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 (ISBN-13: 9780521815390 | ISBN-10: 0521815398)

Southeastern Europe In The Middle Ages 500–1250

Cambridge University Press

0521815390 - Southeastern Europe In The Middle Ages 500–1250 - by Florin Curta


Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1250

Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages stood at a strategically important crossroads of trade and crusading routes and fell within the spheres of influence of both the Byzantine Orthodox Church and Latin Christendom. This comprehensive and authoritative survey draws on historical and archaeological sources to illuminate 750 years of the region’s history, covering Romania, southern Ukraine, southern Hungary, Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia, Monte- negro, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Albania, and Greece. Exploring the social, political, and economic changes that marked the transition from Late Antiquity to the early Middle Ages, the book addresses important themes such as the rise of medieval states, the conversion to Christianity, the monastic movement inspired by developments in Western Europe and in Byzantium, and the role of material culture (architecture, the arts, and objects of daily life) in the representation of power.

FLORIN CURTA is Associate Professor of Medieval History and Archaeology at the University of Florida. He is the author of The Making of the Slavs: History and Archaeology of the Lower Danube Region, c. 500–700 AD (Cambridge University Press, 2001).

Cambridge Medieval Textbooks

This is a series of introductions to important topics in medieval history aimed primarily at advanced students and faculty, and is designed to complement the monograph series Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought. It includes both chronological and thematic approaches and addresses both British and European topics.

For a list of titles in the series, see end of book.






University of Florida


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© Florin Curta 2006

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception

and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,

no reproduction of any part may take place without

the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2006

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library

ISBN-13 978-0-521-81539-0 hardback
ISBN-10 0-521-81539-8 hardback

ISBN-13 978-0-521-89452-4 paperback
ISBN-10 0-521-89452-2 paperback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

To Ana and Lucia


  List of maps Page viii
  Acknowledgments ix
  Note on transliteration, names, dates, and words x
  Chronology xii
  List of abbreviations xxvii
  Introduction I
1   The end of Late Antiquity or the beginning of the Middle Ages (c. 500–c. 600)? 39
2   Southeast European “Dark Ages” (c. 600–c. 800) 70
3   The rise of new powers (800–900) 111
4   Iron century or golden age (900–1000)? 180
5   The first Byzantine century (1000–1100) 248
6   The second Byzantine century (1100–1200) 311
7   Between the Crusade and the Mongol invasion (1200–1250) 366
8   Conclusions and lingering questions 415
  Select bibliography 438
  Index 487


1   Southeastern Europe in the sixth century. Location of the principal sites mentioned in the text by ancient or modern (in parenthesis) names. Paage 41
2   Southeastern Europe in the “Dark Ages.” 71
3   Southeastern Europe in the ninth century. 113
4   Southeastern Europe in the tenth century. 181
5   Southeastern Europe in the eleventh century. 249
6   Southeastern Europe in the twelfth century. 313
7   Southeastern Europe between 1200 and 1250. 367


The debts incurred over the four years during which this book has taken – and changed – shape are numerous. In what follows I can only acknowledge a few specific and particularly important contributions. At the onset of this project is the work of many scholars in Southeast European countries, both historians and archaeologists. For all my efforts at synthesis, this book would not exist without their remarkable accomplishments and dedication. It goes without saying that I alone am responsible for the use that has been made in this book of their ideas and representations of the past.

   Thanks for financial support are due to the Medieval Institute at the University of Notre Dame for the Mellon fellowship that made possible a valuable year of final research and first drafts. The Hilandar Research Library at the Ohio State University kindly opened its doors and provided the space and time for a brief visit before the manuscript entered its final stage. Recognition is also due to my students at the University of Florida, who first raised in seminars and senior colloquia some of the questions that I have tried to elucidate in the following pages. Among friends and colleagues who were particularly supportive of this work, I want to acknowledge Piotr Górecki, Maria Todorova, Jonathan Shepard, Roman Kovalev, Paul Barford, Cvetelin Stepanov, Joachim Henning, Alexandru Madgearu, and Paul Stephenson.

   My largest thanks go to my wife, Lucia, for helping me see this book to completion, and to my daughter, Ana, for her patience and resilience.


