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Mesoscale Dynamics

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Mesoscale Dynamics

Cambridge University Press
9780521808750 - Mesoscale Dynamics - by By Yuh-Lang Lin
Index


Index

absolute

   momentum, 254

   vorticity, 255–6

absolutely stable, 239–40

absorptivity, 597

accuracy

   first-order, 492–3

   of finite difference methods, 494

   second-order, 493, 502

aerodynamic roughness, see roughness length

airstream boundary, 386

Andes Mountains, 341, 443

anvil

   leading, 333

   outflow, 333

Appalachian Mountains, 167, 174–6

advection

   ageostrophic, of geostrophic momentum, 389

   differential moisture, 416, 453

   effect (thermal), 196–8, 205–15

   equation, 113, 192, 495

   mechanism (thermal), 196–8, 205–15

   mechanism (multicell storm), 279–83

   thermal, 427–8

   time, 111

advective acceleration, 16–7

air-mass thunderstorm

   see single-cell thunderstorm

ALPEX, 158

Alps, 157–72, 443–5

analysis

   multivariate, 540

   univariate, 540

   objective, 539

   Barnes objective, 539–40

   power spectral, 520

   linear stability, 73

   numerical stability, 499

approximation

   anelastic (deep convection), 17

   Boussinesq, 16–19, 24

   deep convection (anelastic), 17

   Edington, 604

   finite difference, 489–96

   formulas for finite difference, 514–15

   four-stream, 604

   geostrophic momentum, 387–9

   governing equations, 17–20

   hydrostatic, 19–20

   incompressible (shallow convection), 16–18

   of advection equation, 495–508

   of derivatives, 491–5

   one-parameter scaling, 599

   pseudo-incompressible, 18

   quasi-geostrophic (QG), 153–4

   two-parameter scaling, 599

   two-stream, 604

area

   negative (NA), 247

   positive (PA), 247

atmosphere

   baroclinic, 265

   barotropic, 265

   clear, 598–600, 601–3

   cloudy, 600–1, 603–4

   free, 3

   isothermal, 17

atmospheric river, 453, 471

asymmetry factor, 604

autopropagation, 336


baroclinic

   atmosphere, 265

   instability, 7, 25, 386

   lee wave theory, 59–60, 160–2

   wave, 160–2, 379, 386, 394–401

baroclinicity, 148–50, 380

Beer–Bouger–Lambert law, 597

Bergeron forcing, 392

Bernoulli

   function, 150–1

   theorem, 151

blackbody temperature, 596

Boltzmann’s constant, 596

bora (bura), 131, 159

boundary layer, 315

   friction, 352

   separation, 125, 145–6, 315

boundary condition

   boundedness, 39, 104, 111, 186

   closed, 528

   constant gradient, 530

   dynamic, 52, 70, 87, 186

   free-slip, 146, 537

   interface, 52, 70, 87, 187

   linear, 110, 537

   nonlinear, 110, 127, 537

   no-slip, 538, 568, 576

   kinematic, 52, 70, 87, 186

   lower, 70, 110, 459, 537–8

   numerical, 490–7, 528–38

   numerical upper radiation, 42, 104

   open, see radiation boundary condition

   periodic, 528

   radiation, 39–42, 45, 104, 529–37

   intensity, 597

      longwave (terrestrial), 596

      shortwave (solar), 596, 603–4

   rigid lid, 531

   Sommerfeld, 114, 531–3

   sponge layer, 529, 531–3

   time-dependent, 528

   zero-gradient, 530

Boussinesq fluid, 19, 53

bow echo, 328

breeze

   land, 215–21

   lake, 215–16

   sea, 215–21

bright band, 201

Buckingham-Π theorem, 478

Burger equation, 495

buoyancy, 1, 239, 302

   circulation mechanism, 279, 283

   oscillation, 1, 39, 111

   perturbation, 19, 211

buoyancy (Brunt–Vaisala) frequency, 16, 38, 69

   saturated moist, 242–4, 352, 464

   unsaturated moist, 244, 478

β -gyre, 371


California Coast Range, 453–4

Carnot cycle (heat engine), 353

   processes, 353

CCOPE, 72, 90, 222

cell

   closed, 229

   development, 279–83

   growing mode, 282

   open, 229–30

   propagating mode, 282

   propagation, 279–83

   regeneration, 279–83

Central Mountain Range (CMR), 168–72, 443

CFL stability criterion, 499, 503

check

   contradiction, 539

   buddy, 539

   gross, 539

   plausible, 539

chinook, 131

circulation

   ageostrophic, 392–6, 408, 422–3

   inland see breeze, 417

   secondary, 392, 408, 422–3

   solenoidal, 417

   thermally direct, 393, 422

   thermally indirect, 422–5

   transverse, 392, 408, 422–3, 431

CISK, 351–2

closure assumptions for KF scheme, 594

cloud

   bridge, 274

   cold, shield, 338

   comma, 360

   funnel, 312

   merging, 274

   microphysical processes, 444

   shelf, 278

   V-shaped anvil, 207–11

   wall, 312

coastally trapped disturbance (CTD), 173–4, 437

coefficient

   absorption, 599

   drag, 573

   extinction, 597

   heat transfer, 573

   wave absorption, 88–9

   wave overreflection, 88–9

   wave reflection 52–3, 88–9

   wave transmission, 88–9

cold

   air damming, 174–6

   air outflow, 198, 274, 283–9, 323, 334

   core anticyclone, 340

   dome, 174–6

   front aloft (CFA), 336, 411

columnar disturbance, 130

confluence mechanism, 428

conservation of mass, 12

continuity equation, 12–18, 27, 61

   incompressible (shallow convection), 18, 26–7

   anelastic (deep convection), 17, 302, 554

convection, 65

   cellular, 472–3

   dry, 229

   Rayleigh–Bénard, 229

   slantwise, 264, 468

   upslope, 455

convective

   available potential energy (CAPE), 245–6, 297, 449, 455

   boundary layer (CBL), 221–2, 414–17, 569

   inhibition (CIN), 243–7

   initiation, 413–19, 592

   time scale, 594

convergence

   large-scale, 328–9

   moisture, 101

conveyor

   cold, 264

   warm, 264

   warm, belt, 330, 434–6, 448–51

cooling

   evaporative, 12

   Newtonian, 13, 531

   radiative, 13

coordinates

   eta (step-mountain), 527

   geostrophic, 391–4

   isentropic (θ), 525

   isobaric, 525

   mass (hydrostatic pressure), 527

   sigma (σ), 525–7

   terrain-following (σz), 490, 525–6

   vertical, 525–8

   σp, 525

   σz, 525–6

   σθ, 526

