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Jewish Forced Labor under the Nazis
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Details

  • Page extent: 348 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.64 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 940.53/18134
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: DS135.G3315 G7813 2006
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Jews--Germany--History--1933-1945
    • Forced labor--Germany--History--20th century
    • Forced labor--Europe, Eastern--History--20th century
    • Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945)--Germany
    • Germany--Ethnic relations

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521838757 | ISBN-10: 0521838754)




Index of Subjects

Aktion Erntefest, 271

Aktion Hase, 96

Aktion Mitte B, 97

Aktion Reinhard, 258

Aktion T4, 226

Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse (AOK). See General Local Health Insurance Provider.

Annexation of Austria. See Anschluss.

Anschluss (annexation of Austria), xvi, xxii, 3, 105, 107, 136, 278

Anti-Jewish policy

   before 1938, xx, xxii, xxiv

   central measures in, xxi, xxii, xxiii

   consequences of for Jews, xvi, 107, 109, 131, 274

   contradiction in, 109

   diminished SS role in, 240, 276

   division of labor principle in, xvii, xviii, xxiv, 30, 112, 132, 244, 281, 294

   effect of war on, 8, 9, 126, 141, 142

   forced labor as element of, x, xii, xiii, 3, 4, 177, 276

   in Austria, 136

   local-central interaction in, xx, xxi, xxii

   local measures in, xxi, xxii, xxiii, 150, 151

   measures implementing, 151, 172, 173, 280

   reformulation/radicalization of, xxiii, xxiv, 5, 30, 87, 105, 106, 149, 161, 277

   See also Emigration of Jews, Exclusion of Jews, Impoverishment of Jews, Jewish forced labor, Segregation of Jews, and Unemployment of Jews.

Aryanization, xxiv, 45, 46, 47, 58, 66, 107, 109, 276

“Asocials,” 3, 4, 108, 109

Attack on Soviet Union, 14, 129, 184, 201, 217, 252, 254, 257, 274

Autobahn camps, 286

   acceptance/rejection of Jews for, 197, 198

   administration of by private companies, 203

   closing of, 208, 209, 211

   control of by Autobahn authorities, 199, 203, 213, 219

   control of by SS (Schmelt), 214, 223

   employing Polish Jews, 183, 198, 203, 217, 286

   locations of, 203, 212, 219, 220

   redesignation of as “Zwangsarbeitslager,” 223

   regulations for, 199, 200, 203, 212

   See also Führer’s road and Schmelt forced labor camps.

Autobahn construction management headquarters (Oberste Bauleitung der Reichsautobahnen)

   in Austria, 127

   in Berlin, 199, 200, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206

   in Breslau, 204, 205, 211, 212, 220, 222

   in Cologne, 205

   in Danzig, 203, 204, 205

   See also Reich Autobahn Directorates.

Autobahn construction projects

   Berlin-Frankfurt an der Oder-Posen-Litzmannstadt, 183, 187, 196, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 209

   Breslau-Brieg-Gleiwitz-Krakow, 202, 204, 211

   Durchgangstrasse 4, 217, 255, 256, 267, 270, 282

   Stettin-Danzig, 202, 203

Barracks camps, 38, 47, 65, 66, 76, 97, 98, 111, 120, 172, 202, 236, 260

Benefits for Jewish forced laborers

   denial of, 13, 289

   elimination of, 22, 39, 115, 128, 152, 171, 195, 237, 248

   lack of, 12, 43, 242

   paying for without receiving, 235

   See also Health insurance for Jewish forced laborers and Social insurance for Jewish forced laborers.

Beschäftigungsverhältnis eigener Art. See Labor status of Jewish forced laborers, as codified special employment classification.

Bonuses

   instead of wages, 191

   per performance agreements (Leistungsakkordprämien), 242

   prohibition against, 128

   See also Wages of Jewish forced laborers.

Border fortification projects, 235, 236, 244, 245, 249, 251

Central Office for Jewish Emigration in Prague (Zentralstelle für jüdische Auswanderung), 151, 161, 172, 173, 281

   as central site handling Jewish matters, 148

   as model for promoting emigration, 144, 145

   management of expropriated property by, 162, 169

   planning and organization of forced labor by, xvii, 154, 155, 156, 158, 170

   provision of forced laborers by, 152

Central Office for Jewish Emigration in Vienna (Zentralstelle für jüdische Auswanderung), 110, 112, 130

   closing of retraining camps of, 134

   development and recruitment of forced labor, 118, 119

   operation of retraining camps by, 126, 287

   role of in expulsion and deportation, 120, 129

Central Office for Jewish Retraining, Nisko am San, 56

“Cleansing” of German territory, 178, 179, 201, 269

Companies using forced labor

   AEG Berlin, 17

   Askania-Werke AG, 252

   Ausbildungswerkstätten A. W. Lemberg, 267

   Avia Flugzeugwerke, 163

   Bertha Werke Markstädt (Krupp AG), 220.

   See also Companies using forced labor, Krupp AG.

   Blaupunkt-Werke GmbH Berlin, 41

   Buchdruckerei Pleva, 158

   Buna-Werke Auschwitz (I. G. Farben), 217.

   See also Companies using forced labor, I. G. Farben.

   Christoph & Unmack AG Niesky, 71

   Dachpappenfabrik Žaček, 158

   Deutsche Ausrüstungswerke GmbH, 257

   Deutsche Sprengchemie GmbH, Dreetz/Neustadt an der Dosse, 208

   Ehrich & Graetz AG Berlin, 17

   Fassdaubenfabrik Bolechow, 267

   Firma Brockmann, 222

   Firma de Boer Emden, 115

   Firma Eduard Riedel Mechanische Knopffabriken Görlitz, 71

   Firma Emil Schmidt Tief- & Straßenbau, 36

   Firma Gans und Hochberger Tarnow, 238

   Firma Gottlieb Singer Klatau, 164

   Firma Hammel & Westenberger, 18

   Firma Hoffmann, 222

   Firma Holzverarbeitung Hrdlička, 158

   Firma Ingenieur Kindl Predmeritz, 167

   Firma Kartonagen Kos, 158

   Firma Kulzer & Co. Frankfurt am Main, 29

   Firma Kunststoffe Baklax, 158

   Firma Mann Lederwaren Wildner, 158

   Firma Max Braun Radio Frankfurt am Main, 20, 29

   Firma Moll, 222

   Firma Nebelung & Sohn Bielefeld, 53

   Firma Optische Apparate Matuška, 158

   Firma Osterrieth Frankfurt am Main, 25, 29

   Firma Pokorny Schüttenhofen, 164

   Firma Roggenbuck & Söhne Hamburg, 100

   Firma Schwarz & Co. Lemberg, 267

   Firma Textilia Lemberg, 267

   Firma Wäscherei Seibel Dörnigheim, 25

   Firma Walter Többens Warschau, 263, 269

   Firma Wilhelm Goebel Golzow, 204

   Firma Wurpts-Loga, 39, 115

   Flachsröste GmbH München-Lohhof, 42

   Frankfurt Asbestwerke AG, 29

   Grün & Bilfinger AG Mannheim, 222

   Hermann Göring Reichswerke, 183

   Holzbau AG-Zweigstelle Lemberg, 267

   Hugo Schneider AG (HASAG), 194, 268

   I. G. Farben, 224, 225.

   See also Companies using forced labor, Buna and Luranil.

   Kaolinfabrik Chlumpschau, 158

   Kaolinwerke Ledetz, 158

   Karl Walter und Co. GmbH, 97

   Karpathen-Öl AG, 267, 271

   Keramische Fabrik Tschemoschau, 158

   Kofferfabrik Singer Klattau, 158

   Kohlenbergwerk Gaya, 158

   Kohlenbergwerk Midlowar, 158

   Krupp AG Essen, 265.

   See also Companies using forced labor, Bertha Werke.

   Kurmärkische Zellwolle und Zellulose AG (Phrix-Werke) Wittenberge, 208, 209, 210

   Landwirtschaftliche Maschinenfabrik Hofherr-Schrans, 158

   Luranil (I. G. Farben) Baugesellschaft GmbH Ludwigshafen, 224.

   See also Companies using forced labor, I. G. Farben.

   Märkische Elektrizitätswerke AG, 209

   Märkische Stahlform-Werke Eberswalde, 211

   Metallwerke Elektra GmbH Gummersbach, 70

   Metrawatt AG Feinmechanische und Optische Werke Nürnberg-Zweigwerk Lemberg, 267

   Möbelfabrik Bolechow, 267

   Ober Birken Kaolinwerke, 158

   Oberschlesische Hydrierwerke, 220, 228

   Ostindustrie GmbH (Osti), 271

   Prager Eisen AG, 158

   Radiofabrik Jiskra, 158

   Sägewerk Kusy, 164

   Sägewerk Müller & Söhne Rothenburg, 71

   Schott & Genossen Jena, 97

   Schultz und Co. GmbH, 261, 263, 269

   Siemens AG Berlin, 35, 41, 278, 290

   Siemens-Schuckert Werke AG Berlin, 15, 16, 183.

   See also Companies using forced labor, Siemens AG Berlin

   Straßenbaugesellschaft Kemna-Lenz GmbH, 36

   Südböhmische Elektrizitätswerke, 158

   Teerag-Asdag AG, 125

   Vereinigte Nordhäuser Kautabakfabriken-Hanewacker Co., 42

   Voltohm Seil-und Kabelwerke AG Frankfurt am Main, 16, 20, 29

   Westböhmische Kaolinwerke, 164

   Wienerberger Ziegelei AG Wien, 113

   Wiener Ziegelwerke AG, 113

   Zeiss-Ikon AG Dresden, 78

   Zeiss-Ikon Görtz Berlin, 41

   Zementwerke Malmeritz, 158

   Ziegelindustrie AG “Ziag” Wien, 113

   Zuckerfabrik Hatschein, 158

Compensation of Jewish forced laborers. See Wages of Jewish forced laborers.

Compulsory community. See Forced community.

Concentration camps

   at Dachau, 108, 109

   Austrian research on, 105

   control of by Inspectorate of Concentration Camps/SS, xiv, 141, 142

   deportation to, xxiii

   expansion of, 228, 293

   integration of labor camps into, 266, 272, 273, 275, 287

   massacre of prisoners in, 97

   relationship to forced labor, 3, 4, 98, 109, 120, 224, 265, 277

   workshops in, 234, 265, 266, 272

Control of forced labor systems for Jews, xiv, xv

   by central authorities, 149

   by Gestapo, 16, 286

   by labor administration, xviii, 5, 30, 111, 191, 195, 210, 240, 255, 274, 276, 281, 282, 283, 293

   by labor offices, 9, 70, 191, 236, 254, 273, 274, 282

   by local authorities, 7, 11, 149, 274, 278, 281

   by municipal administrations (in ghettos), 195

   by Organisation Schmelt (SS), 284, 285

   by Reich Autobahn authorities, xviii

   by Reichsstatthalter in Posen, 129, 183, 187, 191, 284

   by SD (SS), xvii, 259

   by SS, xiii, 191, 231, 273, 275, 281, 283, 293

   failure of SS in, 266, 267

   interference in, 282

   lack of uniformity in, 238, 239

   parallel operation of by SS and labor administration, 282

   struggle over in GG, 239

   transfer of to SS, xviii, 261, 283

   transfer of from SS to labor administration, 240, 241, 242, 243, 281

   transfer of from Wehrmacht to SS, 266

Cooperation/Collaboration

   among multiple interests, 21, 112, 282, 294, 295

   among multiple agencies and companies, 21, 25, 26, 116, 290

   among SS, Security Police, and civilian administration, 235, 236

   between Gestapo and labor administration, 120, 136

   between Gestapo and local authorities, 39, 133

   between Gestapo and private industry, 79

   between labor administration and private industry, 39

   between labor administration and RSHA, 14, 15

   between labor administration and SD, 130, 239, 240

   between labor administration and SS, 256, 283

   between SS and Wehrmacht, 260, 267, 283, 291

   lack of by SS, 244, 246, 249, 250, 257

Court decisions, discriminatory, 13, 14

Craftsmen. See Jewish skilled workers.

