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Neonatal Cerebral Investigation

Details

  • 357 b/w illus. 91 colour illus.
  • Page extent: 310 pages
  • Size: 276 x 219 mm
  • Weight: 1.33 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 618.92/8047543
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: RJ488 .N46 2008
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Pediatric neurology--Diagnosis
    • Newborn infants--Diseases--Diagnosis
    • Brain--Imaging
    • Cerebrovascular Disorders--diagnosis
    • Electroencephalography

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521838481)

Neonatal Cerebral Investigation

Cambridge University Press
9780521838481 - Neonatal Cerebral Investigation - Edited by Janet M. Rennie, Cornelia F. Hagmann and Nicola J. Robertson
Index


Index

Note: page numbers in italics refer to figures and tables

abscess, brain 274, 276, 276

acetazolamide 243

acidemia

   methylmalonic 122, 166

   propionic 166

acidosis, bilirubin entry to brain 218

aciduria, organic 121

acoustic impedance 2

acoustic shadow 2, 62

agyria 259

Aicardi syndrome

   corpus callosum agenesis 251

   Ohtahara syndrome 122–3

ALARA concept 24–5

alcohol abuse, brain injury 211

aliasing 5–7, 7

AMARES time-domain spectrum analysis 38

amiloride 161

γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) 123–4

A-mode display 2, 3

amyloid body 46–9

anemia, birth depression 132–3

aneurysm of vein of Galen 113–14, 116, 264, 264–5

antepartum hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia 188–9

anticardiolipin, maternal 105

anticoagulation, cerebral sinovenous thrombosis 113–14

anticonvulsants, electroencephalogram effects 87–9

antiphospholipid antibodies

   cerebral sinovenous thrombosis 113

   maternal 105

antithrombin III deficiency 104

α-1-antitrypsin deficiency 112

Apgar scores, maternal pyrexia 130–1

apnea

   Arnold Chiari malformation 257

   nasal airflow measurement 12

apoptosis, bilirubin-induced 219, 219

apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) 22, 32, 33, 157–8

   hypoglycemia 213

   hypoxia ischemia 135, 135

   ischemia 159–60, 15960

   periventricular white matter injury 195

   thalamus 161, 161

aprosencephaly 248–9

aqueductal stenosis, X-linked 236

arachnoid cysts 248, 255, 255, 263, 263–4

   clinical manifestations 264

   counseling 264

   fetal ventriculomegaly 236

   imaging 263

   prognosis 264

arachnoid space 197, 197

Arnold Chiari malformation 61, 257

   clinical presentation 257

   counseling 257

   fetal ventriculomegaly 236

   imaging 257

   prognosis 257

arteriovenous malformations

   diagnosis 6–7

   intracranial hemorrhage 112

   rupture causing lobar hemorrhage 118–19

artifacts 2

   EEG 14–16

astrocytes

   glycogen storage 212

   periventricular white matter injury 188

   precursor cells in germinal matrix 182

atelencephaly 248–9

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 199

attenuation coefficient of tissue 1–2, 3–4

auditory disturbance, bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction 217

autopsy, perinatal 281

   invasive/non-invasive tests 281

axial resolution 3–4


bacterial infection 274–6

   brain abscess 274–6

basal ganglia 46

   calcification 166

   cystic changes 106, 106

   increased echogenicity 143–5

   injury in encephalopathy 153–7

      prognosis 165, 166

   lesion reduction with cooling 163

   signal intensity 157, 157

benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC) 122

benzodiazepines

   maternal use 93

   status epilepticus treatment 124

bilirubin

   apoptosis induction 219, 219

   brain injury 215

   entry to brain in acidosis 218

   free 216

   neuronal injury 217, 217

   neurotoxicity molecular basis 219

   normal values 216, 216

   serum levels 215

   toxicity 221, 221

   unconjugated 215, 216, 219

   see also hyperbilirubinemia

bilirubin encephalopathy 166, 215

   acute 216–17

   clinical progression 218

   neuropathology 218

bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction (BIND) 212–15, 216, 217

   magnetic resonance imaging 219

   magnetic resonance spectroscopy 219

   neuronal lesions 218

   neuropathology 218, 218

   prematurity 217–18

   ultrasound 219

biotinidase deficiency 121

birth depression

   causes 131

   clinical presentation 130

   diagnostic categories 134–66

   EEG 133

   examination 131–2

   history taking 130–1

   investigations 130–4

   laboratory tests 132–3

   magnetic resonance imaging 134

   stroke 100

   ultrasound 133

birth marks, vascular 223

birth weight, discordant in twins 211

Blake’s pouch cyst 255–7, 258, 258

blood–oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) changes 22

B-mode display 2, 3

   duplex imaging 5

Boltzmann equation 26

borderzone injury 137–8, 150–1

bradycardia, premature babies 10

brain

   24 weeks 68, 70, 70

   26 weeks 68–71, 72, 72

   28 weeks 71, 73, 73

   30 weeks 71, 75, 75

   32 weeks 71, 76, 76

   34 weeks 71, 77, 77

   36 weeks 71, 78, 78

   38 weeks 79, 79

   abnormalities in well neonates 210, 224–8

   abscess 274, 276

      meningitis 274–6

   alkalosis 161

   atrophy 175

   bright 62, 142–3

   configuration 67

   congenital malformations 248

   coverings 111, 111

   damage pattern 135, 135

   edema 142–3

   full term 71

   imaging screening in premature babies 173

   immature 66–82, 86

   impaired growth 223

   intracellular pH 161, 164, 164

   maturation 86

   maturity 46, 66

   neurotransmitters 92

   postmortem MRI 281–2

   premature babies 66–8, 83–4, 86–7

      hemorrhagic parenchymal lesion 184, 184

      ventriculofugal/ventriculopedal arterial supply 188, 188

   swelling 142–3

   venous drainage 113–14, 11314

brain injury

   alcohol abuse 211

   bilirubin 215

   congenital heart disease 220–3

   hypoglycemia 212–15

   jaundice 215–16

   maternal conditions 210, 211

   multiple pregnancy 211

   neonatal conditions 210, 212–23

   substance abuse 211

brain injury, preterm

   cerebellar lesions 200–1

   clinical presentation 173

   diagnostic categories 177–201

   electroencephalogram 176–7

   germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage 177–82

   intraparenchymal lesion 182–3

   investigative screening 173–7

   magnetic resonance imaging 175–6

   parenchymal hemorrhagic infarction 182–5

   parental consultation/consent 175

   periventricular white matter injury 185–200

   porencephalic cyst 182–5

   prevention of conditions detected 201

   screening principles 174

   treatment of conditions detected 201

   UCLH scanning protocol 174

   ultrasound 173, 174–5

brainstem 49

   deep nuclear neuronal injury 137

   hemorrhage 119

brainstem auditory evoked responses 217

bumetanide 123–4

burns, MRI 42

burst suppression 133, 140–1

   early infantile encephalopathy 166

   encephalopathic 86


calcarine sulcus 49–51, 66

   30 weeks 71

cardiac defects

   subependymal pseudocysts 227

   see also congenital heart disease

cardiotocograph (CTG)

