   Ibn al-Fāriḍ, 74, 78–80

   invective, 83

   al-Nābulusī, 81

   satire, 83

   Sufi, 44–6

renaissance: 10th-century, 9

   20th-century, see nahḍa

rhapsodes (ḥakawātīs, maddāḥūn, rāwīs), 367, 380

riddles, 53, 56, 82, 138, 139, 265

Riḍwān Katkhudā al-Jalfī, 230

Rifā ῾ a Rāfi ῾ al-Ṭahṭāwī, 241

al-Rīḥānī, Najīb, 381

riḥla (travel writing), 138–9, 143–4, 215

Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolai Andreievich, 293

risāla (essay genre), 109–12, 144n51

   allusion and quotation in, 137

   application of term, 134, 135, 143, 351, 352, 355

   autobiographical, 139–40

    in biographical dictionaries, 136

   categorization by al-Qalqashandī, 137–40

   on cities, 140

   descriptive element, 137

   diction, 135, 137

    and drama, 355–6

   functional, 134, 135–6

risāla (essay genre) (cont.)

   humorous, 138, 140

   Ibn Ḥabīb al-Ḥalabī’s faṣls (‘paragraphs’), 144

   and ῾ ilm al-inshā ᾽, 134–5

   lexical versatility, 137

   literary, 134, 135, 137–44

   and maqāma, 114, 135, 143, 355

   munāẓara, 135

   narrative, 138

   and patronage, 140

   and poetry, 137, 139

   riḥla (travelogue), 138–9, 143–4, 215

   saj ῾, 135, 136, 137

   technical, 134, 136–7

rithā ᾽, see elegy

Riyā, 374

rogue and trickster figure (῾ ayyār ) in popular literature, 261, 296, 310, 311, 323–4, 325–6

Romance language, Andalusian, 195–6, 202

romances, popular, 57, 220, 230, 263–4

   see also sīra, popular

royal letters, 138–9

rubā ῾ ī (poetic form), 255

Rūmī, Mawlānā Jalāl al-Dīn, 79

al-Rummānī, 331

al-Rundī, al-Sharīf Abū ᾽ l-Baqā ᾽ , 40n23, 76

Russel, A., 364

Russian Formalists, 95

al-Ṣabbāgh, ῾ Abbūd, 184

al-Ṣabbāgh, Mīkhā ᾽ īl, 184, 282

sabīls, 230

   see also kuttāb-sabīl schools

Sa ῾ diyya order, 182

Ṣafad, 179

al-Ṣafadī, Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Khalīl ibn Aybak, 162

   biographical dictionary, 123, 162

   chancery career, 101, 112

   critical works, 106, 112, 153, 161, 397–8, 407, 412–13

   mamlūk descent, 113, 164

   range of writings, 141, 162, 220

al-Ṣafadī, Zayn al-Dīn ῾ Umar, 111

al-Ṣafāqisī, Muḥammad, 62, 71

Ṣafī ᾽ al-Dīn al-Ḥillī, 51–4, 56, 202–10

   and colloquial language, 215, 414, 416, 417

   eulogy, 52, 53, 202–3

   (of Prophet), 203

   later influence, 216–18

   limitations, 214–15

   popular poetry by, 82–3, 202–4, 205

   on popular poetry, 202–10, 225

   (by common people), 192

   (kān wa-kān ), 203, 212

   (mawāliyyā ), 203–4, 208–10

   (muwashshaḥ ), 54, 197, 203, 204, 205

   (qūmā ), 203, 214

   (zajal ), 197, 203, 204–8, 413, 414, 415, 416

   transcription conventions, 215

sailors, dramatic performances by, 378–9

saints: Christian, 341–2, 343, 344

   Islamic, 119, 120, 176, 341–2

   (popular narratives about), 330, 338–40, 344

   (see also mawlid s )

saj ῾ (rhymed prose), 107–9

   band as type of, 88–9, 90–1, 92–4

   al-Hamadhānī’s, 13, 353

   in hikāya, 349

   Ibn al-Athīr on, 396

   see also under historiography; Koran; maqāma; risāla; shadow plays; sīra, popular

al-Sakhāwī, Muḥammad ibn ῾ Abd al-Raḥmān, 125, 165, 166, 167, 169, 331

   on Ibn Sūdūn, 229, 265

Sakīna, 374

al-Sakkākī, Yūsuf ibn Muḥammad, 387, 388, 403–4, 414, 415, 416

Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn (Saladin), 42, 43, 107, 123–4, 129, 358

