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Technological Medicine

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 (ISBN-13: 9780521835695)

TECHNOLOGICAL MEDICINE
Cambridge University Press
9780521835695 - TECHNOLOGICAL MEDICINE - The Changing World of Doctors and Patients - By Stanley Joel Reiser
Index

INDEX

Abbott, Gilbert 169–172

Abel, J. 32–33, 34

The Accomplish't Midwife (Mauriceau) 163–164

adaptability, concept of 150–151, 201–202

Airs, Waters, Places (Hippocrates) 131–132

Albers, Tim 41

Alexander, Shana 44–46

Altman, Lawrence 41

American College of Surgeons (ACS) 79

American Hospital Association (AHA) 191

American Medical Association (AMA) 95, 155–156

American Public Health Association (APHA) 151–152, 155–156

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act 98

costs of 103

anatomical defects 150

anatomy/anatomization

historical origins 4

influence on medical thinking 8, 14–15, 187

anesthesia/anesthetists

and artificial respiration 59–61

in childbirth 172–173

and religious factors 173

in surgical tests 169–172

antiseptic/aseptic procedures 176–178, 180

The Art (Hippocrates) 69–70

artificial kidney.

creation/development of 32–33

as harbinger of new era 45

rationing/allocation decisions 31, 43–44, 46–47

See also kidney dialysis, kidney failure

artificial respirators/respiration

IPPV treatment 59–61

iron lung therapy 56–59

religious/moral issues 52, 61–63, 70

types/devices 52–53

auscultation

acceptance of 12

diagnostic expectations for 10

Hippocrates’ technique for 5

Laennec's book on 7–8

learning issues 9

subjectivity of medical findings 27

autopsy, and diagnosis 137–138

bacteria 18–19

Baker, S. Josephine 140–141

Balfour, Thomas 113

Barnard, Christiaan 64

Bayle, Gaspard 4–5

bellows, in artificial respiration 52–53

Berger, John 27–29

Berk, H. Th. J. 35

bias types

observer 113–115

selection 111–113, 115

Bingle, Adolf 115

birth attendants 169

See also midwife, training/education of

Bischoff, Johann 177

Black's Law Dictionary 65

bloodletting 105–110

Bloomingdale Brothers 22, 24

Bonomo, Giovanni 17–18

Boston Women's Health Book Collective 182–183

Breslow, Lester 152–153

Brinkman, Robert 32, 34

Bureau of the Budget 48–49

Bush, George W. 97

Cabot, Richard C. 77–79, 94

Cannon, Walter 77

cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) 71, 203


case method of instruction 77

“Case Records of the Massachusetts General Hospital,” 78–79

Casey, Lawrence 67

cathode ray 200

See also X-ray

Catholic/Christian faith, and artificial respiration 61–63, 70

Cattell, Henry 23

cellophane/cellophane tubing 32, 34

cells

body as “cellular state,” 139

discovery of 15–17

Cellular Pathology (Virchow) 139

Chalmers, I. 118–119, 120

Chamberlens (English medical family) 163–166

childbirth.

anesthesia in 172–173

and asepsis 180

home vs. hospital birth 179–180, 185

intervention in 180–181

labor 160–162, 179

natural 184–185

and obstetric forceps 158, 162–169

and puerperal fever 174–177

social/cultural factors 159

technological transformation of 158, 185

See also ultrasound technology

Childbirth Without Fear: The Principles and Practice of Natural Childbirth (Dick-Read) 184–185

Children's Hospital in Boston 54–55, 56–57

civil rights movement 181–182

clinical-pathological correlation 78–79

Coalition for Patient Privacy 101

Cochrane, Archie 120

Codman, Ernest Amory 79–82, 94

College of Physicians 168–169

College of Surgeons 168–169

collodion 32–33

community values/perspective

and artificial kidney rationing 31, 43–44, 46–47

and Karen Ann Quinlan case 68, 70–71

comparative perspective, in treatment evaluation 110–111

computers, in clinical medicine 90–92.