The transliteration of personal and place names follows a modified version of the Library of Congress system. This is especially true for Bulgarian words: “Velbăzhd” instead of “Velbuzhd” and “Carevec” instead of “Tsarevets.” As a consequence, and for the sake of uniformity, I have altered the standard transliteration for Ukrainian names, e.g., “Lenkyvcy” instead of “Lenkivtsi.” In general, the geographical terminology closely follows the language in use in any given area. Commonly accepted equivalents are excepted from this rule. For example, “Cenad,” “Durrës,” and “Zadar” are favored over “Csanád,” “Durazzo,” and “Zara,” but “Belgrade,” “Bucharest,” and “Corinth” are preferred to “Beograd,” “Bucureşti,” and “Korinthos.” It is particularly difficult to be consistent about Greek forms, especially for names of emperors. In such cases, I have followed the established convention and used Constantine Porphyrogenitus and Andronicus, instead of Konstantine Porphyrogennetos and Andronikos. The same is true for several Slavic names. I have preferred Cyril to Kiril, John to Ivan, and Peter to Petar or Petăr. On the other hand, I strove to respect differing spellings, when anglicized versions have been long accepted as such. Thus the first Bulgarian emperor is Symeon, but his namesake, the first saint of Serbia, is Simeon.

   Since all dates are from the medieval period, “AD” is not used unless necessary in the context. Where imprecise, years are given in the form “935/6” to indicate one year or the other, but as “1203 or 1208,” when the options are separated by a longer span.

   Certain terms are sometimes used in a technical sense, which is specific to the space and period considered in this book, not in their widely accepted meaning. Such is the case of the word “duke” to refer to a military commander or warlord. For example, the Cro- atian dukes of Bribir were local governors of that fortress and of the surrounding hinterland, but most importantly, local warlords. They should not be viewed as a part of a feudal hierarchy in the same sense as, for example, the Duke of Burgundy might be viewed. In much the same way, a Byzantine duke was a commander of troops, not a title referring to a position in the social and political hierarchy. The duke of Valona, for example, was a military governor appointed by the emperor. “ǪQagan” is the highest “imperial” title in medieval nomadic societies, while “khan” (qan) is a lesser title. I use “theme” in the sense of a (Byzantine) province, although the first attestation of the word in Byzantine sources seems to point to army units. “Roman” and “Byzantine” are used for distinct periods of time in the history of the Eastern Roman Empire, which has been arbitrarily divided by modern historians into an earlier and a later period, respectively, separated from each other by the reign of Emperor Heraclius (610–642).