Decrees on forced labor

   codifying special employment status of Jews (October 3, 1941), 19, 20, 22, 131, 170, 180, 187, 277, 288

   on segregated labor deployment (December 20, 1938), 11, 30, 31, 144, 277

   See also Table of Decrees on Forced Labor.

Deportations, 132, 225, 226

   conclusion of, 26, 27, 28, 79, 80, 91

   exemptions from, xvii, 24, 131, 271, 278

   failure of plans for, 8, 9, 121, 122, 123, 129, 153, 182, 214, 274, 281, 284

   for extermination, 194, 212, 227, 258, 262, 270

   from annexed territories, 121, 122, 178, 180, 232, 250, 251

   from eastern Upper Silesia, 226

   from Germany, 22, 210, 211

   from Protectorate, 146, 169

   from Wartheland, 178

   negative effect of on production, 20, 21, 263, 278

   of Austrian Jews, 122, 129, 134, 279

   effects on forced labor by preparations for, 70, 81, 281

   postponement of, 148, 181

   resumption of, 25, 26, 76, 186, 191

   to annexed territories, 277

   to East, 161, 169, 170, 173

   to foreign-language-speaking Gau, 146, 177, 178

   to ghettos, 166, 169

   to GG, 131

   to Poland, 14, 37, 66, 177

Der Geschlossene Arbeitseinsatz. See Segregated labor deployment.

“Destruction through work,” 291, 292

Deutscher Gemeindetag. See German Council of Municipalities.

Division of labor principle in persecution. See Anti-Jewish Policy.

Economic and Administrative Main Office of SS (WVHA), 209, 210, 222, 228, 259, 262, 264, 270, 272

Economic interests

   conflict of with anti-Jewish persecutory policy, 156, 157, 191, 206, 261, 263, 265, 266, 272

   importance of forced labor for, x, xviii, 157, 261, 274, 275, 277, 289, 290, 291, 293

   influence of on deportation and extermination, 201, 256, 259, 260, 275, 291, 293, 294

   See also Labor market and Labor shortages.

Emigration of Jews

   preparation for, 44, 46, 47, 118

   prevention of, 144, 159

   reduction of means for, xxiii, 3

   See also Expulsion.

Ernährungs-und Wirtschaftsamt “Ghetto.” See Ghetto food and economic office.

Estates, SS-run, 245 (Lublin), 267 (Galicia), 245, 267

Ethnic German self-defense corps, 235, 236, 244, 245, 251

Exclusion of Jews

   from associations, 145

   from education, xxi, xxiv, 151

   from employment, trade, and professions, xvi, xx, xxi, xxiii, xxiv, 143, 148, 149, 172, 214, 276, 280

   from military service and Reich Labor Service, xxii

   from organizations influencing public opinion, 145

   from public life, 143, 145

   under racial laws, xxii, xxiii

   See also Anti-Jewish policy and Restrictions affecting Jews.

Expropriation of Jewish property, xxiii, xxiv, 62, 66, 145, 147, 162, 169, 236, 276

Expulsion of Jews

   acceleration by force, 5

   as goal of persecution, xvi, xvii, xx, xxiv, 3, 44, 112, 120, 146

   failure of policy of, 8, 30

   forcing, 3, 144

   through emigration, xxiv, 110

   See also Anti-Jewish policy and Emigration.

Fabrik-Aktion, xvii, 27, 28, 29, 79, 89, 210, 278, 291.

   See also Raids.

Fabrik-Aktion, second, 95, 96, 99

Factory labor camps, 208, 271

Fees. See Wage deductions, discriminatory.

“Final solution” of Jewish problem, 85, 126

Fitness-to-work examinations, 28, 118, 154, 155, 158, 164, 165, 167, 172, 256, 265

   by Jewish physicians, 200

   for women, 166

   performed by Jewish community, 166

   proof of for Jews, 4

   See also Selection of Jewish forced laborers.

Food (rations) for Jewish forced laborers

   excluding supplements for heavy labor, 122, 123

   improvement in to increase productivity, 190

   inadequacy of, 42, 60, 82, 162, 189, 190, 223, 252, 287

   in Autobahn camps compared to ghetto, 201

   lack of, 245, 252, 253, 283

   in smaller amounts than for Poles 186

   supplements to for heavy labor, 123, 126

   See also Living conditions.

Forced community (Zwangsgemeinschaft), xxiv, 5, 19, 28, 39, 112, 131, 135, 160, 277

Forced laborers

   concentration camp prisoners, ix, 97, 165, 197, 209, 210, 228

   elderly Jews, 70, 71, 127, 135, 164

   foreign workers, 8, 131, 132, 201, 204, 227, 236, 278

   incapacitated Jews, 17

   Jewish women, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, 41, 43, 81, 127, 130, 163, 164, 165, 166, 168, 169, 172, 180, 189, 222, 225, 249, 280

   prisoners of war, 91, 98, 130, 132, 184, 185, 187, 188, 205, 217, 222, 247, 249

   young Jews, 15, 118, 130, 135, 151, 164, 190

“Free workers,” 98, 100, 101, 242

   as Jewish labor classification, 243, 255

   as opposed to “not free” eastern Jewish laborers, 206

   transfer of to Janowska by SS, 266

   wages for, 242

Führer’s road, 142, 196, 197, 206, 212.

   See also Autobahn camps.

Gas vans, 190, 208

General Commissioner for Labor Utilization (Generalbevollmächtigter für den Arbeitseinsatz), 92, 94, 101, 265

Generalbevollmächtigter für den Arbeitseinsatz. See General Commissioner for Labor Utilization.

General Inspector for German Roadway System (Generalinspektor für das Deutsche Straßenwesen), 196, 197

Generalinspektor für das Deutsche Straßenwesen. See General Inspector for German Roadway System.

General Local Health Insurance Provider (Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse), 52, 207

German Council of Municipalities (Deutscher Gemeindetag), xxi, xxii, 23, 24, 84

German Labor Front (DAF), 76, 115, 184

Der Geschlossene Arbeitseinsatz. See Segregated labor deployment.

Ghetto food and economic office (Ernährungs-und Wirtschaftsamt “Ghetto”) (Litzmannstadt), 181, 182

Ghettos

   as labor ghettos (“Jewish camps”), 268, 270

   as source of labor, 180, 195, 199

   closings of, 194, 227, 260, 269, 270

   concentration of Jews in (“ghettoization”), xxiii, xxiv, 5, 161, 162, 177

   control of by municipal administration, 181, 182, 282

   deportation from, 162, 261

   establishment of, 151, 161, 162, 169, 180, 181, 183, 251, 274, 283

   transfer of control of from municipal administration to SS, 266

   work outside, 181, 192, 193, 282

   workshops in, 186, 192, 251, 253, 254, 261, 274, 275, 282, 284

   self-government of, 180, 181

   uprisings in, 90, 269, 270

Guarding of labor camps and ghettos, 72, 76, 81, 98, 99, 100, 101, 120, 126, 203, 210, 219, 224, 242, 245, 263, 267

Guidelines

   for reintegration of Jewish professionals, 157

   for use of Jews as forced labor, 154, 155, 156, 241, 242

   for elimination of Jewish workers (Himmler), 266

   on evacuating Jews, 21

Gypsies, 33, 66, 89, 93, 178

“Half-Jews.” See Mischlinge.

HASAG. See Companies using forced labor, Hugo Schneider AG.

Health insurance for Jewish forced laborers

   elimination of, 52, 53, 206, 237, 248

   lack of, 208

   See also Benefits for Jewish forced laborers and Social insurance for Jewish forced laborers.

Humiliation rituals, 105, 230

   work in cleaning columns, 108, 136

   participation in scouring groups (Reibeparteien), 107, 108, 136

   punishment work, 108, 292

Impoverishment of Jews

   and deterioration of social support system, 126, 127, 143

   as reason for Jewish forced labor, 4, 281

   from unemployment, 172, 237, 280

   plans to address, 9, 147

   resulting from anti-Jewish policy, xvi, 274, 276

   severity of in Austria, 110, 136

   See also Anti-Jewish policy and Unemployment of Jews.

Infrastructure modernization, role of forced labor in, 106, 122, 123, 136, 217, 249, 274, 277, 279, 282, 291.

   See also Otto Program.

IKG. See Viennese Jewish Religious Community.

Israelitische Kulturgemeinde (IKG). See Viennese Jewish Religious Community.

“Jewish camps.” See Ghettos, as labor ghettos.

Jewish communities, 165

   as suppliers of Jewish forced labor, 153, 155, 156, 180, 216, 220

   as social assistance organizations, 54, 143, 156, 157, 158, 163, 173, 207

   depletion of resources of, 238

   establishment of labor camps by, 151, 152

   provision of social assistance to camps by, 79, 151, 199, 206, 240

   supervision of home workers’ work by, 164

   under Central Office (SS) control, 148

   use of for recruitment, 12, 147, 148

   See also Jewish councils and Jewish Religious Association.

Jewish councils

   control of by Kreis- and Stadthauptmänner, 240, 241

   depletion of resources of, 256

   establishment of, 178, 232, 233

   exclusion of from provision of laborers, 242

   intervention of for Jewish laborers, 237, 244, 245, 252

   loss of control by (in ghetto), 192

   providing for ghetto by, 253, 282

   provision of forced laborers by, 180, 216, 232, 239, 244, 255

   payment/receipt of workers wages or fees by, 162, 238, 239, 248

   workshops of in Lemburg, 258

   See also Jewish communities and Jewish Religious Association.

Jewish forced labor

   importance of for war, 271, 290, 291

   as element of persecution, 3, 182, 281, 289

   as protection against extermination, 282, 288, 291, 292, 293

   based on German model, 293

   central planning for, xvii, 3, 5, 183

   dependence on, 290

   depletion of, 127, 128, 164, 165, 170, 198

   establishment of in GG, 231, 233, 281

   expansion of, 11, 111, 135, 153, 158, 165, 182, 183, 189, 190, 290

   local establishment of, 149

   replacement of in GG armaments production, 263, 264

   statistics on, 17, 18, 128, 135, 157, 158, 165, 166, 170, 188, 189

   See also Anti-Jewish policy.