See also patient record

confidentiality, of medical records 100–102

congressional hearings, on Medicare 49–50

consumers, and personal health records 100–101

control groups 116–117

controlled trials 118, 119–121

Copenhagen polio epidemic 60–61

cost-effectiveness.

as means of allocation 123–124

See also Oregon Basic Health Services Act

cost of care, and patient records 97–98

counter-culture movement 181–182

CPR (cardio-pulmonary resuscitation) 71, 203

Crookes tube 200

See also X-ray

Cullen, William 2–3, 174

Cushing, Harvey 80

Davy, Humphry 169

De humani corporis fabrica (Vesalius) 4, 14–15, 137

de Sauvages, François Bossier 136

death

definitions/concepts of 62–63, 65

Natural Death Act 71

Decorum (Hippocrates) 189–190

defensive medicine 102, 219, 220

The Design of Experiments (Fisher) 116

diagnosis

and autopsy 137–138

and concept of disease 135–137

and medical illustrations 15

patient's narrative/subjectivity 2, 12–13

and precision of technologies 28–29

and screening 145–150

and stethoscope invention/usage 1, 6–9

X-ray use in 23, 24–25

dialogue, in medical relationship 200–201

Dick-Read, Grantly 184–185

diphtheria treatment research 115

disability, physical 150

disease prevention 140–145

diseases.

bacterial sources of 18–19, 139

classification of 2–3

as entities 135–137, 139

as having seats 4

screening for 145–150

treatment of 8–9

See also diagnosis, puerperal fever

DNA markers 154

Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) order 71–72

doctor/patient relationship 1, 7–8, 12–13, 181–182, 190–191.

See also dialogue, in medical relationship

Doll, Richard 119

Donald, Ian 195

double-blind controlled trials 119–120

Drinker, Philip 54–56

Dubos, René 201–202

Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care 71

Dye, N. S. 179


early detection, of disease 140–145.

See also diseases

Eastman, George 19–20

Edison, Thomas Alva 23

education, and patient record use 77–79

effectiveness, of technologies 50–51, 121

Effectiveness and Efficiency (Cochrane) 120

Ehrlich, Paul 187

electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) 219

electronic health record (EHR) 96–99.

See also patient record

End Result System 80–82

“English Hippocrates.”

See Sydenham, Thomas

environmentalist concept of health 130–132, 150–151, 157

epidemics, polio 60–61

ethics

and artificial respiration 61–63

committees 68–69, 72–73

medical ethics renewal 181–182

evidence

of illness 5

of patient narrative 26

and X-rays 27, 28

examination, periodic medical 140–145

experience, Louis’ critique of 108–109

false negative tests 145

false positive tests 145, 149

Feingold, Eugene 155–156

Feinstein, Alvan 91–92

Ferguson, Tom 193–194

Fisher, R. A. 116

follow-up system 82–83

forceps.

See obstetric forceps

Fremont-Smith, Maurice 144

Galen (Greek physician) 105

genetic science developments 153–155

genetic testing 149

genome mapping 153–155

Glasser, Otto 21

Glazer, Nathan 49

Google, and personal health records 100–101

Gordon, Alexander 174–175

Gottschalk, Carl 48–49

government

and medical technology limits 70–72

oversight of medical care 94–96

Graham, Thomas 32

The Grammar of Science (Pearson) 27

Greeks, ancient.

Galen 105

health/illness concept of 130–131

medical information disclosure 189–190

See also Hippocrates/Hippocratic writings

Greenwood, Major 115–116

Grossman, Jerome 95–96

Haas, George 33, 34

Haid, Bruno 61

haplotype maps/bins 154

Hart, Philip D’Arcy 118

Harvard Law School 77

health maintenance organizations (HMOs) 95–96

Health Online 193–194

health promotion 152–153

health/illness concepts

cellular changes 139

environmentalist concept 130–132, 157

periodic medical examination 140–145

structuralist concept 132–133, 138–139, 150–151

Hearst, William Randolph 23

heparin 33, 34

Hermann Hospital 71–72

high technology, as form of care 50–51.

