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Invertebrate Vision
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  • 107 b/w illus. 17 colour illus. 9 tables
  • Page extent: 570 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 1.032 kg

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521830881 | ISBN-10: 0521830885)

Invertebrate vision
Cambridge University Press
978-0-521-83088-1 - Invertebrate vision - by Eric Warrant and Dan-Eric Nilsson
Index

General Index




absorption, see photoreceptors

absorption coefficient of the rhabdom, 19–22

acceptance angle

definition, 25

wavelength, dependence on, 24

state of adaptation, dependence on, 24

accessory medulla, 146–8, 327

acute zones and foveae, 8–10

adaptation

circadian (endogenous) control of, 127–57

protective function, 131

seasonal or annual control of, 131

states of, 132–4

air–water interface, polarisation at the, 297–8

afocal optics (apposition eyes), 26–7

aliasing, 415

amphipods, 196

angular sensitivity

wave optical model of in flies, 22–5

screening pigments, regulation by, 11, 13

annelids

eye design, 171, 188, 190

phototransduction, 72

predation, visual, 187, 188

spectral sensitivity, 257, 261

visual defence and avoidance of predation, 190–2

eyes as “burglar alarms”, 192

antennal pigments, see sensitising pigments,

ants, see also Cataglyphis in Species Index

dorsal rim areas, 303

spectral sensitivity, 262

arrestin, 7, 50, 51

apposition compound eyes, see also neural superposition eyes

general design, 26–7, 92–3, 172

optical sensitivity, 94, 101–7

aquatic light environment, see daylight

aquatic vision, 211–42

backswimmers, see Notonecta in Species Index

Barlow–Levick model of motion detection, see motion vision

basal retinal neurons (BRNs), 143, 146, 155

bees, see also Apis mellifera, Megalopta

colour vision, 251

homing, use of in, 281

innate preferences for flower colours, 278

learning of colour, 476–8

long and short visual fibres and, 264

threshold, 273

dance language

round dance, 407

waggle dance, 178, 406–7, 470

dorsal rim area, 35

flight

course control, 401–3, 463–5, 488

landing, 402–4, 475, 476

narrow gaps, negotiation of, 465–7

odometry, 404–5, 470–4

speed control, 467–70

foraging, cues used in, 475–88

homing, 281

learning and memory, 475–88

motion-sensitive cells in the lobula, 364

navigation and orientation, 178, 462–89

landmarks, use of, 178, 475–88

odometers, visual, 174, 404–7, 470–4

orientation flights, 112–14, 178

path integration, 178

polarised light, use of, 302–6, 309, 317, 336

nocturnality in, 105–7, 110–11

object detection and range perception, 402–4, 476–8

pattern vision, 178, 476–8, 494–523

cues used by bees, 497, 500–13

bilateral symmetry, 513

centre of pattern, position of, 503–4

colour, 502–3

edge orientation, 505–12

modulation, 502

radial and tangential features, 512–13

range, 504–5

phototransduction, 62, 69

spatial summation in nocturnal species, 108–11

spectral filtering in the drone dorsal eye, 12

spectral sensitivity, 262

sleep-like state present in, 144

structure and optical sensitivity of the eyes, 107

visual abilities in, 178

visual pigments, 9

beetles, see also click beetles, dung beetles, fireflies

cuticular reflectance of circularly polarised light, 295

dorsal rim area, 35, 303

eye shine, 129, 130

polarised light orientation, 114–16, 317–19

spectral sensitivity, 262

bioluminescence, 94–7, 228, 229, 236, 253, 280–1

bivalves, see molluscs

black flies (Simuliidae), 11

box jellyfishes

course control and obstacle avoidance, 182–4

eye designs, 182–3

planula larvae, visuo-motor system of, 184

rhopalia, 182, 183

brains

brain size and visual processing, 200–2

locusts, in, 323–6

polarisation vision, and, 319, 323–5

visual pathways

pattern, pathways concerned with, 516–21

two main streams (motion and pattern) of, 201–2, 350, 351, 366–71

Brewster’s angle, 296–8

bumblebees, 264, 278, see also bees

bumps, see quantum bumps

Burgess Shale deposits, 358

butterflies

caterpillars

camouflage, 274–5

colour vision

colour coding neurons in the medulla,

receptive field of,

pupation sites, location of using colour, 274

spectral sensitivity, 262

chromophores, 3

colour vision

colour coding neurons in the medulla and lobula, 268–9

innate preferences for flower colours, 278

mate detection, use in, 280

receptive field of, 266

dorsal rim area, 35

eye shine (or eye glow), 27, 28

long and short visual fibres and colour vision, 263–4

mate detection, wing colouration and, 253, 280

ommatidial structure and diversity, 26–8, 33–4, 263

photoreceptor optics, 26–34

spectral filtering within the ommatidium, 12, 32–3, 257, 258

spectral sensitivity, 257, 262

tapetum, 259–60

visual pigments and photoreceptor spectral sensitivity, 3, 29–33, 255

Cambrian explosion, 211, 238

camera (single-lens) eyes, 2, 92

camouflage

aquatic habitats, in, 229

counterillumination, 229, 237

countershading, 213, 229

mirroring, 229

transparency, 229, 235

camouflage breaking in aquatic habitats

dichromatic colour vision, by use of, 236–7

offset visual pigments, by use of, 230

polarisation vision, by use of, 233–6, 299–300

ultraviolet sensitivity, by use of, 233

control of

colour-blind, 269

colour vision dependent, 274–5

cuttlefishes, in, 177, 235–6

Octopus, in, 177

caterpillars (lepidopteran larvae), see butterflies

cephalopods, see molluscs, squids, firefly squid

centipedes, 202, 203, 359–61

chasing behaviour, see tracking

Chengjiang Shale deposits, 359

chromatic aberration, 258–9, 281

chromophores, 3, 240–1, 275

circadian rhythms, 127–57

circadian clocks, 145–57

circadian signals (the pacemaker output), 149–57

control mechanisms, 153–5

nervous conduction of, 149–52

properties of, 152–3

time course, 155–6

pacemakers, 143, 145–8, 150

basal retinal neurons (BRNs), 143, 146, 155

compound action potentials (CAPs), 143, 146

efferent neurosecretory fibres (ENSFs), 146

phase-setting, coupling and feedback, 156–7

properties of, 148

sites of, 145–8

efferent control by, of sensitivity in the eye, 128–45

dioptric apparatus, via the, 134–5

pacemaker, via the, 153

photoreceptors, via the, 139–42

membrane turnover, via, 141

screening pigments, migrations of, 139–40

cell size, changes in, 140

screening pigment cells, via the, 135–9

period length, 148, 149

clams, see molluscs

click beetles (Elateridae), 253, 280–1

clock genes, 145

cockroaches

circadian control of motion-sensitive cells, 144–5

polarisation vision, 323

spatial summation, evidence for in the lamina, 108

spectral sensitivity, 262

“cognition” in insects, 462–89

colour-blind vision, see monochromatic vision

colour constancy

definition, 270–2

mantis shrimps, in, 232

colour discrimination

false colours, 270, 309, 311

visual pigments, and the relative spectral positions of, 10, 233

colour opponency, 267, 268

colour vision, 250–81, see also colour discrimination, colour opponency, colour constancy

