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Discovering Cell Mechanisms
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  • Page extent: 334 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.575 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 571.6
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: QH581.2 .B42 2006
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Cytology
    • Cytology--history
    • Cell Physiology
    • Cytological Techniques

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521812474 | ISBN-10: 052181247X)




Index

Abbe, Ernst, 68

acetic acid, 84, 106, 111

achromatic lenses, 67, 73

activation of hydrogen, 110

activation of oxygen, 108–10

Adams, Mark H., 178

ADP, adenosine-diphosphate, 47, 102–3, 115–16, 192–3, 196, 213–15, 219

Afzelius, Bjorn A., 104, 153

Alfert, Max, xi, 269

Allchin, Douglas, 193

Allen, M., 87

Allfrey, Vincent, 134

Altmann, Richard, 80–2, 128, 151, 166

American Journal of Anatomy, 260

American Society for Cell Biology, xi, 11, 12, 18, 177, 259, 268, 269, 271–7, 279

Anatomical Record, 260

Anderson, Thomas F., 143–4

Anderson, Winston, 276

aniline dyes, 74

apochromatic lenses, 68, 74–5

Appel, Toby, 276

Appelmans, François, 251–2

Aristotelian philosophy, 20, 30

Aristotle, 20, 36

artifacts, 15, 66–7, 74, 76–7, 81, 87–9, 118, 122–4, 126, 130, 132, 144, 149, 152–3, 160, 186, 206–7, 244

Atmungsferment, 94, 109–10, 114

atomism, 21, 25

ATP, adenosine-triphosphate, 28, 47, 97, 101–4, 115–16, 134, 179, 192–6, 198, 210, 212–15, 218–20, 233, 237

ATPase, 213, 215, 217–20

Auerbach, V. H., 197

autonomy of biological mechanisms, 52

autonomy of higher levels, 43

autopoietic machine, 51

Baker, John R., 87, 125, 140, 145, 150, 244

Baker, Richard F., 145, 230

Balis, M. Earl, 239

Barcroft, Joseph, 108

Barnes, Barry, 9

Barnum, C. P., 228

Barsalou, Lawrence W., 38–9

Battelli, Federico, 107–8

Bauer, Franz, 68

Bauer, Johannes, 129

Beadle, George W., 28

Beams, H. W., 87, 159

Beams, Jesse, 129

Bear, Richard, 143, 263–4, 277

Beaufay, Henri, 254

Bechtel, William, 5, 13, 26, 30, 57, 62, 71, 93, 110, 119, 126–7

Behrens, Martin, 129

Beinert, Helmut, 197

Belitzer, Vladimir A., 115

Bell, L. G. E., 153

Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, 51

Benda, Carl, 81

Bennett, H. Stanley, 146, 176, 260–1, 263, 265

Bensley, Robert R., 122–3, 129, 130–1, 135, 151, 166–70, 177, 183, 210

Berger, R., 223

Bergmann, Max, 231–2

Bernard, Claude, 1, 4, 45–6, 92–3

Bernhard, Wilhelm, 223–4, 252

Berthelot, Pierre Eugene Marcellin, 93

Berthet, Jacques, 133, 136, 138–9, 251

Berthollet, Claude Louis, 89

Berzelius, Jons Jacob, 90–2

Bichat, Xavier, 45–6, 52

Bigelow, Julian, 48–9

Biochemical Society, 11, 94

Biophysical Journal, 267

Biophysical Society, 236

biophysics, 2, 237, 239, 264, 266–7, 271, 277

Birbeck, M. S. C., 122–4

Bittner, John, 188

Black, Harold, 47

Bloor, David, 9

Blum, Joseph, 145–6, 224

Boas, Marie, 24

Bock, Robert, 218

Bogen, James, 27–8

Bois-Reymond, Emil du, 71, 98

Bonner, John T., 186

Bonneville, Mary, 191

Borsook, Harry, 231

Borysko, Emil, 145

boundary conditions, 6

Bourne, Geoffrey H., 82, 84, 86–8, 117, 209, 259

Bowen, Robert, 87–8, 169

Boyer, Paul, 193–4, 220

Boyle, Robert, 22

Brachet, Jean, 17, 133, 157, 171–3, 176–7, 182, 189, 231

Brenner, Sydney, 238

Bretschneider, L. H., 144–5, 147, 153

bridge principles, 6

Brodmann, Korbinian, 56–7

Brömel, Heinz, 103

Bronk, Detlev, 191, 261–5, 268, 275

Brosteaux, Jeanne, 196

Brown, Robert, 68, 73–4

Brücke, Ernst von, 71

Bucher, Nancy, 233

Buchner, Eduard, 93, 95, 97–8, 109

Buchner, Hans, 97

Burian, Richard M., 12, 173

Burton, Eli F., 142

Busch, Hans, 141

Bütschli, Otto, 76

Cagniard-Latour, Charles, 92

Cajal, Santiago Ramón y, 85–6, 120

Cambridge Rocking Microtome, 144–6

Campbell, Peter N., 132

Cannan, C. M., 223

Cannon, Walter, 46

Canti, R. C., 87, 151

carmine red stain, 74

Carnoy, Jean-Baptiste, 76

Caro, Lucien, 247

Carrel, Alexis, 147

Caspersson, Tobjörn O., 169, 171, 173–7, 182, 189, 231, 259

Causey, Robert, 42, 43

cell division, 72–6, 88, 162, 175

cell doctrine, 68–9

cell formation, 69, 71–2, 74

cell fractionation, 12–13, 16, 60, 63, 118, 121–4, 130–4, 136–40, 147, 155–7, 159–62, 173, 177–8, 180–1, 183, 188–9, 194, 197, 209–10, 215, 222–3, 231, 233, 240, 243, 246, 250–1, 256, 258, 267, 274, 279