   birth depression 130

   CNS infections 269

carotid artery

   dissection 103–4

   thrombi 103

caudate nucleus 46–9, 51

cavitation 7–8

cavum septum pellucidum 46

   magnetic resonance imaging 197

   normal variation 51–61

   normative fetal ultrasound data 74

   ultrasound 61, 61

   width 81, 81

cavum velum interpositum 61, 61

cavum vergae 46

   normal variation 51–61

central nervous system (CNS) infections 269, 277, 277

   cerebral sinovenous thrombosis 113

   clinical presentation 269–71

   congenital 271–4

   diagnostic categories 271–7

   electroencephalogram 271

   examination 270

   fetal ventriculomegaly 236

   history 269–70

   laboratory tests 270

   lumbar puncture 270

   magnetic resonance imaging 271

   ultrasound 271

   ventriculitis 274–6

   see also bacterial infection; chorioamnionitis; cytomegalovirus (CMV); fungal infection; funisitis; meningitis; toxoplasmosis; viral infection

central nervous system (CNS) malformations 166

central sulcus

   axial MRI scans 60, 60

   axial section 51

cephalocele 257–9

   clinical manifestation 259

   counseling 259

   imaging 259

   prognosis 259

cerebellar hemorrhage 119, 198, 198

   incidence 201

   prognosis 201

cerebellar lesions

   classification 200

   etiology 201

   incidence 201

   magnetic resonance imaging 201

   preterm brain injury 200–1

   prognosis 201

   terminology 200

   timing 201

   ultrasound 201

cerebellum 49

   agenesis 254–5

   coronal MRI scans 49, 52, 52

   hemisphere volume reduction 201

   hypoplasia 254–5, 255, 256, 256

   transcerebellar diameter normative ultrasound data 82

   transverse diameter 81, 81

cerebellum vermis 49–51

cerebral arteries

   anatomy 102, 102

   anterior 108, 108, 156, 156

   see also middle cerebral artery

cerebral atrophy 235

   preterm brain injury 173

cerebral blood flow 212, 212

   color Doppler 156

   encephalopathy 146–7

   hydrocephalus 242

   hypoglycemia 212

cerebral cortex

   abnormal organization/late migration 260–2

   deep nuclear neuronal injury 137

   delayed development 173

   developmental malformations 259–62

   echogenicity 145

   encephalopathy 151–3, 154–5, 1545

   folding 196

   injury 151–3

   lesions 145

cerebral development, low birthweight infants 175

cerebral edema 142–3

   bright brain 62, 142–3

   encephalopathy 142–3, 154–6

   ultrasound 151, 151

cerebral fluid flow, obstruction 236

cerebral function monitor (CFM) 16, 17–21

cerebral hemispheres, action in premature babies 83–4

cerebral hypoperfusion, periventricular white matter lesions 189

cerebral infarction see stroke

cerebral injury 143, 143, 144–7, 1447

   hypoxic-ischemic injury 215, 215

   parasagittal 137–8, 150–1

cerebral malformations 121

   developmental 259–62

   Ohtahara syndrome 122–3

   seizures 92

cerebral metabolites

   hydrogen-1 MRS 35

   phosphorus-13 MRS 35–6

cerebral palsy

   cystic periventricular leukomalacia 199

   hypoxic ischemia 134

   incidence with GMH-IVH 182

   investigative screening for preterm brain injury 173–4

   proinflammatory cytokines 191

   risk with flare 199

cerebral sinovenous thrombosis 112–14

   anticoagulation 113–14

   diagnosis 113

   intraventricular hemorrhage 118

   lobar hemorrhage 118–19

cerebral veins, deep 120, 120

cerebrospinal fluid

   circulation impedance 239

   culture 239

   normal values 270

   pressure 239

cerebrospinal fluid spaces

   CNS infections 270

   normal variation 61

channelopathies 122

chemical shift selective (CHESS) pulses 37–8

chemical-shift imaging (CSI) 38

cholesterol metabolism disorders 121

choline 161–2

chorioamnionitis 270

   birth depression 131

   maternal pyrexia 130–1

   periventricular leukomalacia 188–9, 191

choroid plexus 49, 51

   persisting cysts 248

chromosomal anomalies, fetal ventriculomegaly 236, 237

cingulate sulcus 66

   28 weeks 71

   30 weeks 71

   32 weeks 71

   36 weeks 71

   cobblestone appearance 71

   superior 49–51

cisterna magna

   mega 251, 255–7

   normal variation 61

clonazepam 124

coagulopathies

   GMH-IVH 179

   lobar hemorrhage 118–19

cocaine, fetal exposure 211

cognitive deficits

   bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction 217

   neonatal encephalopathy 165–6

color flow Doppler imaging 5, 6–7

   cerebral blood flow 156

color flow mapping (CFM) 6–7, 8

colpocephaly 238, 238

computed tomography (CT) 24–5

   cytomegalovirus 271

   historical landmarks 23

   Sturge Weber syndrome 223

   subdural hemorrhage 115–16

congenital heart disease

   brain injury 220–3

   cerebral abnormalities 222, 222

   cerebral sinovenous thrombosis 113

   counseling 223

   incidence 220–2

   magnetic resonance imaging 223, 223, 224–5, 2245

   magnetic resonance spectroscopy 223

   prognosis 223

   terminology 220–2

   ultrasound 222–3

congenital malformations 248

   cystic lesions 228, 228, 229, 229, 230, 230, 262–4

   vascular lesions 264–5

   see also cerebral malformations; Dandy Walker malformation

continuous wave Doppler probes 5

contrast resolution 4

cooling, whole-body in encephalopathy 162–3

cord, birth depression 131

cord blood pH 131

   birth depression 130

corona radiata, axial MRI scans 51, 59, 59

coronal sections, standard 45–51

   section 1 45–6

   section 2 46–9

   section 3 49

   section 4 49

   section 5 49

   section 6 49–51

   section 7 51

   section 8 51

   section 9 51

   section 10 51

   section 11 51

corpus callosum 46, 49–51

   24 weeks 68

   agenesis 248–9, 251

      clinical manifestation 251

      counseling 251

      fetal ventriculomegaly 236, 238

      imaging 251, 252–3, 2523

      prognosis 251

   normative fetal ultrasound data 74

   thickness 81, 81

coupling gel, insufficient 62

cystic degeneration 194, 194–5

cystic lesions, congenital 228, 229, 230, 262–4

cytokines

   periventricular leukomalacia 191

   periventricular white matter injury 191

cytomegalovirus (CMV) 271–2

   congenital 271

   counseling 271–2

   fetal ventriculomegaly 236

   imaging 271

   lenticulostriate vasculopathy 226

   natural history 271

   prognosis 271–2

   subependymal pseudocysts 227


Dandy Walker malformation 248, 251–4, 254

   arachnoid cyst differential diagnosis 263

   cerebellar hypoplasia 254

   clinical manifestation 254

   counseling 254

   fetal ventriculomegaly 236

   imaging 254

   prognosis 254

   treatment 254

Dandy Walker variant 252, 258

De Vivo syndrome 121

   neonatal seizures 94

delivery

   birth depression 130–1

   CNS infections 269–70

   instrumental 115

   vacuum 111, 117, 117

delta brush activity, EEG pattern 84

demodulation 5

depth settings, incorrect 62

developmental delay

   corpus callosum agenesis 251

   Dandy Walker malformation 254

   diffuse periventricular white matter injury 199–200

   fetal ventriculomegaly 238–9

diabetes mellitus

   cerebral sinovenous thrombosis 113

   maternal 105

diazepam 87–9

diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI)