Jewish forced labor, use of

   by private enterprise, 183, 184, 199, 283

   by municipal administrations for public projects, 13, 110

   by Wehrmacht, 230

   for armaments production, xviii, 137, 163, 167, 209, 212, 220, 222, 225, 259, 263, 265, 266, 278

   for brick production, 113

   for hydraulic projects, xv, 7, 33, 36, 37, 39, 40, 51, 114, 115, 246, 252, 256

   for mining, 167, 168, 171

   for personal services, 247

   for railway construction, 152, 249

   for road work, 7, 8, 113, 132, 142, 150, 153, 165, 185, 191, 248, 249, 256, 261, 274, 275

   for snow and ice removal, 9, 13, 30, 133, 142, 152, 153, 167, 235

   for waste management, 13, 28, 30, 135, 136, 153, 165, 277

   for Wehrmacht clothing production, 225, 263, 265, 291

   in agriculture and forestry, 48, 54, 55, 56, 58, 81, 133, 136, 151, 154, 156, 163, 166, 168, 170, 274, 286

   in industry, 12, 13, 123, 132, 155, 166, 167, 172, 222, 275, 280

   in construction, 6, 7, 8, 111, 136, 158, 163, 164, 166, 170

Jewish labor offices, 240, 242, 244, 254, 262

Jewish Religious Association, 13.

   See also Jewish communities and Jewish councils.

Jewish reservation, 235

Jewish skilled workers (craftsmen)

   closing of Lemberg residential quarter for, 266

   exemptions from deportation/ extermination for, 291

   high proportion of, 236, 256, 263

   importance of for economy, 225, 257, 262, 265, 270

   group rental of, 222

   use of in industry, xviii, 12, 30, 156, 157, 265

Jewish Social Institute (Jüdisches Soziales Institut), 143

Jewish unskilled laborers, 11, 12, 30, 157, 167, 222

Jewish welfare offices, 40, 59

   Gestapo representative of, 11, 15, 16, 25, 31

Jews in mixed marriages

   assignment of to manual labor, 28, 89

   discriminatory practices against, 91

   deportation of, 27, 29, 85, 135, 136

   exemptions for, 86, 88, 89, 137

   forced labor of, xvii, 30, 93, 94, 136, 168, 171, 172, 278, 279

   in labor and residential camps, 67

   segregated labor deployment of, 28, 134

   treated like “full Jews,” 161, 170, 171

   standard wages for

“judenfrei” status, 77, 131, 181, 192, 270

“judenrein” status. See “judenfrei” status.

Judenvermittlungsstelle. See Office for placement of Jews.

Jüdische Kulturvereinigung. See Jewish Religious Association.

Jüdisches Soziales Institut. See Jewish Social Institute.

“Jüdisch Versippte.” See Persons related to Jews by marriage.

Katzmann report, 270

Kreishauptmänner (Kreishauptleute), 234, 236, 239, 240, 242, 244, 251, 258, 282

Kristallnacht. See November pogrom.

Labor and residential camps, 61, 63, 71, 74, 286

   control of by Gestapo, 62, 78, 218

   dilapidated housing in, 67, 68, 82

   dismantling of, 74, 75, 76, 77

   deportations from, 77, 78, 82

   establishment of, 65, 66, 81, 82

   housing of families in, 62, 66, 286

   lack of food in, 73, 74

   locations of, 63, 65

   recruitment for, 69, 70

   regulations in, 71, 72

Labor camps for German Jews, 34

   closing of, 37

   cost reductions in, 57

   development of, 278

   for segregated labor deployment, 37, 285, 286

   locations of, 36, 37

   to perform short-term building projects, 34

   organized by labor administration, 32

Labor camps for Austrian Jews (in Austria), 105, 134, 287

   locations of, 124

Labor camps for Austrian Jews (in Germany), 134, 287

   locations of, 117

Labor camps of SS in Austria, 287

   locations of, 124

Labor camps in Galicia and GG, 287, 288

   closings of, 270

Labor contracts, 115, 137, 202, 216

   as collective agreements between Reichsvereinigung and municipalities, 48, 52, 53, 54, 55, 59, 81, 286

   as collective agreements between labor office and municipalities, 59, 60

   as group arrangements, 213, 228

   omitted in arrangement for ghetto workers, 199

   with individual “free workers,” 81, 243, 279, 286

   See also Rental arrangements for Jewish laborers.

Labor law, special

   codification of, 22, 131, 187, 279

   de facto evolution of, 7, 31, 81, 137, 142, 277

   discrimination against Jews under, xxii, 12, 39, 116, 128

   exclusion of eastern Jews from, 200, 286

   loss of benefits under in annexed eastern territories, 152, 170, 171, 173, 187

   wartime changes in, 9, 10, 238

   See also Labor status of Jews and Decrees.

Labor market

   labor administration responsibility for, 5

   control of Jews’ access to, xiii, 112, 120

   in Austria, 106, 129

   Jewish labor as factor in, 8, 236, 237, 239, 263

   requirements of, xvii, xviii

   See also Economic interests and Labor shortages.

Labor shortages, 110

   as impetus for forced labor, x, 183, 187, 226, 227, 242, 274, 276, 277, 281

   conflict of with ideology, 76, 206, 212

   easing of with foreign Jews, 4, 265

   effects of on extermination plans, 291

   from war mobilizations, 9

   from withdrawal of non-Jewish Polish workers, 236, 259

   in unskilled construction work, 123, 204, 245, 246

   of skilled workers, 12, 157

   See also Economic interests and Labor market.

Labor status of Jewish forced laborers

   as codified special employment classification, 20, 288

   without employment classification or formal labor category, 8, 53, 54

   need for definition of, 8, 11, 12, 128

   viewed as special labor category, 8, 13

“Lazy Jew” stereotype, xvi, 107, 233, 242, 255

Leistungsakkordprämien. See Bonuses, per performance agreements.

Living conditions, harsh

   as cause of forced labor deaths, 292

   for women in labor camps, 41, 42

   for non-Jewish forced laborers, 289

   in ghettos, 200, 201, 251, 253, 254

   in labor camps, 38, 60, 79, 81, 98, 99, 193, 210, 216, 223, 228, 245, 248, 252, 253, 271, 285, 288

   worsening of, 81, 82

   See also Mortality rates, high, and Food.

Lump-sum fees. See Rental arrangements for Jewish laborers.

Marking of Jews, xxiii, 125, 145, 150, 151, 159, 160, 232, 289

   using “J” in passports, 148

   rejection of, 130

   with armbands, 159, 179

   with white stars, 224

   with Stars of David, 19, 87, 150, 160, 161, 180

   See also Segregation of Jews.

Mass murder, 190, 194, 255, 269

   acceleration of, 194, 211, 261, 273

   based on fitness-to-work determination, 283

   construction of facilities for, 257

   exemptions from, xviii, 259, 269, 275

   rationale for in 1941, 290

Ministerium für soziale und Gesundheitsverwaltung. See Ministry for Social and Health Administration.

Ministry for Social and Health Administration (Ministerium für soziale und Gesundheitsverwaltung), 144, 154, 155, 158, 163

Mischlinge

   compensatory payments to, 99

   discriminatory practices against, 84, 87, 91, 94, 95

   deportation of, 100

   exclusion of from military service, 85, 87

   exemption of from deportation, 87, 88, 89, 101

   exemption of from forced labor, 84, 99

   forced community plan for, 88

   forced labor of, xvii, 83, 90, 92, 93, 94, 97, 98, 102, 172, 278, 279, 286

   in camps, 82, 96, 101, 287

   military service of, 84, 85, 88, 90, 92, 94, 101

   plans for forced sterilization of, 86, 87, 90, 101

   policy discussions regarding status of, 84, 87

   racial classification of, 84, 85, 86, 92, 99

   research on, 83

   segregated labor deployment of, 95, 101, 102

   social support of, 84

   special labor battalions/groups for, 89, 90, 91, 100, 101

   use of for OT service, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 101

   See also Sonderkommando J.

Mortality rates, high

   in ghettos, 182, 189

   in labor camps, 74, 225, 286, 292

   See also Living conditions, harsh.

Narodni Arijeká Kulturni Jednotav. See National Aryan Cultural Association.

National Aryan Cultural Association (Narodni Arijeká Kulturni Jednotav), 150

November pogrom (Kristallnacht, November 1938), ix, xvi, xvii, xxiii, xxiv, 5, 30, 34, 45, 81, 83, 84, 112, 132, 136, 277, 279, 293

Nuremberg laws, 84, 145, 148, 280

Oberste Bauleitung der Reichsautobahnen (OBR). See Autobahn construction management headquarters, in Berlin.

Office for placement of Jews (Vienna), 112, 130

“Ohne Hoffnung weiter,” 220

Orders. See Decrees.

Organisation Todt (OT), 89, 90, 219, 252, 278, 286, 291

Osti. See Companies using forced labor, Ostindustrie GmbH.

Otto Program, 184, 185, 217, 248, 249.

   See also Infrastructure modernization, role of forced labor in.

Persons related to Jews by marriage (jüdisch Versippte), 83, 85, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 99, 101, 102

Phrix Werke. See Companies using forced labor, Kurmärkische Zellwolle und Zellulose AG.

Prisoner-of-war camps, 254, 257

Profits from forced labor camps

   to Autobahn authorities and OT, 220

   to local communities and institutions, 40, 41, 82

   to private companies, 204, 283

   to SS, 228, 275

Prohibitions. See Restrictions affecting Jews.

Property Transfer Office (Vermögensverkehrstelle) (Vienna), 111

“Quarter-Jews.” See Mischlinge.

Racial superiority, SS belief in, 244

Raids, 79, 108, 109, 217, 226, 230, 244

   with authorization, 245, 246

   without authorization, 244, 255, 256, 257, 274

   See also Fabrik-Aktion.

Rations. See Food.

Recruitment of Jewish laborers, 16, 135, 137, 172, 187, 189, 226, 234

Registration of Jews, 9, 28, 127, 182, 255

   for war service, 142

   for deportation, 147, 161, 178

   for labor deployment when unemployed, 5, 7, 117, 119, 153, 163, 165, 172, 198, 200, 279

   for forced labor in GG, 231, 232, 233, 236, 237, 242, 250, 251, 258, 268

   resistance to, 112, 243, 244, 254

Reich Association of Jews in Germany. See Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland.

Reich Autobahn Directorates, 197, 202, 204, 208, 209, 212.

   See also Autobahn construction management headquarters.

Reich Institute for Labor Placement and Unemployment Insurance (Reichsanstalt für Arbeitsvermittlung und Arbeitslosenversicherung), 4, 6, 30, 34, 110, 111, 277

Reich Commissar for Reunification of Austria with German Reich (Reichskommissar für Wiedervereinigung Österreichs mit den Deutschen Reich), 106

Reich Insurance Agency (Reichsversicherungsamt), 206

Reich Labor Service, 238

Reich Labor Service camps, 67, 82

Reichsanstalt für Arbeitsvermittlung und Arbeitslosenversicherung (RAfAA). See Reich Institute for Labor Placement and Unemployment Insurance.