Ṣāliḥ (prophet), 330, 337

al-Ṣāliḥ Najm al-Dīn, al-Malik, 47

al-Ṣāliḥī, Muḥammad, 126

al-Ṣāliḥiyya, Damascus, 180, 182

Salīm I, Sultan, 364

Sālim Abū ᾽ l-῾ Alā ᾽ , 103

Saljūq Turks, 9

salons, literary, 159, 168, 221, 230

al-Salwī, Muḥammad ibn al-Qāsim ibn Da᾽ ūd, 70

samar, 351

Samarkand, 245

Samaw᾽ al ibn Yaḥyā al-Maghribī, 253–4, 294, 320–1

sāmir (type of drama), 369, 377–8

al-Ṣan῾ ānī, al-Amīr, 62

al-Sandūbī, al-Shaykh Aḥmad, 232

Ṣandūq al-dunyā (‘Box of the World’, popular entertainment), 262

Sanjār al-Dawādārī, 221

Ṣanū῾ , Ya῾ qūb, 241–2

al-Sarāqusṭī al-Ashtarkūwī, Abū Ṭāhir Muḥammad al-Tamīmī (Ibn al-Ashtarkūwī), 115, 150, 151–2

sariqāt, see plagiarism

al-Ṣarṣarī, Jamāl al-Dīn, 46, 84

Sāsān, Banū (underworld), 148–9, 353, 362

satire (hijā ᾽ ), 28

   in belletristic prose, 117–18

   in drama, 363–4, 367, 372

   in elite poetry, 28, 42, 43, 47, 50, 53, 83

   in popular poetry, 226

   see also criticism, social and political

Saussure, Ferdinand de, 3

al-Sawāliḥī, Ibrāhīm ibn Abī Bakr, 174

Sayf ibn Dhī Yazan, 57, 220, 292, 295, 302, 313, 314, 323, 324

al-Ṣayrafī, Ibn Munjib, 105

al-Sayyāb, Badr Shākir, 38

Scott, Jonathan, 284

scribes, clerks and secretaries: chancery training, 101, 105–6

   editing of popular literature, 192, 256

   hierarchies, 101, 113–14

   manuals for, 101, 102–5, 394

   paper-making and rise of, 245

   see also chancery; epistolography; kātib al-amwāl; kātib al-sirr

Seeten, Ulrich, 283

semantics, balāgha and, 387, 401

Sendebar al-Ḥakīm, 249, 250, 256, 257

sermons, 119, 128–9, 272

   maqāmāt, 147–8, 152–3

   popular, 118, 331

   (in kān wa-kān verse), 213, 237

   by ῾ ulamā ᾽, 119, 128–9

   see also khuṭba; maqām

seven, significance of, 165

sexuality: elite poetry on, 38, 39, 41, 43, 44, 53–4

   (effect of promiscuity), 35, 42

    popular bawdy stories, 252

   popular poetry on, 206–8

   see also homosexuality

Sha ῾ bān ibn Salīm al-Ḥāsikī al-Ṣan῾ ānī, 143

al-Shābb al-Ẓarīf (Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn ῾ Afīf al-Tilimsānī), 50–1, 211