   periventricular white matter injury 192, 195, 198, 198

   preterm brain injury 175

diffusion anisotropy 33–4

diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) 22, 32, 32, 33

   encephalopathy 157–8

diuretics, ventriculomegaly 243

Doppler effect 1, 5

Doppler equation 5

Doppler probes, continuous wave 5

Doppler shift 5

   frequency 5, 6

Doppler signal

   filter 6

   frequency 6

   processing 6

Doppler ultrasound 4–7, 7

   aliasing 5–6

   cerebral blood flow in encephalopathy 146–7

   duplex imaging 5

   lenticulostriate vasculopathy 226

   stroke diagnosis 106

   ventriculomegaly 242

doublecortin (DCX) gene mutation 259

DRIFT (drainage, irrigation and fibrinolytic therapy) 244

duplex imaging 5, 6


early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE) 122–3

echo information display 2

   A-mode 2, 3

   B-mode 2, 3, 5

   three-dimensional imaging 3

echo location 2–3

echo-planar imaging (EPI) 22

echo time (TE) 27, 38

eigenvalues 33

eigenvectors 33

electrocardiogram (ECG) during EEG 10, 11

electro-cerebral inactivity 139

electrodes

   10–20 system of placement 9–10

   EEG 9

      application 11

      full-term baby recording 10

      input terminals 12

      neonatal guidelines 10–11

      placement 9–10, 11

   electrooculogram 12

electroencephalogram (EEG) 9–21

   abnormal waveforms 17, 18

   activity display 9–10, 84–5

   amplitude 17, 83

   artifacts 14–16

   asynchrony 84, 84

   bilirubin encephalopathy 219

   birth depression 133

   blocked tube 88, 88

   burst suppression 133, 140–1

      early infantile encephalopathy 166

      encephalopathic 86

   CNS infections 271

   computerized analysis 97

   continuity 83

   continuous activity 16

   continuous normal voltage 89, 89

   digital systems 97

   discontinuous normal voltage 89

   display 12–13, 13

   features 83–4

   frequencies 16, 17, 83

   full term 10, 84–6

   guidelines 10–11

   headbox 12, 13

   hyperbilirubinemia 219

   hypoglycemia 213

   hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy 84, 84

   interburst intervals 86

   interpretation criteria 17

   mains interference 14, 14–16

   maturation

      characteristics 84, 87

      premature birth effect 86

   medication effects 87–90

   montage 9–10, 10, 11

   neonatal acquisition 12–13

   neonatal encephalopathy 138–9

   neonatal recording 10–16

   normal 19, 83, 83, 85

   notch filter 13

   oxygenation effects 90

   pattern 83, 84

   phenomenology 16–17

   potential difference measuring 10

   premature babies 83–4, 86–7

      asynchrony 84

      brain injury 176–7

      discontinuous pattern 84, 84

      quiescence 86

      theta waves 86

   preterm discontinuity 86

   reactivity 84

   recording technology 9–10

   re-montaging 10

   respiration artifacts 10

   Rolandic sharp waves 176, 176–7

   scalp activity 9

   seizures 19, 20, 94, 95, 95, 124

      routine 97

   signal acquisition 10

   sleep cycles 84–5, 85

   sleep state 83, 84, 86, 86

      quiet sleep 85, 85

   sleep–wake cycling 85–6

      premature babies 86–7

   state differentiation 84

   stroke 105–6

   symmetry 83–5

   synchrony 83–5

   theta waves 86

   ventilation 88

   video-EEG monitoring of seizures 94–5, 100

   voltage 83

   wakefulness 86

   waveform measurement tool 16

electroencephalography, amplitude integrated (aEEG) 9, 17–21, 18

   artifacts 141–2

   classifications 141–2

   encephalopathy 140–2

      predictive value 150

   interpretation 141

   limited channel systems 16

   neurodevelopmental outcome predictive value 140–1

   normal 89, 90

   premature babies 90

   seizures 19, 20, 97–100, 98

electromyogram (EMG)

   during EEG 10, 12

   premature babies 87

   sleep state recognition 12, 87

electrooculogram (EOG) during EEG 10

   measurement 12

emboli, neonatal stroke 102–3

EMX2 homeobox gene mutations 260

encephalomalacia, multicystic 145, 151–3

encephalopathic burst suppression 86, 166

encephalopathy, early infantile 166

   epileptic 122–3

   myoclonic 122

   seizures 92

encephalopathy, metabolic 166

   bilirubin 166, 215

      acute 216–17

      clinical progression 218

      neuropathology 218

   birth depression 133

   glycine 122

encephalopathy, neonatal 100

   basal ganglia lesions 153–7

   bilirubin 166, 215

      acute 216–17

      clinical progression 218

      electroencephalogram 219

   birth depression 132, 133

   cerebral blood flow 146–7

   cerebral cortex injury 151–3

   clinical course 138

   cognitive deficits 165–6

   cooling 162–3

   cortical involvement 1545

   Doppler ultrasound 146–7

   electro-cerebral inactivity 139

   electroencephalogram 138–9, 148, 148, 150, 150

      amplitude integrated 140–2, 148, 150, 150

   hydrogen-1 MRS 161–2, 164, 164, 166

   hypothermia 162–3

   hypoxic-ischemic 84

   incidence 134

   laboratory investigations 133

   magnetic resonance imaging 134, 147–57

      quantitative techniques 157–62

   magnetic resonance spectroscopy 159–61

      hydrogen-1 161–2, 164, 166

      phosphorus-31 159–61

      quantitative techniques 157–62

   maternal pyrexia 130–1

   MRI indications 165

   perinatal hypoxic ischemia 134–66

   phosphorus-31 MRS 159–61

   prognosis 164–6

   progression 138

   risk factors 134

   seizures 92, 138–9

      control 163–4

   stroke 100

   terminology 134

   thalamic injury 153–7

   Thompson score 132

   treatment 162–4

   ultrasound 133, 142–7, 152, 152

endotoxins, periventricular white matter injury 191

epidural hematoma 116, 117, 117

epigenetics 210

epilepsy

   arachnoid cysts 264

   cystic periventricular leukomalacia 199

   hypoglycemia 213–15

   neonatal syndromes 122–3

   risk with stroke 110–11

   schizencephaly 260

   see also seizures, neonatal; status epilepticus

excitatory channels 124, 124

excitotoxicity, neuronal injury in hypoxic ischemia 137

extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

   cerebral sinovenous thrombosis 113

   intraventricular hemorrhage 116–18

   stroke 102–3

extracranial hemorrhage 111–12

extrapyramidal movement disorders 217

extremity coil 30

eyes

   gaze abnormalities 217

   movements in sleep state recognition 12

   thalamic hemorrhage 119

   see also visual impairment


facial dysmorphosis in holoprosencephaly 248

factor V Leiden mutation

   cerebral sinovenous thrombosis 113

   stroke 104, 110

Faraday cage 30

fast Fourier transform 22, 30, 35

fetal alcohol syndrome 211

fetal heart rate 132

fiber assignment by continuous tracking (FACT) 34

fibrinolysis

   intraventricular hemorrhage 243

   ventriculomegaly 243–4

fifth day fits 122

Finnish muscle eye brain disorder 259

fissures 69, 69

   development 66

   see also Sylvian fissure

flare, periventricular white matter injury 192–4, 199

flow velocity determination 6

focal cortical dysplasia, Ohtahara syndrome 122–3

folate, stroke prevention 107

fontanelle

   tension estimation in CNS infections 270

   ultrasound transducer placement 45

foramen of Monro 49

   GMH-IVH 177

Fourier transform 6

fracture, growing 115

frame rate 3, 4

Fraunhofer zone 4

free induction decay (FID) 26–7, 35

   MRS 37

frequency 5

Fresnel zone 4

frontal lobes

   coronal MRI scans 47, 47

   coronal section 1 45–6

frontal sharp transients, EEG pattern 84

fukutin gene mutation 259

Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy 259

full-term babies, EEG recording 10, 84–6

fungal infection 274, 276–7, 277

funisitis 270

   periventricular leukomalacia 188–9, 191

furosemide 243


GABA receptors 123–4

gaze abnormalities 217

germinal matrix 178, 178

   26 weeks 68–71

   arterial supply 178, 178

   astrocyte precursor cells 182

   glial precursor cells 182

   neuronal precursor cells 182

   oligodendroglia 182

germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) 175, 177–82, 178, 185, 185