Reichskommissar für Wiedervereinigung Österreichs mit den Deutschen Reich. See Reich Commissar for Reunification of Austria with German Reich.

Reichstreuhänder der Arbeit. See Reich Trustee of Labor.

Reichstreuhänder für den Öffentlichen Dienst. See Reich Trustee for Public Service.

Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (Reich Association of Jews in Germany), xxiv, 26, 197

   exclusion of Polish Jews from membership in, 206

   intervention of for Jewish forced laborers, 29, 69, 197, 207

   report of on camps, 75

   support for Jewish forced laborers by, 58, 69

   See also Reichsvereinigung retraining camps.

Reichsvereinigung retraining camps, 43, 49, 286

   administration of by Reichsvereinigung, 14, 46, 47

   administration of by forestry offices, 59

   age breakdown of workers in, 50, 51

   closing of, 40, 41, 45, 57, 58, 79, 80, 81

   control of by RSHA and Gestapo, 42, 52, 81

   deportations from, 78

   instruction and social activities at, 56

   lack of training in, 50, 55

   locations of, 50

   relationship to segregated labor deployment, 47

   removal of Reichsvereinigung from administration of, 57, 58, 59, 60

   transfers among, 51

   transformation of into labor camps, 75, 76, 78

   work performed at, 47, 48, 55, 56, 81

   See also Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland and Reichsvereinigung training estates.

Reichsvereinigung training estates, 44, 45, 46

   as agricultural training sites, 44

   lease of, 47, 56, 58

   sale and lease-back of, 46

   compared to self-supporting estates in Austria, 47

   See also Reichsvereinigung retraining camps.

Reichsversicherungsamt. See Reich Insurance Agency.

Reichsvertretung, 45

Reich Trustee for Public Service (Reichstreuhänder für den Öffentlichen Dienst), 23, 24

Reich Trustee of Labor (Reichstreuhänder der Arbeit), 39, 115, 125, 128

Rental arrangements for Jewish laborers 193

   with labor administration, 195, 228, 284

   with Schmelt Organisation, 220, 222, 229, 284, 285

   with SS in GG, 195, 262, 283

   with SS WVHA for concentration camp prisoners, 223, 262

   See also Labor contracts and Wages of Jewish forced laborers.

Reorganization

   of forced labor camp system, 57, 75, 81

   of forced labor for Jews in mixed marriages, 28, 134, 135

Resettlement. See Deportations.

Restrictions affecting Jews

   causing loss of voting rights, 145

   on changing residences, 179, 180

   on eating, 41

   on economic activity, 153

   on freedom of movement, 38, 39, 42, 130, 148, 151, 160, 233, 286

   on hospital admission, 207

   on leaving camp, 39, 41, 45, 52, 61, 71, 72, 82, 99, 101, 125, 134, 287

   on owning firearms, 146

   on shopping hours, 150

   on use of public establishments and facilities, xxi, xxii, 145, 149, 159

   See also Exclusion of Jews.

Retraining. See Training, vocational

Retraining camps in Austria (Viennese Central Office for Jewish Emigration of SD), 137, 279, 287

   closing of, 129

   administration of by Viennese Jewish Religious Community, 118, 126, 136, 137

   administration of by forestry administration, 118

   location of, 119

Retraining camps of SS (Austria), 126, 137, 287

Schmelt forced-labor system, 217, 218, 222, 223, 275, 282, 286, 287

   camp network of, 228, 285

   camp hierarchy, 224

   closing of camps, 224, 225, 227

   distribution of Polish Jews by, 285

   diversion of wages by, 76, 220, 284

   elimination of wages in, 223

   recruiting by, 217

   registration of Jews for, 216

   workshops of, 220, 227

   See also Autobahn camps and Special Commissioner of Reichsführer SS for Utilization of Foreign Nationals as Labor in Upper Silesia.

Segregated labor deployment (Der Geschlossene Arbeitseinsatz), 3, 31

   and public support, 4, 5, 38

   as applied to non-Jewish workers, 289

   as “free” worker placement, 98, 243

   as Gestapo front for transports, 29, 30

   as mobilization of labor potential, 294

   as model for forced labor, xvii, 280, 288, 289

   Austrian model for, 8, 105, 106, 136, 137, 278, 279

   beginnings of, xvii, 8

   camps for, 7, 81, 199, 218

   conditions under, xiv, 200

   definition of, ix

   end of in Germany, 210

   expansion of, 9, 11, 12, 123, 153, 280

   lack of indemnification for, xv, xvi, 288

   organized by labor administration, 9, 31, 47, 80, 118, 196, 218, 277

   regulations for, 6, 154, 187

   requirements for, 57, 58

   sources on

   supervision of by Gestapo, 155

   statistics on, 14, 18, 19, 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 131

   variants of in eastern territories, 149, 150, 181, 240, 280, 281, 285

   under individual contracts, 277

Segregation of Jews, 110, 156, 260

   as anti-Jewish policy, xxii, xxiv, 112, 120, 232

   as prerequisite to deportation, 131

   by concentration in “Jewish houses,” xxiv, 66, 91, 159

by concentration in separate residential areas, xxiii, 5, 26, 62, 151, 161, 162, 177, 266, 267

   by placement in labor camps, 33, 34, 81, 156, 233, 268

   in separate work columns, x, 6, 30, 34, 112, 114, 120, 136, 163, 188, 232, 278, 280

   in workplaces, 6, 111, 154

   not strictly enforced, 150, 172

   with goal of social isolation, xvii, xxiii, 145, 157, 278, 294

   See also Anti-Jewish policy, Ghettos, and Marking of Jews.

Selection of Jewish forced laborers

   according to fitness to work, 258, 283

   by Jewish community, 155

   by labor offices, 256, 275

   for extermination, 262

   in Schmelt camps, 226, 286

   multi-agency/multi-company cooperation in, 278

   See also Fitness-to-work examinations.

Social insurance for Jewish forced laborers

   elimination of, 267, 281

   lack of, 53, 242

   provision of, 59, 125

   paying for without receiving, 248

   See also Benefits for Jewish forced laborers and Health insurance for Jewish forced laborers.

Soviet Union as source of slave labor 290

Sonderbeauftragter des Reichsführers der SS für fremdvölkischen Arbeitseinsatz in Oberschlesien. See Special Commissioner of Reichsführer SS for Utilization of Foreign Nationals as Labor in Upper Silesia.

Sonderkommando J, 100.

   See also Mischlinge.

Special Commissioner of Reichsführer SS for Utilization of Foreign Nationals as Labor in Upper Silesia (Sonderbeauftragter des Reichsführers der SS für fremdvölkischen Arbeitseinsatz in Oberschlesien), 220, 223, 275, 286

   appointment of, 216, 284

   assumption of control by, 217, 218, 275

   camps withdrawn from, 228

   end of career of, 228

   expansion of control by, 199, 212, 223, 226, 227

   peak of power of, 227

   See also Schmelt forced-labor system.

SS organization

   corruption of, 249

   mission of, 249

SS Organisation Schmelt. See Schmelt forced-labor system.

Stadthauptmänner, 238, 240, 241, 244, 247, 248

Taxes on Jewish forced laborers, 199

   anti-Jewish tax on income (Austria)

   “head taxes” for losses from Jewish resettlement, 69

   social equalization taxes, 17, 40, 152

   special taxes, 289

   wage taxes, 267, 289

   See also Wage deductions, discriminatory.

Training, vocational, 44

   cancellation of, 60, 130

   financed by forced labor, 19

   in agriculture for emigration, 118, 151, 152

   Jews’ need for, 46, 47

   of skilled workers, 225

   of replacements for Jewish craftsmen, 264

   provision of by Reichsvereinigung, 58

   reduction of funds for, 58

Training estate at Linden, 152

Transfer of Jewish forced laborers

   among camps in Schmelt sytem, 223

   from Autobahn camps to armaments work, 208, 209, 212, 222

   from labor camps to concentration camps, 228, 264, 270, 271

   to external camp sites, 8, 31, 34, 137, 253, 279

   to industry, 59, 209

Transfer of Jewish forced laborers, interregional, 8, 29, 59, 75, 117, 129, 130, 168, 269

   ban on by Hitler, 130, 185, 201, 202

   from Austrian to German camps, 112, 113, 114, 115, 279, 287

   from Poland to Reich, 196, 201, 202, 275, 291

   involvement of labor administration in, 285

   violations of Hitler’s ban on, 202, 291

Unemployment of Jews

   as basis for forced labor, 6, 112, 118, 279, 281

   as consequence of anti-Jewish policy, xvi, 143, 274, 276

   growth of, 113, 122, 214

   need for social assistance due to, 110, 111, 136, 148, 149, 153, 157, 237, 277, 280

   resulting in exclusion from social support, 236

   See also Anti-Jewish policy and Impoverishment of Jews.

Vermögensverkehrstelle. See Property Transfer Office.

Viennese Jewish Religious Community (Israelitische Kulturgemeinde), 118, 126, 127, 128, 129, 131

   employees of, 131, 133

   liquidation of, 134

   provision of forced laborers by, 133

   recruitment by, 119

   social support from, 52, 123

Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz. See Ethnic German self-defense corps.

Wage deductions, discriminatory, 40, 187, 204, 270

   camp costs, 52, 53, 54

   costs for camp repairs, 67

   fees for administrative expenses, 69

   fees for family maintenance, 262

   fees for worker maintenance, 262, 267

   fees for food, 76, 126, 199

   rent for housing, 68, 69, 82

   “social charges,” 199.

   See also Taxes on Jewish forced laborers.

Wage level determination for Jewish forced laborers, 13

   at set minimum wages, 12, 17, 81, 122, 125

   by exclusion from contractual wage scales, 128

   by special wage scale, 39, 40, 240, 243

   by proposed special wage scale, 115

   by standard wage scale, 23, 24, 52, 54, 57, 59, 81, 156, 182

   without wage scale, 56

   without observing minimum wages, 284

   See also Wages of Jewish forced laborers.

Wages of Jewish forced laborers

   as reimbursement, 81

   elimination of, 262, 283

   inadequacy of, 7, 17, 33, 98, 127, 204, 220, 247, 248, 252, 253, 287

   in government share certificates, 171

   intervention to prevent reduction of, 40

   lack of, 43, 52, 118, 137, 191, 235, 237, 242, 256, 274, 283

   need for clarification of, 241

   payment of to community collective fund, 200, 204

   payment of to ghetto account, 187, 199

   redirection of to controlling agency, 76, 254, 267, 283

   reduction of, 22, 23, 24, 125, 126, 152, 156, 171, 173, 195

   replacement of by bonuses, 54

   replacement of by group rental systems, 195, 284

   used to finance ghettos, 220

   See also Bonuses, Rental arrangements for Jewish laborers, and Wage level determination for Jewish forced laborers.

Wannsee Conference, 24, 86

Wirtschafts-und Verwaltungshauptamt der SS (WVHA). See Economic and Administrative Main Office of SS.