Cell Regulation, 279

cell wall, 69, 73, 129, 186

cellular respiration, 11, 16, 32, 36, 41, 81–2, 97, 105, 110, 113, 116–17, 196, 212–13, 257

centrifugation, 121–2, 128–31, 135–6, 139, 159, 164, 166–8, 170, 178–9, 187, 197, 210, 212, 240, 242, 246, 250–1

centrifuge, 129

Chambers, Robert, 180

Champy, Charles, 84

Champy’s fluid, 245

Chance, Britton, 196, 218, 220, 274

Chantrenne, Hubert, 136, 172–3

Chao, Fu-Chuan, 239

chemiosmotic hypothesis, 194, 209, 220–1

Christian, Walter, 103, 114–15

chromatic aberrations, 66, 68, 74, 77

chromosomes, 75–6, 132, 162, 175–7, 183

Chubin, Daryl E., 10

Churchland, Patricia S., 41

citric acid, 36–7, 105, 108–9, 111, 114–16, 192, 194, 197, 210, 212–13, 215, 233

citric acid cycle, 36–7, 105, 111, 114–16, 192, 194–5, 197, 210, 212–13, 215, 233

Claude, Albert, 16, 35, 88, 129–32, 134–6, 138, 145–8, 151, 158–60, 162–71, 173, 177–8, 180–4, 186–9, 191, 194, 202, 222, 231, 233–4, 244–5, 250, 252

Cleland, K. W., 192

coenzyme I, 103, 114–15

coenzyme II, 104, 114–15

coenzyme Q, 115

coferment, 100, 101, 114

collaboration networks, 10

Collins, Harry, 9

colloid chemistry, 94

Colowick, Sidney P., 119

Commoner, Barry, 176

Cooper, Cecil, 212–14

Copeland, Eugene, 269

Cordes, Eugene, 238

Cori, Carl, 250

Cori, Gerty, 250

Corner, George W., 163

Correns, Carl, 14, 76

Corti, Alfonso, 74

Cosslett, Vernon Ellis, 126, 140

Cottone, Mary A., 134

coupling factor F1, 215, 218–19

coupling factor F0, 215, 218, 220

Cowdry, Edmund Vincent, 77, 82–4, 86, 165–6, 168

Cramer, Carl, 78

Crane, Diana, 10

Crane, Frederick L., 115

Cranefield, Paul, 71

Craver, Carl, 13, 26, 30, 55, 62, 237

Creath, Richard, 127

Crick, Francis H. C., 2

Criddle, Robert, 218

cristae mitochondriales, 157, 199, 200–1, 203–9, 211–13, 216–17, 219–20

cybernetics, 48, 50

cyclophorase system, 196–8, 200–1, 273

cytochemistry, 117, 121, 139, 177, 264, 267–8, 273

cytochrome c, 180, 194–6, 200, 211, 213

cytochrome oxidase, 94, 114, 167, 178, 180, 197, 251

cytoplasm, 15–16, 31, 69, 71, 76, 80, 83–8, 97, 117, 128, 134, 148, 151, 155–9, 162, 176, 182–4, 186–7, 189, 195, 223–5, 227–31, 234–5, 238, 242, 256–7

cytosol, 32, 60, 135, 170, 189, 195, 212–13

Dalton, Albert J., 147, 155, 223–4, 230, 245–6

Danielli, James F., 47, 79, 139, 205, 259, 274

Darden, Lindley, 7, 12–13, 15, 26, 30, 62, 237

Darwin, Charles, 2

Darwin, Horace, 144

Dass, C. M. S., 211

Datta, Anima, 215

Davidson, J. Norman, 263

Davis, Bernard, 265, 277

Davson, Hugh, 79, 205

de Broglie, Louis, 141

de Duve, Christian, xi, 34–5, 64–5, 132–3, 136, 138–9, 222, 248, 250–6

de Robertis, E. D. P., 88, 137, 141, 160, 162, 289

Deasy, Clara, 231

decomposition, 31, 41, 43, 45, 54

   functional decomposition, 31–2, 55, 57, 60, 65, 128, 166, 189, 256

   structural decomposition, 31, 57, 60, 65, 128, 166, 200

deductive-nomological model of explanation, 25

dehydration, 122, 151–2

dehydrogenases, 110, 200

dehydrogenation, 106, 110–11, 114–15

Democritus, 21

Dempsey, Edward, 263

Descartes, Rene, 21–2, 24, 44

Deuticke, H. J., 102

Devlin, Thomas M., 212

Dewan, John G., 196, 292

diagrams of mechanisms, 34–8, 40, 62

dihydroxyacetone, 98, 102, 104

Dintzis, Howard, 236

disciplines, 5–6, 8–9, 11–14, 18, 237, 258, 268, 271, 279–80

discovery of mechanisms, 5, 7, 16, 31–2, 34, 40, 54–5, 58, 62–3, 96, 256, 280

Dixon, Malcolm, 196

DNA, 15, 28, 121, 136, 139, 171, 175–7, 211, 238

domains, scientific, 1, 5–8, 12–13, 51, 88, 267, 277

Doty, Paul, 265

Dowe, Phil, 25

DPN. See NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)