al-Shabrāwī, ῾ Abd Allāh ibn Muḥammad ibn ῾ Āmir ibn Sharaf al-Dīn, 236–7

Shadhili sect, 127–8

shadow plays, 195, 231, 261–2, 357–66, 369

   demise, 380

   dialect poetry, 358

   Ibn Dāniyāl, 220, 224, 261, 265, 350, 352, 358–63

   inception, 256, 357

   Li ῾ b al-timsāḥ, 233, 261–2

   Manzala manuscript, 362, 363

   and maqāma, 358–60

   musical accompaniment, 370

   performance tradition, 363–6

   poetry in, 262, 358, 361, 371

   al-Rawḍ al-waḍḍāh…collection, 261–2

   saj ῾, 361

   spiritual symbolism, 261, 357–8

   Turkish influence on Arabic, 365–6

   see also Karagöz; Karākūz

Shāfi ῾ ibn ῾ Alī, 123, 163

Shahname, 268

al-Shalijī, 90

shamā ᾽ il of Prophet, works on, 333

al-Sharaf al-Anṣārī, 50–1

al-Sha ῾ rānī, ῾ Abd al-Wahhāb ibn Aḥmad, 127–8

al-Sharīf al-Raḍī, 33, 39–40

al-Sharīshī, Aḥmad ibn al-Mu᾽ mīn, 150

al-Sharqāwī, Adham, 374

shawāhid, commentaries on, 412

Shāwīsh, Dionysius (Dom Denis Chavis), 281–2, 284–5

Shawqī, Aḥmad, 38

al-Shaybī, Kāmil Muṣṭafā, 212, 213

al-Shaykh Ḥuṭayyiba (al-Shaykh Aḥmad ibn ῾ Abd Allāh al-Dumyāṭī), 211

Shaykhūniyya khāniqāh/madrasa, 227

al-Shidyāq, Aḥmad Fāris, 185

al-Shidyāq, Ṭannūs, 185

al-Shihāb al-Ḥijāzī, 143

al-Shihābī, Aḥmad Ḥaydar, 185

Shihābī dynasty of Lebanon, 184, 185

Shi ῾ ism: drama, 380

   Messianic beliefs, 80–1

   popular narratives, 338

   poetry, 39, 84, 86

al-Shirbīnī, ῾ Alī, 117

al-Shirbīnī, Yūsuf ibn Muḥammad ibn ῾ Abd al-Jawwād ibn Khiḍr, 140, 231–4, 264–5, 269

al-Shīshīnī, Shihāb al-Dīn ibn ῾ Alī, 119

Shubrā, 375

shurūḥ (sing. sharḥ, commentaries), 389, 391

al-Shushtarī, Shaykh Abū ᾽ l-Ḥasan ῾ Alī ibn ῾ Abd Allāh, 45n38, 46n39, 82, 202, 333–4

Shuwayrite Christian religious order, 185

Sī Milūd (sīra reciter), 298, 302–3

Sibṭ ibn al-Jawzī, Shams al-Dīn, 107, 128–9, 159, 160, 164

Sibṭ ibn al-Ta῾ āwidhī, 34

Sīdī Aḥmad Ibn Yūsuf, 379

Sidi ῾ Oqba, 378

al-Sijilmāsī, Abū Muḥammad, 411–12

silsila (poetic form), 255

similes, 406, 409

Sindbad, tales of, 272, 276–7, 283

single and composite elements, critical idea of, 394, 400, 402, 403

sīra; classical biographical genre, 333

   Ibn al-Nadīm’s use of term, 250, 252

   popular, see following entry

sīra, popular (pl. siyar, folk epic genre), 259–60, 319–23

   on ῾ Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib, 320, 323

   authorship, 294–5, 321

   chapbooks, 268–9, 308–9, 317–18, 322

   character types, 296, 298–301, 309–11, 325–7

   (see also hero figure below, and under women); Crusades and, 294, 296–7, 328–9

   development, 320–2

   early evidence, 253–4, 256, 320–1

   formulaic nature, 325

   geographical range, 295, 327–8

   hero figure, 292, 309, 319, 325, 328

   (black), 292, 296, 311, 325

   (female), 310–11, 325, 326

   (helper figure), 296, 310, 311, 323–4, 325–6

    (lack of archetypal in Sīrat Banī Hilāl ), 309

   (pre-Islamic and Islamic), 320, 328

    (secondary), 325

   historical content, 260, 292, 293, 319, 320, 323–4, (see also under pre-Islamic period); Ibn al-Nadīm makes no mention of, 252, 294