499   Bulgar raid in the Balkans
502   Bulgar raid in Thrace and Illyricum
535   Emperor Justinian issued Novel 11 establishing the archbishopric of Iustiniana Prima; Gepid–Hunnic alliance for raids into the Balkan provinces of the Empire
536   Creation of the quaestura exercitus combining Balkan provinces with rich provinces in the Aegean and the eastern Mediterranean region
539   Bulgar raid devastated the northern and northeastern regions of the Balkans
545   First Sclavene raid of the northern Balkans
547   Gepids defeated by the Lombard and Byzantine troops
551/2   Gepids defeated by the Lombards
558   Cutrigur invasion of the Balkans that reached the Long Walls near Constantinople; Avar envoys arrived in Constantinople
568   Annihilation of the Gepid kingdom; the beginning of the Avar conquest of the Carpathian Basin
578   Avars raided the Sclavene settlements in Walachia
581–4   Four-year Sclavene invasion of the Balkans
582   Avars conquered Sirmium
583   Migration of three groups of steppe people (Tarniakh, Kotzager, and Zabender) into the Avar qaganate
586   Sclavenes and other barbarians besieged Thessalonica; Roman troops defeated the Avars near Adrianople
592   Avars conquered a number of cities on the Black Sea coast and defeated the Roman troops in the hinterland of Constantinople
595   Roman troops crossed the Danube against the Avars
596   Roman troops under Priscus defeated an Avar army in the southern region of the qaganate and killed the qagan’s four sons
599–600   Byzantine troops devastated the southern regions of the Avar qaganate
601   Avar general Apsich attacked the Roman troops in the Iron Gates sector of the Danube frontier
602   Avar general Apsich attacked the Antes in the Lower Danube region; revolt of the Roman troops on the Danube frontier that led to the demise of Maurice and the rise to power of Phocas
610   Sclavene raid into Istria
615/6   Sclavenes besieged Thessalonica
617/8   Avars besieged Thessalonica
623   Avars ambushed Emperor Heraclius near the Long Walls of Constantinople
623/4   Samo led the rebellion of the Wends against the Avars
626   Avars besieged Constantinople
630   Rise of Great Bulgaria under Kubrat
631/2   Civil war within the Avar qaganate
c. 660   Khazars defeated the Bulgars; the collapse of Great Bulgaria
c. 670   Asparukh led the Bulgar migration to Oglos north of the Danube
677   Rynchines, Sagudates, and Drugubites besieged Thessalonica
678   Avar envoys brought gifts to Constantinople; Byzantine campaign against the Sklaviniai of southern Macedonia
680   Sermesianoi under Kouber moved out of the Avar qaganate and into the environs of Thessalonica
680/1   Bulgars under Asparukh defeated the Byzantine troops sent against them; the creation of the Bulgar polity in the Balkans
688/9   Byzantine troops defeated by Bulgars near Philippopolis; Justinian Ⅱ settled the “Scythians” around the gorges of the river Struma
695   Leontius appointed first military governor of Hellas
705   Tervel, the ruler of the Bulgars, formed an alliance with Emperor Justinian Ⅱ; Tervel proclaimed Caesar
716   Peace treaty between Byzantium and Bulgaria established the boundary in Thrace and regulated trade relations
723   St. Willibald stopped in Monemvasia en route to the Holy Land
725   Rebellion of the theme of Hellas against Emperor Leo Ⅲ
740   Duke Boruth ruled over Carantania
745/6   Plague from Sicily spread to Monemvasia and the theme of Hellas; Duke Boruth died and his son, Cacatius, was recognized Prince of the Carantanians
752   Chietmar ruled over Carantania
755   Emperor Constantine Ⅴ began fortifying towns in Thrace; Syrians and Armenians settled on the Byzantine frontier with Bulgaria
759   Constantine Ⅴ campaigned in Macedonia; Byzantine attack on Bulgaria on both land and sea
761/2   Coup d’état in Bulgaria brought Telec to power
763   Byzantine invasion of Bulgaria; battle at Anchialos
764   Telec assassinated; Sivin sued for peace, but was overthrown; Paganos came in person before the emperor to sue for peace
765   Byzantine attack on Bulgaria; the Byzantine troops burned villages in northern Bulgaria and aristocratic courts on the river Ticha
766   Emperor Constantine Ⅴ moved artisans from Hellas to Constantinople
769   Chietmar died; Carantanian rebellion against the Bavarians
772   Bavarian intervention in Carantania brought Waltunc to power
774   Byzantine campaign mounted against Bulgaria; Telerig sued for peace, but invaded Macedonia and killed the Byzantine agents in Bulgaria; Istria occupied by Frankish troops
783   Byzantine troops under Staurakios campaigned successfully in Peloponnesus