Drebbel, Cornelis, 47

Dröscher, Ariane, 86

Droz, Bernard, 247

Drummond, D. G., 152

Dubos, Rene, 260

Dujardin, Felix, 73

Dumortier, Barthelemy, 72

Dutrochet, René Joachim Henri, 66, 78

Eagle, Harry, 273

Edwards, Henri Milne, 66

Eggleton, Marion Grace Palmer, 100

Eggleton, Philip, 100

Einbeck, Hans, 107

electron microscope, 15, 56, 117, 121–2, 128, 140, 142–3, 147–9, 156, 161, 173, 181–4, 186–8, 191, 201–2, 205, 210, 223–4, 233, 247, 249, 252, 261

Electron Microscope Society of America, 11, 202, 204

electron microscopy, 12–13, 16, 60, 63, 122–3, 126, 141–58, 160–2, 173, 177, 182, 184, 189, 199–204, 210–11, 215, 229, 233, 242–3, 245–6, 258, 260–5, 267, 271, 273, 276, 279

electron transport chain, 114–16, 192–4, 196, 211–12, 214, 217–19

electron transport particles (ETP), 211

Elman, Jeffrey, 53

Elvehjem, Conrad, 132–3, 215, 233

Elvehjem-Potter homogenizer, 132

Embden, Gustav, 100, 102–4

Embden-Meyerhof pathway, 104, 116

embedding, 74, 145, 152

endogenous cell formation, 69

endoplasmic reticulum, 17–18, 147, 154, 157, 162, 210, 222–8, 231, 233–8, 243, 245–7, 249, 253, 256–8

energy-rich bonds (∼P), 232

Engel, H., 100

Englehardt, Vladimir Aleksandrovich, 101

Enström, Arne, 177

Epstein, Michael A., 132

ergastoplasm, 77, 83–4, 157, 169, 224, 227, 245

Ernster, Lars, 220

evolution, 44

exocytosis, 248

exogenous cell formation, 69

Experimental Cell Research, 177, 259, 262, 275

experimental manipulations, 34, 54–5, 60, 86

   inhibition strategies, 58–9

   intervening in a mechanism, 58

   measuring changes in a mechanism, 58

   stimulation strategies, 58–9

FAD, flavin adenine dinucleotide, 107, 115, 198, 211

Fåhraeus, Robin, 129

Farah, Martha, 38

Farquhar, Marilyn Gist, 244, 246

fatty acid oxidation, 96

Faust, Katherine, 10

Fawcett, Don W., 191, 260, 264–5, 269, 275–6

feedback control, 36, 47

Felix, Marie D., 93, 245–6

fermentation, 28–9, 54, 59, 71–2, 89–93, 95–105, 109, 114, 116–17, 182

Fernández-Morán, Humberto, 152, 177, 211, 215–218

Feulgen stain, 139, 171

Feulgen, Robert Joachim, 171

field, scientific, 7, 11–12, 60, 147, 168, 173, 222, 258–61, 270

Fischer, Alfred, 76, 81, 149–50

Fischer, Emil, 95

Fiske, Cyrus, 101

fixation, 74, 76, 80–1, 86–7, 122–3, 125, 145, 149–59, 186, 206–7, 209, 217, 222, 245