See also technology

Hill, Austin Bradford 115–119

HIPAA legislation, and confidentiality and privacy 101–102

Hippocrates/Hippocratic writings.

auscultation technique 5

background/views of 130–131

and bloodletting 105

essays 131–132, 189–190

patient-driven narratives 1–2

therapeutic power 69–70

See also Greeks, ancient

hirudin 32–33

HMOs (health maintenance organizations) 95–96

Holmes, Oliver Wendell 10–11, 175, 206

Hooke, Robert 15–17

Hope, James 12

Hornby, John 83–84

hospitals

and birth 174, 178–179

infection in 174–175

humors

balance of 133

and bloodletting 105–106

relation to health/illness 130–131

Humphreys, D. 176

Ibsen, Bjørn 60

illness/health concepts

cellular changes 139

environmentalist concept 130–132, 157

periodic medical examination 140–145

structuralist concept 132–133, 138–139, 150–151

images

and disease diagnosis 15

as evidence 24–25, 27, 28

photographic 19–20

X-ray 14

infection, in hospital environments 174–175

information, withholding of medical 189–193

innovation, and learning issues 9

institutions, and medical technology limits 72–73

insurance coverage.

and Oregon Basic Health Services Act 121–128

See also Medicare/Medicaid

intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) 59–61

International Committee of Medical Journal Editors 120–121

Internet collaboration 193–194

iron lung 56–59.

See also artificial respirators/respiration

Jackson, Henry 48–49

Jackson, James 106–108

Karmel, Marjorie 184–185

Keep, Nathan Cooley 172

kidney dialysis

center-based 40–41, 42

cost/financial support of 42, 43, 47–48, 208

home-based 41, 48

Medicare funding 49–50

rationing/allocation decisions 31, 43–44, 46–47

and transplantation 41–42

kidney failure.

and dialysis treatment 37, 40–41

government focus on 48–49

and Medicare law 49–50

study of 33

See also artificial kidney

Kings County Medical Society 42–43

Koch, Robert 18–19, 139, 175–176

Kolff, Willem 31–32, 34–39, 46

Koop, C. Everett 156

Korean War 40

Kubrick, Stanley 199

labor, in birth 160–162, 179

See also childbirth

Laennec, René 1, 4–8, 94, 187

Laget, M. 162

Lalonde, Mark 152–153

Lamaze, Ferdinand 184–185

landmark experiments 117–120

Langdell, C. C. 77

Lassen, H. C. A. 60

Levitt, J. W. 159

Life Extension Institute 141–142, 143

Lind, James 111–112

Lister, Joseph 176–177

living will 71

Longfellow, Fanny 172

Loudon, I. S. L. 168

Louis, Pierre 108–111

Lowe, Jacob 24

lying-in hospital, for birthing needs 174

Magendie, François 8

Man Adapting (Dubos) 201–202

March of Dimes 59

Martin, William J. 23

masking methods 114–115

Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) 74–76, 86, 169–172

Massachusetts Medical Society 171–172

Mauriceau, François 163–164

Mayo brothers 76–77, 86–87

McGill University 23

McKhann, C. F. 55–56

measles 135

medical education, and patient record use 77–79

medical error reduction 96–97.

See also patient record

Medical Ethics (Percival) 171–172

medical examination, periodic 140–145

medical information, withholding of 189–193

medical record.

See patient record

Medical Research Council 117

Medicare/Medicaid 49–50, 95, 121–128

medicine

and objectivity 26

as profession 3, 9–10

as science 12–13

“truth” in 29

in visual age 14

Medicine/Public Health Initiative 155–156

membrane research 32

Mesmer, Franz Anton 113–115

Metropolitan Life Insurance Company 144

Micrographia (Hooke) 15–17

microscope 15–18, 19, 139

Microsoft, and personal health records 97

midwife, training/education of 159–160, 169

The Modern Hospital (Hornby) 83–84

Monro, Alexander 2–3

moral guidance 52

See also ethics


Morgagni, G. B. 4, 137–138, 186

mortality reduction 177–178

Morton, William T. G. 169–172

Mountain Electric Company 23

multiphasic population screening 146–148

narrative.