   innovation and stability in, 320, 322

   and Islam, 253, 297, 301, 328–9

   language, standard and colloquial, 301, 302, 308–9

   length, 259, 295, 302–3, 314, 319, 321

   limited characters, plots, narrative structures and themes, 298, 325–9

   literacy of audience, 309

   on love, 326, 327, 328

   magic in, 260, 295

   manuscripts, see oral and written traditions below; mirabilia in, 295

   modern media adapt stories, 322

   in modern period, 322

   musical accompaniment, 267, 313, 314, 321, 367

   narrative structure and plot, 293, 296, 297–8, 307, 309, 311–13, 321, 327–8

   and non-Arabic popular epic, 324

   oral and written traditions, 268–9, 301–2, 308, 313–18, 320–2

   (commercial publication of manuscript versions), 322

   (recensions), 303

    (see also under individual siyar ); pictorial tradition, 305–6

   poetry in, 259–60, 267, 301, 303, 304, 309, 314–18, 319, 324

   (classical), 247

   on the Prophet, 297, 301, 320

   prose, 319, 321, 324

   recitation, see story-telling; related genres, 324

   saj ῾, 259–60, 301, 303, 309, 317–18, 319, 321, 324

   themes, 298, 328–9

   time and space in, 295

   and tribes, 296, 298, 320, 323

   wordplay, 303–4, 315

   written text, see oral and written traditions above; see also individual siyar

Sīrat Aḥmad al-Danif, 324, 326

Sīrat ῾ Antar ibn Shaddād, 292–304

   ῾ Antar’s vow to hang poem on Ka῾ ba, 300, 303–4

    ῾ ayyār figure, 294–5, 296

   on bedouin society, 293, 296, 298

   characters, 292, 298–301

   contents, 295–7

   Crusades and, 294, 296–7

   dating, 294

   double, ῾ Antar’s meeting of own, 299

   early references to, 254, 320–1

   European interest in, 293

   and geography, 295

   as history, 260, 292, 293, 323

   Islamic legitimization, 297, 301

   lack of supernatural and miraculous in, 295

   language, literary with colloquial elements, 301, 302

   length, 259, 295

   manuscripts, 294, 304–5, 322

   medieval popularity, 272

   musammaṭ in, 303

   narrative structure and plot, 293, 297–8

   on offspring of ῾ Antar, 297, 301

   oral and written traditions, 294, 304–5, 313, 322

   pictorial tradition, 305–6

   poetry in, 301, 303, 304

   printed editions, 295

   on the Prophet, 297, 301

   recitations, 267, 268, 298, 301–3, 313–14, 367

   saj ῾, 301

   sword, legendary, 296

   time and space in, 295

   translations, 293, 295, 324

   on tribes, 296, 298

   20th-century studies of, 293

   wordplay, 303–4

   see also ῾ Antar ibn Mu ῾ āwiya ibn Shaddād

Sīrat al-Badr Nār, 323

Sīrat Banī Hilāl, 307–15

   chapbooks, 308–9, 317–18

   characters, 299, 309–11, 325

   as history, 292

   Ibn Khaldūn on, 266

   language, 302, 308–9

   length, 259, 314

   modes of oral narrative, 322

   narrative structure, 307, 311–13

   oral and written traditions, 266, 268–9, 308, 313–18, 322

   pictorial tradition, 305

   poetic form, 259–60, 267, 314–18

   recitation, (musical accompaniment), 256, 267, 302, 307, 308, 312, 313–18, 321, 367