Fleischer, Becca, 247

Fleischer, Sidney, 247

Flemming, Walther, 14, 75–6, 123, 265

Flemming’s solution, 75, 151

Fletcher, William Morley, 98

Flexner, Simon, 83, 163

Florkin, Marcel, 94

FMN, flavin mononucleotide, 115, 211

Fodor, Jerry, 52, 53

Fol, Hermann, 14, 75

Fontana, Felice, 68

Fourcroy, Antoine François de, 90

Fox, Peter, 53

Frantz, Ivan D., 232

Frédéricq, Léon, 67

freeze-drying, 81, 131, 151–4, 166

Frey-Wyssling, Albert, 263

Friedkin, Morris, 195

Friedmann, Herbert, 91, 93

Fromherz, Konrad, 98

Fruton, Joseph S., 81, 91, 94, 109–10

Fullam, Ernest F., 144–5, 148, 181, 183–5

fumaric acid, 107–8, 111

functional decomposition, 235

Galileo Galilei, 21, 28

Gall, Joseph G., 65

Gallant, Jack, 57

Gamble, James L., Jr., 212

Garfield, Eugene, 10

Garnier, Charles, 83–4, 227

Gasser, Herbert S., 191, 260–1

Gaudillière, Jean-Paul, 12

Gautier, A., 224

Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis, 90–1

Gersh, Isidore, 150–1, 166

Gessler, Albert, 144–5

Gianetto, Robert, 252

Gicklhorn, Josef, 87

Giere, Ronald, 23

Glennan, Stuart, 25–6

Glick, David, 138

glucose-6-phosphatase, 250

glyceraldehyde, 98, 102, 104

glycolysis, 36–7, 57, 60, 89, 97, 100–5, 112, 116, 182, 192–3, 195, 197, 212–13

Golgi apparatus, 17–18, 32, 77, 84–8, 136, 157–60, 166, 185, 190, 243–9, 256–8

Golgi body. See Golgi apparatus

Golgi stack, 247–9, 256

Golgi, Camillo, 84, 120, 159

Gorter, Evert, 79–80

Graham, Thomas, 94

Grajski, K. A., 53

Grassé, P. P., 248

Green, David Ezra, 49, 196–201, 210–11, 214, 216–18, 220, 273–4, 277

Gregory, Richard, 58–9

Grendel, F., 79, 80

Grew, Nehemiah, 65

Griese, Alfred, 103

Griffiths, Raymond, 211, 267

Grobstein, Clifford, 269

Guérin, M., 223

Gye, W. E., 164

Hacking, Ian, 8, 120

Hagen, Arie, 231

Haguenau, Françoise, 83–4, 224, 227

Hahn, Martin, 97

Hall, Cecil E., 143–4, 241–2

Hamilton, Mary G., 228, 239

Hammarsten, Einar, 173–5

Hanson, Norwood Russell, 27

Hanstein, Johannes von, 76

Hanzon, Viggo, 204, 228–30, 246

Harden, Arthur, 99, 101–2, 109, 114

Hardy, William Bate, 81, 150

Harman, J. W., 198–9

Harrel, J., 223

Harris, Henry, 67, 72–3, 75

Harris, Morgan, xi, 67, 73, 268–72

Harrison, Ross Granville, 147

Hartmann, Frank, 146

Hartree, Edward F., 114, 116, 192

Harvey, William, 22, 29

Hatefi, Youssef, 115, 211

Hayashi, Teru, 270

Hegarty, Mary, 38

Heidenhain, Richard, 76

Heidenhain, Rudolf Peter Heinrich, 235

Helmer, Oscar M., 163

Helmholtz, Hermann von, 71

Hempel, Carl G., 25

Henle, Friedrich Gustav Jacob, 67

Henriot, Emile, 129, 172

Henroit-Huguenard centrifuge, 136

Herrmann, Heinz, 269

Hewson, William, 77

high-energy bonds (∼P), 193, 214, 219. See also energy-rich bonds (∼P)