definition, 250, 252

dim light, in, 116–20, 272–3

ecology of, 273–81

evolution, 260, 269–73

flowers, and, 276–9, 476–8

higher processing of colour, 267–9

pattern detection, and, 502–3

physiological basis of, 254–67

physiological limitations to, 272

spectral classes of photoreceptors

monochromatic vision and visual systems, 223–5, 251–2, 260, 269–70

polychromatic vision and visual systems, 226–8, 260–3

spectral properties of light, 252–4

wavelength-specific behaviours, 275

compass, polarisation, see navigation and orientation

compound eyes, see also apposition eyes, superposition eyes

designs, 170

evolution, 171–2

compound action potentials (CAPs), 143, 146

concave mirror eyes, 171, 189–91

contrast in aquatic habitats

contrast enhancement strategies, 229–38, 299

object contrast, 219–20

contrast hypothesis of visual pigment tuning, 223, see also sensitivity hypothesis

copepods, 192–5

cornea (vertebrate), 171

corneal (facet) lens,

colours of, and spectral filtering, 9, 259–60

dioptric system, a part of, 9

optics, 13–25

transmittance spectrum, 5

course control, see also tracking

box jellyfishes (cubomedusae), by, 182

dragonflies, by, 424

flies, by, 178–9, 401–3, 424–6

locusts, by, 424, 425

optic flow, use of, 178, 401–3

saccadic body turns and, 409

courtship, mating and intra-species interactions

courtship displays

butterflies, 301

jumping spiders, 181

mantis shrimps, 239–41, 300

detection and pursuit of potential mates

course control during chasing, 178

“love spots” in male flies, 34, 195, 265, 351, 379

pontellid copepods, in, 192

visual signalling, and, 238–41, 279–81, 300–1

crabs, see also shore crabs, fiddler crabs

colour, use of for shell selection in hermit crabs, 281

dichromatic visual systems in, 227, 255

molar absorbance of visual pigments, 7

optomotor response, 401

crayfish, see also crustaceans

chromophores, 3

circadian rhythms

circadian changes in screening pigment migration, 138–9

circadian pacemakers, 146, 148, 152

efferent neurosecretory fibres (ENSFs), 151–2

molar absorbance of visual pigments, 7

motion detection in, 414–15

phototransduction, 69

polarisation vision, 323

pigment cells, 10

distal pigment cells, 138

reflecting pigment cells, 138

visual pigments, 221

dichromatic visual systems, 227, 230

crickets

nocturnal navigation, 116

polarisation vision, 325–7

dorsal rim areas, 35, 303, 317

fan-like retinal analyser array, 317

polarisation-sensitive interneurons (POL1 and POL3), 319–22, 324–5

spectral sensitivity, 261

crustaceans, see also crayfish

camouflage, 275

chromatophores, 275

circadian rhythms

circadian changes in screening pigment migration, 138

circadian pacemakers, 146, 148, 152

colour vision, long and short visual fibres and, 267–8

lamina ganglionaris, cellular circuitry in, 361

motion detection in, 414–15

ommatidial structure, 226, 233–4

polarisation sensitivity, 35, 233–4

photoreceptor structure and, 315, 317

polarisation-sensitive interneurons, 320–3

screening pigments, 10, 138

screening pigment cells, 10

distal pigment cells, 138

reflecting pigment cells, 138

spectral sensitivity, 261

visual abilities of, 179–80

visual pigments, 220–9

monochromatic visual systems, 225

polychromatic visual systems, 226–8, 230

crystalline cones

circadian changes in morphology, 134–5

dioptric system, a part of, 9

superposition eyes, optical types found in, 94

cubomedusae, see box jellyfishes

cuttlefishes, 177, 235, 240–1, 300, see also squids, molluscs

damselflies, 12

dark bumps, 90

dark noise, 90

daylight, 84–5, 168–70, 211–20, 292–7

aquatic light, 212, 236

hydrothermal vents, around, 236

intensity, 84–5

polarisation, 218, 298–301

spatial distribution, 84, 212–14

Snell’s window, 212–13, 298, 301

downwelling distribution, 84, 213–14

spectral properties, 84, 214–15, 253

temporal properties, 215–17

colours of objects seen in daylight, 252, 253

moonlight

polarisation pattern formed around the moon, 114, 297

spectrum, 84

photons

general properties of, 168–70

polarisation, 169

responses of photoreceptors to, 85–91

wavelength, 169

sunlight

polarisation properties, see also polarised light

discovery of, 291–2

pattern of polarisation formed around the sun, 301–5

physics and sources of polarised light, 292–4

reflection, polarisation due to, 293, 296, 297

scattering, polarisation due to, 293, 301

spectral properties in terrestrial habitats, 252, 253

spectrum, 5, 8–9, 84

spatial properties, 84, 169, 212

temporal variations, 169–70, 215, 216

DCMD and LGMD motion detection system, see locusts

deep sea, vision in the, 93, 94, 236–8, 272–3

depth perception, see range perception and vision in three dimensions

desert ant (Cataglyphis), see Cataglyphis in Species Index

diacylglycerol (DAG), role of in phototransduction, 58–9

diffraction, 16, 17

dim light, vision in, 83–120, 272, 434–6, see also visual threshold

divided and double eyes, 196–7

dorsal rim areas, see polarisation vision and visual sensitivity

dragonflies

chromophores, 3

colour vision, 266

course control, 424

eyes, 176

lamina monopolar cells, possible role in colour vision, 268

mate detection, 280

regional variations and sexual dimorphism in eye design, 34, 195, 265

spectral filtering in the dorsal eye, 12

spectral sensitivity, 257, 260, 261

dung beetles, 114, 116, 327

efferent neurosecretory fibres (ENSFs), 146, 151

electroretinogram (ERG)

Drosophila mutants, use in screening for, 47

circadian control of visual sensitivity, used for revealing, 132

evolution

cellular architecture and circuitry

motion detection, 358–63

visual processing pathways, 389–90

colour vision, 217, 230, 238, 260, 269, 270

eye designs, 177, 199, 238, 354

optic lobe, 202

photoreceptors, 74

phototransduction, 74

visual pigments, 8

visual signals, 238

eye shine (or eye glow)

