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Pediatric Surgery and Urology
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Details

  • 171 b/w illus. 230 tables
  • Page extent: 1095 pages
  • Size: 276 x 219 mm
  • Weight: 3.33 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 617.98
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: RD137 .P434 2006
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Children--Surgery
    • Pediatric urology
    • Surgical Procedures, Operative
    • Child
    • Infant

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521839020 | ISBN-10: 0521839025)




Index

Note: page numbers in italics refer to figures and tables. ‘Plate’ refers to illustration numbers in the Plates section.




Abbe–McIndoe vaginoplasty 603

abbreviated injury scale 918

abdomen

   acute Plate 13

   fluid collections 893

   see also adhesions, intra-abdominal

abdominal surgery 255–66

   benign neoplasia 265–6

   economics 266

   laparoscopic techniques 261

   malignant change 265

   medicolegal aspects 266

   outcomes 255–7

   scars 257–8

   techniques 257

abdominal trauma 519

   blunt 33

   see also named abdominal organs

abdominal wall, embryology 270–1

abdominal wall defects 270, 271–83

   associated anomalies 274

   complications 279–82

   epidemiology 273–4

   exercise tolerance 282

   hernias 281–2

   management 274–5

   outcome 279–83

   pathogenesis 271–2

   pathophysiology 272–3

   prenatal diagnosis 274

   pulmonary complications 282

   results 279–83

   risk factors 273–4

   surgical treatment 275–9

   see also gastroschisis

ABO incompatibility, heart–lung transplantation 901, 902

accountability 19

N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG) 566–7

N-acetylcysteine 322

Achenbach Child Behaviour Checklist 54

acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

   mucoepidermoid carcinoma 112

   obesity following treatment 736

acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL) 789

Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II 522

acyclovir 851

adenomatoid malformations, cystic 185

adenomatous hyperplasia, focal 514, 516

adenovirus, liver transplantation 868, 869

Adept® 261

adhesiogenic surface separation 261

adhesions, intra-abdominal 258–61

   abdominal wall defects 281

   band 379

   choledochal cysts 472–3

   fibrinolysis promotion 261

   formation mechanism 258

   incidence 258–60

   litigation 266

   morbidity/mortality 260

   neonates 259–60

   operation type 260

   postoperative 258–61

   prevention 260–1

   reoperation 259

adnexal torsion 712–14, Plate 14

adolescents

   feminizing genitoplasty 596

   hypospadias repair 617

   neuroblastoma 751

   nocturnal enuresis 648

   renal transplantation 846

   rumination syndrome 416–17

   rupture of augmented bladder 636

   urinary incontinence 648–9

adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) 734

   rhabdomyosarcoma treatment 790–1

adults

   bowel control loss 409

   choledochal cyst excision 471, 473–4

   esophageal atresia

     feeding difficulties 210–11

     growth 211

     respiratory problems 214

   gastrointestinal disorders in cystic fibrosis 321–3

   hypospadias redo surgery 616

   neuroblastoma 751

Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course 920

African–Americans, renal transplantation 847, 850

aganglionosis, acquired 420

aganglionosis, total colonic 385

airway capacity 175

airway disease

   congenital diaphragmatic hernia 152

   gastroesophageal reflux 200

   see also pulmonary disease; respiratory disease

airway films, high kilovoltage 159

airway fluoroscopy, dynamic 159–60

airway obstruction 158–79

   causes 167–75

   diagnostic evaluation 159–60

   endoscopic evaluation 160

   imaging 159–60

   pathophysiology 159–60

   surgical management 167–75

   tracheotomy 160–1, 162, 163–7

airway obstruction syndrome, congenital high (CHAOS) 990

alcohol consumption, in utero exposure 420

alemtuzumab 892

Alert, Verbal, Painful or Unresponsive (AVPU) 917

alglucerase enzyme therapy 440

alimentary tract duplications 265

allograft biopsy, intestinal transplantation 890

alphafetoprotein (AFP) 707, 718

   germ cell tumors 817

   hepatoblastoma 801

   hepatocellular carcinoma 802

   ovarian tumors 713, 717

   testicular tumors 708

aluminium, phosphate binder 852

alveoli formation 184

amastia 244

ambulation, myelomeningocele 962–3

ameloblastoma

   head and neck 125, 126, 127

   recurrent 127

American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ASCOT) 920

American Pediatric Surgical Association 7

amino acid solutions

   enteral feeding 337

   total parenteral nutrition 338

amnioexchange

   gastroschisis 275, 994

   myelomeningocele 986

amniograft 993

amnion 271

amniopatch 991

amnioreduction, twin–twin transfusion syndrome 976

amniotic band syndrome 993–4

amniotic fluid

   exposure and gastroschisis 273, 275

   meconium staining 273

amylase 519

anal sphincter

   achalasia 426

   artificial 410

   functional damage 396

   Hirschsprung’s disease 395, 426

   myomectomy 393

   see also anus

androgen insensitivity 653

   inguinal hernia 288–9

androgens, testicular descent 652

anemia

   Crohn’s disease 352

   transfusion-dependent 835

anesthesia

   circumcision 665

   conjoined twin separation 1008

   cystic fibrosis respiratory deterioration 318

aneuploidy, omphalocele 278

angiogenesis 8

   corticosteroid inhibition 829

   vascular tumors 827

angiography

   arteriovenous malformations 836

   splenic injury 437

angioma, tufted 827, 831

angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors 564

anoplasty, minimal posterior sagittal 403

anorectal malformations 401–14

   bowel function 405–6

   classification 402–3

   colonic motility 411

   constipation 409–11

   diarrhea 409

   Down syndrome 404, 410

   epididymitis 413

   fecal incontinence 406–9

   functional goals 408

   high 401–2, 403

   intestinal stoma 264

   long-term psychological effects 58, 59

   orthopedic sequelae 413

   outcomes 256, 406–14

   posterior sagittal approach 402

   pregnancy 413

   prognosis 408, 409

   psychosocial adjustment 414

   puberty 413

   quality of life 414

   sacral abnormalities 405

   sexual function 412–13

   surgical treatment 403–5

   terminology 402–3

   toilet training 408

   urinary function 411–12

anorectal mucosectomy 835

anorectoplasty, posterior sagittal 406

anthracyclines

   cardiac toxicity 783, 811

   Wilms’ tumor 763, 764, 771–2, 776

anti-angiogenic pharmacotherapy 827

antibiotic(s)