   regional interpretations, 311

   saj ῾, 317–18

   al-Shirbīnī and, 233

   Sufi versions, 311

   wordplay and puns, 315

   see also Hilāl, Banī

Sīrat (al-Malik al-Ẓāhir) Baybars, 230, 292, 295, 296, 321, 323, 324

   recitations, 267, 302, 313–14

Sīrat Dhāt al-Himma, 220, 260, 323

   characters, 296, 325

   early evidence for, 254, 320–1

   oral and written tradition, 313, 322

   recitations, 302, 313, 314

Sīrat Fīrūz-Shāh, 302, 323, 324, 326

Sīrat al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh, 321, 323

Sīrat Hamza al-bahlawān, 260, 292, 296, 302, 320, 323, 324

Sīrat Iskandar, 323, 324

Sīrat al-Mujāhidīn, 268

Sīrat (al-Malik) Sayf ibn Dhī Yazan, 57, 220, 292, 295, 302, 313, 314, 323, 324

Sīrat al-Zīr Sālim, 324

Skull, Tale of the, 338

slaves, 35, 199

soldiers’ narratives, 174–5

Spain, see Andalusia

Speke, John, 287

spike-fiddle (rabāb ), 267, 313, 314

statecraft, 101, 102–5

statehood, poetry and, 28

status of writers, 63–5, 71, 72, 116

storybooks, see chapbooks

story-telling, 347, 366–7

   apprenticeship in, 314, 315

   Ayyām al-῾ Arab, 320

   booksellers and, 267, 268, 273

   in Damascus, 268

   different styles, 321

   and historiography, 320

   improvisation, 315–17

   in Iran, 268, 273

   Lane on, 273, 301–2, 303, 313–14, 321

   maqāma and, 118

   in Marrakesh, 268, 273, 298, 302–3

   master poets, 314, 315–17

   melisma, 316

   munshids, 367

   musical accompaniment, 267, 313, 314, 321, 367

   qiṣāṣ al-mashāyikh, 268

   reading aloud from written text, 267–8, 273, 301–2, 313

   selectivity, 303

   Sī Milūd, 298, 302–3

   topographical narratives mention, 125

   at weddings, 312

   see also oral tradition; religious narrative, popular and under Koran; sīra, popular; Thousand and One Nights; and individual siyar

al-Subkī, Tāj al-Dīn, 161–2, 266

substitution, principle of, 73

Sudan, 216, 307, 311, 372

Sufism: Baybars al-Manṣūrī and, 163

   belletristic prose, 127–8

   Khalwatiyya order, 178

   and literacy, 230

   poetry, (elite), 29, 35–6, 44–56, 58

   (popular), 226, 237

   popular narratives, 257, 330, 338

   preaching in verse, 237

   rapid expansion from 12th cent., 119

   Sa ῾ diyya order, 182

   Shadhili sect, 127–8

   on shadow plays’ symbolism, 261

   and Sīrat Banī Hilāl, 311

   ῾ ulamā ᾽ under Ottomans, 175–6, 179

al-Suhrawardī, Shihāb al-Dīn Yaḥyā al-Maqtūl, 45, 45n35, 146

al-Sulamī, 146

Sulaymān of Gaza, 83

Sulaymān al-Qānūnī (the Magnificent), 171

Sulṭān al-ṭalaba, feast of, 380

‘sultan-pasha’ chronicles, 173

Sunnism, 39, 84

al-Suwaydī (fl. 1813), 109

al-Suwaydī, ῾ Abd al-Raḥmān, 187

al-Suwaydī, ῾ Abdallāh Efendī, 143–4

al-Suyūṭī, Jalāl al-Dīn; autobiographical information in work, 125

   breadth of studies, 116–17

   historical and biographical works, 123, 125, 169

   maqāmāt, 13, 115–16, 154, 157–8

   on paronomasia, 407

   on risāla, 135

   and al-Sakhāwī, 169

   on shawāhid, 412

   stories of Prophet, 334–6

   on story-tellers, 118, 248, 258, 330, 332, 333

   and Sufism, 128

sword and pen, debate of, 113, 142n44, 143, 158

Synaxarion, Coptic, 340

Syria: cultural centres, 179

   drama, (Karākūz ), 371, 372, 373

   (modern), 380, 381, 383

   Fatimid caliphs, 84

   histories, 159–62, 165, 179–84

   muwashshaḥ, 196

   Ottoman conquest, effect of, 171

Syriac language, maqāma in, 145

ta῾ aṣṣub (partisanship), 392–3

al-Ṭabarānī, 336

al-Ṭabarī, Abū Ja ῾ far Muḥammad ibn Jarīr, 320, 331, 333

taḍmīn (excerpts), 55

tafsīr, 163, 272, 337–8, 398–9

al-Taftazānī, Mas῾ ūd ibn ῾ Umar, 405, 415

Taghlib, Banū, 323

Ṭāhā Abū Zayd, Shaykh, 315–16

al-Tahānawī, 134

taḥqīb, see periodization

tajnīs, see paronomasia

takhmīs (poetic form), 78

al-Ṭālawī, Abū ᾽ l-Ma῾ ālī, 62

tales, see frame-tales; story-telling; Thousand and One Nights

Tamīm (poet), 200

Tamīm al-Dārī, 331–2, 337

al-Tankīt wa ᾽ l-tabkīt (newspaper), 242

Ṭannūs al-Shidyāq, 185

Tanta, 378

al-Tanūkhī, 353n29

tapes, cassette, of oral performances, 268

al-Ṭarābulsī al-Shāfi ῾ ī, Muwaffaq al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn Ibrāhīm ibn Muḥammad, 211