butterflies, 27, 28

circadian controlled, 129, 130

eye types

designs, 92–4, 170–2, 353–4

evolution, 177, 199

f-number, 18–19, 103

facet lens, see corneal (facet) lens

false colours, see colour discrimination

FD1 neurons, see motion vision, target detection

fiddler crabs

spectral sensitivity, 261

visual behaviour, 180

filtering, spectral, see spectral filters and spectral filtering

filtering, visual, 204, 326, 498–500

fireflies

bioluminescent signalling, 280

chromophores, 3

evidence for spatial summation in the lamina, 108

spectral filtering using intrarhabdomal filters, 33

firefly squid, see also molluscs and Watasenia in Species Index

bioluminescence, 228, 281

chromophores, 3

colour vision, receptive field of, 265, 266

spectral sensitivity, 257, 261

tiered retinae, 258–9

visual pigments, 221, 227–8, 255

dichromatic colour vision for breaking camouflage, 237

flicker of light in the marine habitat, 216, 217

flicker fusion frequency, 44

flies, see also hoverflies, Musca, Calliphora, Drosophila in Species Index

acute zones, 195–6

angular sensitivity, 22

chromophores, 3

circadian control of motion-sensitive cells, 144–5

circadian control of lamina monopolar cell morphology, 143

colour vision, long and short visual fibres and, 263, 267

course control during flight, 178, 401–3, 424–6

“love spots”, 34, 195

motion vision, 349–90, 399–446

elementary motion detectors (EMDs), 363–79

homologous circuitry across taxa, 362–3

optic flow, analysis of, 388–9, 417–20

orientation selectivity, cellular basis of, 380–5

tangential cells (TCs) in the lobula and lobula plate, 415–20, 427–8

optic lobe, 355–63

lamina, 355–7

medulla, 357–8

optomotor response, 400–1

pattern vision, 521

photoreceptors

long and short visual fibres, 263

spectral classes, 263

phototransduction, 43–62

polarisation vision

dorsal rim areas, 303

fan-like retinal analyser array, 317

quantum bumps and vision at threshold, 88–9, 116–17

regional variations in eye design, 34

spatial summation in dim light, evidence for, 108–9

spectral filtering

intrarhabdomal filters, using, 33

screening pigments, using, 11

spectral sensitivity, 257, 262

target detection and pursuit, 405–8, 413, 422–4, 441

temporal resolution, 44

flight, visual control of, 463–75

course control, 401–3

distance flown, estimation of, 404–5, 470–4

landing, 404, 475, 476

narrow gaps, negotiation of, 465–7

optic flow, use of in, 178, 401–3, 463–75

speed of flight, control of, 467–70

stabilisation of flight, 463–5

target pursuit, 405–7

flowers, detection of, 276–9, 476–8, 513

fluorescent colours

cephalopods, 239

mantis shrimps, 239, 240

focal optics (in apposition eyes), 13

foraging in bees, cues used in, 475–88

fossils, 359, 360

four-eyed fish, 197

foveae, see acute zones and foveae

fruit flies, see Drosophila in Species Index

G-proteins

PLC, and the effector enzyme, 52–3

signalling pathways in phototransduction, 7, 49, 54

G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), 49

gastropods, see molluscs

geckos, 176

H1 and H2, see motion vision, lobula plate

halteres, 424–5

Hassenstein–Reichardt model of motion detection, see motion vision

hawkmoths, see also moths

colour vision

innate preferences for flower colours, 278

nocturnal, 117–20, 273

evidence for spatial summation in the lamina, 108

optical sensitivity, 105

object detection and range perception, 403

optomotor response, 401

regionalisation in the retina, 265–7

spectral sensitivity, 257, 262

heteropod molluscs, see molluscs

homing, see navigation and orientation

honeybees, see bees

horizon, detection of using colour, 274

horseflies (Tabanidae), 195

horseshoe crab, see Limulus in Species Index

host plants

detection of using colour information, 274, 276

leaves

colour, 274, 276, 311

polarisation reflections, 311

hoverflies (Syrphidae), 179, 195, 276, 440

HS neurons, see motion vision, lobula plate

hydrothermal vents, 228

light emitted from hot water, 236

hydrothermal vent crabs, 229, 238

hydrothermal vent shrimps, 237–8

INAD (a scaffolding protein), 67–70, 307

inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate (a second messenger), role of, 54

information and information capacity, 99–101, 203–4

innate search images, see search images

insects, for more detailed information, see dragonflies, flies, etc

circadian rhythms

circadian changes in crystalline cone shape, 134–5

circadian changes in screening pigment migration, 137–8

circadian pacemakers, 146–8, 152

general purpose vision in, 178–80

lamina ganglionaris, cellular circuitry in, 361

motion vision, 349

homologous circuitry across taxa, 363

polarisation vision

polarisation analysis, 314

polarisation-sensitive interneurons, 320

spectral sensitivity, 261

integration time

dim light and, 103

optokinetic responses, inferred from, 98

interommatidial angle,

definition, 13, 14

iridophores 240, see also chromatophores

jellyfishes, see box jellyfishes

jumping spiders

colour vision

homing, use of in, 281

mate detection, use in, 280

receptive field of, 265, 266

eye design, 176

principal eyes, 180–1

retinal scanning movements, 181

secondary eyes, 180–1

general purpose vision in, 176–7, 180–1

mate detection, 280

optical sensitivity, 104–5

pattern vision, 522

predation, visual, 181

spatial memory, 181

spectral sensitivity, 261

tiered retinae, 258–9

visual behaviour, 180

visual processing, 201

krill (Euphausiacea), 196

lamina gangionaris, see also lamina monopolar cells

cellular circuitry, 353–4, 361

amacrine cells, 351, 356, 371–2

centrifugal cells, 357

elementary motion detection, possible role of lamina cells in, 363

monopolar cells, 356–7

optic cartridges, 356–7

T1-cells, 351, 356

circadian control of cellular morphology, 143

colour vision, role of in, 267–8

spatial summation, evidence for, 108, 109

lamina monopolar cells (LMCs or L-fibres)