   intravenous in cystic fibrosis 318

   perforated appendicitis 377–8

antibiotic prophylaxis

   asplenia 442

   compliance 565

   persistent urinary tract infection 545

   portoenterostomy 453

   procedures after liver transplantation 876

   urinary tract infection 561

   vesicoureteric reflux 565–6

anti-CD3 antibodies 847

anticholinergics 645

antihypertensive therapy

   liver transplantation 871–2

   long-term use 878

anti-IL-2 receptor monoclonal antibodies 867, 870, 871

antilymphocyte globulin 858

anti-Mullerian hormone 652, 653

antineutrophil antibodies, ulcerative colitis 356

antioxidant therapy, chronic pancreatitis 525

antireflux procedures 217–24

   congenital diaphragmatic hernia 222–3

   hospitalization 220–1

   laparoscopic 223–4

   neurological impairment 221

   obstruction 575

   open operations 223–4

   outcomes 220–1

     measures 219–20

     surgical factors 223–4

   reflux nephropathy 579

   see also vesicoureteric reflux, surgical management

antisperm antibodies 658

antithymocyte globulin 892, 904

α1-antitrypsin deficiency 450, 859

antroduodenal manometry 417, 418, 419–20

   chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction 421

anus

   dilatation for rectobladder neck fistula 404

   imperforate without fistula 404–5

   see also anal sphincter

aortic arch, double 178, 179

aortic stenosis, ultrasound-guided balloon valvuloplasty 987–8

aortopexy 179

APC gene mutation 801

Apgar score 41, 42

aphthous ulceration, Crohn’s disease 352

apnea, reflex 178–9

apnea monitors 166

appendectomy

   appendix mass 378

   inflammatory bowel disease association 381–2

   inguinal hernia development 380

   interval 378

   laparoscopic 376

   nerve entrapment 380

   open 260, 376

   wound closure 377

appendicitis 14, 374–82

   cystic fibrosis 322–3

   diagnosis 375–7, 382

   epidemiology 374

   etiology 374–5

   heredity 375

   imaging 375

   incidence 374

   intestinal obstruction 379

   medicolegal aspects 382

   missed 382

   morbidity 376, 377

   mortality 378–9

   operative techniques 376

   outcomes 379

   pathogenesis 374–5

   perforated 377–8

     fertility in girls 379–80, 381

   preschool children 376–7

   recurrent 381

appendix mass 378

arachidonic acid, Crohn’s disease 351

arousal thresholds, high 645

arterial cannulation 954

arteriovenous fistulae, vascular access 953, 954

arteriovenous malformations 836–7

arytenoid cartilage, repositioning/removal 169–70

aspergillosis 868

   intestinal transplantation 891, 894

Aspergillus fumigatus, cystic fibrosis infection 318

asplenia

   antibiotic prophylaxis 442

   fever management 441

assisted reproduction techniques 719–20, 732

athelia 243

atrioventricular canal, unbalanced 897

attention deficit disorder 854

autistic spectrum disorder 47

azathioprine 847, 858, 867, 892

   heart–lung transplantation 903, 904

azoospermia

   cryptorchidism 657

   obstructive 591–2

   paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma 793

   Wilms’ tumor treatment effects 761, 774

bacterial infections 868, 869

   cholangitis 454

   heart–lung transplantation 904

   sialadenitis

     acute 107–8

     recurrent 106–7

   spleen host defense function 436

bacterial overgrowth 337–8

   chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction 422

   Hirschsprung’s disease 391

   short bowel syndrome 366

bag valve masking, prehospital 923–4

balanitis xerotica et obliterans 613, 614–15, 664, 665, 671, 672

   preputial tip Plate 12

balloon catheter dilatation technique, intestinal strictures 335

balloon valvuloplasty, ultrasound-guided 987–8, 989

Bannayan–Riley–Ruvalcaba syndrome 837, 838

Barrett’s esophagus 201, 222

B-cell lymphoma, salivary gland 110

bear claw deformity 352

Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome

   abdominal wall defects 274

   hepatoblastoma association 801

   omphalocele 278

behavioral disorders

   congenital diaphragmatic hernia 154–5

   head injury 929, 932–3

   renal transplantation 854

behavioral modification

   bladder dysfunction 646

   functional constipation 423

   hospitalization 55–7

Bianchi procedure 337

bile 456

   flow after portoenterostomy 450

   leakage 866

   stasis 474, 475, 485

bile ducts

   extrahepatic 450

   hilar carcinoma 476

   injury in cholecystectomy 480

   intrahepatic 447, 466, 467

     bile stasis 474, 475

     dilatation 469, 474

     residual debris 475

     stenosis 469

     stone formation 471, 473, 474–5

   Roux-en-Y reconstruction 470

   see also common bile duct; hepatic duct, common

biliary abnormalities, portal hypertension shunt surgery 493

biliary atresia 446–60

   associated abnormalities 448

   chromosomal abnormalities 447

   classification 450

   complications following surgery 453–6

   correctable 446

   diagnosis 448, 449

   economics 459–60

   embryology 447

   etiology 447–8

   gallbladder 454

   genetic factors 447

   hepatopulmonary syndrome 456

   infective factors 448

   intrahepatic bile ducts 447

   intrahepatic cysts 455–6

   investigations 449

   liver function biochemical tests 449

   liver malignancy 456

   liver transplantation 34, 457–8, 459, 859, 867

   management 448–9

     centralization 34–5

   non-correctable 446–7

   outcomes 449–51, 456–60

     analysis 33–5

   parental stress 460

   pathology 449–51

   portal hypertension 454–5, 457

   portoenterostomy 859

   portosystemic shunting 455

   postoperative management 453

   pregnancy 459–60

   presentation 448–9

   prognostic factors 458

   pulmonary hypertension 456

   quality of life 459–60

   splenic malformation 448

   splenomegaly 455