cooperative intensification mechanism, 350–2

core radius, 317–18

Courant number, 498, 508

covariance, 565

critical

   layer, 55–7

   level, 54–60, 86, 203, 329, 414, 460

   level absorption, 55

cyclone

   Denver, 167

   extratropical, 349

   Mediterranean, 359

   parent, 160

   passage, 451

cyclogenesis, 406, 411, 420–1


data assimilation, 539–47

   ensemble-based, 546

   four-dimensional (4DDA), 539–44

   four-dimensional variational (4DVAR), 544–5

   three-dimensional variational (3DVAR), 543–4

deformation

   depth, 211

   shear, 303

   stretching, 303

   total, 241

density

   current, 64, 66, 172–4, 198–9, 334

   also see gravity current

   impulse, 64–71

   perturbation, 38

derecho, 328

development for convective systems

   downscale, 265

   upscale, 265

diffusivity factor, 599

direct numerical simulation (DNS), 563

discrete broadband approach, 602

dispersion, 26, 28, 40, 91–7, 128, 500

dispersion relation, 31, 40, 46, 52, 94

dispersive, 24–6

   tail, 119, 128

dissipation, 26

   kinetic energy, 564

   range, 547

dissipative scale, 564

divergence tendency equation, 83

downburst, 272–6

downdraft

   compensating, 196

   forward-flank (FFD), 296, 311

   rear-flank (RFD), 296–7, 311

downwelling, 538

drag

   form, 35

   gravity wave, 35

   mountain, 35, 113

   mountain wave, 35

   pressure, 137

   surface, 35, 131

dryline, 380, 413–20

   bulge, 414

   formation, 417

   primary, convergence boundary (PDCB), 419–20


echo overhang, 295

eddy

   diffusivity of heat, 551, 570

   diffusivity of water vapor, 570

   viscosity, 217, 362, 551, 570

effect

   β, 22–3

   baroclinic, on LLJ, 435

   Bernoulli (venturi), 34, 157

   buoyancy, 289–93

   cold pool, 334

   corner, 157

   directional shear, 307–9

   Fujiwhara, 370–2

   nonlinear advection, 425–6

   rotation, 203–15

   rotational, on mountain waves, 152–7

   shear, 203–7, 283–9, 334

   three-dimensionality, 203–15

   venturi (Bernoulli) effect, 34

effective static stability, 403

eigenvalue, 53

Ekman

   layer, 351, 572

   layer depth, 576

   number, 176

   pumping, 352

   spiral, 576

Eliassen and Palm theorem, 103, 113, 532

emittance, 597

energy

   available potential, 399

   available buoyancy (CAPE), 247, 283, 292

   convective available potential (CAPE), 245–6

   downdraft CAPE (DCAPE), 248, 292–3

   generation, 7–9

   kinetic, 33–4

   perturbation kinetic, 32

   perturbation potential, 32

   potential, 33–4, 311

   propagation, 101–4, 119, 532

   static potential (CAPE), 247

   total perturbation, 32, 102, 231

   transfer, 7–9, 24, 230–3

   wave, 197

ensemble

   averaging, 567–8

   forecasting, 555–7

   Kalman filter (EnKF), 547

enthalpy

   specific, 353

   moist, 352–3

   flux, 362–5

entrainment, 368

entropy, 353

equation of state, 13

error growth, 556

Ethiopian Highlands (EH), 357

evanescent wave (disturbance), 22, 39, 52, 115

evaporative cooling, 30

exchange coefficient

   enthalpy, 362

   heat, 551, 570

   local, 574

   momentum, 217, 362, 551, 570

   water vapor, 570

explicit presentation of microphysical processes, 580


Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), 121

Fickian diffusion, 217

finite difference equation, 492

first law of thermodynamics, 12–16

flow

   blocked, 33–7, 451

   blocking, 33–7, 129

   confluent, 386

   corner, 315–18

   cyclostrophic, 303, 315–17

   drainage, 221, 418

   front-to-rear, see front-to-rear jet

   gap, 176–7, 476

   irrotational (potential), 43–6, 110, 116–17, 187

   katabatic, 222

   orographic forced, 109–83

   outer, 315

   overturning, 203

   potential (irrotational), 43–6, 110, 116–17, 187

   quasi-geostrophic, 153, 214

   recirculation, 129

   rear-to-front, see rear-to-front jet

   reversal, 145

   secondary, 368

   splitting, 129, 146

   stagnation, 145, 150

   subcritical, 33–7, 127–38

   supercritical, 33–7, 127–38

   transitional, 35

   unbalanced, 83

   upslope, 221

   wake, 152

flux temperature, 570

foehn, 131, 444, 476

   deep, 476–7

   shallow, 476–7

forecasting

   deterministic, 556

   ensemble, 556

   superensemble, 556–7

force

   Archimedean buoyancy, 241

   buoyancy, 22–3, 43, 239

   compression, 22–3

   Coriolis, 9, 23

   frictional (viscous), 13

   pressure gradient, 43, 301–3

   restoring, 22–3

forest fire, 229

Fourier

   coefficient, 25

   component, 25–6

   transform, 79, 177–8

frequency, 26

   Doppler-shifted (intrinsic) wave, 39, 45, 79, 217

   Intrinsic (Doppler-shifted) wave, 39, 45, 79, 217

front, 379–441

   anafront, 383

   coastal, 214, 379

   cold, 379–80

   cross, circulation, 389–94

   gust, 66, 198, 379

   gust, updraft (GFU), 66, 279–83, 323–4

   katafront, 383

   Mei-Yu, 171–2

   mesoscale, 379–80, 405

   passage, 451

   sea breeze, 215–21, 379

   structure, 381

   synoptic, 379

   types, 379–80

   upper-level, 380, 405–12

   wedge model, 380–2

   warm, 379–80

   wave, 27

   zone, 383

frontal passage, 170–3

frontogenesis, 173, 380–412

   coastal, 214–15

   confluence (stretching deformation), 384–5, 397

   function, 383–6

   kinematics, 380–6

   differential terms, 384

   frictional effects, 401–5

   moist effects, 401–5

   Petterssen, function, 385

   stretching deformation (confluence), 384–6

   shearing deformation, 384–5, 397

   three-dimensional, function, 397

   tilting, 384–5

   upper-level, 380, 405–12

   vector, function, 386

   vertical deformation, 385

   vertical divergence, 385

frontolysis, 173, 380

Froude number, 125

   basic flow, 169

   critical, 130

   internal, 71

   moist, 478

   shallow-water, 33, 63, 128

   thermal, 71, 195, 200

   vortex, 33, 169

function

   bell-shaped, 32, 495 (see also Witch of Agnesi)