Work performance

   as affected by exhaustion, 191, 192

   as reason for continued employment 168

   inadequacy of, 29, 115, 125, 193

   linkage of to wage level, 17, 23, 76, 156

   negative effect of incapacitated workers on, 17

   relationship of to food, 74, 182, 190, 191, 252, 262

   repressive measures for when poor, 190, 191, 251

   See also Food (rations) for Jewish forced laborers.

WVHA. See Economic and Administrative Main Office of SS.

Zentralstelle für jüdische Auswanderung (Prag). See Central Office for Jewish Emigration in Prague.

Zentralstelle für jüdische Auswanderung (Wien). See Office for Jewish Emigration in Vienna.

Ziag. See Companies using forced labor, Ziegelindustrie AG “Ziag.”

Zwangsarbeitslager. See Schmelt forced-labor camps.

Zwangsgemeinschaft. See Forced community.





Table of Decrees of Orders on Forced Labor
Date Source Region Subject Pages
May, 1938 Hitler Reich on forced labor for “criminal” Jews 108
Dec 20, 1938 Reich Institute Reich on segregated labor deployment See Index of Subjects, Decrees on forced labor
May 19, 1939 Labor Ministry Reich on segregated labor deployment 8
Oct 26, 1939 GG GG on forced labor for Jews 231, 242
Dec 2, 1939 HSSPF GG creating Jewish work columns 231
Dec 11, 1939 GG GG implementing forced labor 233
Jun 3, 1940 Labor Ministry Reich reducing social benefits 12
Jul 5, 1940 GG GG on transition of forced labor 247
Jul 27, 1940 Greiser Warthegau on wage scales for Jews 182
Jan 23, 1941 Czech Gov Protectorate requiring forced labor for Jews 153
May 9, 1941 Czech Ministry Protectorate on forced labor procedures 154
Aug 29, 1941 Czech Ministry Protectorate expanding compulsory labor 158
Sep 9, 1941 Czech Ministry Protectorate on segregated labor deployment 163
Aug 14, 1941 Rosenberg Occupied SU on labor obligation of Jews 255
Sep 20, 1941 GG Galicia/GG on labor obligation of Jews 255
Oct 3, 1941 Körner BVP Reich codifying special labor law for Jews See Index of Subjects, Decrees on forced labor
Oct 31, 1941 Labor Ministry Reich implementing October 3 decree 22
Jun 25, 1942 Reichsstatthalter, Labor dep Warthegau on employment of Jewish forced labor 186, 191
Jun 25, 1942 GG/Labor Dep GG transition of forced labor to SS
Jul 17, 1942 Czech Gov Protectorate reducing social benefits 171
Feb 24, 1943 Gestapo Reich ordering Fabrik-Aktion 79
Oct 6, 1944 RSHA Reich second Fabrik-Aktion 95




Index of Persons

Adler, H.G., xi

Bach, Werner, 96

Balzer, Erich, 93

Bamberg, Herbert, 97

Barkai, Avraham, xi

Baur, Gerhard, 96

Bayerl (Zlín district administrator), 149

Bechtoldt (Entrepreneur in Kelkheim), 7

Becker, Günter, 97

Biebow, Hans, 181, 189

Bloch, Klaus, 96

Blumenstein, Georg, 97

Böck, Malvine, 135

Böhme, Horst, 160, 161, 162

Bormann, Martin, 85, 88, 90

von Brauchitsch, Walther, 178

Breitkreuz, Günther, 97

Briesemeister, Arthur, 96

Browning, Christopher, xii, 182, 253, 260, 292

Budy, Kurt, 97

Bürckel, Josef, 106, 110–111, 112, 113, 120–121

Byk, Dietrich, 96

Cahn, Mathilde, 12

Cahn, Robert, 12, 16

Conti, Leonardo, 85, 99

Darré, Richard Walther, 54

Drechsel (mayor of Petrikau), 180

Eckart (city commissioner Tarnow), 238

Eichmann, Adolf, 21, 78, 109, 110, 119, 120, 121, 126–127, 146–147, 161, 169

Eliaš, Alois, 141, 142, 161

Felix, Ruth, 151

Ferencz, Benjamin, xvi

Fischl, Rudolf, xv

Forster (Wehrmacht Senior Quartermaster), 263

Frank, Hans, 231, 257, 269

Frank, Karl Hermann, 141, 151, 159–160, 161

Frauendorfer, Max, 239–241, 245, 247, 259

Frick, Wilhelm, 160, 177

Gärtner, Friedrich, 108, 110–111, 112–113, 118, 119, 136

Gerlach, Christian, 260

Gerteis, Adolf, 264

Gimpel, Abel, 230

Globocznik, Odilo, xiii, 234, 235, 244, 246, 249, 257, 265, 271, 273

Goebbels, Joseph, 89, 90–91, 101, 160, 291

Goldhagen, Daniel J., x

Göring, Hermann, xvii, xxiv, 45–46, 92, 108, 120, 136, 177, 183, 201, 260

Graf, Wilhelm, 7

Greiser, Arthur, 180, 182, 183, 185, 194, 196, 201

Groß, Walter, 86

Gschließer (General Governor’s office), 248–249

Günther, Hans, 168

Hácha, Emil, 141, 161

Hartmann (SS officer in Lublin), 257

Heine (Lublin district official), 235

Heydrich, Reinhard, xxii, 3, 21, 45, 46, 85, 86–87, 109, 144, 146, 161, 162, 169, 170, 177–178, 232

Hilberg, Raul, xi

Himmler, Heinrich, 29, 90, 91, 95, 99, 101, 121, 148, 177, 178, 183, 192, 194, 200, 210, 214, 220, 228, 235, 240, 259, 260, 261, 263, 265, 266, 269, 270, 278, 284, 291

Hitler, Adolf, ix, 3, 14, 25, 76–77, 85, 86, 87, 90–92, 94, 101, 106, 108, 121, 130, 142, 146, 160, 161, 177, 185, 202, 206, 227, 235, 257, 265, 275, 277, 278, 291, 294

Höfle, Hermann, 258

Holland, Ernst, 16, 25

Hollitscher, Hedy, 108

Jacoby, Heinz, 59

Jezek, Josef, 125

Kahn, Walter, 59

Kaienburg, Hermann, x

Kaiser (Lublin district official), 235

Kaltenbrunner, Ernst, 89–90, 92, 95, 101, 255–256, 269

Katzmann, Friedrich, 255–256, 258, 261–262, 266, 270

Keitel, Wilhelm, 85, 86, 89, 91, 263

Klemperer, Victor, 28, 79

Koch, Karl Otto, 257

Kolmar, Gertrud, xiv

Krainer (Lublin district official), 235

Krause (Leer hydraulic construction office employee), 114

Krüger, Answald, 98

Krüger, Friedrich, 231, 233, 240, 245, 259, 264, 265, 269

Krüger, Helmut, 98

Krurup (Siemens employee), 41

Kufner (carpenter in Neugedein), 164

Kwiet, Konrad, xi

Lammers, Hans Heinrich, 86, 159–160

Landré, Berta, 171

Lasch, Karl, 256

Lautrich, Rudolf, 193

Lischka, Kurt, 46

Lösener, Bernhard, 21, 141–142

Lustig, Walter, 206

Magier, Itla, 51

Manheimer, Max, 150

Marder, Karl, 186

Matthäus, Jürgen, 293

Müller, Heinrich, 121, 125, 146

Muth (Lublin district official), 235

N., Herbert, 51

Nadir, Ehud, 107

von Neurath, Konstantin, 141, 142, 161

Opitz, Walter, 125

Parnes, Jozef, 258

Pohl, Oswald, 209, 264–265, 270–271

Rafelsberger, Walter, 111

Rei, Elias, 251

Reuter, Fritz, 258

Rosenberg, Arthur, 255

Rosenberg, Heinz, 38

Rosenkranz, Herbert, xii

Rumkowski, Mordechai Chaim, 181

Sauckel, Fritz, 92–93, 95, 101, 265

Scherner, Julian, 269

Schiffer (mayor of Lodz), 181

Schindler, Max, 259

Schmelt, Albrecht, 216–217, 220, 226, 228, 275, 285

Schönberg, Rudolf, 223

Schönleben, Eduard, 202

Schriesheimer, Hugo, ix, 294

Schubin (Altburgund District Commissar), 192

Schulte, Jan Erik, 272

Schultz, B.K., 90

Sierakowiak, Dawid, 200

Slawik, Alfred, 126

Smagon, Albert, 224

Specht (SS officer in Krakau), 268

Speer, Albert, 62, 89, 194, 264–265

Spiegel, Marga, xiv

Stahlecker, Franz Walther, 144

Steinbacher, Sybille, 285

Streckenbach, Bruno, 239

Stuckart, Wilhelm, 85, 86, 87, 88, 145–146, 160

Syrup, Friedrich, 6, 14, 177

Tidow, Walter, 238–239

Todt, Fritz, 183, 196–197, 198

Türk, Richard, 235

Uebelhör, Friedrich, 179, 180–181

Walcher, Robert, 126

Walter, Margarete, 40

Wisliceny, Dieter, 224

Wolf, Karla, xiv

Wolff, Reinhard, 208

Wurm (police official in Galicia), 254

Zörner, Ernst, 258





Index of Places and Camps

Aachen (camp), 62, 63

Absdorf (camp), 119

Aggsbach (camp), 118–119

Aggstein (camp), 118–119

Ahlem near Hanover (camp), 49, 58, 63, 66

Ahrensdorf near Luckenwalde (camp), 49, 58

Altenburg, 96

Altenhain (camp), 219

Altburgund, 192

Altlandsberg in Niederbarnim Kreis (camp), 49

Alt Ratibor, 162

Alt Tabor, 158

Amersfoort in Holland (camp), 96

Anhalt (camp), 219

Annaberg (camp), 212, 219, 220, 223, 228

Annexed Czech territories. See Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia

Annexed Polish territories. See Occupied Polish territories

Arnsberg. See Neheim Hüsten in Arnsberg-Im Ohl 76

Arnstadt, 97

Aschaffenburg, 95

Aschendorf-Hümmling, 36

Aschersleben (camp), 41, 116, 134

Assel near Stade (camp), 49

Atsch near Aachen. See Stolberg-Atsch near Aachen

Auenrode (camp), 219

August Street. See Berlin-August Street

Aurich, 114

Auschwitz (Oświçcim) (camp), 80, 193, 194, 211, 219, 226–228, 264, 269, 273, 285, 286–287, 291

Auschwitz (Oswiecim) (town), 217–218, 230

Aussig, 65

Austria, xii, xv, xvi, xvii, 4, 27, 47, 88, 106, 121, 127–128, 137, 142–143, 144, 148, 149, 152, 155, 159, 160, 163, 170, 173, 177, 186, 190, 197, 209, 216, 276, 279, 280, 287–288, 290, 291, 293