   surgical techniques 451–3

   survival 457, 458

   variceal ligation 455

biliary colic 481

   biliary dyskinesia 484

biliary complications, liver transplantation 866, 875

biliary diversion 454

biliary drainage 860

biliary dyskinesia 484

biliary endoprostheses 524

biliary stone disease see gallstones

biliary strictures 809

   anastomotic 866

biliary tree, rhabdomyosarcoma 802, 807

bilirubin

   clearance 484

   measurement 449

Bill A. 8

biofeedback training 646

bipolar energy, umbilical cord transection 977

birthweight

   esophageal atresia 211

   mortality 41–2

   umbilical hernia 292

   see also extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants; very low birthweight (VLBW) infants

bladder

   after diversion 547

   augmentation 413, 547, 550

   autoaugmentation 637

   calculi 636

   carcinogens 788

   continence 545–6

   continent catheterizable conduits 637–8

   continent diversion 634

   diverticula 547

   drainage tubes 623

   emptying

     incomplete 546

     volitional 625, 626

   epispadias/exstrophy complex 621–8

     genitoplasty 583–93

   growth failure 626

   hernial sac 289–90

   hypercontractility 546

   hypertrophy 670

   injury 412

   instability 546

   irradiation 788

   mucosal grafts 615

   neck 411, 412

   neurogenic 562

     sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors 822

   neuropathic 631–9, 702

     clean intermittent catheterization 631–2

     diversions 638–9

     pharmacotherapy 632–3

     suprapubic diversion 632

   outlet

     incompetence 626

     resistance 632

     surgery 633–5

   overactive 643, 644, 645

     idiopathic 646

     urotherapy 646

   reconstruction 550

     with MACE procedure 429

   rhabdomyosarcoma 787–8

     treatment 792–3

   rupture 636

   sphincter

     artificial 626–7, 634–5

     dysfunction 559

   treatment of abnormal 546–7

   urodynamic evaluation 633

   valve 982

   see also detrusor entries

bladder dysfunction 545–7, 643

   classification 643–4

   clinical patterns 643

   constipation 646

   epidemiology 644

   fetal obstructive uropathy 982

   outcome 648–9

   psychosocial adjustment 649

bladder exstrophy 9, 270, 271, 583, 621–8

   artificial urinary sphincter 626–7

   closure 621–4

   covered 411

   erectile deformities 585–6

   erectile function 590–1

   female 589–92

   fertility 591–2

   genitoplasty 583–93

   immobilization techniques 623

   inheritance 592

   male 583–8, 590–2

   marital status 591

   orthopedic complications 622

   outcomes analysis 36

   pelvic anatomy 583–4, 588, 589

   penile reconstruction 586–7

   primary closure 621–2

     failure 623

   quality of life 592–3

   sexual function 591

bladder neck

   closure 634

   submucosal bulking agents 626

   suspension 634

bladder neck cinch 634

bladder neck reconstruction 624–7, 633–5

   complications 625

   failed 626–7

   outcome 626

   repeat 626, 627

bladder training 648

bladder–sphincter dysfunction, non-neuropathic 644–9

   outcome measures 647–8

Blalock A. 7

Blalock–Taussig shunt 7, 901

bleomycin, intralesional 83

blind loop syndrome, duodenal obstruction 306

blinding 21–2

blood transfusion

   medicolegal aspects 266

   vascular access 953

blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome 834, 835

bone

   growth impairment with rhabdomyosarcoma 788

   homeostasis changes 736

   lymphangiomatosis 80

   metabolism following cancer treatment 735–6

   Stafne cavity 105

bone disease

   disappearing 833

   renal transplantation 854

bone grafting

   alveolar 70, 71

   ameloblastoma 126, 127

bone markers 735

bone marrow transplantation

   gallstones 486

   neuroblastoma 751–2

   second malignancies 754

   thalassemia major 438

botulinum toxin

   detrusor hyperreflexia 633

   esophageal achalasia 234–5

   outlet obstruction in Hirschsprung’s disease 392, 426

   salivary gland injection 113

bovine collagen injection therapy 572–3

   hazards 574

bowel

   autologous procedures 365, 368–9

   decompression 422

   lengthening 368

   tapering 365

Bowel and Urinary Management Program 408–9

bowel control 407

   colonic motility 411

   evaluation 408

bowel function

   evaluation 405–6

   goals 408

   Hirschsprung’s disease 387–8, 393, 394–6

     evaluation 389

   spinal cord injuries 942

bowel movements

   frequent 393–4

   voluntary 407, 410

bowel obstruction

   adhesive 472–3

   esophageal replacement 230

   Hirschsprung’s disease 385

bowel perforation

   hydrocephalus shunt 960

   liver transplantation 867

brachytherapy, rhabdomyosarcoma 783

Bracka hypospadias modification 614, 615

brain

   changes with shunting 962

   organic disorder in liver transplantation 873

brain injury 43–4, 45, 46

   imaging 44, 45, 46

   traumatic 926–33

brainstem dysfunction, head injury 929

branchial cleft anomalies 105

branchial pouch cysts 105

branchio-oto-renal syndrome 677

breast

   absence 244

   congenital malformations 242, 243–9

   development 242–3

     thoracotomy 189

   implants 248

   psychological burden of disorders 247

   reconstruction 248

   supernumerary 244

   tissue 242–3

   tuberous 248–9

breast milk, enteral feeding 337

breech presentation, cerebral palsy 48

British Association of Pediatric Surgeons 7, 13, 15

bronchial stenosis 164

bronchiectasis

   cystic fibrosis 318

   pneumonectomy 185–6

bronchiolitis obliterans 905–6

   lung transplantation 907–8

bronchitis

   congenital diaphragmatic hernia 154

   esophageal atresia 212, 213

bronchopleural fistula, post-pneumonectomy 186

bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital diaphragmatic hernia 152, 154