colour vision, possible role in, 268

circadian control of morphology, 143

elementary motion detection, possible role in, 349, 351

morphology of cell types

bees, 109

flies, 356

evidence for spatial summation by, 107–11

landing, see range perception and vision in three dimensions

landmarks, see navigation and orientation

learning and memory, 475–88

associative recall, 486–8

colour and shape, 3–10

complex tasks, 481–8

delayed match to sample (DMTS) tasks, 481–4

delayed symbolic match to sample (DSMTS) tasks, 484–6

context-dependent learning, 488

mazes, 478–81

patterns, 494–523

leaves, see host plants

leeches, phototransduction in, 62, 72

light, see daylight

lobsters, dichromatic visual systems in, 227

lobula

circadian rhythms within, 144

cellular organisation

tangential cells, 415–20

T5-cells, 363–5

colour vision, possible role in, 268–9

colour-opponent cells, 268

evolution of circuitry within, 358

line detectors within, 201

male-specific giant neurons, 351

motion detection, role in

direction-selective cells, 381

elementary motion detection, role in, 363

honeybees, in 364

orientation-selective cells, 382

small-target detection, and, 379, 413, 422–4, 441

tangential cells (TCs), 415–20, 427–8

lobula plate

evolution of circuitry within, 358

motion detection, role in

cellular organisation (tangential cells, TCs), 415–20, 427–8

CH neurons, 420–4

H1 and H2 neurons, 88–9, 422, 423, 433, 435

HS (horizontal system) neurons, 420–3, 433, 441–5

motion adaptation by, 436–9

synaptic signal transfer, 428

VS (vertical system) neurons, 388–9, 417, 421, 434

optic flow analysis, 178, 201, 364, 388–9, 417–20

locusts, see also Locusta, Schistocerca in Species Index

brains of, 326

course control, 424, 425

DCMD and LGMD motion detection system, 411, 429

PAQ50, 98

photoreceptors

absorption efficiency, 88

visual noise in, 90

visual threshold, 86

polarisation vision, 325–7

dorsal rim areas, 303

navigation, and, 336

polarisation-sensitive interneurons, 319, 322–3

summation, benefits of for, 109

long visual fibres, see photoreceptors

“love spots” in male higher flies

higher analysis of moving small targets in the lobula, 351, 379

photoreceptor specialisations, 34

spectral sensitivity, 265

structure, 195

mantis shrimps

colour vision, 232–3

ontogeny, during, 270

receptive field of, 265, 266

eye design, 196, 197, 231

fluorescent colours, 239, 240

meral spots, 239

ommatidial structure, 226, 231, 313

polarisation vision, 234, 241, 312–13, 319–20

spectral filters within the rhabdomeres, 12–13, 33, 226, 231, 232

spectral filtering, 11, 231

spectral sensitivity, 257, 261

visual behaviour, 179

visual pigments

larvae, in, 228–9

spectral tuning of, 223–5, 228, 230–3, 263

visual signalling

colour, using, 239, 240

polarisation, using, 241, 300

marine vision, 211

matched filters, visual, 204, 269, 279, 280, 315, 389–90

mating, see courtship, mating and intra-species interactions

Matthiessen-type eyes, 171, 187, 188

mayflies (Ephemeroptera), 196

mazes, see learning and memory

medulla

cellular organisation, 357

transmedullary neurons, 351, 358, 365

T-cells, 351, 358

colour vision, possible role in, 268–9

local motion computation, role in, 412

orientation-selectivity, role in via the T2 cells, 382

melanins, 10

memory, see learning and memory

meral spots, see mantis shrimps

metarhodopsin, 4–7, 50

microvilli (rhabdomeric), role in phototransduction, 44–6

mirror eyes, see concave mirror eyes

mites, 274

moonlight, see daylight, polarised light

molluscs

bivalves

clams

apposition eyes, 189–90

pinhole eyes, 171, 189

spatial resolution

pinhole eyes, 189

apposition eyes, 189

spectral classes of photoreceptors, 189, 257, 261

visual behaviour, 189

motion detection in, 202

scallops

eye design, 171, 189–91

phototransduction, 62, 71–2

visual behaviour, 191

visual defence and avoidance of predation, 189–91

eyes as “burglar alarms”, 192

cephalopods

chromophores, 3

fluorescent colours, 239

general purpose vision in, 176, 177

molar absorbance of visual pigments, 7

pattern vision, 521

phototransduction, 71

polarisation vision

camouflage breaking, and, 234–6

photoreceptor structure, and, 315

visual signalling, and, 30

protein purification studies, advantages for, 47

spectral sensitivity, 261

visual pigments, 223–5

gastropods

eye designs, 184

heteropods (sea snails), 184, 187–8

navigation, 184–6

monochromatic (colour-blind) vision, see colour vision, visual pigments

moths, see also hawkmoths

colour vision

innate preferences for flower colours, 278

nocturnal, 117, 118, 273

corneal transmission, 9

eye shine, 129, 130

optical sensitivity, 105

optic flow, analysis of, 442–3

optomotor response, 401

screening pigment migration, 12

spectral sensitivity, 257, 262

starlight navigation by, 98

motion parallax, see motion vision

motion vision, 349, 399–446

adaptation mechanisms, 435–9

illumination level, and, 435–6

motion adaptation, 436–9

behavioural control, role of visual motion in, 400–4

behaviourally relevant motion information, 439–45

flight

course control, 401–3, 463–5, 488

landing, 404, 475, 476

narrow gaps, negotiation of, 465–7

odometry, 404–5, 470–4

speed control, 467–70

target pursuit, 405–7

object detection and range perception, 402–4, 476–8

optomotor following, 400–1, 463–5

circadian control of motion-sensitive cells, 144

circuits, motion-detecting, 350–5

Barlow–Levick model, 352–3

Hassenstein–Reichardt model, 352–5, 377–9, 412–15

multiplication stage, 413–14

spatiotemporal filtering of input signals, 415

subtraction stage, 414

object motion, circuit for, 422–4

wide-field motion, circuit for, 422, 423

colour-blind, 269

DCMD and LGMD system of locusts, 411, 429

dim light, in, 116–20, 434–6

elementary motion detectors (EMDs), 363

directionally-selective motion responses, cellular basis of, 363–9, 378, 380–5

models of, 368–71, 375–9

neural computation of motion, 410–26

local motion computation, 412–15

gain control, 419, 426–7

global motion computation, 415–20

synaptic signal transfer, 428

optic flow

analysis of, 388–9, 416–23, 442

behaviour, role of in, 400–4, 406–7, 439–45, 463–76, 488

definition, 399

orientation selectivity

cellular basis of, 380–7

columnar lobula orientation-selective cells, 382

lamina monopolar cells, role in, 382

pattern discrimination, use in, 505–12

T2 cell, role in, 382, 384–7

parallax cues, 402, 408

reliability of, 430, 432–3

tangential cells (TCs), 415–20, 427–8

CH neurons, 420–1

VCH, 422–4

FD1 neurons, 413, 422–4, 441

H1 and H2 neurons, 88–9, 422, 423, 433, 435

HS (horizontal system) neurons, 420–2

HSE, 422, 423, 433, 441–5

HSN, 422

HSS, 422

motion adaptation by, 436–9

optic flow analysis by, 417–20

VS (vertical system) neurons, 388–9, 417, 421, 434

velocity tuning, 415–20, 426–7, 436–40

multimodality, 424–5, 483, 486–8

mutants, see Drosophila in Species Index

mysids, 196–7

nauplius eyes of copepods, 192–5

navigation and orientation, see also phototaxis

colour, use of in orientation, 274

compass, polarisation

aquatic navigation, use of in, 234

compass information, methods of reading, 336–7