Hill, Archibald, 47

Hill, Arthur Croft, 95

Hillier, James, 142

histochemistry, 117, 121, 139, 264, 271

historians of science, 6, 8

Hoagland, Charles L., 179

Hoagland, Mahlon B., 233, 238

Hoerr, Normand L., 129–31, 135, 166–8, 170

Hofmeister, Franz, 95–6

Hofmeister, Wilhelm, 75

Hogeboom, George H., 130, 134, 177–81, 194, 200–1, 233

Hollingworth, B. R., 239

Holmes, Frederic L., 11, 89–91, 96–7, 110–11

Holmgren, Emil, 85

Holtzman, Eric, 254, 256

homeostasis, 46

Hooke, Robert, 65–6, 73

Hopkins, Frederick Gowland, 98

Hoppe-Seyler, Felix, 93

Horstman, Lawrence, 218

Hotchkiss, Rollin, 178–80, 272, 274

Huennekens, Frank M., 199

Hughes, Arthur, 65, 68

Hultin, Tore J. M., 231

Hume, David, 24, 25

Huseby, R. A., 228

Huxley, Thomas H., 73

Hydén, Holger, 176

hydrolytic enzymes, 95, 131, 172, 252, 255–7

inner membrane spheres, 217–18

Institute for Enzyme Research (Wisconsin), 11, 196, 273

Interchemical Corporation, 182, 184

interdisciplinary research clusters, 13

interfield theories, 12–13

internal environment, 45–6, 92

International Federation for Cell Biology, 259

International Review of Cytology, 259, 274

International Society for Cell Biology, 259, 268, 270

Jacob, Francoise, 238

Jakus, Marie, 143–4

Jamieson, James D., 247–8

Janus green, 81, 130, 165, 170, 181

Jeener, Raymond, 172–3

Jenkins, William, 53

Johnson, William, 111–12

Jonker, Catholijn, 39

Journal of Biophysical and Biochemical Cytology, 18, 259–60, 264, 271, 275–7

Journal of Cell Biology, 12, 18, 259–60, 266–8, 275

Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology, 274

Journal of Experimental Medicine, 260–2

Journal of General Physiology, 260–1, 270, 275

Journal of Ultrastructure Research, 259, 261

journals, professional, 9–10, 13, 18, 94, 258

Kahler, H., 223

Kalberlah, F., 100

Kalckar, Hermann, 115, 192

Kallman, Frances L., 150, 154, 222

Kaplan, Nathan, 119

Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, 169, 173, 201–2, 207, 259

Kauffman, Stuart, 29

Kaufmann, Berwind P., 263

Keighley, Geoffrey, 231

Keilin, David, 112, 114, 116, 192, 197

Keller, Elizabeth B., 232–3

Kennedy, Eugene, 194–5

Kerb, Johannes Wolfgang, 98

Kiho, Yukio, 241

King, R. L., 87, 159

King, Tsoo E., 220

Kingsbury, B. F., 82

Kirchhoff, Gottlieb Sigismund, 90

Kirkman, Hadley, 86, 88

Kitcher, Philip, 9, 25

Knoll, Max, 141

Knoop, Franz, 96–7, 106

Knopf, Paul M., 239

Kobel, M., 99

Koertge, Noretta, 9

Kohler, Robert E., 8, 9, 89, 93, 95–6, 109

Kölliker, Rudolf Albert von, 80

Konigsberger, Victor, 237

Kosslyn, Stephen, 38–9

Kraft, G., 102

Krebs cycle. See citric acid cycle

Krebs, Hans, 111–12

Ktesibios’s water clock, 47

Kuff, Edward L., 129, 246

Kuhn, Thomas S., 7, 16, 27

Kühne, Wilhelm, 93, 95

Kützing, Friedrich Traugott, 92

lace-like reticulum, 148, 186–7, 189, 222–3. See also endoplasmic reticulum

lactacidase, 98

lactacidogen, 100

lactic acid, 97–8, 100–1, 103–5, 108

lactic acid cycle, 47

Lakatos, Imre, 7, 62

LaPlace, Pierre Simon, 54, 90

Laquer, Fritz Oscar, 100

Lardy, Henry, 215, 220

large granule fraction, 169–70, 179–81. See also mitochondrion

Larkin, Jill H., 40

Latour, Bruno, 9, 119

Latta, Harrison, 146

Laudan, Larry, 7, 9

Lavoisier, Antoine L., 54, 89–90, 93

laws of nature, 2–3, 7, 19, 23–6, 33, 61, 280

Lazarow, Arnold, 167

Leblond, Charles P., 247–9

Ledingham, C. G., 164

Lehninger, Albert L., 192, 194–8, 201, 210, 212–14, 217, 219–20, 263–4

Leloir, Louis F., 196

Lemon, Oliver, 40

Lester. R. L., 115

Leucippus, 21

levels of organization, 27, 40–2, 62, 117, 237, 279

   higher levels, 40–1, 43

   lower levels, 40–1

Levene, Phoebus, 171

Lewontin, Richard, 2, 23

Leydig, Franz, 76

Liebig, Justus, 91–2, 96

light microscope, 64–5, 77, 83, 88, 117, 130, 140, 169, 184, 186

light microscopy, 15, 122, 140, 144, 147–8, 150–1, 153, 161, 169, 186, 246

Linnane, Anthony W., 211

Lipmann, Fritz, 103, 112, 115, 192–3, 231–3

Lloyd, B., 223

localization, 32, 60–1, 110, 123, 138, 182

Loftfield, Robert, 232, 311

logical empiricists, 6, 24, 54, 61

Lohmann, Karl, 101

Longino, Helen, 9

Loomis, W. F., 197

Lowy, Peter H., 231

Ludford, R. J., 223

Ludwig, Carl, 71

Lundsgaard, Eimar, 100

Lynen, Feodor, 112

lysosomes, 17–18, 35, 131–2, 191, 244, 250–8

Machamer, Peter, 26, 30, 62

MacMunn, Charles, 114

malic acid, 107–8, 111, 195

Malpighi, Marcello, 65

Manasseïn, Marie Mikhailovna, 93

Manton, Irene, 146

Marton, Ladislaus, 142

Matthaei, Heinrich J., 238

Maturana, Humberto, 51

Maull, Nancy, 7, 12

Maxwell, James Clerk, 48

Mazia, Daniel, xi, 263, 265, 269–70

McElroy, William, 270–1

McIntosch, James, 164

mechanism sketches, 62, 116, 237, 242

mechanisms, 1–5, 7, 11–16, 19–62, 64–5, 69, 71–2, 74, 76, 86, 88, 93–4, 96–7, 110, 116–17, 121, 128, 139, 150, 153, 159–61, 171, 175–6, 182, 189, 192, 194, 196, 197–8, 209, 212–13, 214, 218, 220, 222, 235, 237–9, 241–3, 255–8, 274, 279–80

mechanistic explanation, 4, 19, 25–6, 33–4, 40–1, 45, 54, 62–3

media for cell fractionation, 130–1, 133–4, 159, 181

   sucrose media, 130, 134, 181, 194

meiosis, 76

membrane, 15–16, 31, 42, 51, 60, 68, 73, 75, 77, 79–80, 84–5, 88, 109, 121, 128, 131, 156–7, 170, 181, 183, 194, 199–204, 208–9, 212, 216–17, 220, 222, 224–5, 227, 229–31, 234–6, 243, 245, 247–8, 254, 257

membranes, 78–80, 97, 108

Mendel, Gregor, 28, 76

Mercer, Edgar H., 47, 122–4

Merton, Robert, 8

Meselson, Matthew, 238

metabolism, 71

methylene blue, 106, 108

methylglyoxal, 98–100

Meyerhof, Otto, 47, 100–1, 103–5, 109

Michaelis, Leonor, 81–2, 155

microsomal fraction, 180–1, 223, 232–4, 236, 250

microsomes, 76, 135, 170–3, 178, 182–3, 186–7, 189–90, 222, 228, 231, 233–4, 236, 239, 243, 246, 257

microtomes, 144–6, 199, 202, 225

Miescher, Johann Friedrich, 128

Milne-Edwards, Henri, 66

Mirsky, Alfred E., 132–3, 176, 211

Mitchell, Peter, 194, 209, 219–21, 272

mitochondrial fraction, 134, 167, 182, 194, 251

mitochondrial membrane, 199, 204–8, 212, 219, 274

mitochondrion, 16–17, 32, 60, 77, 80–4, 88, 109, 115–16, 123, 130, 132, 134–5, 139, 150–1, 154–7, 162, 165–71, 180–5, 189, 192–217, 222–3, 228–30, 233, 237, 239, 243, 245, 251, 253, 256–8, 274