bronchopulmonary infection 178

bronchopulmonary sepsis, cystic fibrosis 317

bronchopulmonary sequestration 973–4

Broviac® catheter 951

Browne D. J. W. 13

Bryant’s traction 623

Buck’s traction 623

Budd–Chiari syndrome 498

   epithelioid hemangioendothelioma 800

   management 503

   trisegmentectomy 808

bulbospongiosus muscle, exstrophy 584

bulking agents

   submucosal 626

   urinary incontinence 634

Burkholderia cepacia, cystic fibrosis infection 317

burns 8

C cells 95

   hyperplasia 97

caesarean section

   cerebral palsy 48, 49

   respiratory distress syndrome 43, 44

calcineurin inhibitor 867, 871, 872

   neurotoxicity 873

calcineurin inhibitor-sparing strategy 871

calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) 653

calcium

   bile requirement for absorption 456

   deficiency in short bowel syndrome 366

   deposition in sialolithiasis 108–9

   levels

     after parathyroidectomy 100

     recurrent urolithiasis 700–1

calcium channel blockers 510, 511

   esophageal achalasia 233

calcium oxalate renal stones 352, 357

Campylobacter, Crohn’s disease 353

cancer 9, 14

   bone metabolism effects 736

   gonadal dysfunction 731

   growth impact 736

   incidence 117

   offspring of survivors 733, 762

   risk

     Crohn’s disease 360

     ulcerative colitis 360

   survivors

     follow-up 739

     health care 755

     offspring 733, 762

   weight gain 736

   see also malignancy; metastases

cancer treatment

   bone metabolism 735–6

   cardiovascular disease 736–7, 763–4

   cognitive outcomes 738

   endocrine disorders 727–36

   fertility 729–33

   growth impairment 727–36

   hypothalamic–pituitary dysfunction 727–8

   hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis 734–5

   hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis 728–9

   late effects 727–39

   liver dysfunction 737–8

   long-term risks 738

   obesity 736

   psychosocial adjustment 738

   pulmonary disease 737, 764

   renal dysfunction 737

   second malignancy 754

     risk 738, 753

   survivor follow-up 739

   thyroid disorders 734

   see also chemotherapy; radiotherapy

Candida

   cystic fibrosis patients with implantable access devices 953

   intestinal transplantation 894

   liver transplantation 868

   parenteral nutrition line infection 951

Cantrell’s pentalogy 135, 146–7

Cantwell–Ransley technique 587, 588

   modified 624

capillary malformations 835–6

capillary-lymphaticovenous malformations 831, 837

captopril renography 534

cardiac arrhythmias, fetal 988

cardiac catheterization 900

cardiac defects, congenital 195, 897–8

   diaphragmatic hernia 153

   historic surgery 7

   maternal–fetal surgery 987–8

cardiac disease

   arteriovenous malformations 836

   hypoplastic left heart syndrome 897, 901, 906

   pneumonectomy 186

   rhabdomyosarcoma 783–4

   thoracotomy 188

   see also heart entries

cardiac output, systemic 900

cardiac surgery, diaphragmatic paralysis 188

cardiomyopathy

   congenital 897–8

   heart transplantation 907

   idiopathic dilated 898

cardioprotective drugs, cancer treatment 737

cardiopulmonary dysfunction, parenteral nutrition catheter-related 952

cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) 42

cardiovascular disorders

   biliary atresia 448

   cancer treatment 736–7, 763–4, 771–2, 773

     heart transplantation 898

     liver tumors 811

   renal transplantation 849, 854

   Wilms’ tumor treatment 763–4, 771–2, 773

care, standard of 18

caregivers, intestinal transplantation 890

carotid artery, common, vascular access 955

cartilage–hair hypoplasia 397

case control studies 23–4

case reports 24

case series 24

caspofungin 868

Castaneda A 5

cataracts, renal transplantation 854

catheterizable conduits

   continent 637–8

   see also Mitrofanoff conduit

catheter-related sepsis 947–8

catheters

   central arterial cannulation 954

   extravasation 949

   peripheral arterial cannulation 954

   peripheral venous catheters 949

   position 949

   see also central venous catheters; clean intermittent catheterization

cavernocavernostomy 588

cavernosography 585

cavernous hemangioma 826, 828, 833

celiac artery 887

celiac disease, cystic fibrosis 323

central arterial cannulation 954

central venous catheters

   complications 367–8

   dislodgement 949, 950

   extravasation 949

   fractured line 949, 950

   sepsis 338–9, 367–8

     risk 948

   surgical injury 951

   thrombosis 948–9

   tip position 949

   toxic agent infusion 949

   vascular stenosis 950

central venous stenosis 954

cephalogram, lateral 73

cerebral edema, head injury 928

cerebral palsy 47–9

   birthweight 48

   definition 47

   medico-legal issues 51

   risk factors 48

   types 47–8

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

   hydrocephalus 958

   overdrainage 961

   shunting 958–9

cervical teratoma, EXIT strategy 990

cervical tracheoplasty 167

cervicofacial teratoma 818

Chagas’ disease 233

chemoembolization, hepatic artery (HACE) 805

chemotherapy 9

   after gonadectomy 719

   bone metabolism effects 735–6

   cardiovascular disease 737, 763–4