784   Empress Irene toured Thrace as far west as Philippopolis; Beroe rebuilt and renamed Irenopolis
788   Carantania within the Frankish kingdom
799   Akameros, the archon of the Slavs of Velzetia, supported Emperor Constantine V’s sons against Empress Irene
c. 800   Creation of the theme of Macedonia
c. 802   Krum came to power in Bulgaria
805   Slavs of Peloponnesus attacked Patras
809   Krum attacked Serdica
810   A Byzantine fleet reestablished the Byzantine control over Dalmatia and Venice
811   Byzantine campaign against Bulgaria; Emperor Nicephorus Ⅰ killed in a battle in a pass across the Stara Planina range of mountains
813   Krum was offered peace; the Bulgars conquered Mesembria and attacked Constantinople; battle of Versinikia
814   Krum died; Dukum and Ditzevg ruled Bulgaria; the beginning of the persecution of Christians in Bulgaria
816   Byzantine attack on Mesembria
818   Envoys from the Timociani and from Borna, the “duke of Dalmatia and Liburnia”, appeared at the court of Louis the Pious in Herstal
819   Liudewit attacked Borna
820   Frankish armies devastated Liudewit’s territory
821   Liudewit fled from Sisak to the Serbs; Omurtag intervened in the civil war between Emperor Michael Ⅲ and Thomas the Slav
822   Two Bulgar embassies to Emperor Louis the Pious demanded the rectification of the Bulgar–Frankish frontier
826/7   Birth of Constantine-Cyril; Bulgar expedition against the Slavic clients of the Franks in the Lower Drava region
829   A Bulgar fleet of boats attacked Frankish estates on the Drava River
831   Omurtag died; Malamir became ruler of Bulgaria
832   Bulgar envoys brought an offer of peace to Emperor Louis the Pious; Prince Enravotas killed at the order of Malamir because of his Christian beliefs
836   Malamir died; Persian became ruler of Bulgaria
836/7   First Magyar raid in the Lower Danube region; Slavic rebellion against the Byzantine rule in the environs of Thessalonica
839   A Venetian fleet destroyed the encampments of the pirates on the Neretva
842/3   Constantine-Cyril arrived in Constantinople
846   Godescalc of Orbais arrived at the court of Trpimir, the duke of the Croats
852   First charter mention of Trpimir, the duke of the Croats; Persian died and Boris became ruler of Bulgaria
860   Constantine-Cyril and Methodius sent as Byzantine envoys to the Khazar court in Itil; Mutimir of Serbia defeated the troops sent by Boris of Bulgaria and captured his son Vladimir
863   Constantine-Cyril and Methodius’ mission to Moravia
864   Byzantine troops landed at Mesembria; Boris accepted baptism with Emperor Michael Ⅲ as his sponsor
865   Arab pirates besieged Dubrovnik; Bulgar embassies to Rome and Louis the German; Bishop Formosus of Porto arrived in Bulgaria
865/6   Rebellion of the Bulgar aristocrats against Boris’s conversion to Christianity
867   Formosus returned to Rome; Grimuald, the bishop of Bomarzo, arrived in Bulgaria
869   Constantine-Cyril died in Rome; a papal embassy crossed Bulgaria on its way to Constantinople
c. 870   Creation of the theme of Dalmatia; the first archbishop of Bulgaria appointed by the patriarch of Constantinople; the expulsion of Grimuald from Bulgaria
871   Construction of the Church of St. John the Baptist in Athens completed
873   Domagoj mentioned in a letter from Pope John Ⅷ
873/4   Construction of the Church of the Holy Virgin at Skripou completed
c. 875   Construction of the Great Basilica in Pliska completed
876   Domagoj died; Sedesclav became Duke of the Croats
876/7   Construction of the Church of St. Gregory the Theologian in Thebes completed
879   Branimir became Duke of the Croats
880   St. Elias the Younger arrived in Sparta; birth of St. John of Rila
881/2   On his way to Constantinople from Moravia, St. Methodius met a “king of the Hungarians”
885   The expulsion of Methodius’ disciples from Moravia following his death; Clement, Naum, and Angelarius arrived in Bulgaria; Prince Oleg of Kiev attacked the Tivercians on the Dniester River
888   St. Elias the Younger and his disciple Daniel came to Patras; Symeon returned to Bulgaria from Constantinople
889   Boris abdicated in favor of his son Vladimir
890   Muncimir became Duke of the Croats; Vladimir launched a new persecution of Christians in an attempt to restore paganism
892   King Arnulf of Carinthia asked Vladimir to stop the sales of salt to the Moravians
893   The council of Pliska declared Vladimir deposed in favor of his brother Symeon; Clement of Ohrid appointed Bishop of Velika; Naum became Bishop of Ohrid
895   Construction of the church in Uzdolje near Knin completed
896   Battle of Bulgarophygon; beaten by the Pechenegs, the Magyars moved into the Carpathian Basin