   cerebral palsy incidence 182

   classification 177

   cortical gray matter volume 182

   diagnosis 180–1

   etiology 179

   free iron release 200

   gestational age 179

   incidence 179–80, 180

   learning disability 182

   magnetic resonance imaging 180–2, 1812, 183, 183

   natural history 180

   periventricular white matter injury association 187

   prognosis after imaging 181–2

   risk factors 179

   terminology 177

   timing 180

   ultrasound 180–1, 181182, 183

      diagnosis 180–1

   uncomplicated 181–2

   vaginal delivery 179

   ventriculomegaly 200

germinolytic cysts 166

gestational age, GMH-IVH 179

Gibbs ringing 40, 41

glial scarring, periventricular leukomalacia 191–2

gliocele 257–8

globus pallidus 220, 220

   bilirubin toxicity 221

glucose

   alternative fuel use 212, 213

   cerebral utilization 212

glucose blood levels

   neonatal seizures 93

   stroke risk 105–6

   see also hypoglycemia

glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1) deficiency 121

   neonatal seizures 94

glutaric aciduria type 1 240

glycine

   levels in neonatal seizures 94

   non-ketotic hyperglycinemia 166, 251

glycine encephalopathy 122

glycogen storage 212

gradient amplifier 30

gradient coils 28–9

gray matter

   abnormalities with periventricular white matter injury 196, 199–200

   cortical volume in GMH-IVH 182

   deep 49, 49

      axial MRI scans 51, 58, 58

      hypoxic ischemia 135–6

      lateral ventricles 46–9

      third ventricle 49

   metabolic encephalopathy 166

gray-scale image 5

gyri 69

   development 66

   full term 71


HARD(E) syndrome 259

head circumference

   CNS infections 270

   Dandy Walker malformation 254

   enlarging 235

   measurement 236, 236

   ventriculomegaly 243

head growth velocity 166

heart rate, fetal 132

hemophilia 112, 116

hemosiderin 201

hematological disorders

   neonatal seizures 93

   stroke 104–5

hemiplegia 100

   stroke 108–11

herpes virus, birth depression 133

Heubner’s artery, GMH-IVH 177

hippocampus, hypoxic ischemia damage 166

HIV/AIDS, congenital 274

holoprosencephaly 248, 249, 248–50

   clinical manifestation 249

   counseling 249

   early infantile encephalopathy 166

   facial dysmorphosis 248

   fetal ventriculomegaly 236

   imaging 249

   prognosis 250

holotelencephaly 248–9

homeobox genes 248–9

   EMX2 gene mutation 260

homocysteine, stroke risk 105, 107

hydranencephaly 262

hydrocephalus 273, 273

   Arnold Chiari malformation 257

   benign external 74–82

   Blake’s pouch cyst 255–7, 258

   cerebral blood flow 242

   Dandy Walker malformation 254

   posthemorrhagic 197–9

   prognosis 244

   toxoplasmosis 273–4

   see also ventricular dilatation; ventriculomegaly

hydrogen-1 27

   nuclei 26

hydrogen-1 MRS 25–6, 35

   bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction 219

   congenital heart disease 223

   encephalopathy 161–2, 164, 166

   healthy neonate 162, 162

   hyperbilirubinemia 219

   phase modulation 38

   voxel size 37

   water suppression 37–8

hydrogen-1 PRESS spectrum 36

hydromyelia, Arnold Chiari malformation 257

hyperbilirubinemia 215–20

   counseling 219–20

   differential diagnosis 217

   early-onset severe 215–16

   electroencephalogram 219

   hydrogen-1 MRS 219

   magnetic resonance imaging 221

   neuropathology 218

   prognosis 219–20

hypercarbia, GMH-IVH 179

hyperglycinemia, non-ketotic 166, 251

hypernatremic dehydration 113

hyperthermia, birth depression 131

hypoglycemia

   brain injury 212–15

   cerebral blood flow increase 212

   clinical presentation 212

   counseling 213–15

   electroencephalogram 213

   incidence 212

   magnetic resonance imaging 213, 213, 214, 214

   neonatal seizures 93, 94

   neuronal injury determinants 213

   neuropathology 212–13

   pathophysiology 212

   prognosis 213–15

   prolonged 212, 213–15

   risk factors 212

   stroke risk 105–6

   terminology 212

   ultrasound 213

hypovolemia, birth depression 131, 132–3

hypoxia

   intrauterine in periventricular leukomalacia 188–9

   perinatal in lobar hemorrhage 118

hypoxic ischemia

   acute near-total 135–6

   apparent diffusion coefficient 135

   birth depression 130

   cerebral injury 215

   cerebral palsy 134

   deep gray matter 135–6

   Doppler cerebral blood flow 147

   excitotoxicity 137

   maternal pyrexia 131

   neonatal encephalopathy 134–66

   neuronal injury 137, 138143

   neuropathology 137–8, 218

   parasagittal cerebral injury 137–8, 150–1

   phosphorus-31 MRS 163, 163

   physiology 135–6

   prolonged partial 135, 136

   seizures 92, 100

   selective neuronal necrosis 137

   status epilepticus 133

   stroke 103

      differential diagnosis 100

   ultrasound 100

hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy 84


image quality resolution 4

inborn errors of metabolism 166

   magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 166

infantile spasms, corpus callosum agenesis 251

infection see central nervous system (CNS) infections

inferior temporal sulcus, 32 weeks 71

inflammatory mediators, maternal pyrexia 130–1

inhibitory channels 124

instrumental delivery, subdural hemorrhage 115

insula 51

   24 weeks 68

   28 weeks 71

insular sulci, 32 weeks 71

interburst intervals (IBI) 86

   anticonvulsant effects 87–9

interleukin 1β (IL-1β) 191

interleukin 6 (IL-6) 191

internal capsule

   myelination 74

   signal in posterior limb 153, 157–8

   stroke 108–10

internal carotid artery dissection, stroke 103–4

intracerebral hemorrhage, fetal ventriculomegaly 236

intracranial anatomical landmarks 45

intracranial hemorrhage

   cerebral sino/venous thrombosis 112–14

   incidence 174, 174

   preterm brain injury 173, 174, 175

   seizures 112–19

   see also germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH)

intracranial pressure, raised

   Dandy Walker malformation 254

   enlarging ventricles 243

intraparenchymal hemorrhage, preterm brain injury 174

intraparenchymal lesion

   incidence 184

   periventricular 184–5

   preterm brain injury 182–3

   timing 184

intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), lobar hemorrhage 118–19