sequential method for deducing compass information, 332–3

instantaneous method for deducing compass information, 333–5

compass neurons, 335–6

course direction, and, 306–9, 328–9

diurnal navigation, use of in, 306, 327–38

nocturnal navigation, use of in, 106, 114–16

POL neurons, role in the compass mechanism, 331–6

polarised skylight pattern used as, 114, 297, 301, 327

straight-line paths, and navigation along, 186, 327–8

time compensation, 329

desert ants (Cataglyphis), by, 302–5, 315, 323

gastropod and opisthobranch molluscs, by, 184–6

homing, 281, 306

honeybees, by, 178, 302, 462–89

landmarks – celestial

moon, 114

sun, 186

stars, 98

landmarks – terrestrial

day, use during the, 184, 475–88

homing, use of colour in, 281

learning of, 505, 518–19

night, use at, 112–16

nocturnal navigation, 112–16

odometers, visual, 174, 404–7, 470–4

orientation flights, 112, 114, 178, 408–9

path integration (“vector navigation”), 178, 328

time compensation, 329

neural superposition eyes, 353–5

noise, visual, 85–91

dark bumps, 90

dark noise, 90

extrinsic noise

definition, 89

relative contribution to visual noise, 90–1

intrinsic noise

definition, 89

relative contribution to visual noise, 90

motion vision, and, 88–9, 434–5

photon shot noise, 83, 86, 89, 116

reliability of vision, and it limits on the, 85–91, 116, 430

transducer noise, 86, 90–1

object detection, 179, 476–8

colour and shape, use of in, 275–6, 476–8

motion cues and, 402–4

pattern discrimination, and, 494–523

obstacle avoidance

bees, by, 465–7

box jellyfishes (cubomedusae), by, 182–4

ocelli, 2, 8, 171, 198

octopamine, 152

odometers, visual, see navigation and orientation

offset visual pigments, see visual pigments

ommachromes, 10

ommatidium

definition, 2

diversity of, 33

structure of

crustaceans, 226, 233

Drosophila, 13–16, 45

Pieris rapae, 26, 27, 30

Callinectes ornatus, 93

Cirolana borealis, 93

mantis shrimps, 226, 231

optic flow, see motion vision

optic lobe, see also lamina, medulla, lobula, lobula plate

evolution, 202, 359–63

motion pathways, 355

polarisation pathways, 319, 320

optical sensitivity, see also sensitivity

point sources, of eyes to, 94

extended scenes, of eyes to, 101, 106

optomotor responses

course control, and, 409–10, 463–5

neurons and circuits involved in, 144, 350–3

spatial summation revealed by, 109

threshold, at, 109

visual motion, and, 400–1, 409–10

orientation, see navigation and orientation

orientation flights, see navigation and orientation

orientation selectivity, see motion vision

owl-flies, 196

PAQ50 (peak axial quanta for 50% response), 97, 98

path integration, see navigation and orientation

pattern vision, 494–523

cues used in, 476–8, 495–523

neural filters, detection by, 498–500

Drosophila, in, 521

honeybees, in, 178, 476–8, 494–523

cues used by, 497, 500–13

bilateral symmetry, 513

centre of pattern, position of, 503–4

colour, 502–3

edge orientation, 505–12

modulation, 502

radial and tangential features, 512–13

range, 504–5

size, 505, 506

jumping spiders, in, 522

Octopus, in, 521

shape, and, 501, 515–16

visual pathways involved in, 516–21

pentachromatic vision, see colour vision, visual pigments

peering, 175, 408

phosphatidyl inositol 4,5, bisphosphate (PIP2), role of, 59–60

photic environment, see also daylight

nocturnal light environment, 84–5

deep-sea light environment, 84–5

terrestrial light environment, 8

photons, see daylight

photon shot noise, 83, 86, 89

phototaxis

colour-blind, 269

colour vision dependent, 274

unicellular animals, 3

photoreceptors, 44–9

ciliary photoreceptors, 44, 62, 74

circadian control of structure and function, 139

efficiency of, 86–9

electrical responses, 47–9, 85, 86

hyperpolarising responses to light in bivalves and sabellid annelids, 192

elementary motion detection, possible role in, 351, 363

long visual fibres, 263–4, 267–8

microvillar (rhabdomeric) photoreceptors, 44, 62, 74

membrane turnover, 140–1

polarisation sensitivity, 306–12

short visual fibres, 263–4, 267–8

spectral classes and their arrangements in the retina, 260–7

spectral sensitivity, 257, 261–2

annelids, 257, 261

crustaceans, 257, 261

determinants of, 254

coloured corneae, lenses and tapeta, 259

intrarhabdomal filters, 12, 33, 226, 231, 232, 256–8

screening pigments, 11–12, 29–33, 258

tiering of the retina, 226, 231, 258–9

visual pigment absorption spectra, 255–6

waveguide modes, 25

insects, 29, 257, 261

molluscs, 257, 261

spiders, 2, 257, 261

structure, 44–6, 226

vertebrate, 44

photoreceptor optics,

butterflies, 26–34

flies, 13–25

phototransduction, 7, 43

diacylglycerol (DAG, a lipid messenger), role of, 58

G-proteins, role of, 49, 52

inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate, role of, 54

phosphatidyl inositol 4,5, bisphosphate (PIP2), role of, 59

photoreceptors, role of, 44

phototransduction cascade

circadian controlled, 141–2

description, 49–61, 70–1

signalling complexes (INAD complex), 67, 68, 70

TRP channels and, 56–8

visual pigments and, 49–52

pigment cells, 10–11, 135

basal pigment cells, 138

distal pigment cells, 138

primary pigment cells, 137

reflecting pigment cells, 138

secondary pigment cells, 137–8

pinhole eyes, 171, 189

pit eyes, 171

planula larvae, see box jellyfishes

point sources

optical sensitivity of eyes to, 94

visibility

theory, 94

experimental, 97–8

polarised light, see also daylight

aquatic environment, in the

air–water interface, at the, 293, 296, 297

contrast enhancement, polarised light used for, 233, 299

underwater polarisation light field, 218, 298

camouflage breaking, use in, 233, 235, 299

compass cue in navigation, use as, 327, see also navigation and orientation

aquatic habitats, 234, 301

diurnal habitats, 302–5

colour-blind, 303

errors, systematic navigational, 303–5

models, 327

nocturnal habitats, 106, 114

straight-line paths, and navigation along, 186, 327

discovery of, 291

moon, pattern of produced around the, 114, 297

physics and sources of polarised light, 292, 293

reflection, polarisation due to, 293, 296, 297, 310

scattering, polarisation due to, 293, 301

sun, pattern of produced around the, 301, 302

types of polarised light

circularly polarised light, 294–7

elliptically polarised light, 294, 295

linearly polarised light, 294, 295

visual signalling, using

aquatic habitats, 239–41, 300

terrestrial habitats, 301

water surfaces, and the detection of, 293, 296, 297

polarisation vision and visual sensitivity 291–338

compass, polarisation

aquatic navigation, use of in, 234

compass information, methods of reading, 336

sequential method for deducing compass information, 332

instantaneous method for deducing compass information, 333

“compass neurons” and control of body orientation, 334–5

course direction, and, 306, 328, 334

diurnal navigation, use of in, 306, 327

models of, 330–1

nocturnal navigation, use of in, 106, 114

POL neurons, role in the compass mechanism, 331

polarised skylight pattern used as, 114, 297, 301, 327

straight-line paths, and navigation along, 186, 327

time compensation (ephemeris function), 329, 337

dorsal rim areas

colour-blind, 265, 303