     heart transplantation 898

   cisplatin-based 821–2

   fertility effects 730–2

   germ cell tumors 818–19, 820, 824

     timing 820–1

   germinoma 818

   gonadotoxicity 730, 732

   growth effects 735–6

   hepatic toxicity 811

   infusion risks 949

   liver tumors 803–5

     adjuvant 811

   long-term risks 738

   mediastinal germ cell tumors 823

   nephrotoxic 737, 763, 772, 811

   neuroblastoma 749, 752

     intraspinal extension 752–3

   ototoxcity 811

   ovarian tumors 717

   platinum-based 819

   post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease 874–5

   pulmonary disease 764

   rhabdomyosarcoma 782

     late effects 783–9, 789–94

   second malignancies 738, 753, 754, 772, 788

   testicular tumors 718

   thyroid disorders 734

   TPN risk for sepsis 948

   vascular access 948, 951

   Wilms’ tumor 759–65, 770, 771–2, 775, 776

     late effects 762

     second malignancy risk 761

chest wall, rhabdomyosarcoma 793–4

chest wall deformities 135–48

   anterior asymmetry 203–4

   esophageal atresia 203–4

   muscle atrophy 189

   thoracotomy 187–8, 203–4

Chiari malformation

   airway obstruction 160

   type II 959

   vocal cord immobility 169

child abuse

   bladder dysfunction 646

   head injury 927

Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) 20, 25, 938

chimerism, intestinal transplantation 893

chloride, cystoplasty absorption 636

choking, esophageal atresia 208, 212

cholangiocarcinoma 473, 475

cholangiography

   choledochal cyst 466

   intraoperative 482–3

   percutaneous 876

cholangiopathy

   congenital obliterative 33–5

   ischemic 866

cholangitis 453–4

   acute 481

   bacterial 454, 457

   choledochal cyst excision 473, 474

   chronic pancreatitis 524

   liver transplantation 868

   recurrent 454–5, 471, 866

   survival 457

cholecystectomy

   colon cancer 485–6

   elective 422

   forme fruste choledochal cyst 476

   laparoscopic 481–2, 485

   with splenectomy 485

cholecystitis 481

   acute 482

cholecystokinin (CCK) 338, 367

choledochal cyst 265, 465–77

   bleeding after excision 470

   cholangiography 466

   classification 465, 466

   complications 471–6

   cystic type 469, 471–5

   excision 466–8

     anastomotic leakage 474

     anastomotic strictures 474–5

     complications 471–4

     malignancy 473, 475

     stone formation 473

   forme fruste 475–6

   fusiform type 468, 471–5

   intraoperative endoscopy 468

   outcome 470–6

   prenatal diagnosis 477

   surgical management 465–70

choledocholithiasis 480, 481

   management 483

   outcome 486

choledochus, residual intrapancreatic 472, 473, 475

cholelithiasis 262, 264, 480

   age 484

   ileostomy 265

   outcome 486

cholestasis

   central venous catheter sepsis 338–9

   intestinal transplantation 339

   TPN liver disease 367

cholestyramine 453

chondrocytes, harvesting/injection 573

chondrodystrophy, asphyxiating 137

chondrogladiolar deformity 145

chondromanubrial deformity 144

chordee 585

   dorsal 628

   ventral 615

choriocarcinoma 708, 717, 817, 823

chorioretinitis, CMV 868

Christmas tree deformity 307

chromosomal anomalies

   multicystic kidney 683–4

   renal agenesis 677

chromosome 11P15 514, 516

Churchill E. D. 5

chylothorax 80, 82–3

Cidofovir™ 171

circumcision 664–72

   clamp injury 669

   complications 666, 667–70, 671

   contraindications 665, 670

   glandular adhesions 669

   hypospadias surgery 617

   inappropriate 669–70

   incidence 664

   indications 665, 671

   mortality 667

   neonatal 665, 668

   outcomes 668–70, 671

   prophylactic 665

   reoperation rate 668

   ritual/religious 665, 671

   scar Plate 8, Plate 9

   skin complications 668–9, Plate 8, Plate 9

   techniques 665, 667

   urinary tract infection prevention 545

circumcision clamps 665, 667, 669

cirrhosis

   intrahepatic portal hypertension 507

   portal hypertension shunt surgery 491, 494

cisapride 261

   chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction 421

   intestinal obstruction 322

cisplatin chemotherapy 821–2

citrate, urinary 697

citrulline 364

clavicular brace 137

clean intermittent catheterization 411, 625, 646

   neuropathic bladder management 631–2

cleft lip repair 71–2

   technique 69, 71

cleft lip/palate 67–76

   alveolar bone grafting 71

   associated congenital anomalies 75

   evidence-based care 68

   genetics 75

   incidence 75

   presurgical orthopedics 70

   service organization 67–8

cleft lip/palate surgery

   maternal–fetal 995

   outcomes 67–8, 75

     long-term 71–5

   primary 68–70

   secondary 70–1

   techniques 68–71

   timing 70

cleft palate, submucous 70

cleft palate repair

   delayed hard palate closure 70, 73–4

   facial growth 72–4

   outcomes 72–4

   technique 69–70

   velopharyngeal insufficiency 70

clinical evidence 19

clinical research 18–19

   case reports 24

   costs 26–7

   design 20

   end-points 24–7

   governmental mandate 20

   meta-analysis 24

   methods 20

   quality of life 25–6

   study types 23–4

   utility 26

   see also randomized controlled trials (RCT)

Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB) 42

Clinical Standards Advisory Group (CSAG), cleft lip/palate 68

clitoris

   anterior fusion 589

   bifid 588, 589

   corporeal body tunica 597

   innervation 597–8, 599, Plate 3

   surgery 596, 597–9, Plate 5, Plate 6

clitoroplasty 598–9

cloaca 402, 403

   common channel 404, 405

     long 411

   female sexual function 413

   surgery 404–5

cloacal anomalies 8, 402, 404–5

   intestinal stomas 264

   outcomes analysis 36

   urinary function 411

cloacal exstrophy 9, 270, 271

   repair 621

Clostridium difficile, Crohn’s disease 353

coagulopathies

   liver transplantation 863

   vascular access 953

coarctation of the aorta, historic resection 6

13C-octanoic acid breath test 418

Codman E. A. 3–4

   outcomes analysis 17

Coe H. 7

cognitive impairment 50

   cancer treatment 738

   congenital diaphragmatic hernia 154–5

   head injury 929, 930–1

   hospitalization 56

   hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 513–14, 515

   myelomeningocele 962

   neonatal intensive care 50

   neuroblastoma 754–5

   pyloric stenosis 301

   renal transplantation 852

cognitive–behavioral training 646

Cohen procedure 574, 576, 577

cohort studies 23

colectomy

   Crohn’s colitis 354, 355

   and ileal pouch–anal anastomosis 357–8

colitis, Crohn’s 354

collagen, transurethral injection 626

coloanal pull-through 835

colocystoplasty 635–6

colon

   chronic bleeding of lesions 835

   cut-off sign 520

   hypomotile 409

   interposition grafts 227–31

   manometry 425

   necrotizing enterocolitis involvement 332

   neuromuscular disease 424–5

   transit time 337

colon cancer

   biliary stone disease 485–6

   cholecystectomy 485–6

colonic aganglionosis 60, 390

   total 387, 396

colonic conduit 639

colonic enema, antegrade 425, 429–32

   laparoscopic 430

colonic irrigation fluids 431

colonic motility 411

   disorders 422–6

   slowing 394

colonopathy, fibrosing 322

colorectal cancer 265

colostomy

   complications 264–5

   loop 410

   rectovestibular fistula 404

   transverse 410

coma

   head injury outcome 930, 932

   see also Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)

command systems 921

common bile duct

   distal

     dissection 467, 468

     excision 467, 468

   forme fruste choledochal cyst 476

   obstruction 481

   stones 481

     diagnosis 482–4

     sickle cell disease 485

     treatment 482–4

common channel syndrome 475

communication systems 921

community ambulator 962–3

compartment syndrome

   abdominal 827

   acute pancreatitis 523

   intraosseous infusion 954–5

complete form of androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) 288–9

computed tomography (CT) 15

   appendicitis 375

conception

   cystic fibrosis 325

   see also fertility

condyloma acuminata, vaginal 170

congenital anomalies

   esophageal atresia association 208

   heart–lung transplantation contraindications 901

congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) 973–4

congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) 990

congenital malformations 39–41

   psychosocial adjustment 58, 59–60

   repair 58

   see also named conditions

connective tissue disorders

   pectus carinatum association 145

   pectus excavatum association 135

constipation

   anorectal malformations 406

     lower 410–11

   bladder dysfunction 646

   cystic fibrosis 321–2

   functional 422–4

   Hirschsprung’s disease 388, 389, 391, 393

   MACE procedure 429

   management 393

   medicines 423–4

   sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors 822

   soiling 411

continence see fecal continence; fecal incontinence; urinary continence; urinary incontinence

