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Mesoscale Dynamics

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  • Page extent: 646 pages
  • Size: 247 x 174 mm
  • Weight: 1.33 kg

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 (ISBN-13: 9780521808750)

Mesoscale Dynamics

Cambridge University Press
9780521808750 - Mesoscale Dynamics - by By Yuh-Lang Lin
Table of Contents


Contents

Prefacepage xi
1Overview1
1.1Introduction1
1.2Definitions of atmospheric scales3
1.3Energy generation and scale interactions7
1.4Predictability10
References11
2Governing equations for mesoscale motions12
2.1Introduction12
2.2Derivation of the governing equations12
2.3Approximations to the governing equations17
References20
Problems20
3Basic wave dynamics22
3.1Introduction22
3.2Basic wave properties24
3.3Sound waves28
3.4Shallow water waves29
3.5Pure gravity waves37
3.6Inertia-gravity waves43
3.7Wave reflection levels50
3.8Critical levels54
Appendix 3.160
References62
Problems63
4Mesoscale wave generation and maintenance64
4.1Introduction64
4.2Wave generation mechanisms64
4.2.1Density impulses and moist convection66
4.2.2Mesoscale instabilities71
4.2.3Geostrophic adjustment74
4.2.4Nonlinear interactions85
4.3Wave maintenance mechanisms85
4.3.1Linear wave ducting mechanism86
4.3.2Solitary wave mechanism91
4.3.3Wave-CISK mechanism97
4.4Energy propagation and momentum flux101
References104
Problems107
5Orographically forced flows109
5.1Flows over two-dimensional sinusoidal mountains109
5.2Flows over two-dimensional isolated mountains115
5.2.1Uniform basic flow115
5.2.2Basic flow with variable Scorer parameter121
5.2.3Trapped lee waves122
5.3Nonlinear flows over two-dimensional mountains125
5.3.1Nonlinear flow regimes125
5.3.2Generation of severe downslope winds131
5.4Flows over three-dimensional mountains138
5.4.1Linear theory139
5.4.2Generation of lee vortices144
5.5Flows over larger mesoscale mountains152
5.5.1Rotational effects152
5.5.2Lee cyclogenesis157
5.5.3Orographic influence on cyclone track167
5.6Other orographic effects170
5.6.1Effects on frontal passage170
5.6.2Coastally trapped disturbances173
5.6.3Cold-air damming174
5.6.4Gap flow176
Appendix 5.1177
References179
Problems183
6Thermally forced flows184
6.1Two-dimensional flows184
6.1.1Steady flows over a sinusoidal heat source184
6.1.2Steady flows over an isolated heat source190
6.2Transient flows193
6.2.1Flow responses to pulse heating193
6.2.2Flow responses to steady heating196
6.3Applications to mesoscale circulations198
6.3.1Density current formation and propagation198
6.3.2Heat island circulations199
6.3.3Moist convection201
6.3.4Gravity wave generation and propagation201
6.4Effects of shear, three dimensionality, and rotation203
6.4.1Two-dimensional shear flows203
6.4.2Three-dimensional nonrotating flows207
6.4.3Three-dimensional rotating flows211
6.5Dynamics of sea and land breezes215
6.5.1Linear theories216
6.5.2Nonlinear numerical studies219
6.6Dynamics of mountain–plains solenoidal circulations221
Appendix 6.1224
References224
Problems227
7Mesoscale instabilities229
7.1Wave energy transfer through instabilities230
7.2Integral theorems of stratified flow233
7.2.1Governing equations233
7.2.2Miles’ theorem236
7.2.3Howard’s semicircle theorem236
7.3Static, conditional, and potential instabilities238
7.3.1Static instability238
7.3.2Conditional instability244
7.3.3Potential instability249
7.4Kelvin–Helmholtz instability252
7.5Inertial instability253
7.6Symmetric instability256
7.6.1Dry symmetric instability257
7.6.2Moist symmetric instability260
7.7Baroclinic instability265
References268
Problems271
8Isolated convective storms272
8.1Dynamics of single-cell storms and downbursts272
8.2Dynamics of multicell storms276