897   Peace established between Byzantium and Bulgaria
c. 900   Khrabr composed On the Letters
901   Magyar raid into Carantania; Arab pirates sacked Demetrias
904   Arab pirates sacked Thessalonica
905   Naum, Bishop of Ohrid, died
913   Symeon received a crown from Patriarch Nicholas of Constantinople
916   St. Clement of Ochrid died
917   The Pechenegs’ attack on Bulgaria failed; Peter, son of Gojnik, attacked Symeon together with the Magyars; battle of Anchialos
c. 920   Tomislav became King of the “province of the Croats and of the Dalmatian regions”
921   Milings and Ezerites rebelled against the Byzantine rule in Peloponnesus; Zacharias returned to Serbia with Bulgarian support
924   Symeon met Emperor Romanus Lecapenus in Constantinople
925   First synod of Split
927   Papal legates arrived in Croatia to mediate a peace between Croats and Bulgarians; the archbishop of Bulgaria elevated to the status of patriarch; Symeon died; Peter became Emperor of the Bulgars
928   Second synod of Split
930/1   Foundation of the Monastery of Rila
931   Časlav became ruler of Serbia and began to bring back the Serbian refugees from neighboring countries
c. 940   Emperor Peter of Bulgaria wrote to Patriarch Theophylact of Constantinople asking for advice about the outbreak of heresy in Bulgaria
941   Testament of St. John of Rila for his monastery
943   Magyar raid into Thrace
946   St. John of Rila died
948   Magyar chieftain Bulcsu baptized in Constantinople with Emperor Constantine Ⅶ Porphyrogenitus as sponsor
952   Duchy of Istria incorporated into Bavaria
953   First mention of the march of Carniola
958   Athanasios, the founder of the Great Lavra, arrived on Mount Athos
966   Bulgarian envoys arrived at Constantinople to collect the annual tribute; Emperor Nicephorus Ⅱ attacked Bulgaria
968   Rus’ troops of Prince Sviatoslav of Kiev blockaded Dristra and took Pereiaslavec
969   Peter died; Boris Ⅱ became Emperor of the Bulgars
c. 970   St. Nikon the Metanoiete arrived in Sparta; the decree of Emperor John Tzimiskes for the monastic communities on Mount Athos (Tragos)
971   Byzantine campaign against Prince Sviatoslav and his Rus’ troops in Bulgaria
972   Emperor Otto Ⅰ granted Isola to the Venetian doge Peter Candiano Ⅳ
973   Emperor Otto Ⅱ donated land near Kranj to the archbishop of Freising
976   Emperor Otto Ⅱ separated Carinthia from Bavaria, with Istria as a march under Carinthian rule; Queen Helena of Croatia died; the revolt of the Kometopouloi in Macedonia; Samuel sacked Larisa and removed the relics of St. Achilleus
980   First mention of a count of Ptuj
985   Samuel took Larisa
990   Patriarch of Bulgaria moved to Ohrid
997   Samuel proclaimed Emperor of the Bulgarians; Bulgarians attacked Ulcinj and devastated the entire Dalmatian coast from Duklja to Zadar; Samuel transferred the relics of St. Tryphon from Kotor to Ohrid
1001   Emperor Basil Ⅱ conquered Serdica and reoccupied Preslav, Pliska, and Pereiaslavec
1002   Byzantine troops took Vidin; Samuel attacked Adrianople
1003   Samuel defeated near Skopje
1004   Bled granted to the bishop of Brixen by Emperor Henry Ⅱ
1009   Foundation of the bishopric of Alba Iulia
1014   Battle of Kleidion; Samuel died; Gabriel Radoslav proclaimed emperor as Romanus Symeon
1015   Romanus Symeon murdered by John Vladislav
1017   Byzantine embassy to the Pechenegs north of the Danube River
1018   John Vladislav died; the beginning of the Byzantine occupation of Bulgaria
c. 1020   Deacon Maio completed the Beneventan manuscript of the Zagreb Psalter; mosaic decoration of the Church of St. Luke at Steiris completed
1023   Foundation of the Abbey of St. Benedict on the island of Lokrum
1027   Constantine Diogenes defeated the Pechenegs
1028   Frescoes of the Church of Panagia ton Chalkeon in Thessalonica completed
1030   St. Gerald became bishop of Cenad
1032   Pecheneg raid into the Balkans
1034   Piraeus sacked by Harald Hardrada
1036   Dobronas, the governor of Zadar and Split, traveled to Constantinople; Pecheneg raid into the Balkans that destroyed Dinogetia
1037   First Greek-speaking archbishop appointed in Ohrid
1039   Ljutovid mentioned as ruler of Zahumlje
1040   Revolt of Peter Delian in Belgrade; Bulgarians occupied Demetrias
1043   Stefan Vojislav, ruler of Duklja, died; revolt of George Maniakes in Dyrrachion
1044   Foundation of the Abbey of St. Peter in Osor
1045   Kegen crossed the Danube with his Pechenegs
1046   Tyrach’s Pechenegs invaded the Balkans
1048   Confraternity of the icon of the Holy Virgin in Thebes
c. 1050   Construction of the St. Sophia Cathedral in Ohrid completed
