Forced labor was a key feature of Nazi anti-Jewish policy and shaped the daily life of almost every Jewish family in occupied Europe. This book systematically describes the implementation of forced labor for Jews in Germany, Austria, the Protectorate, and the various occupied Polish territories. As early as the end of 1938, compulsory labor for Jews had been introduced in Germany and annexed Austria by the labor administration. Similar programs subsequently were established by civil administrations in the German-occupied Czech and Polish territories. At its maximum extent, more than one million Jewish men and women toiled for private companies and public builders, many of them in hundreds of now often-forgotten special labor camps. This study refutes the widespread thesis that compulsory work was organized only by the SS, and that exploitation was only an intermediate tactic on the way to mass murder or, rather, that it was only a facet in the destruction of the Jews.
• Discloses important aspects of virtually unknown aspect of the Holocaust: the pre-ghetto, pre-camp mass forced labor for Jews • New insights on the life of thousands of Jews under forced labor and in forgotten forced labor camps • Broadens our picture of the Nazi perpetrators, revealing the responsibility of civil administrations, private companies, and others
1. Segregated labor deployment: central planning and local practice, 1938–45; 2. German Jews in forced labor camps, 1939–43; 3. 'Special service': forced labor of so-called Jewish mischlinge, 1942–5; 4. Initiatives in Vienna: Austrian Jews in the segregated labor deployment program, 1938–45; 5. The failure of deportation: forced labor of Czech Jews, 1939–45; 6. Camps and ghettos: forced labor in the Reich Gau Wartheland, 1939–44; 7. On the 'Führer's road': Polish Jews in the Old Reich, 1940–3; 8. The SS organization schmelt and the Jews from Eastern Upper Silesia, 1940–4; 9. The labor office versus the SS: forced labor in the general government, 1939–44.