Ṭarafa, 304

tarassul, ῾ ilm al-tarassul, see epistolography

ṭardiyya (hunting poem), 139

Ṭāshkubrīzāde (Ṭāsköprülüzāde Aḥmad ibn Muṣṭafā), 134–5, 141, 181

taṣrī ῾, 93

tawārīkh, Ibn Nadīm’s use of, 250

al-Tawḥīdī, Abū Ḥayyān, 10–11, 12

tawjīh (rhetorical figure), 212

tawriya (ambiguity, double entendre ), 38, 207, 209–10, 407

tawshīḥ poetry, 107, 200

Taymūr Bāshā, Aḥmad, 366

al-Ṭayyib al-῾ Alj, 383

al-Ṭayyib al-Ṣiddīqī, 383

television, 298, 322

al-Tha῾ ālibī, Abū Manṣūr ῾ Abd al-Malik ibn Muḥammad, 11, 12, 31n12, 105, 353

Tha῾ lab, Aḥmad ibn Yaḥyā, 32

al-Tha῾ labī, Abū Isḥāq, 331, 338

Thousand and One Nights (Alf layla wa-layla ), 19, 270–90

   alteration and augmentation, 271, 272–3, 278–9, 281, 286–7, 288, 289

   (see also Aladdin; Ali Baba; Sindbad); circulation, 12th–18th-century, 256–7, 271–3

   colloquial language, 275–6

   ‘contes des fées’ and, 279–80

   core tales, 272–3, 282, 283

   embedding of tales, 273–5, 291

   and European perceptions of East, 19, 278–9, 285, 289–90, 291

   frame-story, 270–1, 272–4

   genre, 118

   Ibn al-Nadīm on, 250, 270–1

   Kalīla wa-Dimna contrasted, 247

   literary style, 275–6

   moralizing intention, 165

   number of tales, 272

   obscenity, 286, 287, 288, 290

   and Oriental Tale genre, 278–9, 285

   origins and comparable collections, 220, 249, 250, 271

   quotations in Daninos’ drama, 382

   and sīra, 324

   story-tellers use written texts, 273

   structure, 270–1, 273–5, 291

   tales circulate independently, 233, 272–3

   title, 271

   HISTORY OF TEXT, 192

   to 18th century, 249, 256–7, 270–3

   of Galland’s first translation, 276–9

   later editions and translations, 281–9

   manuscripts, 272, 291

   (Abbott’s early fragment), 270, 271

   (18th–19th-century continuations, retranslations and fakes), 281–2, 284–5, 286–7

   printed editions, Arabic, 282–4

   (Bulāq), 118, 284, 286, 288–9

   (Calcutta I), 283, 284, 286–7, 289

   (Calcutta II (Macnaghten)), 284, 285, 286–7, 288–9

   (Habicht or Breslau), 283–4, 286–7, 289

   (Mahdi’s edition), 289

   (ZER (Zotenberg’s Egyptian Recension)), 282–3, 284, 285

   TRANSLATIONS, 284–9

   Galland, 19, 284, 289

   (first translation), 276–9

   (initial reception), 279–81

   (manuscripts), 276–8, 289

   (Preface to first volume), 289

   (tales added), 277, 278–9, 281, 288, 289

ṭibāq (antithesis), 38, 68

Tibnin, battle of, 42

Tibrīzī, 304

al-Tifāshī, Aḥmad ibn Yūsuf, 130, 198, 199

al-Tilimsānī, ῾ Afīf al-Dīn Sulaymān, 45n38, 50

al-Tilimsānī, Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn ῾ Afīf (al-Shābb al-Ẓarīf), 50–1, 211