   convective trigger, 592–3

   diffusion transmission, 599

   Exner, 19, 553, 590

   frontogenetical, see frontogenesis function

   geopotential, 387, 395

   global basis, 490

   Green’s, 70, 185–93, 207–12

   influence, 118

   jetogenetical, see jetogenesis function

   local basis, 490

   Planck, 596, 599

   Scattering phase, 604


gas constant for dry air, 14, 242

geopotential, 387

geostrophic

   absolute momentum, 240, 254, 391

   adjustment, 8–9, 37, 65, 74–85, 425

   momentum equations, 389

   potential vorticity, 240, 259

   vorticity, 383

   wind balance (relation), 14

global energy balance, 595

gravity current, 64, 66

   see also density current

gravity wave, 17

   acoustic, 23

   parameterization, 64

   pure, 17, 22, 37–43

grid

   adaptive, 521–22

   Arkawa-A, B, C, D, E, 526

   continuous dynamic, adaptation (CDGA), 521–3

   interval, 491

   mesh (system), 518–25

   moving, 521

   nested, 521

   staggered, 522–4

   stretched, 520

   system (mesh), 518–25

   uniform, 520

   unstructured adaptive, 521

   volume averaging, 566


heat

   capacity at constant pressure, 13, 242

   capacity at constant volume, 15

   flux, 266, 351, 569

   island, 199–201

heating

   cumulus, 590

   diabatic, rate, 13, 213, 384, 402, 463

   differential, 216, 417

   dissipative, 363

   effective, 234

   latent, 13, 242, 352

   radiative, 590, 597

   sensible, 13, 351

helicity, 306–7

   storm-relative environmental (SREH), 307

Helmholtz equation, 126

high-drag (severe-wind) state, 55, 130–8

hook echo, 295–6, 312

horizontal convective rolls (HCR), 220, 419–20

hot-tower mechanism, 356

Howard’s semicircle theorem, 236–8

hurricane, 349

   arctic, 359

   extratropical, 359

   major, 349

   Mediterranean, 359

hydrostatic balance, 19

hydrostatic vertical wavelength, 131, 188

hydraulic jump, 30, 34–5, 97, 470

   downstream-propagating, 34–5, 138

   upstream-propagating, 34–5, 138

   internal, 30, 36, 130–8

   stationary, 34, 138


incident radiance, 597

indicial equation, 56

inertial

   advective forcing, 76

   subrange, 547

   critical level, 55–6

   flow (oscillation), 22, 47–9, 255

   oscillation (flow), 22, 47–9, 255, 434–5

initial

   condition, 10, 490, 495–7, 539–46

   guess, 539

initialization, 539–40

   damping, 540

   dynamic, 540–2

   linear normal mode, 541, 545

   nonlinear normal mode, 541–2

   normal mode, 540–3

   static, 540–1

   variational, 540–1

instability

   absolute, 240

   air-sea interaction, 354, 538

   algebraic mode, 58

   baroclinic, 15, 17, 25, 265–8, 391, 398

   barotropic, 7

   barotropic-baroclinic, 359

   buoyant (static), 17, 25, 130–3, 238–44, 391–5, 468

   conditional (CI), 240, 244–9, 329, 331, 457, 468

   conditional symmetric (CSI), 240, 260–5

   convective (potential), 230, 240

   dry symmetric, 257–60

   Eady baroclinic, 162

   finite-amplitude, 352

   gravitational, 17, 25, 130–3, 238–44

   hydrodynamic, 24

   inertial, 74, 232, 240, 253–6, 345, 391

   Kelvin–Helmholtz, 17, 72, 130–4, 230, 252–3

   mesoscale, 7, 65, 71–4, 229–71

   moist absolute (MAI), 240–3, 331, 468

   moist symmetric, 260–5, 336–7

   normal mode, 58

   orographic modification of baroclinic, 163–4

   static (buoyant), 17, 25, 130–3, 238–44, 391–5

   shear, 17, 25, 65, 71, 130–4, 230, 252–3, 314

   potential (convective) (PI), 230, 240, 329, 331–6, 448–57, 468–73

   potential (convective) symmetric (PSI), 240, 260–5, 469–70

   symmetric (SI), 7, 17, 25, 74, 230, 240, 256–65, 391, 468

Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), 358

integral theorem of stratified flows, 233–8

invertibility principle, 402


Jacobian differential operator, 391

jet

   African easterly, 434

   barrier, 157, 176, 436, 449

   California, coastal, 434

   coastal, 437

   -front system, 410

   front-to-rear (FTR), 277, 324–5

   low-level (LLJ), 215, 284, 417, 432–7, 447–57

   nocturnal, 434, 570

   orographic, 174

   polar, 284

   polar, stream, 405, 420

   rear-to-front (RTF), 277

   subtropical, 284

   unbalanced, 75

   Somali, 434

   stream, 75

   substropical, stream, 405, 420

jet streak, 73–7, 379–441

   balanced, 421

   curved, 425–7

   entrance region, 422

   exit region, 422

   formation, 428–31

   four-cell, streak, 77, 423–6