intrauterine hypoxia, periventricular leukomalacia 188–9

intraventricular hemorrhage 116–18

   fibrinolysis 243

   preterm brain injury 175

   ventricular dilatation 118, 118

ischemia

   apparent diffusion coefficient 22, 159160

   see also hypoxic ischemia

island of Reil, 24 weeks 68

isotopes 27

   see also hydrogen-1; phosphorus-31


jaundice 215–20

   brain injury 215–16

   clinical presentation 216

   incidence 215

   neuronal injury 217

   pathophysiology 215–16

   terminology 215

Joubert’s syndrome 254–5, 257, 257, 282, 282


kernicterus 215

   metabolic encephalopathy 166

   prognosis 219–20

ketone bodies, switching off production 212

Kleihauer test, maternal 132–3


labor

   birth depression 130–1

   CNS infections 269–70

Lac methyl doublet 38

lactate 35

   homonuclear coupling 36–7

   hydrogen-1 MRS 161

   hypoxic ischemia 161

   levels in neonatal seizures 94

   structure 36–7

lamotrigine 124

Larmor frequency 26–7, 28, 30

   chemical shift 35

   probeheads 29

lateral resolution 4

lead zirconate titanate 1

learning disability

   corpus callosum agenesis 251

   GMH-IVH 182

   hypoglycemia 213–15

   polymicrogyria 262

   schizencephaly 260

   stroke 110–11

lenticulostriate vasculopathy 210, 222, 224–6, 225

   clinical implications 224–6

   counseling 226

   fetal conditions 226

   histopathology 226

   incidence 224–6

   magnetic resonance imaging 226

   neonatal conditions 226

   pathogenesis 226

   prognosis 226

   ultrasound 226

lentiform nucleus 46–9, 51

lentostriate vasculopathy 166

Levene Index 241, 241

lignocaine

   electroencephalogram effects 89–90

   status epilepticus treatment 124

linear array 3

lip malformations see schizencephaly

LIS1 gene defect 259

lissencephaly 121, 259, 260, 260

   classification 259

   clinical manifestation 259

   counseling 259

   diagnosis 46

   imaging 259

   prognosis 259

lobar hemorrhage 118–19

lumbar puncture

   birth depression 133

   CNS infections 270

   neonatal seizures 94

   ventriculomegaly 243

lupus anticoagulant, maternal 105


magnet quench 42


magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) 22

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 30–5

   3T scanners 39

   acoustic noise 42

   acquisition time 31

   aliasing 40

   amplifiers 30

   apparent diffusion coefficient 32, 33, 157–8

      hypoglycemia 213

      hypoxia ischemia 135

      ischemia 159160

      periventricular white matter injury 195

      thalamus 161

   arachnoid cysts 263

   Arnold Chiari malformation 257

   artifacts 39–41, 40

   axial scans 46, 46

      central sulcus 60

      corona radiata 59

      deep gray matter 58

   bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction 219

   birth depressions 134

   burns 42

   cavum septum pellucidum 197

   cephalocele 259

   cerebellar lesions 201

   chemical-shift artifact 40

   CNS infections 271

   coil inhomogeneity 41

   coils 29, 29–30

   congenital heart disease 223, 223, 224225

   console 29

   contrast agents 42

   contrast variations 40–1

   coronal scans 46, 46

      cerebellum 52

      frontal lobes 47

      lateral ventricles 48, 48

      occipital lobes 54, 54

      third ventricle 50, 50

      trigone 53

   corpus callosum agenesis 251, 2523

   cytomegalovirus 271

   diffusion anisotropy 33

   diffusion elipsoid 33

   diffusion tensor imaging 33–4

      encephalopathy 158

      periventricular white matter injury 195–6

   diffusion-weighted imaging 22, 32, 32, 33, 106–11

      encephalopathy 157–8

   emergency evacuation 42

   encephalopathy 134, 147–57, 165

   exposure limits 42

   ferromagnetic items 41

   fetal alcohol exposure 211

   fetal ventriculomegaly 237

   fiber tracking 33, 34

   flow 32

   flow artifacts 41

   fluid administration 42

   fractional anisotropy 158

   geometric distortions 39

   germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage 180–1, 181182, 183

   Gibbs ringing 41

   gradient coils 28–9

   gradient echo sequence 31

   gradient non-linearity 40

   historical landmarks 23

   history 22–5

   holoprosencephaly 249

   hyperbilirubinemia 221

   hypoglycemia 213, 213, 214

   image contrast 31–2

   inborn errors of metabolism 166

   instrumentation 28–30

   intraventricular hemorrhage 118

   inversion recovery 31

   investigative screening for preterm brain injury 173–4

   Joubert’s syndrome 255

   lenticulostriate vasculopathy 226

   lissencephaly 259

   magnet quench 42

   magnetic field

      static 41

      strength increase 39

   magnetization transfer 32

   magnets 28

      whole-body superconducting 29

   meningitis 276, 277

   metabolic encephalopathy 166

   motion artifacts 41

   multi-echo sequence 31

   multi-slice imaging 30–1

   operator console 30

   oxygen hazard 42

   parasagittal scans 46, 46

      angled tangential 57, 57

      lateral ventricles 56, 56

   parenchymal hemorrhagic infarction 184–5

   partial volume effects 40

   periventricular leukomalacia 192–9

   periventricular white matter injury 192–9

      diffuse 194–7

   physiological monitoring 42

   polymicrogyria 262

   postmortem 282

      brain 281–2

      whole body 282

   power limits 42

   preamplifiers 30

   preterm brain injury 175–6

   probabilistic tracking methods 34

   probeheads 29, 29–30

   proton density 31

   pulse magnetic gradients 42

   pulse sequences 30–1

   quantitative 32–5

   radiofrequency 39

      interference 41

      power 42

      spikes 41

   safety

      patients 41–3

      staff 43

   sagittal scans 46, 55, 55

   scanner room 30

   scanners 22, 26–7

   schizencephaly 260

   seizures 100

   sensitivity 31

   septum pellucidum agenesis 250, 250–1

   shim coil 28–9

      failure 39

   signal drop-out 40

   signal intensity 40–1

   signal mispositioning 39–40

   signal-to-noise ratio 31, 39, 41

   slice selection 28

   spatial discrimination 30–1

   spatial encoding 30–1

   spatial resolution 31

   spin echo sequence 28, 31

   spin-lattice relaxation 27

   spin-spin relaxation 27

   staff exposure 43

   stroke 109, 109

      diagnosis 106–11

   Sturge Weber syndrome 223

   subdural hemorrhage 114, 115–16, 116

   subependymal pseudocysts 228

   T1-weighting 31

   T2 relaxometry 34, 34–5

   T2*-weighting 32

   T2-weighting 31

      encephalopathy 158–9

   thalamic hemorrhage 119

   three-dimensional 31

   timeline of chain of research 24

   tissue heating 42

   toxoplasmosis 273

   two-dimensional 30–1

   uses 24

   ventriculomegaly 242–3

magnetic resonance imaging, functional (fMRI) 22

magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) 35–9

   bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction 219

   chemical shift 35

   congenital heart disease 223

   echo time 27, 38

   encephalopathy 159–61

   free induction decay 35, 37

   gradient coils 28–9

   heteronuclear coupling 36–7

   historical landmarks 23

   history 22, 25–6

   homonuclear coupling 36–7

   information obtainable 38–9

   localization 37–8

   magnetic field strength increase 39

   phase modulation 38

   PRESS 37, 38

   pulse-acquire 37

   radiofrequency 39

   relaxation time 38–9

   resonance chemical shifts 39

   safety of patients/staff 41–3

   signal-to-noise ratio 39

   single-voxel localization 37

   spectrum acquisition 37–8

   spectrum analysis 38

   STEAM 37, 38

   term infant 38

   time-domain methods 38

   water suppression 37–8

   see also hydrogen-1 MRS; phosphorus-31 MRS

magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (MRSi) 38

magnetic resonance techniques, quantitative 157–62

magnetic resonance user interface (MRUI) 38

magnets, superconducting 28–9

maple syrup urine disease 166

maternal conditions

   brain injury 210, 211

   stroke risk 105

mechanical index 8

mechanical ventilation

   EEG interference 16, 88

   oxygen hazard with MRI 42

Meckel–Gruber syndrome 258, 259

meconium aspiration syndrome 102–3

medication, EEG effects 87–90

meningitis 274–7

   bacterial 274–6

      brain abscess 274–6

   birth depression 133

   fungal 274, 276–7

   neonatal seizures 94, 119–20

   prognosis 277

   viral 274, 277

meningocele 257–8, 258, 259

meningoencephalitis 275, 275, 276, 276, 277

   fungal infection 277

meningoencephalocele 257–8

metabolic disease

   corpus callosum agenesis 251

   seizures 120–1

   see also encephalopathy, metabolic

methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase variant (MTHFR) 104–5