Baden, 93

Bad Ischl. See Mitterweißenbach-Ebensee, Bad Ischl

Baltic States, 281

Barnim, 50

Barrandow, 158

Baurowitz, 158

Bavaria, 96, 273

Bedburg, 93

Bedzin. See Bendsburg

Beelitz (camp), 203, 207, 209

Beerfelde near Fürstenwalde (camp), 49

Beeskow

Behlenfelde (camp), 49, 80

Belgrade, 18

Belsyce (camp), 248

Belzec (camp), 244, 249, 257–258, 262

Bendsburg (Bedzin), 217–218, 220, 225, 227, 284

Beneschau, 164

Berg am Laim. See Munich-Berg am Laim

Bergheim near Cologne, 65

Bergkamen-Zur Grünen Eiche (camp), 94

Berkenbrück (camp), 49

Berlin, 4, 15–16, 21, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 41, 44, 57, 60, 62, 63, 75, 76–77, 80, 86, 92, 98, 120, 121, 130, 131, 142, 147, 159, 183, 187, 199, 200, 202–204, 205, 206–207, 209, 228, 250, 264, 269–271, 272, 278, 290–291

Berlin (Siemens camp), 35

Berlin-August Street (camp), 77

Berlin-Brandenburg, 34, 122

Berlin-Große Hamburger Street (transit camp), 80

Berlin-Schöneweide, 17

Berlin-Wannsee (camp), 49, 58, 75, 209

Beuel, 76

Biala Polaska, 230

Bialystok (ghetto), 270–271

Bielefeld (town), 51

Bielefeld I-4 Koblenzer Street/73a Schloßhof Street (camp), 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 56, 60, 66, 75, 79

Birkesdorf near Aachen (camp), 96

Bitterfeld, 45

Blankenburg in the Harz Mountains (camp), 97

Blaschkowitz near Aussig (camp), 64

Blechhammer-Ehrenforst (camp), 220, 226, 228

Bobrek, 228

Boelcke Street. See Halle an der Saale

Bohemia, 161–162. See also Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia

Bolechow (camp), 270

Bolechow (town), 267

Bomsdorf, 45

Bonn (Kreis), 50

Bonn (town), 73–74

Bonn-6 Kapellen Street (camp), 63, 64, 67, 68, 70, 71, 72, 73–74, 76, 77

Boosen (camp), 49, 80

Borki Wielki (camp), 270

Bornheim, 76

Borowosee (camp), 203, 204

Borstel near Stendal (camp), 97

Boryslaw (camp), 270

Boulogne (camp), 93

Brande (camp), 212, 219, 222, 226

Brandenburg, 48, 49–50, 53, 59, 60, 62, 75, 78, 79, 80, 81, 184, 197, 203, 206, 208, 209, 210–213, 286

Brätz (camp), 203

Braunlage (camp), 97

Braunschweig, 27, 96

Breckenheim, 18

Bremen, 29, 181

Breslau (town), 26, 27, 63, 65, 67, 69, 73, 94, 185, 202, 204, 205, 211–212, 216, 217, 218, 220, 222, 226, 285

Breslau-Herrenprotsch, 223

Breslau-New Graupen Street (camp), 64

Brieg, 65, 204

Britz near Eberswalde (camp), 208

Brno. See Brünn

Broschnikow (camp), 270

Bründlgschütt near Eisenerz (camp), 124

Brünn (Brno) (camp), 228

Brünn (Brno) (district), 158

Brünn (Brno) (town), 145, 148, 149, 167

Buchenwald (camp), 273

Bug (river), 235

Burgenland, 124

Burg near Magdeburg (OT camp), 97

Burg Veynau. See Euskirchen near Bonn

Buxtehude an der Röbke (special labor camp), 33, 35

Cäcilien Street. See Cologne-18–12 Cäcilien Street

Carinthia, 123–124

Chelm, 253

Chelmno. See Kulmhof

Christianstadt (camp), 208

Cologne (town), 26, 62, 67, 93, 205

Cologne-18–22 Cäcilien Street (camp), 64

Cologne-Ehrenfeld, 85 Otto Street (camp), 64

Cologne-Müngersdorf, Fort V (camp), 26, 64, 67, 73, 78, 82

Cottbus, 49

Czech Republic, 137, 141–173, 280. See also Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia

Czestochowa, 194, 248, 260

Dachau (camp), 109, 273

Danzig, 178, 201, 202–204, 205, 280

Danzig Corridor, 203

Dellmensingen (camp), 64, 67

Dembica (town), 242. See also Pustkow near Dembica

Dembica-Lignose camp, 243

Denzburg (camp), 116

Deutsch Brod, 167

Deutsch Brod-Linden Estate (camp), 152, 170

Deutschhöhe (camp), 203

Diepholz, 115

Dönigheim, 25

Doppl. See Rohrbach-Doppl

Doppl near Altenfelden (camp), 124, 126, 152

Dortmund, 38, 94

Dreetz near Neustadt an der Dosse (camp), 208

Dresden, 18, 27, 78, 79

Dresden-Hellerberg (camp), 64, 78–79

Drevnica, (camp), 251

Drohobycz (camp), 270

Drohobycz (town), 256

Drösing near Marchegg (camp), 124

Duisburg, 4, 27, 93, 96

Dumpte near Borghorst (camp), 35

Düsseldorf, 22, 27

Dyhernfurt (camp), 224

Eastern Poland, xiii

Eastern Upper Silesia, 147, 178, 204, 205, 214–228, 231, 284–285, 286

East Friesland, 41, 117

East Prussia, 185, 213

Ebenfurth, 124

Ebensee. See Mitterweißenbach-Ebensee, Bad Ischl

Eberswalde (camp), 210, 211

Ebmatten. See Kaprun at Ebmatten-Limberg Dam

Ehrenfeld. See Cologne-Ehrenfeld, 85 Otto Street

Ehrenforst. See Blechhammer-Ehrenforst

Eichkamp (camp), 93

Eichow-Krieschow (camp), 49, 56, 58

Eichsfeld. See Hüpstedt in Eichsfeld

Eichtal (camp), 212

Eintrachthütte (camp), 228

Eisenerz (camp), 124

Eisenerz (town), 125, 287

Elbe (river), 158

Elben (camp), 94

Ellguth (town), 45

Ellguth near Steinau (camp), 49, 57, 58

Emigrant Retraining Camp. See Gänserndorf-Emigrant Retraining Camp

Ems (river and dikes), 114–115

Emsland, 112

Ernstbrunn (camp), 124

Eschenau near Heilbronn (camp), 64

Eschwege near Kassel (camp), 64

Eschweiler-Stich near Aachen (camp), 64

Essen (town), 220, 265

Essen-Steele, Holbeckshof (camp), 63, 64, 67

Europe, 273, 290, 293

Euskirchen (town), 77

Euskirchen near Bonn-Burg Veynau (camp), 64

Falkenberg, 49

Falkenberg-Westmark (camp), 94

Faulbrück (camp), 219, 223, 226

Finkenheerd (camp), 203, 209

Fischamend Kafka (camp), 119

Fischamend Pecina (camp), 119

Flössingen (camp), 219

Fort V. See Cologne-Müngersdorf, Fort V

France, 9, 93, 94, 96, 101, 278

Frankenberg, 35

Frankfurt am Main, xiv, 7–8, 10–11, 12–13, 15, 16, 17, 18–19, 20, 21–22, 23–24, 25–26, 28–30, 31, 34, 40–41, 96, 278

Frankfurt an der Oder, 49, 79, 81, 198–200, 201, 203, 207, 210

Freideck (district), 151

Freienstein, 45

Friedrichssegen near Koblenz (camp), 63, 64, 67

Fulda, 49

Fürstenberg (camp), 208

Fürstengrube (camp), 228

Fürstenwalde, 48–49, 59

Galicia, xiii, xviii, 217, 256, 258, 261–262, 266–267, 269, 270, 271, 273, 274, 282, 283, 288, 291

Gänserndorf (camp), 124

Gardelegen (camp), 97

Garzau at Straußberg near Berlin (camp), 49

Garzin (camp), 49

Gaya, 159

Gehringshof near Fulda (camp), 45, 49, 56, 58

General Government, xii–xiii, xv, xvii–xviii, 9, 14, 20, 121, 128, 129–130, 160, 173, 183, 191, 195, 202, 216, 217, 229, 230–275, 276, 281–285, 288, 290, 291, 293

Geppersdorf (camp), 212, 219

Germany, xiv, xv, xvi, xvii, xviii, xx, xxii, xxiii, 3–31, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 44, 46, 47, 55, 62, 65, 71, 77, 79, 80, 86, 87, 88, 92, 93, 94, 101, 105, 107, 110, 113, 116, 117, 118, 119, 121, 122, 127, 128, 130, 131, 132, 135, 136–137, 143, 144, 146, 147, 149, 152, 155, 156, 159, 160, 163, 170, 173, 177, 180, 183, 185–186, 187, 190, 191, 195, 196–213, 214, 216, 217, 224–225, 229, 231, 240, 254, 259, 263, 264, 274, 276–278, 279, 280–281, 282, 284, 285–291, 293–294

Gerolding (camp), 119

Gleidingen near Sarstedt (camp)

Gleiwitz (town), 204, 211

Gleiwitz I, II, and III, (camps), 228

Gnesen, 178, 188

Godesberg, 76

Gogolin (camp), 212, 219

Göllersdorf (camp), 124

Golleschau (camp), 228

Görlitz, 63, 67, 71

Gotenhafen, 251

Gräditz (camp), 219

Graz, 125

Greater German Reich, 146, 160, 173, 180, 288, 291

Greimerath near Wittlich (camp), 205

Groß-Breesen near Obernigk (camp), 45, 49, 57, 78

Groß-Gaglow near Cottbus, 44

Groß-Kamsdorf (camp), 97

Groß-Krut (camp), 124

Gross Ossek, 158

Groß-Rosen (camp), 228, 287

Groß-Sarne (camp), 212, 219

Grüner Weg. See Paderborn-86 Grüner Weg

Grünheide (camp), 212, 219

Grunow near Wutschdorf, (camp), 203

Grüsen near Frankenburg, 45

Grüssau near Waldenburg (camp), 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 78, 79, 80