   geostrophic, 421

   interaction, 431–2

   nongeostrophic, 421

   polar, 421

   propagation, 428–31

   substropical, 421

   three-cell, 77, 423–5

   two-cell, 77, 423–6

jetogenesis, 428–31

   function, 430

Jordan’s Lemma, 178


Kalman–Bucy filtering, 544–5

Kelvin

   ship wave, 143–4

   wave, 2–3, 172–4

Kelvin–Helmholtz

   billow clouds, 220–1, 253–4

   instability (KH instability), 7

kinematic

   method, 423

   pressure, 19, 211, 387

kinetic energy (spectrum), 3, 10

Kirchhoff’s law, 597

Kyushu Sanchi, 454–5


landspout, 314

LAPS, 546

lapse rate

   actual (environmental), 239–40

   dry adiabatic, 239–44

   environmental (actual), 239–44

   environmental saturated, 240

   moist adiabatic, 240–7

large eddy simulation (LES), 317, 564–5

layer

   advective boundary, 572

   canopy layer, see roughness layer

   Ekman, 572, 575

   inversion, 569

   mixed, 538, 569, 572

   nocturnal boundary, 569

   outer, 569, 572

   planetary boundary (PBL), 15, 564, 568–79

   roughness, 569

   stable boundary, 570

   Stoke’s boundary, 572

   surface, 568–9

   transition, 569

   viscous sublayer, 13, 21, 568–72, 572

Laplace transform, 193, 224

lee

   cyclogenesis, 157–67

   cyclogenesis types, 159

   cyclogenesis theories, 160–7

   vortex, 144–52

   wave, 54, 59

   wave theory, 160–2

leeside convergence zone (LCZ), 222–3

LES–RANS, 565

level of

   free convection (LFC), 101, 240–4

   free slantwise convection, 403

   neutral buoyancy (LNB), 245

lifting

   condensation level (LCL), 242–4, 329

   layer, 329, 339, 452–7, 468

   parcel, 329

long wave assumption, 103

longitudinal wave, 27

low-level wind maximum (LLWM), 175


macroburst. 275

Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO), 358

MAP, 449

MAPS, 546

Marshall–Palmer distribution, 581

Margule’s formula, 382

mass

   flux, 100, 350, 592–3

   source/sink, 14, 99

   transport, 12

maximum potential intensity (MPI), 362

maximum tangential wind scale, 5

medium of wave propagation, 22

mesoscale

   meso- β scale convective elements (MBES), 347

   cellular convection, 229, 419

   convective complex (MCC), 322, 336–47

   convective line, 322, 325–6, 334

   convective vortex (MCV), 328, 340, 345–7

   defined, 1–6

   convective complex (MCC) development, 341–7

   convective complex (MCC) formation, 341–7

   convective complex (MCC) genesis, 340–2

   lee cyclogenesis, 166–7

   mesocyclone, 293, 309, 312

   mesohigh, 198, 273, 326–8

   mesolow, 326–8

mesoscale convective system (MCS), 322–78

   formation mechanisms, 328–31

   front-fed leading stratiform (FFLS), 327

   leading stratiform (LS) precipitation, 325–7, 333

   parallel stratiform (PS) precipitation, 325–7

   rear-fed leading stratiform (RFLS), 327

   trailing stratiform precipitation (TS), 325–7, 333

method

   adjoint, 545

   finite element, 490, 527

   finite difference, 489–96

   finite volume, 491

   Galerkin, 489–90

   k-distribution, 600, 603

   Lagrangian, 489–90

   Lagrangian parcel, 593

   line-by-line (LBL), 600

   normal modes, 29, 31, 44, 51

   of images, 194

   slice, 249

   spectral, 490

   upstream interpolation, 491

   WKBJ, 55, 122

Mexican Plateau, 413

microburst, 275

   dry, 275

   wet, 275

Miles’ theorem, 236

Miles–Howard criterion, 72

microphysical processes

   accretion, 475, 580–4

   aggregation, 475

   autoconversion, 581–4

   Bergeron process, 581–4

   coalescence, 475

   condensation, 580–3

   drop breakup, 580

   dry growth of graupel, 581–4

   evaporation, 580–3

   fallout, 580–4

   freezing, 581–4

   melting, 581–4

   riming, 475

   sublimation, 581–4

   vapor diffusion, 580

   wet growth of graupel, 581–4

misocyclone, 419–20

mixing length, 572

   hypothesis, 572

mixing ratio

   saturation, 242

   total water, 242

   water vapor, 244

mode

   computational, 506

   forced, 217

   free, 217

   physical, 506

model

   balanced, 401

   band, 600

   elevator-escalator, 264

   Eady, 15, 163, 398

   Hoskins–Bretherton, 404

   hydrodynamical, 10

   Long’s, 126–8

   moist Eady, 403

   Moncrieff’s squall line, 326

   primitive equation (PE), 12–16, 401

   semi-geostrophic, 396

   Shapiro’s, 410–11

moist

   adiabat, 590–1

   absolute instability (MAI), 240–3