methylmalonic acidemia 122, 166

microcephaly, hypoglycemia 212–13

microglia, periventricular white matter injury 188

microstreaming 7–8

midazolam

   burst suppression 140–1

   electroencephalogram effects 89

   status epilepticus treatment 124

middle cerebral artery (MCA) 46

   anatomy 102

   branches 104, 104

   infarction 101, 101

   stroke 101–3, 105–106, 106

midline sagittal section 49–51

Miller–Dieker syndrome 259

mitochondrial disorders 121

mitochondrial encephalopathy 166

M-mode 3

molar tooth sign 257, 282

morphine, electroencephalogram effects 89

multicystic encephalomalacia 145, 151–3

multiple pregnancy

   brain injury 211

   counseling 211

   incidence 211

   prognosis 211

   terminology 211

muscular dystrophy, Fukuyama congenital 259

myelin signal from posterior limb of internal capsule 74

myelination 74, 74

   24 weeks 68

   brain maturation 86

   delayed in periventricular leukomalacia 191–2

   full term 71

myoclonic encephalopathy, early 122

N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) 161–2


nasal airflow measurement 12

neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (NAITP)

   intracranial hemorrhage 112

   lobar hemorrhage 118

neonatal conditions, brain injury 210, 212–23

neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)

   EEG

      electrode application 11

      recording 10

   practices for preterm brain injury screening 175

neural tube development disorders 257–9

neurodevelopmental impairment in diffuse periventricular white matter injury 199–200

neurological deficit

   corpus callosum agenesis 251

   schizencephaly 260

neurological examination 63

   birth depression 132

   normal 62–5

neuromuscular blocking agents 89–90

neuron(s)