Günthergrube (camp), 228

Güttland an der Weichsel (camp), 280

Haigerloch (camp), 64, 68, 69, 75

Haina Monastery (camp), 35

Halberstadt, 45

Haldensleben (camp), 41, 117

Halle an der Saale (town), 29, 74, 94

Halle an der Saale-Boelcke Street (camp), 29, 64, 72, 76, 97

Hamburg, 4, 26, 29, 33, 38, 40, 60, 91, 94, 95, 99–100, 102

Hamburger Street. See Berlin-Große Hamburger Street

Hamburg-Horner Racetrack (camp), 100

Hamburg-Ohlsdorf Cemetery (camp), 100

Hamm (camp), 64, 66, 77, 93, 97

Hammerhof Estate. See Ottertal-Hammerhof Estate

Hanau, 25

Hangelsberg an der Spree-Wulkow Estate (camp), 49, 53, 55, 59, 78, 80

Hanover, 66, 112, 114, 205

Hasenfelde (camp), 49

Havelberg (camp), 47, 49, 58

Hechaluz, 119

Heidebreck, 226

Hermannsdorf (camp), 219

Hesse, 6, 8, 16, 24, 35–36

Hesse-Nassau, 7, 184

Hildesheim, 37

Hinterwalden (camp), 192

Hluboczek (camp), 270

Hluboš (camp), 152

Hofheim im Taunus, 18

Hohegaste (camp), 117

Hohe Tauern

Hohensalza, 178, 188, 193

Hohenwalde near Frankfurt an der Oder (camp), 49

Hohenwarte-Saale Dam (camp), 35–37, 40, 75

Holbeckshof. See Essen-Steele, Holbeckshof

Hölingen near Wildeshausen (camp), 36, 115, 117, 123

Holland, 96

Holleschau, 149, 159

Homberg

Höringshausen im Sauerland (camp), 35, 38

Horner Racetrack. See Hamburg-Horner Racetrack

Hrubieschow, 249

Hundsfeld, 226

Hungarian Brod, 159

Hungary, 273

Hüpstedt in Eichsfeld (camp), 64, 66, 67, 77

Iglau (district), 165, 167

Iglau (town), 142, 163

Im Ohl 76. See Neheim Hüsten in Arnsberg-Im Ohl 76

Irsch (camp), 64

Jägerslust Estate near Flensburg (camp), 45

Jakobsdorf near Frankfurt an der Oder (camp), 49, 80

Jaktorow (camp), 270

Jänichendorf (camp), 51

Janinagrube (camp), 228

Janowska. See Lemberg-Janowska

Jawischowitz (camp), 228

Jedrzejow (camp), 192

Jena (camp), 63, 64

Jena (town), 97

Jerichow, 50

Jessen-Mühle near Sommersfeld (camp), 49, 58

Jewish Labor Home. See Radinkendorf-Jewish Labor Home

Jezernia (camp), 270

Jitschin, 167

Johannsdorf (camp), 212 (∗ Ch 7, note 80 puts this camp in Lower Silesia), 219, 226

Jößnitz (camp), 35

Judenburg, 124

Jülich (camp), 96

Jungbunzlau, 165

Jüterbog, 50

Kaisermühl (camp), 49, 78, 80

Kalek, 172

Kalisch (district), 179

Kamienna, 171

Kamionki (camp), 270

Kammwald, 168

Kapellen Street. See Bonn-6 Kapellen Street

Kaprun (camp), 124

Kaprun at Ebmatten-Limberg Dam (camp), 122, 124

Kassel (town), 8, 27, 36, 99

Kassel-Bettenhausen (camp), 97

Kassel-Niederzwehren, Wartekuppe (camp), 64

Kattowitz (Katowice), 121, 122, 146, 214, 249, 251

Kelkheim im Taunus (camp), xv, 36, 39, 40–41, 285

Kelkheim im Taunus (town), xiv–xv, 7–8, 34, 40, 41

Kersdorf near Briesen (camp), 49, 59, 80

Kielce, 252, 273

Kladno, 158, 168, 169

Klagenfurt (camp), 124

Klattau, 158, 163–164, 165

Klein-Kuntschitz, 151

Klein-Mangersdorf (camp), 212, 219

Klettendorf (camp), 219, 223

Klomna near Lask (camp), 192

Klumtschau, 164

Kobbensen (camp), 117

Kobenz near Knittelfeld (camp), 124, 125

Koblenz, 36, 93

Koblenzer Street. See Bielefeld-4 Koblenzer Street/73a-Schloßhof Street

Kolín, 158, 164, 165

Kolmar, 188

Kolomea, 262

Komotau, 172

Königgrätz, 164, 165, 167

Königsberg, 27, 184–185, 202

Kosaki (camp), 270

Kosel, 227

Kostel, 159

Kottingbrunn (camp), 119

Krakow (district), 231, 233, 240, 242, 244, 245–246, 252, 268–269, 271

Krakow (ghetto), 260, 268, 269

Krakow (Kreis), 251, 268–269

Krakow (town), 147, 178, 202, 217, 232, 238–239, 241, 248, 249, 261, 283

Kremplhof near Eisenerz (camp), 124

Krenau, 223

Kreuzsee near Reppen (camp), 203, 207–208, 210

Krieschow. See Eichow-Krieschow

Krosno, 252

Kulmhof (Chelmno), 190

Kunzendorf, 158

Kurowice (camp), 270

Küstrin near Neustadt (camp), 203, 208, 211

Kutno, 188

Lackie (camp), 270

Laer (camp), 36

Lagischa (camp), 228

Lahde at Petershagen (camp), 36

Landersdorf (camp), 118–119

Langbielau (camp), 223

Laupheim near Ulm (camp), 64, 67, 75

Laurahütte (camp), 228

Lautawerk near Senftenberg, 208

Lavamünd (camp), 124, 134

Lebus, 48, 49–50, 60

Leda (river), 114

Leda-Jümme, 114–115

Leer (town), 36, 39, 116, 117

Leer I (camp), 117

Leer II (camp)

Leimnitz (camp), 203

Leipzig, 4, 123

Lemberg (ghetto), 268

Lemberg (Lvov) (town), 254–255, 256, 258, 261–262, 266–267, 270

Lemberg-Janowska (camp), 262, 266, 270, 271, 273

Leoben near Eisenerz (camp), 124

Leslau, 188

Letnian, 158

Leuna (camp), 97

Liebenau I near Schwiebus (camp), 203

Liebenau II (camp), 203

Lignose. See Dembica-Lignose camp

Limberg Dam. See Kaprun at Ebmatten-Limberg Dam

Limburg, 63

Linden Estate. See Deutsch Brod-Linden Estate

Lindenhain (camp), 219

Lipowa (camp), 257

Lissa, 188

Litzmannstadt (ghetto), xvii, xviii, 132, 162, 166, 169, 184, 187, 189–192, 193–195, 199–200, 202, 205, 210, 212, 253, 274–275, 282, 286

Litzmannstadt (Lodz) (town), 188, 251

Lodz. See Litzmannstadt

Lohhof near Munich (camp), 36, 42, 75

Losenitz, 158

Löwenstadt (camp), 183

Lower Danube, 47, 124, 130

Lower Lahn, 63

Lower Rhine, 123

Lower Saxony, 7, 33, 35, 36, 37, 80, 96, 113, 114–117, 136, 183

Lower Silesia, 65, 212, 216, 218, 222, 223, 228, 275

Lublin (camp), 265, 269, 273

Lublin (district), xiii, xviii, 148, 231, 233, 235–236, 238–239, 247, 249–251, 253, 268–269, 270–272, 273, 274, 282, 288

Lublin (ghetto), 260, 282

Lublin (town), 129, 178, 192, 217, 234, 244, 256–257

Luxemburg, 205

Lvov. See Lemberg

Magdeburg, 41–42, 130

Mährisch-Ostrau (Moravská Ostrava), 56, 121, 122, 146–148, 151, 164, 165–166

Mainz

Majdanek (camp), 257, 270–271

Malmeritz (camp), 158

Mannheim, 34

Marchegg I (camp), 124

Marchegg II (camp), 124

Marchfeld (camp), 111

Mark Brandenburg. See Brandenburg

Markendorff (camp), 50

Markhof (camp), 119

Markstädt-Fünfteichen (camp), 209, 219, 220, 223, 225, 227

Marxheim, 18

Masselwitz (camp), 226

Mauthausen (camp), 273, 280–287, 292

Mechtal (camp), 219, 223, 226

Meschede (camp), 38

Miechów, 247

Milbertshofen. See Munich-Milbertshofen

Miltitz-Roitzschen (camp), 98

Minsk, 134, 169

Mitterweißenbach-Ebensee, Bad Ischl (camp), 124

Moldova (Vltava) (river), 158

Moosbrunn (camp), 119

Moravia, 172. See also Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia

Moravska, 171

Moravská Ostrova. See Mährisch-Ostrau

Mortier near Paris, 96

Moscow, 208

Much at Siegkreis (camp), 65, 67, 68, 70, 71–72, 74, 77

Mühle near Sommerfeld. See Jessen-Mühle near Sommerfeld

Müncheberg (camp), 50

Müngersdorf. See Cologne-Müngersdorf

Munich (town), 27, 62, 67

Munich-Berg am Laim (camp), 65, 67, 69, 70, 72–73, 75

Munich-Milbertshofen (camp), 63, 65, 67, 70, 77–78

Münichholz near Steyr (camp), 124, 287. See also Waidhofen-Sandhof Estate

Münster, 36

Neheim Hüsten in Arnsberg-Im Ohl 76. (camp), 65, 66, 79

Neisse (river), 71

Neu-Dachs (camp), 228

Neudorf, 158

Neuendorf near Fürstenwalde an der Spree (camp), 44, 45, 50, 51, 53, 56, 59, 60, 75, 78, 79–80

Neufeld an der Leitha (camp), 124

Neugedein, 164

Neukirch, 226

Neumühle Estate near Straußberg (camp), 50, 80

Neu-Sandez (Nowy Sacz), 240–241

Neutrebbin (camp), 50

Nieder-Absdorf (camp), 119

Niederbardenberg near Aachen (camp), 37–65

Niederbarnim, 49

Niederkirch (camp), 212, 220

Niederlausitz, 49–50, 208

Niederzwehren. See Kassel-Niederzwehren, Wartekuppe

Niesky, 71

Nisko am San (camp), 56, 121, 147, 214

Njebielow (camp), 270

Nordhausen (camp), 41–42, 117, 134

Nordmark, 33

North Africa, 293

Nowy Sacz. See Neu-Sandez

Nuremberg, 27

Oberbarnim, 50

Oberlausitz, 35–65

Obernigk (camp), 219

Obersdorf (camp), 50

Oberstotzingen near Ulm (camp), 65, 67, 68

Occupied Eastern Territories, 75, 237, 284

Occupied Polish territories, xiii, xvi, 173, 177–195, 196, 230, 232, 248, 280–288, 290, 293. See also Poland

Occupied Soviet territories, 290, 293. See also Soviet Union

Oderbruch-Seelow National Research Estate (camp), 50, 78

Oersdorf (camp), 36, 38

Ohlsdorf Cemetery. See Hamburg-Ohlsdorf Cemetery

Oldenburg, 117

Old Reich. See Germany

Olmütz, 150, 163, 164

Oppeln, 214, 216, 217

Ornontowitz (camp), 220

Ossowa (camp), 251

Osterburg (camp), 41, 117

Ostmark. See Austria

Ostravice. See Ostrawitza

Ostrawitza (Ostravice) (river), 158

Ostrow (camp), 270

Ostrowiec, 273

Oświçcim. See Auschwitz

Otterndorf near Cuxhaven (camp), 36

Ottertal-Hammerhof Estate (camp), 119

Ottmuth (camp), 212, 220

Otto Street. See Cologne-Ehrenfeld, 85 Otto Street

Pabianitz (camp), 183

Paderborn-86 Grüner Weg (camp), 47–48, 50, 51–52, 55, 59, 75, 79

Palestine, 51, 56

Pardubice. See Pardubitz

Pardubitz (Pardubice), 158, 166

Paris, xxiii, 93, 94

Petershagen, 36

Petrikau (Piotrków), 180

Piaski, 248, 258

Pillgram (camp), 50

Pilsen, 164, 165, 167

Pinnow near Reppen (camp), 203, 207

Piotrków. See Petrikau

Plaszow (camp), 268, 269, 273

Plettenberg (camp), 65

Plosk (camp), 253

Pluhow (camp), 270

Pogum (camp), 117

Poland, xiii, xiv, xviii, 9, 15, 37, 56, 66, 120, 131, 137, 146, 149, 150, 161, 173, 214, 231, 232, 233, 237, 255, 259, 270, 272, 273, 274, 277, 282, 283, 291–292. See also Occupied Polish territories