   absolutely unstable layer (MAUL), 243

   convection, 65–71

   geostrophic PV, 240

   static energy, 587

moisture

   accession, 590

   convergence, 588–91

   flux, 458–61, 569

   gradient, 414–17, 448

molecular

   thermal diffusion, 568

   viscosity, 568

molecular weight

   water vapor, 244

   dry air, 244

momentum

   equations, 12–16

   forcing, 78

   flux, 101–4, 113, 189–92, 569

Monin–Obukhov

   length, 571

   similarity theory, 571

morning glory, 66, 92

mountain

   anticyclone, 154, 169

   drag, 35

   effective, 383, 472

   half-width, 116

   -induced high pressure, see mountain anticyclone

   -plains solenoidal circulation (MPS), 221–4, 343

   wave, 24, 35, 55


Navier–Stokes equations of motion, 13, 563

nesting

   one-way, 521, 529

   two-way, 521, 529

Newton’s second law of motion, 12

Newtonian

   cooling, 56

   relaxation (nudging), 544

nocturnal inversion, 221

node

   of attachment, 145

   of separation, 145

nondispersive, 26, 28

nondimensional

   mountain height, 34, 63, 125–8, 478

   time, 130

nonlinear

   aliasing, 518, 539, 547–51

   balance equation (NLBE), 83

   computational instability, 518

   instability, 547–51

   interaction, 65, 85, 548–9

nonlinearity, 91–7

nudging (Newtonian relaxation), 544

numerical

   damping, 500–7

   dispersion, 500–7

   diffusion, see numerical smoothing

   instability, 497–500, 510

   modeling of geophysical fluid systems, 518

   phase speed, 499–500, 525, 534

   smoothing, 548–51

   weather prediction (NWP), 10, 23, 518, 539


occlusion downdraft, 312

optical

   path, 599

   thickness, 598, 604

optimal

   interpolation, 540

   state, 287–9, 333

orographic

   cumulus, 472

   lifting, 448–55

   modification, 446

   modification of baroclinic instability, 163–7

   ridging, 174

orographic precipitation, 442–488

   climatological distribution, 442–6

   combined thermal and orographic forcing, 471–2

   common ingredients, 458

   control parameters, 477–8

   dynamical-microphysical interaction, 475–7

   enhanced by turbulence, 476

   formation and enhancement mechanisms, 461–77

   low-level upward motions, 458–9

   mountain geometry, 449–60, 470–1, 499

   over larger mountains, 442

   over small hills, 444

   upslope, 483

   release of moist instabilities, 466–70

   seeder–feeder mechanism, 472–5

   stratiform, 483

   stable ascent mechanism (model), 462–6


parameter

   control, flow over mountains, 34, 128

   control, tropical cyclogenesis, 359

   Coriolis, 4

   entrainment, 351

   intercept, 581

   Scorer, 103, 110, 121, 532

   shape, 585

   slope, 581

parameterization

   bulk aerodynamic, 573

   bulk microphysical processes (BMP), 580–5

   cumulus (CP), 201, 585–94

   K-theory, 574

   microphysical processes, 580–5

   moist processes, 579–94

   physical processes, 563–609

   PBL, 568–78

   radiative transfer processes, 594–604

   surface layer, 570–2

Parseval theorem, 117, 179

path length, 597

pendulum day, 1

period of buoyancy oscillation, 25, 38–42

phase

   angle, 25

   error, 503, 506

   line, 55, 495–6

   of wave, 25

   speed, 25, 40–1, 500

   tilt, 113, 203–13, 232, 266

Planck constant, 596

Poincaré wave, 23

Poisson’s equation, 13, 20, 239

point

   attachment, 145

   saddle, 145

   stagnation, 145

polar

   front theory, 380, 398

   low, 359–60

   low formation, 360

polarization relations, 42, 48

potential

   dynamic, 359

   thermal, 359

potential temperature

   defined, 14

   environmental saturated equivalent, 240–2

   equivalent, 240–2

   saturation equivalent, 245–51

   virtual, 244, 478

   wet-bulb, 250, 453

potential vorticity (PV) 149, 160, 266, 354, 391–5

   advection, 164

   banner (streamer), 164

   conservation of, 150

   dissipative generation of, 150

   equation, 266

   Ertel’s, 345

   geostrophic, 259

   perturbation, 78, 266

   streamer (banner), 164, 448

   tendency, 346

precipitable water, 459

precipitation

   efficiency, 274, 458, 475

   loading, 276, 299, 302

predictability, 10–11, 555–7

   mesoscale, 556

pressure

   dynamic, 241, 302–9

   buoyancy, 241, 302–3

problem

   closure, 567

   initial-boundary value, 539

   net heating, 185

   partitioning, 259

pseudo-adabatic process, 242


quality control, 539

quasi-geostrophic (QG)