See patient's narrative/perspective

National Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Medicine 96

National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis 59

National Health Council 142–143

National Institutes of Health 48–49

Natural Death Act 71

Necheles, Heinrich 33

negative pressure devices 52, 53

See also artificial respirators/respiration

The New England Journal of Medicine 78–79

New Jersey Supreme Court 65, 66–69

A New Perspective on the Health of Canadians (Lalonde) 152–153

Nightingale, Florence 76

Nosologia methodica, sistems morborum classes, genera et species (de Sauvages) 136

numerical method, in treatment evaluation 110–111

Obama, Barack 98

objectivity.

in depiction of illness 27–29

elimination of subjective elements 29–30

of medical findings 26

of photography/X-rays 26–29

See also patient's narrative/perspective

observer bias 113–115

observer variance 19, 28

obstetric forceps

concealment of 158, 164

origins/use of 162–169

“On a New Kind of Rays, A Preliminary Communication” (Röntgen) 21

Oregon Basic Health Services Act 121–128

“Osmotic Force” (Graham) 32

Our Bodies, Ourselves (Boston Women's Health Book Collective) 183–184

Outdoor Department (New York Lying-In Hospital) 178–180

Pasteur, Louis 175–177

pathology

clinical-pathological conferences 77–79

study of 4

patient record

adequacy of 83–84

computerization of 90–92, 96

costs of 103

in doctor's head 84–85

electronic health record (EHR) 96–99

End Result System 80–82

ethical/legal dimensions 102

follow-up system 82–83

and government/social oversight 94–96

HIPPA legislation 101–102

hospital standards/record keeping 79, 85–86

in medical education 77–79

and Medicare/Medicaid 95

mission of 74

multiple use fulfillment 102–103

19th century development of 74–77, 103

personal health record 100–101

PROMIS 92–94

and quality of care 79

and specialization 85

standardization 87–90

telecommunications, use of 94

unified records 86–87

unifying role 103–104

Patient's Bill of Rights 191

patient's narrative/perspective

and diagnostic technologies 12–13

in early works of medicine 1–3

rejection/disregard of 26, 27

truth of personal meaning 29

Pearl, Raymond 87–89

Pearson, Karl 27

pectoriloquism 7

Peebles, Allen 84–85

Percival, Thomas 171–172

periodic medical examination 140–145

personal health record 100–101.

See also patient record

Petchesky, R. P. 199

Peterson, Osler 84–85

photography 18–20, 26–28

phthisis.

See tuberculosis

physical examination.

doctors’ restraint in 3

and modesty/privacy 4–5

periodic 140–145

vs. technological examination 24–25, 29

See also periodic medical examination

The Physician (Hippocrates) 132

Physician Standards Review Organizations 95

physicians

and medical technology limits 71–72

medication information disclosure 189–193

and periodic examinations 143–145

Pintard, John 151–152


Pius XII (pope) 52, 61–63, 70

poliomyelitis

epidemics 54–55, 60–61

IPPV treatment 59–61

iron lung therapy 56–59

ventilator/respirator development 55–56

popes.

See Pius XII (pope)

population screening, multiphasic 146–148

positive pressure devices 52

See also artificial respirators/respiration

precision, as technologic value 28–29

Presbyterian Hospital (New York) 82–83, 86–87

Principles of Medical Statistics (Hill) 116–117

priorities, in Oregon Basic Health Services Act 123–124

privacy

and auscultation usage 4–5

of medical records 100–102

and X-rays 22

prognostic medicine 133–134

PROMIS (Problem-Oriented Medical Information System) 92–94

prophylactic dialysis 40

See also kidney dialysis

public health 151–157

Public Health Service 48–49

puerperal fever 174–177

Quinlan, Joseph 66–68

Quinlan, Karen Ann 65–69, 70–71

Quinton, Wayne 41

random assignment 115–120

randomized controlled trial (RCT) 119–121

rationing/allocation decisions

of artificial kidneys 31, 43–44, 46–47

of iron lung treatment 58–59

in Oregon Basic Health Services Act 124–127

religious issues

and anesthesia in childbirth 173

and artificial respiration 61–63, 67, 70

remèdes secrets 167

respirator.