mitosis, 76, 265

Mizen, N. A., 228

model of a mechanism, 39, 54, 62, 71, 79–80, 95, 98, 106, 108, 126–7, 139, 235

Möhle, Walter, 104

molecular biology, 10, 12, 173, 237, 267, 279–80

Molecular Biology of the Cell, 280

Monod, Jacques, 238

Moreno, Alvaro, 52

Morgan, Thomas Hunt, 28, 76, 174

Mori, Takajiro, 171

Morré, D. J., 246

Moses, Montrose, xi, 270

Mudd, Stuart, 143

Müller, Johannes, 67, 69, 71

Mundale, Jennifer, 56

Murphy, James B., 163–4, 177, 184, 191

myelin figures, 87, 158, 159

NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), 103–4, 114, 198

NADP, 104, 114, 198

Nagel, Ernest, 6, 42

Nägeli, Carl Wilhelm von, 78, 105

Nassonov, Dimitry, 86

Needham, Dorothy M., 103, 171

Needham, Joseph, 149, 171

negative feedback, 47–8, 50

Negelein, Erwin Paul, 103

Neubauer, Otto, 98

Neuberg, Carl, 98, 99

Neutra, Marian, 248–9, 299

Newman, M. E., 10

Newman, Sanford B., 145

Newton, Isaac, 2, 23–5

Nickles, Thomas, 54

Nicolis, Gregoire, 51

Nirenberg, Marsall W., 238

Noe, E., 136

Novikoff, Alex B., 123, 134, 136, 148, 227, 250, 252–4, 256, 273–5, 277

Nowinski, W. W., 88

nuclear division, 75–6

nucleolus, 69, 71, 84, 175–6, 182, 228

nucleus, 14, 31, 68–77, 83, 86, 128, 131, 134–5, 150–1, 162, 165, 167, 173, 175–6, 182, 183–4, 186, 230, 238, 240, 245, 273

Nusbaum, Jozef, 86

Oberling, Charles, 223–4

Ochoa, Severo, 115–16, 193, 195

Ohlmeyer, Paul, 104

Olesko, Kathryn, 8

omne granulum e granulo, 80

omnis cellula e cellula, 72, 80

omnis nucleus e nucleo, 76

operations in mechanisms, 2, 4–5, 14, 16, 26, 29–46, 51, 54–62, 72, 92, 95, 97–8, 110, 118, 128, 160, 162, 190, 192, 200, 210, 214, 233, 235, 237, 242, 244, 255, 257

Oppenheim, Paul, 6

Oppenheimer, Carl, 94

organization of a mechanism, 5, 26–7, 29, 32–3, 35, 42–53, 62–3, 94, 97, 162, 197, 204, 207, 210, 222, 239, 263

   higher level, 43

   lower levels, 43

osmic acid, 74, 75, 81, 82, 86, 87, 145

osmium tetroxide, 80, 142, 150–1, 153–5, 157–9, 207, 230, 231, 244

osmosis, 78

Ostwald, Wolfgang, 94

Overbeek, Theo, 237

Overton, Charles Ernest, 78–9, 109

oxidative metabolism, 192, 195, 198, 258

oxidative phosphorylation, 16, 28, 42, 115–16, 123, 134, 192, 194–8, 209–10, 212–15, 218–22, 232–3, 248, 273–4

oxygen activation, 107

Ozawa, Hidehiro, 247

Palade particles, 228

Palade, George E., xii, 88, 130, 136, 145, 148, 153–60, 162, 180–1, 186, 190–1, 199–212, 220, 224–8, 230–1, 233–7, 239, 243–8, 259, 263–4, 266, 272, 275–6

Palay, Sanford, 191

Pappas, George, xii, 191, 228, 263, 276

paradigm, 7, 131

Parat, Maurice, 87

Pardee, Arthur B., 238, 272

Parnas, Jacob, 102–3

Parsons, Donald, 218

parts of mechanisms, 2, 4–5, 14, 21, 26, 29–38, 40–4, 50–1, 54–62, 71–2, 121, 128, 140, 160, 186, 189–90, 223, 239, 242, 244, 255, 257

Pascual-Leone, Alvaro, 53

Pasteur, Louis, 43, 54, 92–3, 98

Payen, Anselme, 90

Peachey, Lee, 191, 265, 274

Pease, Daniel C., 145–6, 230

Pecora, Pauline, 239

Penefsky, Harvey S., 215

pepsin, 91, 93, 128

Peretó, Juli, 52

Perkin, William, 74

peroxisome, 252

Persoz, Jean F., 90

Petermann, Mary L., 228, 239

Peters, Rudolph A., 186

Petersen, Steven E., 53

Peterson, Marian, 249

Petrén, Ture, 204

Pfeffer, Wilhelm, 78

Pflüger, Eduard, 30, 93–4, 105

phase contrast microscopy, 77, 121, 140, 262, 297

phenomenon to be explained, 3–4, 7, 11, 13, 15, 20–1, 23, 26–30, 32–4, 37, 40–1, 45, 54–5, 62, 71, 118–19, 126–7, 160, 220, 279–80

philosophers of science, 6, 25, 26, 280

philosophy of science, 19, 24, 27, 40, 280

phosphocreatine, 100–3

phosphorylating electron transport particles, 211

Piaget, Jean, 52

Pickels, Edward G., 129, 187

Picken, L. E. R., 186

Pinchot, Gifford, 215

Podber, E., 136

Polanyi, Michael, 8

Pollister, Arthur, 205

polyribosome (polysome), 4, 240–2

Pomerat, Gerald, 173, 176, 202, 206

Porter, Keith R., xii, 16, 124, 145–8, 150–1, 153, 155–6, 158, 162, 177, 183–9, 191, 199, 201–2, 206, 222–8, 230–1, 259–61, 263–70, 275–6