insects, in

ants, 303, 317

backswimmers, 317

bees, 35, 303

beetles, 35, 114, 116, 303

butterflies, 35

crickets, 35, 303, 317

flies, 35, 303

locusts, 303

structure, 197, 317

photoreceptor optics of, 34–5

retinal polarisation analysis, 306

arrays of analysers, 314–20, 324

fan-like arrays, 317–19

parallel arrays, 310, 315–17

opponency mechanisms, 314–15, 317

photoreceptor structure, and, 226, 233, 295–7, 306, 313

PS (polarisation sensitivity) values, 307

receptive fields of polarisation-sensitive photoreceptors, 309–11, 324

visual pigments, intrinsic polarisation sensitivity, 306–7

polarisation-sensitive interneurons, non-opponent, 323

polarisation-sensitive interneurons, opponent (POL neurons), 318–27

e-vector tuning, 322

hypothesised role in polarisation compass system, 325–7, 331

models of, 330

polarisation opponency, 317, 320

visual fields of, 324–5

“true” polarisation vision, 312, 314, 337–8

porphyropsin, see visual pigments

predation, visual defence and avoidance of, 189–92

bivalve molluscs, by, 189

locusts, by, 411

sabellid tube worms, by, 191

predation, visual

annelids, by, 187, 188

colour, possible role of in, 279

heteropod molluscs, by, 187

jumping spiders, by, 181

polarised light, use of in aquatic habitats, 233, 299

preying mantis, 407, 408

principle eyes, see spiders, jumping spiders

prolonged depolarising afterpotential (DPA), 52

pterins, 10

pupils

camera eyes, 92–4

compound eyes, 12

corneal facet lens, represented by, 92

purines, 10

quantum bumps

definition and characteristics, 47–8, 64, 86

drive higher-order visual processes, ability to, 88–9

generation, 61–6

kinetics, 64–6

refractory period, 64–6

variations in (transducer noise), 86, 90

quantum catch, see sensitivity

randomly organised retinae and colour vision, 33, 263

range perception and vision in three dimensions, 402–9

landing, 402–4

objects, detection of, 403–4

odometry, 404–7

target pursuit, 405–7

red pigment-concentrating hormone, 152

regional variations and heterogeneity in eye design, 195–7

apposition eyes, in, 34, 195

retina, with the, 265

superposition eyes, in, 9, 10, 18

Reichardt model of motion detection, see motion vision

retinal, 3

retinol, 3

rhabdomeres, 15

absorption coefficient, 19

light capture by, 18

rhabdoms

open-type, 15

closed-type, 15

rhodopsin, see visual pigments

rhopalia, see box jellyfishes

robberflies (Asilidae), 195

Rose–de Vries Law (or Square-Root Law), 89

Sahabot 1 (polarised-light-seeing robot), 333–5

scallops, see molluscs

scanning

eyes of mantis shrimps, 265

eyes of the pontellid copepod Copilia, 192

retinae of jumping spider principal eyes, 181, 265

scenes, see visual scenes

scorpions, circadian rhythms in

pacemakers, 146

efferent control of visual sensitivity, 132, 150

efferent neurosecretory fibres, 151

migration of screening pigments, 136

time course of the circadian signal, 155–6

screening pigments, 10–13

classification and location, 10–11

light flux, control of, 12

migration of during adaptation, 136–9

photoreceptor cells, within the, 12, 139–40, 256

pigment cells, within the, 10

rhabdomeres, within the, 12

spatial resolution, role in regulating, 11

spectral filtering, role in, 11, 12, 29, 257, 258

visual pigment photochemical cycle, and the, 11–12, 52

sea snails, see molluscs

search images

innate, 277, 278

secondary eyes, see spiders, jumping spiders

serotonin, 152

sensitising pigments, 7–8, 50, 256–8

sensitivity hypothesis of visual pigment tuning, 223, see also contrast hypothesis,

sensitivity of eyes to light, see also optical sensitivity

circadian control of, 128, 132

eye design, and, 92

quantum catch, 254

seasonal or annual control of, 131

sensitivity of eyes to extended scenes, 99–120

sensitivity of eyes to point sources, 91–8

shelters, 281

shore crabs, see Carcinus, Hemigrapsus Leptograpsus in Species Index

short visual fibres, see photoreceptors

shrimps

camouflage in, 275

dichromatic visual systems in, 227, 236

polarised light, use of in navigation, 234

spectral sensitivity, 261

signal-to-noise ratio, 83, 89

signalling, see visual signalling

sky

colour gradient across, 274, 305

polarised light pattern, 301

sleep, 144

snails, see molluscs

Snell’s window, 212, 214, 298, 301

spatial resolution, role of screening pigments in controlling, 11

spatial summation, see summation, spatial and temporal

spectral filters and spectral filtering, 9

intrarhabdomal filters, using, 12, 33, 226, 231, 232, 256

screening pigments, using, 11, 12, 29, 258

tiering of the retina, via, 226, 231, 258

spectral sensitivities of photoreceptors, see photoreceptors

spiders, see also jumping spiders

colour vision, 265, 266, 280, 281

eye design, 92

principal eyes, 180, 197–8, 310

secondary eyes, 180, 197–8

efferent neurosecretory fibres (ENSFs), 152

general purpose vision in, 180–1

integration time of the photoreceptors, 103

mate detection, 280

optical sensitivity, 104

polarisation vision, 198, 305, 307, 310–1

retinal polarisation analysers, 314

screening pigments and acuity, 137

spectral sensitivity, 2, 257, 261

visual behaviour, 197–8

squids, see also molluscs, firefly squid

eye design, 83, 92, 104, 176

fluorescent colours, 239

phototransduction, 71

visual signalling, 240, 300

stars, 96–8

stemmata, 274

sticklebacks, 181–2

stomatopods, see mantis shrimps

stresipterans, 2

submicrovillar cisternae (SMC), 44, 70

summation, spatial and temporal, 107

evidence for spatial summation in the lamina of insects, 108–11

sunlight, see daylight

superposition aperture, 94

superposition eyes

double (divided) eyes

krill, 196

mysids, 196

owl-flies, 196

general designs, 92, 94, 172, 354

optical sensitivity, 94, 101, 106

“turbanate” type in mayflies, 196

tapetum

butterflies, 27

moths, 130

spectral filtering properties, 259

spiders, 310

target detection, see also tracking

behavioural pursuit of targets, 405–8

target detecting cells, 351, 379

FD1 neurons, 413, 422–4, 441

temporal integration time, see integration time

temporal resolution, 44, 100–1

temporal summation, see summation

tetrachromatic vision, see colour vision, visual pigments

tsetse flies, 274

three dimensions, vision in, see range perception and vision in three dimensions

threshold, see visual threshold

tiered (banked) retinae, 226, 231, 258

toads

dark noise in the rods, 90

visual abilities, 182

tracking

lobula, role of small-target detector cells in tracking, 422–4

of other animals (chasing behaviour), 179, 405–7

point sources, of slowly moving, 97–8

transduction, see phototransduction,

trichromatic vision, see colour vision, visual pigments

TRP channels, 56

properties, 57–8

turnover of photoreceptor membrane, see photoreceptors

unicellular animals

phototaxis, 3

visual pigments, 3

vents, see hydrothermal vents

vertebrates

cornea, optical properties, 171

general purpose vision in, 181–2

motion vision in, 380

orientation selectivity, cellular basis of, 385–7

polarisation vision in, 311–12

vision, functions of, 172–6

general purpose visual systems, 176–82

special purpose visual systems, 182, 198–200

visual pigments (rhodopsins and porphyropsins)