1053   Michael proclaimed King of Duklja; Byzantine peace with the Pechenegs of the northern Balkans
1059   Hungarian and Pecheneg marauders defeated near Serdica
1060   Provincial council in Split
1064   Foundation of the Abbey of St. John the Baptist in Trogir; Oghuz invasion of the Balkans
1066   Peter Krešimir Ⅳ proclaimed “King of Croatia and Dalmatia”; rebellion of the Vlachs in Larisa
1068   Pecheneg raid into Transylvania; battle of Chiraleş
1069   Foundation of the Abbey of St. Peter In the Village near Split
1070   Arab pirates sacked Demetrias
1071   Hungarians attacked and occupied Belgrade and sacked Niš
1072   Rebellion of Tatous, Sesthlav, and Satzas in Paradounavon
1073   Rebellion of George Vojteh in Skopje
1074   Amico of Giovinazzo invaded Dalmatia; coronation of King Zvonimir of Croatia
1075   Council of Split banned the use of Slavic in the liturgy
1076   Carniola and Istria granted to the patriarch of Aquileia by Emperor Henry Ⅳ
1077   Michael of Duklja obtained the banner of St. Peter from Rome in recognition for his royal title; Pecheneg raid into Thrace
1078   Revolt of Nicephorus Basilakes in Dyrrachion; revolt of the Paulicians in Philippopolis; first Cuman raid into the Balkans
1080   Foundation of the Monastery of the Mother of God of Mercy in Veljusa
1081   Robert Guiscard attacked Dyrrachion; Byzantine troops under Emperor Alexios Ⅰ Comnenus defeated at Dyrrachion by the Normans
1082   Bohemond of Taranto occupied Pelagonia, Trikkala, and Kastoria and laid siege to Larisa; foundation of the Monastery of the Mother of God Petritzonitissa in Bachkovo
1083   Byzantine troops recovered Kastoria; Paulician revolt in Philippopolis
1087   Pecheneg–Cuman raid into the Balkans; Alexios Ⅰ Comnenus attacked Dristra
1088   Battle of Markellai
1089   Anti-pope Clement Ⅲ raised the bishop of Bar to the status of Archbishop of Dioclea
1091   Cuman raid into Transylvania; battle at Levunion
1092   Dukljan raid into Byzantine territories; Cuman raid into Thrace
1096   Passage through the Balkans of the pilgrims led by Walter the Penniless and Peter the Hermit
1097   Peter, the last Croatian ruler, defeated in the Kapela Mountains; passage through the Balkans of the crusading army led by Godfrey of Bouillon
1098   Passage through Croatia of the crusaders led by Raymond de St. Gilles
1100   Crusaders from Lombardy plundered the environs of Philippopolis
1105   Hungarian invasion of Dalmatia
1108   Treaty of Devol
1111   Mercurius first mentioned as “Prince of Transylvania”
1114   Cumans attacked Vidin; the Byzantine troops crossed the Danube to fight the Cumans in their own territory
1115   Venetian authority over the islands of the Kvarner Bay restored
1116   Venetian control established over Zadar
1122   Cuman invasion of Thrace; Emperor John Ⅱ Comnenus attacked the Serbs
c. 1131   Korčula Codex completed
1135   Foundation of the Cistercian Abbey of Stična
1137   First Hungarian expedition into Bosnia
1147   Crusaders under Emperor Conrad Ⅲ camped outside Philippopolis; the passage through the Balkans of the crusading army led by King Louis Ⅶ of France; Normans sacked Corinth and Thebes
1148   Cuman invasion of Thrace; Emperor Manuel Ⅰ Comnenus attacked the Cumans north of the Danube
1149   Emperor Manuel Ⅰ Comnenus attacked Uroš Ⅱ of Serbia
1150   Battle on the Tara River; Byzantine troops devastated Frangochorion
1153   Andronicus Comnenus appointed duke of Niš and Braničevo
1154   Manuel Ⅰ restored to power Uroš Ⅱ; the bishopric of Zadar elevated to the status of archbishopric
1159   Ivan Rostislavich of Galicia crossed Moldavia together with his Cuman allies; first mention of a Venetian count of Zadar
1160   Foundation of the Carthusian Abbey of Žiče
1163   Stephen Ⅳ ruler of the southern region of Hungary
1164   Andronicus Comnenus captured by the Vlachs in Moldavia; Stephen Ⅳ established support in Sirmium
1165   Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela visited Thebes and Thessalonica; Stephen Ⅲ of Hungary reestablished Hungarian control over Sirmium and Semlin, both retaken shortly thereafter by the Byzantines; Hungarian control reestablished over Zadar; Desa, the Serbian zhupan, tried in front of the emperor; Tihomir, Sracimir, Miroslav, and Nemanja appointed co-rulers of Serbia
1166   Byzantine attack on Transylvania; Nemanja attacked Kotor and Tihomir’s domain in Serbia; construction of the cathedral Church of St. Tryphon in Kotor completed
1167   Treaty between Nicholas Kačić, duke of Omiš, and Kotor
1168   Foundation of the Benedictine Abbey at Săniob
1169   Templars granted the Vrana Abbey near Zadar