   approximation, 153–4

   balance, 75

   flow, 153–5, 214

   omega equation, 397

   Q vector, 397, 423

   theory, 153–4


radiation

   longwave, 598–601

   shortwave, 601–4

radiative

   cooling, 595

   transfer processes, 595

   warming, 595

rain shadow, 442

rainbands, 323–38, 360–1, 369, 403, 412

radiative flux, 597–9

   longwave, 598–9

radius

   of local curvature, 345

   of updraft, 315, see also core radius

rate

   conversion, cloud water to precipitation, 589

   precipitation, 589

   radiative heating, 590

   storage, 589

   surface evaporation, 589

ray path, 53–4

Rayleigh friction, 13, 56, 218, 531

Raymer hailstorm, 277

rear inflow, see rear-to-front jet

reduced gravity, 61

reflectivity, 532–3, 597

regime

   evanescent flow, 186, 217

   flow, 43–7

   flow-around, 147, 470–1

   flow-over, 146, 470–1

   flow splitting, 148

   hydrostatic gravity wave, 153

   intermediate (mesoscale mountain wave), 155

   lee vortex, 148

   linear mountain wave, 148

   mesoscale mountain wave (intermediate), 155

   moist flow, 478–83

   nonlinear flow, 125–31

   nonrotating evanescent flow, 153–5

   supercell, 290

   vertically propagating wave, 186–7

   wave, 43–7

   wave breaking, 148

   weakly nonlinear mountain wave, 129

relaxation period, see convective time scale

remainder, 492

resonance, 55

   amplification theory, 131–5

   off, 132

   on, 132

   partial, 55, 132

   wave, 122–4, 183

Reynolds

   averaging, 563–8

   number, 21, 145, 533, 563–4

   stress, 132, 234

   -averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS), 564–5

Richardson number

   gradient, 56, 72, 204, 236, 259

   bulk, 290–7

Riemann–Lebesgue Lemma, 161, 178

right mover, see severe right (SR) storm

Rocky Mountains, 165–6, 341, 413

Rossby number

   Eulerian, 1, 152, 211, 343

   Lagrangian, 4, 84, 388

Rossby radius of deformation

   internal (stratified fluid), 9, 75–6, 268, 322, 343, 425

   external (shallow water), 9, 75–6

   orographic, 156–9

Rossby (planetary) wave, 22–3

   topographic, 157

rotor, 124–5

roughness length, 538


SALLJ, 433–4

saturated

   adiabatic process, 247

   geostrophic potential vorticity, 240, 262

   moist Brunt–Vaisala (buoyancy) frequency, 242

Sawyer–Eliassen equation, 390–3, 408

scale

   analysis, 14, 554

   definitions, 1–6

   height, 16–17, 29

   interaction, 7–9

   Orlanski, 2, 4

   selection, 101

scattering, 597

   phase function, 604

scheme

   Adam–Bashforth, 504

   Anthes–Kuo, 591

   Arakawa–Schubert, 591

   backward difference, 492

   Betts–Miller CP, 588

   bulk microphysical parameterization (BMP), 580–5

   centered difference, 393

   centered in time (leapfrog), 496, 504

   centered in space 496, 504

   convective adjustment, 586–8

   Crowley, 503

   cumulus parameterization (CP), 585–94

   Euler’s implicit, 509

   explicit, 508

   forward difference, 492

   forward-backward, 504

   forward in time, 496–501

   fourth-order centered difference, 507

   Grell, 594

   Heun, 504

   higher-order closure, 578

   implicit, 508–11

   Kain–Fritsch (KF), 592–4

   Kessler warm rain, 581

   Kuo, 588–91

   Lax–Wendroff, 501

   Leapfrog (centered-in-time), 496, 504

   Lin–Farley–Orville (LFO), 581–5

   mesoscale CP, 591–4

   multi-stage, 503

   one-and-a-half-order closure, 576

   one moment BMP, 584

   quasi-Lagrangian, see semi-Lagrangian scheme

   Runge–Kutta, 504

   second-order closure, 578

   semi-implicit, 510–11

   semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian, 513–14

   semi-Lagrangian, 511–14

   third-order closure, 578

   three-time level, 496, 504

   TKE closure, 578

   three-moment BMP, 585

   two-moment BMP, 585

   trapezoidal semi-implicit, 510

   two-time level, 496

   upstream in space, 499–501

Scorer’s equation, 110, 186

sea surface temperature (SST), 538

   anomaly (SSTA), 358

semi-geostrophic

   equations, 396

   model, 396

   omega equation, 397, 441

   potential vorticity equations, 398

   vorticity equations, 397