absorption spectra, 4–6

aquatic invertebrates, of, 220, 222

chromophores, 3, 220–2, 255

colour vision, basis for, 250

development, 228–9

evolution, 8

diversity across the animal kingdom, 261

monochromatic visual systems, 223, 251, 260

polychromatic visual systems, 226, 260

Drosophila, of, 8, 49

mathematical templates (nomogram functions), 4, 224, 255

molar absorbance, 6–7

Pieris rapae, of, 30

offset visual pigments, 230

opsins, 220–2

photochemistry, 4–7

phototransduction, role in, 4–7, 49

polarisation sensitivity, intrinsic, 306

porphyropsin, 221–2

regeneration, 50–2

tuning (spectral location of peak absorption wavelength λmax), 261

light environment, and the, 222–3

sensitivity hypothesis, 223

contrast hypothesis, 223

molecular basis of, 221, 255

vision, role in, 1–2

visual pigment cycle, 51

visual scenes (terrestrial and aquatic)

extended scenes, 99, 169, 218–19

scenes dominated by point sources, 91

visual signalling

aquatic habitats, in, 238

colour signals, 238–40, 281

polarisation signals, 239, 241, 300

terrestrial habitats, in

colour signals, 253, 256

polarisation signals, 301

visual threshold (in dim light)