Timur Lang, 112, 121, 124, 169

tobacco, risālas on, 137

Todorov, Tzvetan, 96

Toledo, paper-mill in, 246

topography, 132, 163

   urban, 125–7, 140, 158, 167

Torrens’ translation of Thousand and One Nights, 284, 285

tradition, Arabic poetic, 26–7, 39, 58–9, 65, 221–2

   criticism as archive for, 416

   innovation and, 62–3, 71

   modern return to, 30, 38

   post-classical imitation, 70–1

tragedy, Aristotelian concept of, 355

transcription conventions, see under colloquial language

translations from Arabic: frame-tale collections, 256–7

   (see also under Thousand and One Nights ); siyar, 293, 324

translations into Arabic: Alexander Romance, 249

   from European languages into popular strophic forms, 240–1

   see also under Persia

transmission: authorization by ijāza, 267

   verbs of, in maqāma, 149–50, 155–6

travel writing, 131–2, 138–9, 143–4, 215

Trébutien; translation of Thousand and One Nights, 285

tree-trunk, sighing; popular narrative, 337

tribes: Arab, in Egypt, 176

   Ibn Khaldūn on, 121

   nabaṭī poetry and, 215

   role of poetry, 64–5

   sīra and, 296, 298, 320, 323

   Sudanese, 216

trickster figure, see rogue and trickster figure

truce letters, 108–9

al-Ṭūfī, Sulaymān, 398–9

al-Ṭughrā ᾽ ī, Mu᾽ ayyad al-Dīn, 41, 412–13

Tunis: as cultural centre, 102

   drama, 369, 370, 373–4, 377, 378, 381

Tunisia: and Banī Hilāl, 307

   drama, 370, 371, 372, 381

   Jews, 381

   murabba῾ kāmil poetic form, 211

   see also Tunis

turāth (heritage), 16

Turks: Abbasid military reliance on, 9

   Arabization and Islamization, 26

   and band, 89

   conquests, 26

   drama, 381

   (see also Karagöz ); legend and folklore, 164

   periods of cultural dominance and turkicization, 17–21, 57, 61, 221, 222, 231

   popular epic, 324

   Saljuqs, 9

   see also mamlūks

al-Tustarī, Abū Muḥammad Sahl, 333–4

῾ Ubāda ibn Mā ᾽ al-Samā ᾽ , 195

῾ ujma (hybridity of language), 108–9

al-῾ Ukbarī, 150

῾ ulamā ᾽, 101, 119–20, 175–6, 179, 236–7

al-῾ Ulaymī, Mujīr al-Dīn, 126–7

῾ Umar, Caliph, 338

῾ Umar ibn Abī Rabī῾ a, 49

al-῾ Umarī, Faḍl Allāh, family of, 109–10, 111, 112

al-῾ Umarī, Muḥammad Amīn, 187

al-῾ Umarī, al-Qāḍī Badr al-Dīn ibn Faḍl Allāh, 109–10, 112

al-῾ Umarī, al-Qāḍī Shihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn Yaḥyā ibn Faḍl Allāh, 110, 111, 131

al-῾ Umarī, Yāsīn ibn Khayrallāh al-Khaṭīb, 187

underworld, see Sāsān, Banū

urbanization: and poetry, 27, 30, 35, 41, 48–9

   and public narration, 57

Urtuq dynasty of Mardin, 52

Usāma ibn Munqidh, 406

al-Ustādh (newspaper), 242

῾ Uthmān ibn Muḥammad Fūdī (Usman dan Fodio), 82

van Leeuwen, Richard, 289

vernacular, see colloquial language

viziers in sīra, 326, 327

votive offering, verse as, 86

al-Wafā ᾽ ī family, 230–1

Wahb, Banū, 111

al-Wahhābiyya see Sīrat Dhāt al-Himma

al-Wahrānī, Rukn al-Dīn, 113, 115, 118, 141

al-Wā ῾ iẓ, 90

Wannūs, Sa ῾ d Allāh, 383

al-Wāqidī, 320, 333

war, poems of holy, 76–7

al-Waraghī, 62

wardiyyāt (rose poems), 36

al-Warrāq, Sirāj al-Dīn, 35

waṣf (description), 28, 36–7, 96

Wāsiṭ, 208

al-Wāsiṭī al-Wā ῾ iẓ, Muḥammad ibn Abī ᾽ l-Badr al-Malīḥī, 212

al-Waṭwāṭ, Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm, 131

al-Wazīr al-Sarrāj, 70

weasel, risāla on, 140

weddings, performers at, 312, 370, 375, 377–8

West: ballad, 317

   cultural influence in East, 2, 14, 15, 178, 238

   frame-tale collections translated in, 256–7

   (see also under Thousand and One Nights ); literature translated into Arabic popular strophic forms, 240–1