8.3Effects of shear and buoyancy283
8.3.1Effects of shear on cold outflow283
8.3.2Effects of buoyancy289
8.4Dynamics of supercell storms293
8.4.1General characteristics293
8.4.2Effects of unidirectional shear297
8.4.3Storm splitting300
8.4.4Storm rotation and propagation304
8.4.5Effects of directional shear307
8.5Tornado dynamics309
8.5.1Supercell tornadogenesis309
8.5.2Nonsupercell tornadogenesis313
8.5.3Tornado vortex dynamics315
References318
Problems320
9Mesoscale convective systems322
9.1Squall lines and rainbands323
9.1.1Squall line classifications323
9.1.2Formation mechanisms328
9.1.3Maintenance mechanisms332
9.1.4Squall line movement335
9.1.5Rainbands336
9.2Mesoscale convective complexes338
9.2.1General characteristics338
9.2.2Formation and development mechanisms341
9.3Tropical cyclones347
9.3.1General characteristics347
9.3.2Tropical cyclogenesis349
9.3.3Intensity and mesoscale structure360
9.3.4Tropical cyclone movement370
References373
Problems377
10Dynamics of fronts and jet streaks379
10.1Kinematics of frontogenesis380
10.2Dynamics of two-dimensional frontogenesis387
10.2.1Geostrophic momentum approximation387
10.2.2Frontogenesis and cross-frontal circulations389
10.3Frontogenesis and baroclinic waves394
10.4Moist and frictional effects on frontogenesis401
10.5Other types of fronts405
10.5.1Upper-level frontogenesis405
10.5.2Drylines413
10.6Jet streak dynamics420
10.6.1Upper-level jet streaks420
10.6.2Low-level jets433
References437
Problems441
11Dynamics of orographic precipitation442
11.1Orographic influence on climatological distribution of precipitation442
11.2Orographic modification of preexisting disturbances446
11.2.1Passage of troughs447
11.2.2Passage of midlatitude cyclones and fronts451
11.2.3Passage of tropical cyclones453
11.2.4Common ingredients of orographic precipitation458
11.3Formation and enhancement mechanisms461
11.3.1Stable ascent mechanism462
11.3.2Release of moist instabilities466
11.3.3Effects of mountain geometry470
11.3.4Combined thermal and orographic forcing471
11.3.5Seeder–feeder mechanism472
11.3.6Dynamical–microphysical interaction mechanism475
11.4Control parameters and moist flow regimes477
11.4.1Control parameters477
11.4.2Moist flow regimes478
References484
12Basic numerical methods489
12.1Introduction489
12.2Finite difference approximations of derivatives491
12.3Finite difference approximations of the advection equation495
12.3.1Two-time-level schemes496
12.3.2Three-time-level schemes504
12.4Implicit schemes508
12.5Semi-Lagrangian methods511
Appendix 12.1514
References515
Problems516
Modeling projects516
13Numerical modeling of geophysical fluid systems518
13.1Grid systems and vertical coordinates518
13.1.1Grid systems520
13.1.2Vertical coordinates526
13.2Boundary conditions528
13.2.1Lateral boundary conditions528
13.2.2Upper boundary conditions530
13.2.3Lower boundary conditions537
13.3Initial conditions and data assimilation539
13.4Nonlinear aliasing and instability547
13.5Modeling a stratified fluid system551
13.6Predictability and ensemble forecasting555
References557
Problems561
Modeling project561
14Parameterizations of physical processes563
14.1Reynolds averaging563
14.2Parameterization of planetary boundary layer processes568
14.2.1Parameterization of the surface layer570
14.2.2Parameterization of the PBL572
14.3Parameterization of moist processes579
14.3.1Parameterization of microphysical processes580
14.3.2Cumulus parameterization585
14.4Parameterizations of radiative transfer processes594
14.4.1Introduction594
14.4.2Longwave radiation598
14.4.3Shortwave radiation601
References605
Problems609
Appendices610
A.List of symbols610
B.Nomenclature615
Index618

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