behavioural threshold

colour vision, 272

point source detection, 97–8

optomotor response, 89

neural threshold

motion detector neurons, 88–9, 434–5

photoreceptors, 85, 86, 272

polarisation-sensitive interneurons, 321

VS neurons, see motion vision, lobula plate

waggle dance, see bees

wasps, see also Sphex in Species Index

nocturnality in, 105

visual behaviour, 424

waveguide modes

absorption by screening pigments, 23–5

angular sensitivity, affects on, 22

description and properties, 19–22

waveguide number, 19

wavelength-specific behaviours, see colour vision

Zeitgebers, 145







Species Index




Aglais urticae, 278

Alciopa reynaudi, 187

Anableps, 197

Androctonus australis, 132, 136, 149

Anomalocaris, 359

Anomalocera, 192–3

Artemia, 202

Apis dorsata, 111

Apis mellifera

colour vision, 251

innate preferences for flower colours, 278

long and short visual fibres and, 264

circadian rhythms in cellular responses, 144

dance language

round dance, 407

waggle dance, 178, 406–7, 470

dorsal rim area, 35

flight

course control, 401–3, 463–5, 488

landing, 402–4, 475, 476

narrow gaps, negotiation of, 465–7

odometry, 404–5, 470–4

speed control, 467–70

foraging, cues used in, 475–88

lamina monopolar cell (LMC) morphology, 109–11

learning and memory, 475–88

motion-sensitive cells in the lobula, 364

navigation and orientation, 178, 462–89

landmarks, use of, 178, 475–88

odometers, visual, 174, 404–7, 470–4

orientation flights, 112, 113, 178

path integration, 178

polarised light, use of, 302, 306, 309, 317, 336

nocturnality, 111

object detection and range perception, 402–4, 476–8

optical sensitivity of the eye, 106, 107

pattern vision, 178, 476–8, 494–523

cues used by, 497, 500–13

bilateral symmetry, 513

centre of pattern, position of, 503–4

colour, 502–3

edge orientation, 505–12

modulation, 502

radial and tangential features, 512–13

range, 504–5

size, 505, 506

phototransduction, 62, 69

spectral filtering in the drone dorsal eye, 12

spectral sensitivity, 262

visual pigments, 9

Aplysia, 139, 143, 145–6, 155, 186

Arca, 171, 189

Architeuthis dux

eye size, 83, 92

optical sensitivity of the eye, 106

point-source detection by, 93, 96

pupil diameter, 92

Artemia, 359

Ascalaphus

superposition eyes of, 196

visual pigments, 11

Asterocampa, 266

Atlanta, 188

Balanus, 73

Barbatia cancellaria

apposition eyes, 189, 190

spatial resolution, 189–90

Battus philenor, 276

Bombus, 278

Branchiomma, 172, 191, 192

Bulla, 139, 143, 146

Bythograea thermydron, 229, 238

Caenorhabditis, 47

Calanella, 192

Calliphora

motion detection (see also Flies in General Index), 364

PAQ50, 98

“love spots”, 195–6

ommatidial array,

Callinectes ornatus, 93

Callinectes sapidus, 229

Callonychium, 262

Carcinus, 97, 261

Cardium, 189

Carinaria, 188

Cataglyphis bicolor

navigation and orientation

polarised light, use of as compass cue, 302, 306, 309, 336

fan-like retinal analyser array, 315, 317

polarisation-sensitive interneurons, 323–5, 331

spectral sensitivity, 262

Centroptilum, 196

Cherax, 98

Chiropsalmus, 183–4

Chlamydomonas, 2

visual pigments in, 3

Choisya mexicana, 253

Chrysocarabus, 131

Chrysopa, 134

Cirolana borealis

ommatidial structure, 93

optical sensitivity, 93, 106

photoreceptor receptive fields, 103

point-source detection by, 93, 96

Coccinella, 262

Colias, 280

Copilia, 192

Crangon crangon, 275

Cupiennus salei

integration time of the photoreceptors, 103

quantum bumps, 86

spectral sensitivity, 257, 261

Cycloptiloides, 310

Daphnia

colour vision, 227, 251, 263, 274

compound eyes, 202

polarisation vision and shore-flight, 299

spectral sensitivity, 261

Deilephila elpenor

circadian control of pigment migration, 138

colour vision in dim light, 117, 118

optical sensitivity, 105, 106

motion vision in dim light, 117

spectral sensitivity, 257, 262

Dinopis subrufus, 92

optical sensitivity, 104, 106

PAQ50, 98

Dioptromysis, 18

Drassodes

homing, 180

polarising eyes, 198, 305, 310, 314

Drosophila

anatomy of the ommatidia, 13–15, 45

angular sensitivity, 14–15, 22, 24

electrical responses of the photoreceptors, 47, 48

facet lens optics, 13, 17

flight control, 467–9

motion detection, 364

mutants

arrestin, 64

InaDP215 (inactivation but no after-potential D), 67–9

norpA (no receptor potential A), 53, 55, 59, 69

rdgA (retinal degeneration A), 58–9

sine oculis, 357

trp (transient receptor potential), 56–7, 59–60

object detection and range perception, 403

pattern vision, 521

photoreceptor optics, 13, 17, 18

phototransduction, 7, 43

diacylglycerol (DAG, a lipid messenger), role of, 58–9

G-proteins, role of, 49, 52–3

inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate, role of, 54

phosphatidyl inositol 4,5, bisphosphate (PIP2), role of, 59–60

photoreceptors, role of, 44–9

phototransduction cascade, 49, 70–1

signalling complexes (INAD complex), 67, 68, 70

TRP channels and, 56–8

visual pigments and, 49, 51

polarisation vision (dorsal rim area), 319

quantum bumps, 47, 48, 61, 64

sensitising pigments, 7–8

sleep-like state present in, 144

spectral sensitivity, 25

visual pigments, 7–8, 15–6

visual pigment cycle, 51

Dynastes hercules, 130

Elysia viridis, 185, 186

Ephestia, 35

Eurema lisa, 280

Eupagurus, 281

Fannia, 179

Gonodactylus, 261

Gonodactylus smithii, 239, 261

Gryllus

dorsal rim photoreceptors

analyser array, as an, 317

receptive fields, 310

polarisation-sensitive interneurons (POL1 and POL3), 319, 320, 322, 324–5, 331

Gryllus bimaculatus, 261

Gyrinus, 197

Haliotis, 184

Hasarius adansoni, 280

Heloecius cordiformis, 253

Heliconius, 301

Hemicordulia

PAQ50, 98

spectral sensitivity, 257

Hemigrapsus sanguineus, 227, 255, 261

Hemisquilla californiensis, 300

Hemisquilla ensigera, 232

Heriades truncorum, 281

Hirudo, 62

Inachis io, 274–5

Labidocera, 171, 193–5, 199

Lampyris noctiluca, 280

Leptodora, 203

Leptograpsus variegatus

photoreceptor absorption efficiency, 88

visibility of stars for, 97

visual threshold, 97–8

Ligia exotica, 227, 261

Lima

eye design, 189

phototransduction, 62, 71–2

Limulus

circadian rhythms

circadian changes in crystalline cone morphology, 134

circadian changes in screening pigment position and pupil size, 137, 139–40

circadian changes in photoreceptor sensitivity, 141–2

efferent neurosecretory fibres (ENSFs), 151–2

time course of the circadian signal, 155–6

eccentric cells, 88

eye design, 171

phototransduction, 43, 60–1

inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate, role of, 54–5

quantum bumps

general description of, 47, 66, 86

vision at threshold, and, 88

screening pigments, 12–13, 137

spectral sensitivity, 261

turnover of photoreceptor membrane, 141

Littorina irrorata, Littorina littoralis

eyes, 185

optical sensitivity, 106

visual behaviour, 185–6

Locusta migratoria

PAQ50, 98

photoreceptors

absorption efficiency, 88

visual noise in, 90

visual threshold, 86

summation, benefits of for, 109

Logilo, 151

Lycaena rubidus, 262

Lysiosquilla panamica, 239, 240

Macroglossum stellatarum

innate preferences for flower colours, 278

optical sensitivity, 105, 106

Manduca sexta

eye shine and tapetum, 130

heterogeneity and regionalisation of the retina, 33, 265–7

innate preferences for flower colours, 278

visual pigments, 10

Megalopta genalis

evidence for spatial summation in the lamina, 108–11

eyes, 196

lamina monopolar cells, morphology of, 108–11

navigation using landmarks, 112, 113

nocturnal foraging behaviour, 107, 112–14

optical sensitivity of the eye, 104, 106, 107

Melipona quadrifasciata, 281

Menemerus confusus, 261

Musca domestica

integration time of the photoreceptors, 103

“love spots”, 195–6

motion detection, 365

optomotor responses at threshold, 89, 117

spectral sensitivity, 257, 262

Mysis relicta, 222

Nautilus, 171

Nereis pelagica, 187

Noctiluca miliaris, 253

Notonecta

circuitry of the lamina, 354

long and short visual fibres and colour vision, 263

polarisation vision, 197, 296, 297

photoreceptor structure, and, 315–17

ventral POL area in the eye, 317

water surfaces, and the detection of, 296, 297

spectral sensitivity, 262

Notodromas, 199

Octopus

brain size, 200

chromatophores and camouflage, 177

optical sensitivity of the eye, 106

pattern vision, 521

polarisation vision, 315

regionalisation of circadian control in the eye, 151

spectral sensitivity, 261

visual abilities, 177

Ocypode, 315

Odontodactylus, 261

Odontodactylus latirostris, 241

Odontodactylus scyllarus, 313

Onchidium verruculatum, 186

Onitis alexis, 98

Onitis aygulus, 106

Onitis belial, 106

Oplophorus, 106

Osmia rufa, 281

Oxygyrus, 187, 188

Pachymorpha sexguttata

adaptational states in, 133

circadian control of pupil diameter, 137, 138

efferent control of visual sensitivity, 132

regionalisation of circadian control in the eye, 151

screening pigment migration in, 136

Palaemonetes vulgaris, 234, 301

Pandalus, 361

Panulirus, 295

Papilio, 266, 301

Papilio aegeus, 253

Papilio xuthus

colour coding neurons in the medulla, 268

heterogeneity of the retina, 33–4

host plants, visual choice of, 276

long and short visual fibres and colour vision, 264

screening pigments, 12, 258

spectral filtering, 31

spectral sensitivity, 29, 255, 257, 262, 263

Pararge aegeria, 278

Paruroctonus mesaensis, 150

Patella, 184

Pecten

eye design, 171, 189–91

phototransduction, 62, 71–2

optical sensitivity of the eye, 106

visual behaviour, 191

Periplaneta americana, 262

Pectunculus, 189

Phaenicia sericata, 382

Phalaenoides, 98

Phidippus johnsoni, 104–6

Photinus, 280

Photuris, 295

Pieris rapae

anatomy of the ommatidia, 26, 27, 30

dorsal eye region, 34

eye shine, 28

host plants, visual choice of, 276

long and short visual fibres and colour vision, 263–4

mate detection, wing colouration and, 280

photoreceptor optics,

screening pigments, 13, 258

spectral filtering, 29, 32–3

spectral sensitivity, 29–33

visual pigments, 29–33

wing colour, sexual dimorphism in, 253

Pieris brassicae

innate preferences for flower colours, 278

spectral sensitivity of feeding, 31

Planaria, 106

Plusiotis gloriosa, 295

Plexippus, 98

Plusia gamma, 130

Polyommatus icarus, 280

Polyphemus, 203

Pontella securifer, 193

Pontella spinipes, 194

Portia, 180–1

Procambarus clarkii, 227

Protula, 191

Pseudosquilla ciliata, 232

Pterotrachea, 184, 187, 188

Pyrophorus, 253

Pyrophorus plagiophthalmus, 281

Rimicaris exoculata, 237

Sabella melanostigma, 190–2

Scarabaeus zambesianus, 114, 116

Scutigera, 202, 203, 359, 362, 377

Sepia

polarisation vision, 315

polarised light signalling, 300

regionalisation of circadian control in the eye, 151

Schistocerca gregaria, 319, 322

Sphex cognatus

random retina of, 264

screening pigments, 13, 258

Squilla empusa, 229

Squilla mantis, 139, 361

Strombus luhuanus, 184

Sympetrum, 261, 280

Syritta, 179

Systellapsis debilis, 261

Tectarius muricatus, 186

Tentredo campestris, 262

Tenebrio molitor, 137

Tenodera, 98

Torrea candida

eyes, 188

spectral sensitivity, 257, 260, 261

Tridacna, 171, 189, 257, 261

Triops, 202

Tripedalia, 183–4

Turbo castanea, 186

Uca, 180, 261

Vanadis, 106, 187

Vanessa cardui

heterogeneity of the retina, 33

spectral sensitivity, 262

visual pigments, 10

Waptia, 359, 360

Watasenia scintillans

bioluminescence, 228, 281

chromophores, 3

receptive field of colour vision, 265

spectral sensitivity, 257, 261

tiered retinae, 258–9

visual pigments, 221, 227, 255

dichromatic colour vision for breaking camouflage, 237


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