1172   Manuel Ⅰ attacked Nemanja, who was taken prisoner and paraded in Constantinople
1175   Raynerius, Bishop of Split, traveled to Constantinople; frescoes in the Church of St. Chrysogonus in Zadar completed
1176   First mention of the voevode of Transylvania
1180   King Béla Ⅲ of Hungary occupied Sirmium and Frangochorion; Hungarian troops sacked Serdica and removed the relics of St. John of Rila
1181   Nemanja attacked Kotor and imposed his rule on the Dalmatian coast
1182   First mention of a Hungarian count of Dalmatia
1185   Normans sacked Thessalonica; revolt of the Vlach brothers Peter and Asen
1187   Byzantine army defeated near Beroe by the Cumans
1189   Passage of the crusaders under Emperor Frederick Ⅰ Barbarossa through the Balkans; Nemanja and Peter established contacts with Emperor Frederick promising military assistance
1190   Emperor Isaac Ⅱ Angelos attacked Nemanja
1191   First mention of the “Church of the Saxons” in Transylvania
1192   Conflict between Peter and Asen
1195   Asen took Serdica and transferred the relics of St. John of Rila to Tărnovo
1196   Nemanja abdicated in favor of his son Stefan; Asen and Peter died
1197   Ioannitsa (Kaloyan) became ruler of the Vlach and Bulgarian rebels in the northern Balkans
1198   Nemanja took the monastic vows and moved to Mount Athos
1199   Vlachs and Cumans raided Thrace; Nemanja-Simeon died
1200   Byzantine campaign against Ivanko
1202   Crusaders took Zara (Zadar); conflict between Nemanja’s sons Vukan and Stefan
1203   Stefan restored to power in Raška with the assistance of Ioannitsa’s troops
1204   Crusaders took Constantinople; Renier de Trith received Philippopolis as fief; Boniface of Montferrat began the conquest of Greece; Ioannitsa crowned king in Tărnovo by the papal legate
1205   William de Champlitte and Geoffrey of Villehardouin began the conquest of Peloponnesus; battle at Koundoura; William de Champlitte proclaimed Prince of Achaia; battle of Adrianople; Emperor Baldwin of Constantinople died in Bulgarian captivity
1207   Boniface of Montferrat killed by Cuman marauders; Ioannitsa murdered by his men under the walls of Thessalonica
1208   Foundation of the Carthusian Abbey at Jurklošter; Geoffrey of Villehardouin proclaimed Prince of Achaia; Bulgarian troops under Boril defeated by Emperor Henry of Constantinople
1209   Parliament in Ravennika confirmed the Latin lordships in Morea; Demetrius crowned King of Thessalonica
1212   Church synod in Tărnovo for the condemnation of the Bogomil heresy; a rebellion in Vidin against Boril caused the intervention of Hungarian troops from Transylvania; Teutonic Knights brought to Transylvania
1213   Michael Dukas of Epirus took Dyrrachion
1214   Michael Dukas died; Theodore Dukas became ruler of Epirus
1217   Templars granted the castle of Šibenik; Theodore Dukas of Epirus defeated and killed Peter of Courtenay; Stefan crowned first king of Serbia by the papal legate
1218   John Asen returned to Bulgaria and overthrew Boril
1219   Foundation of the autonomous archbishopric of Serbia
1221   Church synod in Žiča summoned by Archbishop Sava
1224   Theodore Dukas took Thessalonica
1225   Peter of Hum elected Prince of Split; Teutonic Knights expelled from Transylvania
1227   Theodore Dukas crowned emperor; the Cuman chieftain Boricius accepted baptism in Transylvania
1228   Creation of the bishopric of Cumania
1230   Battle at Klokotnica
1231   Hungarian troops occupy Niš and Braničevo
1232   Creation of the Hungarian march of Severin
1234   Construction of the monastery church at Mileševa completed; foundation of the Cistercian Abbey of Kostanjevica
1236   John Asen and John Vatatzes besieged Constantinople
1237   Theodore Dukas released from Bulgarian captivity; John Asen attacked the Nicaean troops in Tzurullon; a plague outbreak in Tărnovo forced John Asen to make peace with John Vatatzes; Archbishop Sava of Serbia died
1238   John Asen allowed the crusaders recruited by Baldwin Ⅱ to pass through the Bulgarian lands on their way to Constantinople
1241   John Asen died; Mongol invasion of Hungary
1242   Serbia and Bulgaria devastated by the Mongol troops of Kadan
1243   Uroš Ⅰ crowned king of Serbia
1244   Matthew Ninoslav, ban of Bosnia, was elected Prince of Split; privilege of King Andrew Ⅱ of Hungary in favor of the Saxon “guests” of Transylvania (Andreanum)
1246   Nicaean troops occupy Thessalonica; Michael Ⅱ Dukas seized Ohrid
1247   John Plano Carpini appointed Archbishop of Bar; charter of King Béla Ⅳ of Hungary in favor of the Hospitallers mentioned Vlach polities between the Carpathian Mountains and the Danube
1249   Conquest of Peloponnesus completed after Monemvasia was taken