separation vector, 386

severe-wind (high-drag) state, 55, 130–8

shallow water

   dispersion relation, 31

   internal, wave speed, 71

   waves, 29–37

   wave equations, 29–33, 60

   wave speed, 31–2, 524

shear

   directional, 304–8

   downshear, 285

   environmental wind, vector, 304–9

   speed, 304

   unidirectional, 308

   upshear, 287, 309, 324–5

   vector, 304–9

single-scattering albedo, 604

size distribution, 581, 585

slantwise convective

   available potential energy (SCAPE), 261

   inhibition (SCIN), 261

smoother,

   numerical, 548–51

   five-point, 550

   three-point, 548–50

   time, 550

solar

   flux, 602

   irradiance, 601

   radiation, 594

solid-body rotation, 315

solitary wave mechanism, 91–7

soliton, 92

Sommerfeld radiation condition, 104

southerly buster, 174

sound wave, 554

   speed, 15–17

specific heat capacity of dry air

   at constant pressure, 13, 610

   at constant volume, 610

squall line, 323–38

   classifications, 323–8

   maintainence, 324, 332–4

   movement, 335–6

stationary phase, 118–20

steering level, see critical level

Stefan–Boltzmann

   constant, 596

   law, 596

storm

   air-mass, 273

   classical supercell, 296

   left-moving, 299

   high precipitation supercell (HP), 296–7

   initial, 290

   isolated convective, 272–309

   low precipitation supercell (LP), 296–7

   multicell, 276–83

   multicell, generation, 279–83

   propagation, 304–9

   relative helicity (SRH), 297

   right-moving, 299, 305

   right-moving multicell, 278

   rotation, 301, 304–9

   secondary, 290

   severe right (SR), 300–7

   single-cell, 272–6

   splitting, 290, 299–3–4

   nondimensional, strength, 291

   supercell, 293–313

streamfunction, 127, 163, 231

streamline

   critical, 136

   critically steepened, 132

   dividing, 135–6

   deflection, 125

   steepening, 128

subgrid-scale correction terms, 548

subgrid mixing, 501

subharmonic excitation, 85

sublimation, 581–4

swirl ratio, 315–16


TAMEX, 443

Taylor series expansion 118, 490–2

Taylor–Goldstein equation, 38, 54, 73, 203, 463

theory

   hydraulic, 131, 135–8

   K, 570

   layer, 249

   local K, 575

   Monin–Obukov similarity, 571

   non-local, 575

   parcel, 238

   RKW theory, 283–99, 333

   semi-geostrophic (SG), 387, 390, 430

thermal

   buoyancy, 241

   emission, 597

thermodynamic

   diagram, 245–6, 298

   efficiency, 363

thunderstorm, see storm

thunderstorm outflow, see cold air outflow

time scale

   advection, 463, 475

   cloud growth, 463

   Eulerian, 4

   Lagrangian, 19, 388

   raindrop falling, 463

time splitting, 504, 506, 554

tornado, 293–7, 309–18

   core, 315

   gust-front (type II), 313–18

   nonsupercell, 313–18

   supercell (type I), 313

   vortex, 309–12, 315–18

tornadic vortex signature (TVS), 312

tornadogenesis

   nonsupercell (type II), 313–18

   supercell (type I), 309–13

total (material) derivative, 13

track

   cyclone, 167–70

   MCC, 342

   storm, 157

transmissivity, 597

transverse wave, 27

tropical

   cyclogenesis, 348–60

   cyclone movement, 370–2

   depression, 349

   mesovortex, 361–9

   storm, 349

   unified mechanism for, cyclogenesis, 356–8

   upper tropospheric trough (TUTT), 349

   vertical velocity scale, 365

   wave, 349

tropical cyclone (TC), 347–77

   eye, 360–1

   eyewall, 360–1

   intensity, 361–3

   mesoscale structure, 363–70

   outflow, 369–70

   passage, 453–7

   vortex, 347, 366

tropopause

   folding, 406–7

   dynamic, 406, 430

trough

   Atlantic, 157

   dry, 412–16

   lee, 171, 412–16

   monsoon, 358

   Pacific, 157

   passage, 447

   secondary, 171

   short wave, 160, 406

   synoptic, 159

   upper-level, 164

truncation error, 501

turbulence, 421

   closure, 564, 567

   clear air (CAT), 24, 64

   first-order, 570

   PBL, 564

   three-dimensional, 10

turbulent

   exchange coefficient, 564, 570

   kinetic energy (TKE), 576–8

   heat flux, 234, 565

   mixing, 134, 520

   momentum flux, 538, 565

   Reynolds number, 564