   death in hypoglycemia 212

   migration malformations 259

   selective necrosis in hypoxic ischemia 137

   subplate 182

neuronal injury

   bilirubin 217, 217

   bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction 218

   determinants in hypoglycemia 213

   diffuse 137

   excitotoxicity 137

   hypoxic ischemia 137, 13843

   jaundice 217

neuropsychiatric disorders, stroke 110–11

neurotransmitter receptors 92

neurotransmitters 92

NKCCL co-transporter 123–4

noise, interference reduction 4

non-ketotic hyperglycinemia 166, 251

nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

   echo time (TE) 27, 38

   fundamentals 26–30

   historical landmarks 23

   history 22–5

   instrumentation 28–30

   relaxation 27

   signal generation/detection 26–7

   spin echo 27

   whole-body machine 24

nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) 37

nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) 35–6

Nyquist frequency 5


occipital lobes

   coronal MRI scans 49, 54

   hypoglycemia 212–13

Ohtahara syndrome 92, 122–3

oligodendrocytes

   periventricular white matter injury 188, 189–91

   progenitor cells 189–91, 190, 201

oligodendroglia, germinal matrix 182

oligodendroglial theory of periventricular white matter injury 189–91

Ondine’s curse 119

optic nerve hypoplasia 199

oxygenation, EEG effects 90


pachygyria 259

pancuronium 89–90

parasagittal section

   angled 51

   tangential 51

parenchymal lesions 177

   hemorrhagic infarction 182–5

      etiology 183

      incidence 184

      magnetic resonance imaging 184–5

      natural history 184

      prognosis 184

      timing 184

      ultrasound 184–5

parieto-occipital sulcus 49–51, 66

   24 weeks 68

   28 weeks 71

   30 weeks 71

   premature babies 66–8

penetrating arteries, ischemia 189

perinatal death, cause 281

periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDS) 105–6

peritrigonal blush 49

periventricular halo 49

periventricular ischemia 183

periventricular lesions in encephalopathy 145–6

periventricular leukomalacia 49, 185–200

   animal models 189

   classification 196

   cystic 191, 191

      magnetic resonance imaging 194

      natural history 191–2

      prognosis 199

      ultrasound 194

   diagnosis 188

   etiology 188–9

   fetal ventriculomegaly 236

   incidence 191, 191

   magnetic resonance imaging 192–9

   pathology 188

   preterm brain injury 174

   timing 191, 191

   ultrasound 192–9

   vascular theory 188, 189

   white matter destruction 184–5

periventricular white matter injury (PWMI) 185–200, 196

   astrocytes 188

   cortical volume reduction 196–7

   cytokines 191

   diffuse 185–200

      incidence 201

      magnetic resonance imaging 194–7

      natural history 192

      prognosis 199–200

      ultrasound 194–7

   endotoxins 191

   flare 192–4, 199

   GMH-IVH association 187

   incidence 191

   magnetic resonance imaging 192–9

   microglia 188

   natural history 191–2

   neurodevelopmental outcome 200

   neuroinflammatory mechanisms 191

   oligodendrocytes 188

   oligodendroglial theory 189–91

   pathogenesis 201

   punctate lesions 197

   ultrasound 192–9

   vascular theory 189

periventricular zone, normal 192–4, 192–4

peroxisomal disorders 121

pethidine, electroencephalogram effects 89

phased arrays 3

phenobarbitone

   EEG

      birth depression 133

      effects 87–9

   seizures 93, 124

phosphoethanolamine (PEt) 35–6

phosphorus-31 27

   spectra 25

phosphorus-31 MRS 25, 35–6

   encephalopathy 159–61

   healthy neonate 162

   homonuclear coupling 36

   hypoxic ischemia 163

   phase modulation 38

   voxel size 37

phosphorus-31 OSIRIS 37

phosphorus-31 PRESS spectrum 35

phototherapy 215, 216

piezoelectric crystals 1

pixels 4

placenta

   birth depression 131

   emboli causing stroke 102–3

placental insufficiency, periventricular leukomalacia 188–9

plasminogen 239

platelet count

   intracranial hemorrhage 112

   lobar hemorrhage 118

pneumothorax, GMH-IVH 179

point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) 37, 37, 38

   hydrogen-1 spectrum 36

   phosphorus-31 spectrum 35

polycystic kidney disease, autosomal dominant 263

polycythemia

   cerebral sinovenous thrombosis 113

   stroke 104

polymicrogyria 260–2, 262, 272, 272

   clinical manifestations 262

   early infantile encephalopathy 166

   imaging 262

POMT gene mutations 259

porencephalic cyst 182–5, 185, 186–7, 1867

posterior fossa 81, 81

   abnormalities 251–7

Pourcelot Index (PI) 146–56, 242

Prader–Willi syndrome 133

precession rate 26

pre-eclampsia

   cerebral sinovenous thrombosis 113

   stroke 103

pregnancy

   birth depression 130

   CNS infections 269

   history in neonatal seizures 93

   prothrombotic state 104, 113

   see also multiple pregnancy

premature babies

   bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction 217–18

   birth depression 130

   bradycardias 10

   brain 66–8, 83–4, 86–7

      imaging screening 173

      normal 177

      prognosis 177

   cerebral development assessment 175

   cerebral hemisphere action 83–4

   electroencephalogram 83–4, 86–7

      continuous amplitude integrated 90

      maturation 86

      quiescence 86

   electromyography 87

   perinatal arterial stroke 105–6

   respiratory distress syndrome 130

   sleep–wake cycling 86–7

   see also brain injury, preterm

preterm discontinuity, electroencephalogram 86

propionic acidemia 166

prosencephalic development disorders 248–51

protein C deficiency

   cerebral sinovenous thrombosis 113

   stroke 104

protein S deficiency

   cerebral sinovenous thrombosis 113

   stroke 104

prothrombin 20210A mutation 104

proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy see hydrogen-1 MRS

psychiatric problems, cystic periventricular leukomalacia 199

pulmonary hypertension 102–3

pulse echo principle 1, 2–3

pulse repetition frequency (PRF) 3, 5

   increase 5–6

pulse sequences, magnetic resonance imaging 30–1

pulsed Doppler instruments 5

pyrexia, maternal

   birth depression 130–1

   CNS infections 269

pyridoxine dependency 122, 122

   seizures 120–1

pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency 251


quadrigeminal cisterns 49


radio frequency (RF) 39

radio frequency (RF) amplifier 30

radio frequency (RF) filters 30

radio frequency (RF) interference 41

radio frequency (RF) power 42

radio frequency (RF) pulse 26–7

   relaxation 27

   repetition time 27

   selective 28

   water signal saturation 37–8

radio frequency (RF) receiver 30

radio frequency (RF) spikes 41

radio frequency (RF) window 30

real-time imaging 3

reflection 2

refraction 2

repetition time (TR) 27

resolution 4

respiration trace

   during EEG 10, 11–12

   impedance measurement 11–12

respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)

   GMH-IVH 179

   premature babies 130

resuscitation, birth depression 130

rhesus disease 215

Rolandic sharp waves 176

   preterm brain injury 176–7

rubella

   congenital 274

   subependymal pseudocysts 227


sampling theorem 5

scalp layers 111

scalp pH 131

scanner room 30

scatter 2

schizencephaly 121, 260, 261, 261

   clinical manifestation 260

   counseling 260

   early infantile encephalopathy 166

   imaging 260

   prognosis 260

seizures, neonatal

   arachnoid cysts 264

   asynchrony 95–7

   automated detection 97

   benign familial 122

   benign non-familial 122

   burden 124

   causes 94

   clinical examination 93–4

   clinical manifestations 92–3

   corpus callosum agenesis 251

   diagnosis 94

      delayed 92

   diagnostic categories 100–23

   duration 95

   electroclinical dissociation 95–7

   electroencephalogram 19, 20, 94, 95

      amplitude integrated 97–100, 98

   encephalopathy 92, 138–9

      control 163–4

      early infantile 166

   epidemiology 93

   epileptic syndromes 122–3

   extracranial hemorrhage 111–12

   focal 105–6

   history of possible 93–4

   history taking 93

   hypoxic ischemia 92, 100

   incidence 92, 93

   intracranial hemorrhage 112–19

   investigation 92, 93–100, 94

   laboratory tests 94

   location 95, 95

   lumbar puncture 94

   maternal pyrexia 130–1

   meningitis 94, 119–20

   metabolic disease 120–1

   MRI 100

   neonatal encephalopathy 92

   polymicrogyria 262

   prognosis 93, 124

   recurrence risk 124

   risk factors 93

   schizencephaly 260

   serial 94–5

   treatment 92, 123–4

   tuberous sclerosis 121, 123, 123–4

   ultrasound 100

   video-EEG monitoring 94–5, 100

   see also stroke, perinatal arterial

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) 93

sensorineural hearing loss 217–18

sepsis

   birth depression 130

   cerebral sinovenous thrombosis 113

septo-optic dysplasia 248–9, 250

septo-optic-hypothalamic dysplasia 248–9

septum pellucidum agenesis 248–9, 250–1

   clinical manifestation 250

   counseling 250–1

   imaging 250, 250

   prognosis 250–1

shim coils

   failure 39

   superconducting magnets 28–9

signal quality 4

sleep cycles, EEG 84–5, 85

sleep myoclonus, benign neonatal 122

sleep state

   EEG 83, 84

   indeterminate 87

   non-REM 85

   preterm babies 86–7

   recognition 12

      electromyogram 12, 87

   REM 85, 87

   transitional 87

sleep–wake cycling

   EEG 85–6

      amplitude integrated 141

   preterm babies 86–7

Smith–Lemli–Opitz disease 121

sonic hedgehog (SHH) gene 248–9

sound velocity 5

spatial resolution 4

speckle 4

   reduction 4

spectral analysis 5, 6

spin echo 27

spin warp technique 22

spinal cord

   congenital malformations 248

   midline lesions of skin 248

spinal dysraphism, occult 259

spinal muscular atrophy 132–3

spin-spin relaxation 27

standard views 45

status epilepticus

   definition 94–5

   hypoxic-ischemic insult 133

   treatment 124

stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) 37, 38

striate arteries, lateral 177

striate vasculopathy 248

stroke, perinatal arterial 100–11

   adverse outcomes 108–11

   bilateral changes 101

   causes 101–5

   contralateral lesions 101

   diagnosis 100–1, 106–11

   differential diagnosis 100

   electroencephalogram 105–6

   hematological disorders 104–5

   imaging diagnosis 106–11

   incidence 100, 101

   investigations 105

   magnetic resonance imaging 109

   middle cerebral artery territory 101–3, 105–6 106

   mortality 101, 101

   premature babies 105–6

   prognosis 108–10

   recurrence risk 107

   risk factors 104

   seizures 92, 100–11

      type 105–6

   special investigations 107

   thrombophilia screen 105, 107

   treatment 107

   ultrasound 107–8, 1078

   venous 112

   Wallerian degeneration 107–11

Sturge Weber syndrome 223

subarachnoid hemorrhage 114

subarachnoid space 81, 81

   blood causing vasospasm 103

   normal variation 61

   normative fetal ultrasound data 74–82

subcortical leukomalacia, classification 196

subdural hemorrhage

   clinical presentation 115

   convexity 115

   infratentorial 116

   magnetic resonance imaging 116

   peritentorial 114

   seizures 114–16

   supratentorial 115–16

   ultrasound 115, 115

   Ventouse delivery 117

subdural tears 115

subependymal cysts 248, 272, 272

subependymal pseudocysts 210, 226–8

   cardiac defects 227

   clinical implications 226–7

   counseling 228

   fetal conditions 229

   incidence 226–7

   magnetic resonance imaging 228

   neonatal conditions 229

   prognosis 228

   ultrasound 227–8

   viral infections 227

subgaleal hemorrhage 111–12

subplate neurons 182

substance abuse, brain injury 211

sulci 69

   32 weeks 71

   34 weeks 71

   central 80, 80

      26 weeks 68–71

      28 weeks 71

      full term 71

   development 66, 66, 67

   full term 71

   marginal, 30 weeks 71

   postcentral

      26 weeks 68–71

      28 weeks 71

   precentral 80

      26 weeks 68–71

      28 weeks 71

      full term 71

   primary 71

   secondary 71

   tertiary, 36 weeks 71

   see also named sulci

superconductors 28

   magnet quench 42

superior colliculus 49–51

superior temporal sulcus

   28 weeks 71

   30 weeks 71

   32 weeks 71

swallowing problems, Arnold Chiari malformation 257

Sylvian fissure 49, 51

   28 weeks 71

   30 weeks 71

   32 weeks 71

   development 80, 80

   full term 71

   premature babies 66–8

syphilis, congenital 274


temporal lobe hemorrhage 119, 119

temporal resolution 4

temporal saw-tooth activity, EEG pattern 84

temporal sulcus

   inferior 71

   superior 71

tentorium cerebelli 49

tetraplegia, schizencephaly 260

thalamus 46–9, 51

   adverse neurodevelopmental outcome 161, 161

   apparent diffusion coefficient 161

   hemorrhage 119, 121, 121

   increased echogenicity 143–5

   injury in encephalopathy 153–7

      prognosis 165, 166

   lesion reduction with cooling 163

   stroke 107–11

thermal index 8

thermistor, nasal airflow measurement 12

three-dimensional imaging 3

thrombocytopenic purpura see neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (NAITP)