See artificial respirators/respiration

resuscitation 52, 71

See also artificial respirators/respiration

Röntgen, Wilhelm 20–21

Roosevelt, Franklin 59

Rothman, B. K. 199

Rountree, L. 32–33

Royal Humane Society of England 52–53

Rueff, Jacob 162–163

Rush, Benjamin 106

Saetman, A. R. 200

scabies 17–18

Schatz, Albert 117

schools, periodic medical examination in 140–141

Schreiner, George 49

scientific frame of mind 27

screening, for disease 145–150

Scribner, Belding 40–41, 42–43, 48, 49

scurvy treatment research 111–112

The Seats and Causes of Diseases Investigated by Anatomy (Morgagni) 4, 137–138

Seattle Artificial Kidney Center 42–43

secret remedies 166–167, 171–172

selection bias 111–113

self-help groups 193

Semmelweis, Ignaz 176

Shalala, Donna 156

Shaw, Louis 55–56

Shields, Clyde 41, 42

shunt, for artificial kidney dialysis 40–41

Sidorow, Jason 97

Simpson, James Y. 172, 173

Smellie, William 158, 168

Snow, John 173

Society of Medical Observation 108

Sorcerer's Apprentice 73

specialization, and patient records 85

See also patient record

St. Mary's Hospital 76–77

standardized record 87–90.

See also patient record

stethoscope

and diagnosis/diagnostic technique 6–9

discovery/invention of 4–6, 187

and doctor/patient relationship 12–13

as medical revolution source 1

obstacles/barriers to acceptance 9–10

patient/public response to 11–12

stopper 206

vs. X-ray 26

“To the Stethoscope” (poem) 11

“The Stethoscope Song” (Holmes) 10–11

Stoeckle, J. D. 190–191

stopper (stethoscope component) 206

streptomycin, clinical trial of 117–120

structuralist concept of health 130, 132–133, 138–139, 150–151

subjectivity.

and auscultation 27

elimination by objective elements 29–30

of medical findings 29

of narrative evidence 26

in photography 26–27

See also patient's narrative/perspective


Supportive Care Protocol 71–72

surgery/surgeons 9–10, 23

Swedish Hospital of Seattle 42–43

Sydenham, Thomas 133–137, 138, 186

Symcotts, John 2

symptoms

categories of 134

and concept of disease 135–137

syphilis, screening for 146

systematic research reviews 120–121

“technological breakthroughs,” 1

technology

absorptive/reflective nature of 186–188

advocacy of new 29–30

influence on patient care 50–51

limits on use 70–72

nature of 51

relation to humanism 188–189, 201–203

spending on 51

telecommunications, use of 94

See also patient record

Teschan, Paul E. 40

Thalhimer, William 33–34

Thank You, Dr. Lamaze (Karmel) 184–185

“They Decide Who Lives, Who Dies” (Alexander) 44–46

transplantation

ethics and 63–65

of kidneys 41–42

and Oregon Basic Health Services Act 121–122

Treatise on Diseases of the Chest, and on Mediate Auscultation (Laennec) 7–8

treatment evaluation, numerical method in 110–111

tuberculosis 7, 18–19, 134–135

Turner, B. 32–33

2001: A Space Odyssey 199

ultrasound technology 194–200

unified record 86–87.

See also patient record

unions, and worker health 141

Van Helmont, Jean Baptiste 111

Van Leeuwenhoek, Antoni 18

Van Noordwijk, Jakob 36

ventilators 53

See also artificial respirators/respiration

Vesalius, Andreas 4, 14–15, 52–53, 137

Veterans Administration 48–49

Virchow, Rudolph 139

Waitzkin, H. 190–191

Waksman, Selman 117

Wald, Lillian 140

Walter Reed Army Hospital 48

Warren, John Collins 169–172

Wasserman test 146

Web-based information system 97

Weed, Lawrence 92–94

Wilbanks, E. R. 166–167

Williams, Francis 24

Wilson, J. L. 54–55

Winterscheld, Loren 41

women's health movement 181–184

workplace

period medical examination in 141

physical handicaps in 150

World Health Organization (WHO) 152–153

World War I, and national fitness 129, 142

World War II

artificial kidney creation 31–32

radiation danger awareness 24

X-ray interpretation 28

Wright, James Homer 77–79

X-ray

diagnostic reliance on 24–25

discovery/invention of 20–21

health damage/radiation dangers 23–24

objectivity/authenticity of 26–29

in obstetrics 221

public/professional reaction to 21–23

as screening agent 145–146

vs. stethoscope 26

Young, James 180




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