   printing and popular literature in, 245

   siyar in, 293, 324

   see also drama (European influence); Oriental Tale genre

White, Revd James, 7

wine, writings on, 137, 162

   poetry, 28, 29, 50, 53, 82–3

women: Ibn al-Batanūnī

   on wiles of, 342–3

   and kān wa-kān, 213

   lesbianism, 250, 251, 252

   in sīra, 298, 299–301

   (hero/heroine’s helper figure), 326

   (love interest), 325, 326, 327

   (warrior type), 310–11, 325, 326

wordplay and puns, 38, 237, 303–4, 315

written texts: editing and alteration, 192, 256

   of ḥikāya, 349, 352

   maqāma of al-Ḥarīrī, 150

   marginalia, 267

   popular poetry, 201, 204

   popular prose, 267–9

   story-tellers’ use, 267–8, 273, 301–2, 321

   see also oral tradition (and written tradition); printing

Yaḥyā, Muḥyī al-Dīn Abū ᾽ l-Faḍl, 140

Yalbughā al-Nāṣirī, 226–7

Yāqūt, 153

al-Yārḥiṣārī, Muṣṭafā ibn Awḥad al-Dīn, 141

al-Yāzijī, Nāṣīf, 13, 115, 116, 150, 185, 240

Yemen: humaynī genre, 87, 215–16

   under Ottomans, 171, 173

al-Yūnīnī, Quṭb al-Dīn, 124, 159, 160, 161

Yūnus and ῾ Azīza, tale of, 312

al-Zabīdī, Murtaḍā, 13, 115, 122, 183

al-Zahawī, Jamīl Ṣidqī, 88, 89, 91

al-Ẓāhir Barqūq, 113, 226–7

al-Ẓāhir Jaqmaq, 124, 169, 363–4

al-Ẓāhir Ṭaṭar, 168

Ẓāhir al-῾ Umar, 184

al-Ẓāhirī, Zayn al-Dīn, 113

zajal, 196–8, 203–8, 255

   colloquial language, 196, 413

   content-based typology, 204–5

   al-Faḥḥām, 238–9

   form, content and occurrence, 196–8

   al-Ghubārī, 218–20, 222

   history in, 237

   Ibn al-Ḥijja al-Ḥamawī on, 413

   Ibn Quzmān, 196–7, 204, 209, 265

   inflected and uninflected diction, 205, 207, 209

   Moroccan names for, 216

   Munayyar al-Zawqī’s on flea and monk, 239–40

   music, 206, 219

   and muwashshaḥ, 197, 200–1, 204

   19th-century widening of audience, 238–9

   origins and spread, 87, 197–8, 201, 204

   panegyric, 222, 237

   ‘proto-’, Andalusian, 197–8

   religious content, 82, 240

   al-Ṣafadī, 220

   Ṣafī ᾽ al-Dīn al-Ḥillī, (compositions), 203–4, 205

   (criticism on), 197, 203, 204–5, 208, 413, 414, 415, 416

   in shadow plays, 358, 371

   al-Shushtarī, 202

   translation of European literature into, 241

   zajjālūn, composers of, 203–4

   (competitions), 214, 217

   see also bullayq

al-Zamakhsharī, Abū ᾽ l-Qāsim Maḥmūd, 13, 115, 154–5

al-Zamlakānī, 405

al-Zarkashī, Muḥammad ibn Bahādur, 94, 405

Zaydān, Jurjī, 381

Zayn al-Aṣnām, tale of, 278, 286–7

Zaynab, al-Sayyida, 338

Zaynī, Imām Aḥmad, known as Daḥlān, 335

al-Zaynī al-Baghdādī, 90

al-Zaytūnī, Badr al-Dīn, 211, 212, 225–6

Zeara, Egypt, 380

Zinserling’s translation of Thousand and One Nights, 285

al-Zīr Sālim, story of, 323

Ziryāb (Abū ᾽ l-Ḥasan ῾ Alī ibn Nāfi ῾ ), 198–9

Zotenberg, M. H., 282–3, 284, 286–7

Zuhayr ibn Abī Sulmā, 304

al-Zuhayrī, Mulā Jādir, 211–12

zuhayrī verse, 211–12, 237

zuhdiyya (ascetic poetry), 74–5

zuhriyyāt (flower poems), 36


printer iconPrinter friendly version AddThis