thrombophilia screen 105

   stroke 107

thrombotic disorders, inherited 104

thrombotic vasculopathy 102–3

time-gain compensation 3–4

   incorrect control setting 62

toxoplasmosis

   congenital 272–4

   counseling 273–4

   fetal ventriculomegaly 236

   imaging 273

   prognosis 273–4

transcerebellar diameter, normative ultrasound data 82

transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) 239

transverse relaxation 27

trigone, coronal MRI scans 49, 53

tuberous sclerosis 121, 123–4

tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) 191

tumors

   bleeding causing lobar hemorrhage 118–19

   congenital 264

turbulent flow 6–7

twin pregnancy, brain injury 211

twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) 211


ulegyria 138

ultrasound

   arachnoid cysts 263

   Arnold Chiari malformation 257

   bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction 219

   birth depression 133

   brain swelling/edema 142–3

   cavum septum pellucidum 61, 74

   cavum velum interpositum 61

   cerebellar lesions 201

   cerebral edema 151

   CNS infections 271

   cocaine fetal exposure 211

   congenital heart disease 222–3

   corpus callosum

      agenesis 251, 2523

      normative data 74

   cranial 45

   cytomegalovirus 271

   Dandy Walker malformation 254

   discovery 1

   encephalopathy 133, 142–7, 152

   first image 25

   GMH-IVH 180–1, 1812, 183

   historical landmarks 23

   holoprosencephaly 249

   hypoglycemia 213

   intensity 1–2

   investigative screening for preterm brain injury 173, 174–5

      frequency 174–5

   lenticulostriate vasculopathy 226

   mechanical damage 7–8

   mechanical index 8

   meningitis 274–7

   parenchymal hemorrhagic infarction 184–5

   periventricular leukomalacia 192–9

   periventricular white matter injury 192–7

      diffuse 194–7

   polymicrogyria 262

   pressure wave 2

   reflected pulses 2

   safety 7–8

   seizures 100

   septum pellucidum agenesis 250

   stroke 106, 1078

   subarachnoid space normative fetal data 74–82

   subdural hemorrhage 115

   subependymal pseudocysts 227–8

   thermal damage 7

   thermal index 8

   time-gain compensation 3–4

      incorrect control setting 62

   toxoplasmosis 273

   transducers 1, 2–3

      linear array 3

      phased arrays 3

      placement 45

   transverse cerebellar diameter normative data 82

   ventricular size 240, 240

   ventriculomegaly 243

   waves 1–2

   see also Doppler ultrasound

umbilical vascular catheter emboli 102–3


vacuum delivery 111

   subdural hemorrhage 117

vaginal delivery 179

varicella 236

vascular birth marks 223

vascular lesions, congenital 264–5

vasospasm, stroke 103

vein of Galen

   aneurysms 113–14, 264, 264–5

   rupture 116

velum interpositum 49–51

venous sinus thrombosis 112

ventilators

   EEG interference 16

   oxygen hazard with MRI 42

Ventouse delivery 111

   subdural hemorrhage 117

ventricles 51, 51

   abnormally large 235–44

   area measurement 241–6, 242

   interactive segmentation 242, 242

   linear measurement 236, 240–1, 241

   third 49, 50

   ultrasound assessment of size 240, 240

   volume measurement 242

ventricles, lateral

   28 weeks 71

   angled parasagittal section 51

   anterior frontal horns 46–9

   coronal MRI scans 48

   normal variation 61

   parasagittal MRI scan 56

   trigone coronal sections 49

ventricular dilatation 235

   intraventricular hemorrhage 118

   meningitis 274–6

   posthemorrhagic 239

      clinical monitoring 239

      hematological investigations 240

      investigations 239–43

      lumbar puncture 239

      management 243–4

      natural history 239

      surgical intervention 243

   white matter damage 272

ventricular reservoir

   acoustic shadow 62, 62

   subcutaneous 243

ventriculitis 274–6

ventriculomegaly 49–51, 235–44, 248

   borderline 236

   diffuse periventricular white matter injury 200

   fetal 235–9, 238

      associations 236–7

      causes 236, 236–7

      counseling 237–9

      definition 235–6

      developmental delay 238–9

      incidence 235–6

      investigation 237

      management 237

      natural history 236

      prognosis 237–9

   GMH-IVH 200

   lumbar puncture 243

   postnatally acquired 239–44

      area measurements 241–2

      counseling 244

      diuretics 243

      Doppler ultrasound 242

      drainage 244

      DRIFT 244

      etiology 239

      fibrinolysis 243–4

      with high intracranial pressure 243

      investigations 239–43

      irrigation 244

      linear measurements 240–1

      lumbar puncture 243

      magnetic resonance imaging 242–3

      management 243–4

      prevention 243

      prognosis 244

      surgical intervention 243

      volume measurements 242

   preterm brain injury 173, 197–9

ventriculoperitoneal shunt 243

ventriculostomy, endoscopic third 243

vermis lobulation, Dandy Walker malformation 254

video-EEG monitoring, seizures 94–5, 100

viral infection 274, 277

   congenital HIV/AIDS 274

   herpes virus in birth depression 133

   varicella 236

   see also cytomegalovirus (CMV)

visual impairment

   cystic periventricular leukomalacia 199

   hypoglycemia 213–15

vitamin B12 supplementation 107

vitamin K

   neonatal seizures 93

   prophylaxis in ventriculomegaly 243

vitamin K deficiency

   intracranial hemorrhage 112

   lobar hemorrhage 118

   ventriculomegaly 240, 243


wakefulness

   EEG 86

   see also sleep–wake cycling

Walker–Warburg syndrome 259

Wallerian degeneration, stroke 107, 111

wall-thump filter 6

watershed injury 137–8, 150–1

waveform measurement tool 16

wavelength 1, 3–4

West’s syndrome 213–15

white matter

   cerebral at 30 weeks 71

   cortex lesions 145

   DEHSI 198

   destruction in periventricular leukomalacia 184–5

   EEG signs of injury 176–7

   extremely immature infant 175

   focal abnormalities 156–7

   injury in congenital heart disease 223

   lesions and cognitive difficulties 166

   metabolic encephalopathy 166

   periventricular lesions 145–6, 156–7

      global cerebral hypoperfusion 189

   preterm brain injury 176–7

   punctate lesions 197

   risk factors for lesions 188

   see also periventricular white matter injury (PWMI)


Zellweger syndrome 121, 166, 227, 227

zero-crossing detector 6

zidovudine, infant exposure 274

zirconate titanate (PZT) 1


© Cambridge University Press


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