Polenzwerder (camp), 50

Pomerania, 9, 197, 236, 245

Poniatowa (camp), 269, 271

Posen (Poznán), 91, 129–130, 178, 184, 185, 190, 191, 193, 196, 199–200, 201, 202–203, 284

Potsdam, 53, 84

Potzhausen (camp), 117

Poznán. See Posen

Präbichl near Eisenerz (camp), 124, 125

Prague, xvii, 87, 131, 142–143, 144, 145, 147–148, 149, 150, 152, 153–154, 156, 158, 159, 161, 162, 163, 165, 166, 168, 169–170, 171–172, 173, 281

Prague-Rusin, 153, 167

Predmeritz, 167

Prettin (camp), 36

Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, xii, xvi, xvii, 27, 86, 121, 137, 173, 177, 186, 190, 209, 276, 281, 290, 291, 293. See also Czech Republic

Przemysl (camp), 263

Przyrów (camp), 253

Pustków near Dembica, 252, 273

Quirrenbach near Siegburg (camp), 65

Rabi, 164

Radinkendorf-Jewish Labor Home (camp), 50, 53, 75

Radom (district), 231, 233, 245, 246, 249–250, 252, 255, 263, 268, 269, 271–272

Radom (ghetto), 260

Radzyn, 253

Rakovnik, 169

Rappbodetal Dam, 37, 113, 134. See also Wendefurt near Blankenburg

Rathenow, 55–56, 78

Reichenbach (camp), 223

Reichshof-Rzeszew, 251

Rendsburg (camp), 38

Reppen (camp), 50, 207

Reppen (town), 207

Retschowits, 158

Rheingau, 36

Rheingau-St. Goarshausen, 63

Rhineland, 26, 64–65, 82, 122

Riebnig (camp), 65, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 79, 218

Riga, 169

Rissen near Hamburg (camp), 50, 58

Rogau (camp), 220

Rogsen (camp), 203

Rohrbach-Doppl (camp), 124, 134

Rongard near Kelberg (camp), 36

Rossitz, 167

Rostiz (camp), 220

Rothenburg, 65, 71

Rothenhaus, 172

Roznow, 241, 245

Rüdnitz near Bernau (camp), 50, 51, 58

Rudolstadt, 97

Saale (Kreis), 76

Saalfeld, 35–36, 97. See also Hohenwarte-Saale Dam

Sackenhoym (camp), 220

St. Andrä Wördern (camp), 119

St. Annaberg. See Annaberg

St. Valentin (camp), 124, 287

Sakrau (camp), 212, 220, 223

Salzburg, 27, 106, 124, 135

Samter, 188

Sandhof Estate. See Waidhofen-Sandhof Estate

San Domingo, 152

Sarstedt near Hanover (camp), 96

Sassau-Grosse, 158

Sauerland. See Höringshausen im Sauerland

Saxony, 97, 98, 117

Saxony-Anhalt, 96, 116–117

Schaumburg-Lippe, 117

Scherowitz, 170

Schieratz, 188

Schleswig-Holstein, 36, 38

Schloßhof Street. See Bielefeld-4 Koblenzer Street/73a-Schloßhof Street

Schneeberg near Beeskow (camp), 50

Schniebinchen near Sommerfeld (camp), 50, 56, 58

Schöneweide. See Berlin-Schöneweide

Schönfelde (camp), 50, 59, 80

Schönwald (camp), 65, 67, 69–70

Schüttenhofen, 164

Schwadorf (camp), 119

Schwerte near Dortmund (camp), 65

Schwiebus (camp), 208

Sdroien (camp), 203

Seelow National Research Estate. See Oderbruch-Seelow National Research Estate

Selchow (camp), 203, 209

Sennfeld, 45

Siegburg, 70

Siegkreis, 67

Siems near Mieste (camp), 41, 117

Silesia, 34, 49–80, 82, 117, 122, 184, 197, 204, 211–213, 214, 217, 218–219, 225, 229, 262, 275, 285, 291, 293

Silingthal, 45

Sitzendorf (camp), 97

Skaby near Friedersdorf (camp), 47, 50, 79

Skazysko-Kamienna (camp), 273

Skole (camp), 270

Slovakia, 204, 224

Sobianowice (camp), 245

Sobibor (camp), 270

Söhre near Bergshausen (camp), 36

Soldau, 251

Sophienhöhe (camp), 65

Sosnowitz (camp), 228

Sosnowitz (Sosnowice) (district), 217–218

Sosnowitz (Sosnowice) (town), 147, 216, 220, 225, 227, 284

Soviet Union, 12, 14, 19, 129, 131, 159, 184, 197, 201, 217, 235, 252, 254, 257, 260, 274, 281, 290, 291. See also Occupied Soviet territories

Spiegelberg (camp), 203

Sprakebüll in Südtondern (camp), 36

Spreenhagen, 50

Srnojed, 158

Stade, 36, 38, 40

Stadthagen, 117

Stalingrad, 90

Stanislau (Stanislawow), 254, 255

Stanislawow. See Stanislau

Stanonitz, 168

Staporków (camp), 253

Steckelsdorf (camp), 45, 50, 52, 55–56, 58, 60, 75, 78

Steele. See Essen-Steele, Holbeckshof

Steinfurt, 35–65

Steinhaus near Wels (camp), 124

Steinhöfel (camp), 50

Stendal (camp), 41, 117

Stentsch (camp), 203

Sternberg (camp), 203

Stettin, 27, 202–203

Stich near Aachen. See Eschweiler-Stich near Aachen

Stiechowitz Dam, 158

Stolberg-Atsch near Aachen (camp), 36, 77

Strakonice. See Strakonitz

Strakonitz (Strakonice), 165, 166, 168

Straußberg near Berlin. See Garzau at Straußberg near Berlin

Stráznice, 151

Strielek, 158

Stryj (camp), 270

Stubach (camp), 124

Stuttgart, 27, 100

Stutthof (camp), 273

Styria, 123–124, 125, 128, 248

Sudeten. See Sudetengau

Sudetengau, 64, 65, 67, 141, 143, 172, 173, 216, 222, 225, 228, 229, 275, 284, 287

Sudetenland. See Sudetengau

Südtondern. See Sprakebüll in Südtondern

Sulinger Swamp, 33

Sundern, 77

Tabor, 165, 166

Tangermünde (camp), 117

Tarnopol (camp), 254, 270

Tarnow, 237, 238, 242, 252, 261

Tauern, 118

Taunusblick. See Kelkheim im Taunus (camp)

Teerag I (camp), 124

Teerag II (camp), 124

Terezin. See Theresienstadt

Teuplitz (camp), 50, 80

Thalheim (camp), 119

Theresienstadt (ghetto), 29–30, 162, 168, 172

Theresienstadt (Terezin) (town), 26, 87, 101, 135, 211

Thuringia, 35–36, 64, 97, 117

Thurmberg (camp), 203

Tigerfeld near Ulm (camp), 65

Tomersdorf near Görlitz (camp), 63, 65, 67, 68, 70–71, 72, 74, 79

Topper (camp), 203

Torgau, 36

Trachtenberg, 94

Traunkirchen. See Traunsee-Traunkirchen

Traunsee-Traunkirchen (camp), 123, 124, 125

Trawniki (camp), 269, 271

Treblinka (camp), 270

Treffling (camp), 124

Treplin (camp), 50

Trier, 205, 212

Turek, 183

Tyscowce (camp), 245

Uckermark, 50

Ulm, 64, 68

Unterdiessen (camp), 75

Untertannwald in the Erz Mountains (camp), 97

Upper Danube, 132

Upper Saale, 40

Upper Silesia, xviii, 187, 198, 209, 212, 216, 217–219, 222, 223, 226, 228, 271, 272, 274–275, 282, 284

Urfeld (camp), 50

Vienna, 4, 27, 41, 42, 56, 92, 93, 96, 100, 102, 105, 106–109, 111, 112–113, 114, 115, 117, 118, 120–122, 123, 127, 129–130, 131–137, 172, 250–251, 278–279

Vistula (Weichsel) (river), 146, 235. See Güttland an der Weichsel

Vltava. See Moldova

Vogtland, 36

Waiblingen, 36

Waidhofen-Sandhof Estate (camp), 124, 126, 152. See also Münichholz near Steyr and Windhag

Walheim near Stolberg (camp), 36

Wallnow (camp), 50

Walpersdorf (camp), 118–119

Walsheim (camp), 36

Wannsee. See Berlin Wannsee

Warsaw (camp), 265, 273

Warsaw (district), 231, 233, 238, 245–246, 249, 251, 252, 268–269, 271, 272

Warsaw (ghetto), 186, 232, 253–254, 260, 261, 263, 266

Warsaw (town), 178, 253

Wartekuppe. See Kassel-Niederzwehren, Wartekuppe

Warthbrücken, 188

Warthegau, xv, xvii, xviii, 129–130, 162, 173, 177–195, 196, 198, 200, 201–202, 205, 210, 214, 231, 232, 237, 262, 274, 276, 281, 282, 284, 286, 287, 293

Wartheland. See Warthegau

Weimar (town), 100

Weinbergen (SS labor camp), 270

Weissenfels (camp)

Weissenfels (town), 94

Weissenstein (camp), 65

Wels (camp), 124

Welterod (camp), 36

Welungen, 188

Wendefurt near Blankenburg (camp), 36, 37, 39, 117, 134. See also Rappbodetal Dam

Wendelinsgrube near Laupheim (camp), 66

Werlte (camp), 36, 37

Werlte-Rastdorf (camp), 36, 51, 117

Western European territories, 290

Westerwald (camp), 63

Westphalia, 35–36, 64–65, 66, 123

West Prussia, 178

Weststernberg, 202, 207

Wiener Wald, 133

Wiesau (camp), 219

Wiesbaden, 27

Windhag (camp), 124. See also Waidhofen-Sandhof Estate

Winkel Estate (camp), 44, 50, 51, 79

Wischau, 170

Wittenberge (camp), 208, 209

Wohlerst near Harsefeld (camp), 33, 36, 38

Wolsztyn (camp), 193

Wulkow Estate. See Hangelsberg an der Spree-Wulkow Estate

Wuppertal-Wichlinghausen (camp), 96

Württemberg, 64–65, 82

Würzburg, 22

Wutschdorf (camp), 203

Zagacie (camp), 252

Zamość (camp), 253

Zamość (Kreis), 230, 253

Zborow (camp), 270

Zeitz (camp), 94

Zerbst (camp), 97

Ziechenau, 187

Zinsendorf, 158

Zlín, 149, 159, 163, 165, 166

Züllichau (camp), 203

Zur Grünen Eiche. See Bergkamen-Zur Grünen Eiche


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