continence enema, Malone antegrade (MACE) 429–32

contraception, exstrophy 592

cordotomy 169, 170

coronary artery disease, transplant 905

corpora

   damage 585–6

   length 584, 586

corpus luteum cyst 710

corticosteroids 892

   angiogenesis inhibition 829

   subglottic hemangioma 176

   tracheal hemangioma 176

cortisol 734

costal cartilage grafts 178

cost–benefit analysis 27

cost-effectiveness

   abdominal surgery 266

   analysis 19, 27

costs 26–7

   data 19

   short bowel syndrome 370

cost–utility analysis 27

cot deaths, esophageal atresia mortality 195

cough, tracheomalacia 211

counseling

   ambiguous genitalia 607

   prenatal for lymphangioma 86

Counsellor procedure 603

cows’ milk protein antibodies 352

Coxsackie virus 106

cranial nerves, submandibular gland removal 113

craniopagus 1010

craniopharyngioma, obesity 736

C-reactive protein 520

Creon 25000 322

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, new variant 257

cricoarytenoid joint 168–9

cricoid split

   anterior for laryngotracheal stenosis 173–4

   endoscopic posterior 170

cricopharyngeal dysfunction 416

cricotracheal resection, partial 174, 175

Crohn’s disease 351–6

   albumin levels 352

   anemia 352

   aphthous ulceration 352

   appendectomy association 381–2

   bear claw deformity 352

   cancer risk 360

   clinical presentation 352

   colitis 354, 355

   cystic fibrosis 323

   diagnosis 352–3

   erythrocyte sedimentation rate 352

   etiology 351–2

   fissures 355

   fistula in ano 354

   gallstones 352

   incidence 351

   intestinal stomas 264

   intestinal strictures 353

   operative indications/treatment 353–5

   pathology 352

   perianal 356

   pre-albumin levels 352

   presentation 353

   radiography 353

   renal stones 352

   short bowel syndrome 355

   small bowel obstruction 353

   stool evaluation 353

   strictureplasty 353–4, 355

   surgical outcomes 355–6

   thrombocytosis 352

cryotherapy, retinopathy of prematurity 49

cryptorchidism

   azoospermia 657

   carcinoma in situ 660

   causes 653

   classification 653

   congenital 290

   fertility 656, 657

   gastroschisis 274

   management 653–5, 660–1

   omphalocele 274

   outcome 655–8

   posterior urethral valves 543

   semen analysis 656–8

   surgical complications 655

   testicular malignancy 658–60

   see also orchidopexy; testes, undescended

Cullen’s sign 519

cycle–motor vehicle collisions 927

   pancreatic trauma 939

cyclophosphamide 858

   bladder carcinogen 788

cyclosporin 847, 854, 858, 867

   heart–lung transplantation 903, 904

   hypertension 872

   hypertrichosis 872

   liver transplantation mortality 875

   long-term use 878

   nephrotoxicity 871

   seizures 873

   side effects 870

cystadenoma, benign 718

cystic adenomatoid malformation, congenital (CCAM) 973–4

cystic adenomatoid volume ratio (CVR) 974

cystic fibrosis 315–25

   alleles 317

   antenatal diagnosis 317

   antireflux procedures 223

   appendicitis 322–3

   celiac disease 323

   conception 325

   constipation 321–2

   Crohn’s disease 323

   diabetes mellitus 324

   enteral feeding 321

   fibrosing colonopathy 322

   gallbladder 323

   gastroesophageal reflux 223, 321

   gastrointestinal disorders 321–3

   gender differences 317

   gene 315

   gene carrier screening 325

   heart–lung transplantation 319, 899, 909

   hepatobiliary disorders 323–4

   immunoreactive trypsin 316–17

   incidence 315–16

   infertility 325

   intestinal malignancy 323

   intestinal obstruction 321–2

   intravenous antibiotics 318

   intussusception 323

   jejunoileal atresia 308

   life expectancy 315, 325

   liver disease 323–4

   lung transplantation 319, 899, 907

   management 317

   meconium ileus 320–1

   neonatal screening 316

   nutrition 321

   pancreas and intestinal transplantation 888

   pancreatic disorders 324–5

   pancreatic malignancy 323

   pathophysiology 315–16

   pregnancy 325

   puberty 325

   rectal prolapse 322

   respiratory disease 317–19

   respiratory failure 317

   survival 317, 325

   sweat test 316

   vascular access 952–3

   venous access device 318

cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) 315–16

   disease 325

   gene therapy 317

cystic hygroma 81, 82, 83, 826

   adjunctive therapies 83–5

   salivary gland 111

cystine stones 696

cystinuria 696, 702

cystitis, hemorrhagic 787–8

cystoplasty

   augmentation 627, 635–6

   mucus production 635–6

cystoscopy 624

   fetal 549

   fetal obstructive uropathy 983

cystourethrogram, voiding 700

   multicystic kidneys 685

cytokines, Crohn’s disease 351

cytomegalic inclusion disease 106

cytomegalovirus (CMV)