Porter-Blum microtome, 146, 224

Potter, Van, xii, 132–3, 197, 233, 269, 273, 275

Potter-Elvehjem homogenizer, 132

power plants of the cell, 16, 182, 192, 257

Prebble, John, 220

Prenant, A., 84

Prescott, David M., 119

Pressman, Burton D., 252

Price, Derek de Solla, 10

Prigogine, Ilya, 51

professional societies, 9–10, 13–14, 18, 94, 258

protein synthesis, 3–4, 18, 28, 169, 171–6, 182, 189–90, 222, 231–40, 242–3, 247, 248, 258

protoplasm, 73–4, 76–7, 80, 93–6, 105, 109, 162, 168

Prout, William, 91

Pullman, Maynard E., 215

Purkinje, Johann Evangelista, 68, 73

Putnam, Hillary, 6

Pylyshyn, Zenon, 38

pyruvic acid, 37, 98, 102–5, 111–12, 115, 192, 195, 197, 212

Racker, Efraim, 116, 118, 210, 214–15, 217–20, 274

radioactive tracers, 59, 121, 212, 247

Raichle, Marcus E., 53

Rasmussen, Howard, 191

Rasmussen, Nicolas, 142, 145, 155–6, 172, 204, 209–10

Raspail, Francois-Vincent, 72

RCA EM-A electron microscope, 142

RCA EM-B electron microscope, 142

RCA EMU electron microscope, 142, 191

Recanzone, Gregg, 53

reconstituting the phenomenon, 28–9

Redman, Colvin, 243

reduction, 6, 40

   of theories, 42

Regaud, Claudius, 83–4

Reichenbach, Hans, 54

Reichert, Karl Bogislaus, 74

Remak, Robert, 72–3, 75

representations of mechanisms, 34

research instruments, 8, 12, 15–16, 34, 65, 67, 117–21, 125, 127–8, 174–5, 177, 275

research techniques, 8, 11–13, 15–16, 60, 63–4, 67, 77, 80, 89, 96, 110, 117, 119–20, 177, 258, 279

respiration, 89, 93–5

respiratory chain. See electron transport chain

Rheinberger, Hans-Jorg, 12, 136, 165, 236, 238

Rhodin, Johannes, 155, 203–4, 206, 228, 230

ribosome, 18, 154, 157, 236–43, 247, 257

Rich, Alexander, 4, 239–42

Richardson, K. C., 87

Richardson, Robert C., 26, 28, 30, 62, 71, 93, 110

Richert, Ernestine, 112

Rinde, Herman, 129

Rinehart, J. F., 246

Ris, Hans, xii, 132, 211, 272

RNA, ribose nucleic acid, 4, 11, 121, 134, 136, 169, 171–3, 176, 181–2, 228, 231, 234, 237–43, 246, 257

   messenger RNA (mRNA), 238–9, 241–2

   soluble RNA, 238

   transfer RNA (tRNA), 238–9

Roberts, Richard B., 236

Robertson, J. David, 146

Rockefeller Foundation, xii, 129, 142–3, 172–4, 176, 191, 201–2, 250

Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, 16, 83, 143, 145, 162–3, 167, 171, 177, 191, 194, 231, 233, 250, 259, 261, 270, 272, 275