AAASH Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
AB Archaeologia Bulgarica
ABSA Annual of the British School at Athens


Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi


Annual of Medieval Studies at the CEU


Byzantinische Forschungen


Bulgarian Historical Review


Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies


Balkan Studies


Byzantinische Zeitschrift


Cahiers Archéologiques


Cahiers de Civilisation Médiévale Ⅹe–Ⅻe Siècles


Etudes Balkaniques


Etudes Byzantines et Post-Byzantines


Godishnik na Sofiiskiia Universitet “Kliment Okhridski.” Istoricheski Fakultet


Histoire et Mésure


Izvestiia na Arkheologicheskiia Institut


Izvestiia na Instituta za Bălgarska Istoriia


Izvestiia na Narodniia Muzei Varna


Jahrbuch der österreichischen Byzantinistik


Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separatim editi

MGH Epist.

Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Epistolae

MGH Poet.

Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Poetae Latini Medii Aevi


Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Scriptores

MGH SS rer. Germ.

Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Scriptores rerum Germanicarum


Patrologiae cursus completus. Series Graeca


Patrologiae cursus completus. Series Latina


Revue des Etudes Byzantines


Revue des Etudes Slaves


Revue des Etudes Sud-Est Européennes


Revue Roumaine d’Histoire


Rad Vojvodanskih Muzeja


Studii şi Cercetări de Istorie Veche şi Arheologie


Slavonic and East European Review


Studi Gregoriani


Starobălgarska Literatura


Starohrvatska Prosvjeta


Travaux et Mémoires du Centre de Recherches d’Histoire et Civilisation Byzantines


Vizantiiskii Vremennik


Wissenschaftliche Mitteilungen des bosnisch-herzegowinischen Landesmuseums


Zbornik Filozofskog Fakulteta. Beogradski Univerzitet


Zbornik za Likovne Umetnosti


Zbornik Radova Vizantološkog Instituta

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