two-phase deepening process, 159–64

typhoon, 349

   super, 349


U-shapted disturbance, 208

ultraviolet radiation (UV), 601, 603

undular bore, 93–7

upwelling, 538

updraft

   buoyant, 315

   phase-lagged, 84

   source layer (USL), 592


ventilation, 363, 372

velocity

   Doppler, 296

   friction, 5, 538, 570

   group, 2–6, 41, 119–20, 197, 208

   phase, 27, 40–1

   storm-relative environmental wind, 304

   terminal, 584

vertical

   displacement, 9, 32–3, 70–1

   flux divergence, 597

virtual temperature, 14, 244

viscosity

   dynamic, coefficient, 13

   kinematic, coefficient, 13, 563, 572

   molecular, 13

   turbulent eddy, 13

von Kármán

   constant, 538, 571

   vortex street, 152

vortex

   bookend, 347

   breakdown, 316

   interaction mechanism, 355–6

   multiple, 316

   one-cell, 315

   outer, 360

   secondary, 360–1

   sheet, 252

   shedding, 152–7

   two-cell, 316

vorticity

   absolute geostrophic, 255, 395

   advection, 169, 304

   equation, 110

   crosswise, 306

   geostrophic, 383

   shrinking, 168

   streamwise, 306–7

   stretching, 168, 304

   tendency, 168, 304

   tilting, 304

   vector, 149–51, 241

   vertical, 168, 304


West African disturbance line (WADL), 349–50

waterspout, 314

wave

   absorption, 55, 88–9

   African easterly (AEW), 349

   amplitude, 25

   breaking, 55, 95, 129–37

   -CISK, 97–101, 230, 336, 470

   duct, 58, 86–91

   ducting, 134

   easterly (tropical), 349

   frequency, 25

   generation mechanisms, 64–85

   -induced critical level, 55

   length, 26

   -like solution, 28

   maintenance mechanisms, 85–101

   mixed Rossby-gravity, 358

   motion, 12, 64–107

   number, 25, 40

   number vector, 27

   of depression. 64, 69, 71

   of elevation, 64, 71

   overreflection, 55, 88–9, 206

   overturning, 37, 129, 134

   packet, 53, 64

   plane, 38

   propagation, 23, 27, 201, 208–11

   reflection, 50–4, 88–9, 134, 519

   reflection level, 50–4

   regimes with inertial critical level, 59–60

   resonance, 130–8

   steepening, 36–7, 95

   transmission, 50, 88–9

   tropical (easterly), 349

   wave interaction, 548

   2Δt, 550

   2Δx, 494

wave ducting

   linear, 86–91

   nonlinear, 135

waves

   acoustic, 17

   acoustic-gravity, 17, 23

   algebraic (BDO) solitary, 71, 80, 91–7

   BDO (algebraic) solitary, 71, 80, 91–7

   classical (KdV) solitary, 71, 80, 91–7

   cnoidal, 95

   dispersive, 25

   dissipative, 25

   diverging, 143–4

   electromagnetic, 595–6

   evanescent, 39–40, 117, 140, 214

   gravity, 22, 37–43, 230

   hydrostatic, 115

   hydrostatic mountain, 117, 156

   internal gravity, 37–50, 69

   inertia-gravity, 17, 23, 27, 43–50, 74–7, 217–18, 230, 540

   KdV (classical) solitary, 71, 80, 91–7

   Lamb, 29, 63

   lee, 54, 59, 122–5, 143

   longitudinal, 27

   mesoscale, 22–4, 64–107

   mixed acoustic-gravity, 23

   moist Eady, 403

   mountain, 65, 109–83

   nondispersive, 25, 495

   nondissipative, 25

   nonhydrostatic, 128

   planetary Rossby, 369

   pure gravity, 17, 22

   shallow water, 29–37

   ship, 143–4

   solitary, 91–7

   sound (acoustic), 17, 22–9

   surface trapped, 40

   trapped, 143, 160

   transverse, 27, 143

   vertically propagating, 39–42, 115, 130, 140, 202

   vortex Rossby, 367–9

weak echo region (WER), 294

   also bounded weak echo region (BWER), 294

wind

   ageostrophic, 75, 422

   advective, 422

   downslope, 34, 436

   gap. 436

   gradient, 349, 362–6

   isallobaric, 422, 436

   kabatic, 65

   mistral, 159

   mountain-gap, 176–7

   mountain-valley, 221

   slope, 221

   radius of maximum (RMW), 5, 354, 364

   severe downslope, 34–6

   straight-line, 274

   thermal, 15, 257, 380

   upslope, 221

wind reversal level, 131

windstorm

   Boulder, 35–6, 137

   severe downslope, 35, 131–8

wind-induced

   critical level, 131–8

   surface heat exchange (WISHE), 352–5

Witch of Agnesi, 32

            see also bell-shaped function


zonda, 131


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