Rosenberg, Alexander, 8

Rosenblueth, Arturo, 48–9

Rouillier, Charles, 252

Rous chicken sarcoma, 163–4, 186–7, 188

Rous, Peyton, 163–4, 188, 260

Rudzinska, Maria, 191

Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa, 52

Runnström, John, 259, 275

Ruska, Ernst, 141, 143

Ruska, Helmut, 143

Ryan, J., 136

Sabatini, David D., 239, 243

sac of enzymes, 131, 196

Saez, Francisco, 88

Salmon, Wesley, 25, 33, 44

Samarth, Kumud, 239

Sanadi, D. Rao, 220

Sanders, F. K., 139

Satir, Birgit, xii, 276

Satir, Peter, xii, 191

Schachmann, Howard, 239

Scharrer, Ernst, 269

Scherer, W. F., 269

Schleiden, Matthais, 68–70, 72–4

Schlenk, Fritz, 93

Schlessinger, David, 239

Schmitt, Francis O., 3, 143–4, 176, 201–2, 204, 261–6, 277

Schneider, Walter C., 129–30, 134, 180–1, 194, 200–1, 233, 246

Schott, Otto, 68

Schrader, Franz, 177, 211, 261, 263

Schultz, Jack, 169, 174–5

Schultze, Max, 73–4, 77

Schwann, Theodor, 1, 67–72, 74, 91–2, 93

Schweet, Richard S., 238

science studies, 5–6

Scott, Jesse F., 238

secretion, 86–8, 159

secretory granules, 135, 136, 170–1, 178, 181, 246, 249

sectioning, 74, 152

Sejnowski, Terrence J., 41

self-organization, 52–3

Seligman, Arnold, 263

Severinghaus, Aura E., 86, 88

Shapere, Dudley, 5–7

Shapin, Steven, 8

Shatkin, Aaron, 191

Shultze, Max, 151

Siegbahn, Manne, 201

Siekevitz, Philip, xii, 191, 210, 232–5, 243, 247, 274–5, 277

silver nitrate stain, 120, 158

Simon, Herbert A., 40, 55

simulation of a mechanism, 39, 62

Sjöstrand, Fritiof S., 146, 154–7, 201–10, 228–31, 246, 259, 261

Slater, E. C. (Bill), 192–3, 196, 219–20

Slator, Arthur, 98

Slayter, Henry, 240

Smiles, J., 223

Smith, Kendric C., 238

Snyder, Abraham Z., 53

Society of General Physiologists (SGP), 270–1, 275

sociologists of science, 6, 10

Solomon, A. K., 270, 275

Solomon, Miriam, 9

spectroscopy, 121

spherical aberrations, 67

staining, 74, 76, 80–3, 130

   negative staining, 215, 218

Stanley, Wendell, 143

Stenning, Keith, 40

Stephenson, Mary L., 232, 238

Stern, Lina, 107–8

Strangeways, Thomas, 87, 151

Strasburger, Eduard, 75–6

Straus, Werner, 254

Streibich, M. J., 223

Struthers, R. R., 201

Study Section for Cell Biology (NIH), 269–70

Sturm, Ernest, 163–4

Subbarow, Yellapragrada, 101

substrate-level phosphorylation, 192

succinic acid, 107–8, 111–12, 115, 167, 178–9, 200, 295

succinoxidase, 180–81, 192, 201

Svedberg, Theodor, 129

Swammerdam, Jan, 65

Swerdlow, Max, 146

Swift, Hewson, xii, 177, 263, 271, 273–6

Szent-Györgyi, Albert von, 110–11, 271

Tabery, James, 26

Tashiro, Yukata, 239

Tatum, E. L., 28

Taylor, Herbert, 269

teleology, 49–50

Terry, Thomas M., 37

testing mechanisms, 61–3

Thénard, Louis Jacques, 90–1

Theorell, Hugo, 173, 250

theories, 1–3, 6–7, 10, 12, 27, 40, 42, 110

thermodynamics, 50

Thiman, Kenneth, 270

thin sections, 144–6, 201, 224–7

Thompson, Helen, 188, 223–4

Thorell, Bo, 176

Thunberg tube, 108

Thunberg, Torsten Ludvig, 107–8, 110–12

Tisdale, W. E., 174

Tissiéres, Alfred, 239

tissue culture, 87, 147–8, 151–2, 155, 184, 186–9, 224–6, 268–9, 271

Tissue Culture Association (TCA), 11, 268–71

Toulmin, 6, 109

Traube, Moritz, 6, 78, 93

Treur, Jan, 39

Tsibakowa, Elina T., 115

Turpin, Pierre J. F., 92

ultracentrifuge, 15, 117, 121, 128–9, 145, 164, 172, 262, 266

ultraviolet microscopy, 140, 223

ultraviolet spectrography, 174

Unger, Franz, 72

unity of science, 6

Valentin, Gabriel Gustav, 68

van Beneden, Edouard, 14, 75–6

van Essen, David C., 57

van Leeuwenhoek, Anton, 65–6

Varela, Francisco J., 51–2

Veratti, Emilio, 265

Villaverdi, H., 256

Virchow, Rudolf, 72, 76, 80

vitalism, 45, 71, 73

vitamins, 44

von Ardenne, Manfred, 144

von Borries, Bobo, 141–2

von Gerlach, Joseph, 74

von Mohl, Hugo, 72–3

von Nageli, Carl, 72

Wadkins, Charles L., 212

Waldeyer, Wilhelm, 75

Walker, C. E., 87

Walker, P. G., 251

Warburg manometer, 108, 179

Warburg, Otto Heinrich, 94, 103, 106, 108–11, 114–15, 128

Waring blender, 56, 131–2, 196, 250–1

Warner, Jonathan R., 239

Warshawsky, Hershey, 247

Wasserman, Stanley, 10–11

Watson, James D., 239

Watson, Michael L., 134

Watt, James, 47–8

Wattiaux, Robert, 252

Weaver, Warren, 176

Weisman, August, 14, 76

Weiss, Paul, 263, 268, 270

Welch, F. V., 223

Wellings, Robert S., 246

Whaley, William G., 84, 246

Whewell, William, 125

Whitley, Richard, 9

Widmer, C., 115

Wieland, Heinrich Otto, 106–7, 110–11

Wiener, Norbert, 48–50

Wijngaards, Wouter C. A., 39

Williams, G. R., 196

Williams, Robley C., 143

Wilson, E. B., 19, 66

Wimsatt, William C., 40

Witter, Robert F., 134

Wöhler, Frederich, 91–3

Wolgar, Steve, 9

Woodward, James, 27–8

working parts, 56–7, 60–1

Wright, Cory, 34

Wyckoff, Ralph W. G., 140, 143

Young, William J., 99, 101–2, 109, 114

Zamecnik, Paul C., 231–3, 237–8

Zeiss, Carl, 68

Ziegler, Daniel M., 211

Zworykin, Vladimir K., 142–3

zymase, 97–8, 109


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