   biliary atresia 448

   chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction 420

   intestinal transplantation 368, 891, 893

   liver donors 860

   liver transplantation 868

   renal transplantation 851

databases, observational data 23

deafness 49–50

   genetics 50

decision analysis 26

defecation

   fear of 422, 423

   surgery for Hirschsprung’s disease 425–6

   voiding association 646

deflux injection 573, 634

delivery mode, cerebral palsy 48

Dennis Browne urethroplasty 615, 616

dental anomalies, cleft lip/palate repair 75

dermal matrix, acellular 278–9

dermoid cysts 710, 717

desmoid tumors 266

desmopressin 645, 647, 648

detrusor hyperactivity, nocturnal 645

detrusor hyperreflexia 633

detrusor instability 546, 559

   nocturnal enuresis association 649

detrusor overactivity 643

detrusor underactivity 643, 644, 646

   treatment 646, 647

detrusorectomy autoaugmentation 637

development of children

   extremely low birthweight babies 342–3

   gastroschisis 282–3

   heart–lung transplantation 909–10

   hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 513–14, 515

   intestinal failure 369–70

   intestinal transplantation 339–40

   necrotizing enterocolitis 340–3

   neonatal surgery 342

   pyloric stenosis 300–2

   short bowel syndrome 369–70

   timing of surgery 57

developmental needs of child 57–8

dextran 261

diabetes mellitus

   chronic pancreatitis 524, 525

   cystic fibrosis 324

   heart–lung transplantation contraindications 901

   pancreas and intestinal transplantation 888

   post-transplant 847

   pyloric stenosis 301–2

diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) 18

dialysis 549–50, 845

   management 846

   mode 848

   vascular access 954

diaphragmatic defects, liveborn 40

diaphragmatic hernia, congenital 150–6

   care 150–1

   embryology 150

   etiology 150

   gastroesophageal reflux 153–4, 222–3

   growth failure 153

   hearing loss 155

   incidence 968

   with liver herniation 969

   long-term outcome 152

     psychological effects 60

   lung development 968–9, 972

   management 151–2

   maternal–fetal surgery 152, 968–73

   mortality 968

   neurocognitive deficit 154–5

   non-surgical therapy 968

   nutritional morbidity 153

   open tracheal occlusion 970–3

   operative management 152

   orthopedic deformities 155

   prenatal diagnosis 150–1

   pulmonary morbidity 152–3

   recurrence 155

   tracheal occlusion 969–70

diaphragmatic paralysis 188–9

diarrhea, anorectal malformations 409

diazoxide 510, 511, 513, 516

diet

   potassium levels 702

   protein-restricted 510, 512, 545

   see also nutrition

dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate 424

disabilities, outcomes 46–7

disability 47

   medico-legal issues 51

distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS) 321–2

diuretics, calcium-sparing 701

diverticulum formation 577

DMSA scan 558

   renal scarring 579

   urinary tract infection 561

DNA

   damaged 733, 753

   fetal 994

dobutamine 903

domino procedure, heart–lung transplantation 900

dopamine 903

Dor fundoplication 239

Down syndrome

   anorectal malformations 404, 410

   gallstones 484

   Hirschsprung’s disease 386–7, 392, 396–7

   umbilical hernia 292

   see also trisomy 21

doxorubicin, cardiac toxicity 811, 898

drooling 113

drugs, gynecomastia 245

ductus arteriosus

   patency maintenance 901

   patent

     historical division 6

     thoracotomy 188

   tracheobronchial vascular compression 178, 179

Duhamel’s rectorectal pull-through 385–6

   complications 387, 388, 389, 391, 393

   enterocolitis 392

   repeat 392

dumping syndrome 419

duodenal atresia 305

   congenital anomalies 305

   postoperative survival 306

duodenal compression, chronic pancreatitis 524

duodenal mucosa, perforation 298

duodenal obstruction

   complications 306

   congenital 305–8

   outcome 306–7

duodenal stenosis 305

duodenal web 305

duodenoduodenostomy 305, 306

duodenogastric reflux, duodenal obstruction 306

duodenojejunostomy 305

duplication cysts 265

dynamic airway fluoroscopy 159–60

dysarthria, tracheotomy 165–6

dysgerminoma 707, 708

   management 718

dyspepsia, pyloric stenosis 300, 301

dysphagia

   esophageal achalasia 233, 238

   esophageal anastomosis 209–10

   esophageal atresia repair 198–200

     long-gap 202, 203

   esophageal dysmotility 200

   esophageal strictures 199, 209–10

   gastroesophageal reflux 199

   laryngotracheal reconstructive surgery 175

   tracheotomy 166

dysphonia, tracheotomy 165–6

ears, rhabdomyosarcoma treatment 791

Ebstein’s anomaly 897

ECHO virus 106

echocardiography

   congenital heart defects 987

   heart–lung transplantation evaluation 900

   transjugular endomyocardial biopsy 904

economics

   abdominal surgery 266

   biliary atresia 459–60

   intestinal failure 370

   neonatal intensive care outcomes 51

   short bowel syndrome 370

ectopia cordis 135, 136

   thoracic 146

   thoracoabdominal 146–7

ectopic varices 506

education, patient, postsplenectomy sepsis prevention 442

EEC syndrome, abdominal wall defects 274

Eisenmenger’s syndrome 899

ejaculation problems

   anorectal malformations 412–13

   exstrophy 591

   posterior urethral valves 543

   rhabdomyosarcoma 786–7

electrical neurostimulation 646

embolization

   angiographic 830

   arteriovenous malformations 836

   hepatic artery chemoembolization (HACE) 805

embryonal carcinoma 707, 820

embryonal sarcoma of the liver, undifferentiated (UES) 799–800

embryos, cryopreservation 732

emergency department, trauma systems 922–3

emesis

   antroduodenal manometry 419

   rumination 417

   see also regurgitation; vomiting

emotional adjustment, hospitalization 55–7

emotional development, early 57

emotional needs of child 57–8

empyema 185

encephalopathy

   early neonatal 46

   mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal 420

   necrotizing enterocolitis 341

end-ileostomy 354

endocrine disorders, cancer treatment late effects 727–36

endodermal sinus tumors 817, 820, 823

endopyelotomy 536

endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, biliary atresia 449

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) 466, 482–3

   pancreatic trauma 940

   pancreatitis 521

   preoperative/postoperative 483

   with transpapillary drainage 524

endoscopy

   aerodigestive tract 159

   carbon dioxide laser 169, 170, 176

   laryngotracheal stenosis 173

   portal hypertension treatment 502–8

   urinary tract 10

   video-assisted fetal (FETENDO) 970–1, 972, 973

endothelial cells, abnormal proliferation 826

endotracheal intubation, prehospital 923–4

end-points in clinical research 24–7

enteral feeding

   amino acid-based formula 337

   breast milk 337

   cystic fibrosis 321

   intestinal failure 364

   intestinal transplantation 888

   necrotizing enterocolitis 335

   post-liver transplantation 878

   tolerance 365

enteric anastomoses 886–7

Enterococcus, liver transplantation 868

enterocolitis

   postoperative in Hirschsprung’s disease 387, 389, 392–3

     chronic 393

     colon transit delay 425

     Down syndrome 397

     management 392–3

     recurrent 393

   recurrent 391–2

enterocytes 364

enterostomy

   closure 334

   formation in necrotizing enterocolitis 333

   loop 333

   takedown 335

enuresis alarm 645, 648

ephrin signaling 831–2

epidermoid cysts 708

epididymitis, anorectal malformations 413

epididymo-orchitis 591–2

epidural hematoma 927, 928

epignathus 991

epilepsy

   head injury 929, 932

   hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 514

epispadias 583, 621–8

   erectile deformities 585–6

   penile chordee reconstruction 587

   penile length reconstruction 586–7

   repair

     with bladder neck reconstruction 624–7

     with secondary closure 624

   Young repair 624

epithelial tumors 708, 718

epithelioid hemangioendothelioma 800, 801

   chemotherapy 803

   hepatectomy 807

   hepatic artery chemoembolization 805

   liver transplantation 807

Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) 106

   biliary atresia 448

   chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction 420

   intestinal transplantation 368, 891, 893

   liver transplantation 868–9

   post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease 874

   recurrent sialadenitis 107

   renal transplantation 851

erectile function 590–1

   exstrophy 585–6, 593

erythema nodosum 352, 356

erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Crohn’s disease 352

erythromycin, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction 421–2

erythropoietin, recombinant human 846

Escherichia coli O157:H7 851

Escherichia coli vaccine 567

esophageal achalasia 232–40, 416

   botulinum toxin 234–5

   diagnosis 232–3

   dysphagia 233, 238

   esophageal dilatation 235–6

   esophagomyotomy 236–9

   fundoplication with esophagomyotomy 238

   medical management 233

   outcomes 233–4

   surgical treatment 232

   symptom classification 233–4

esophageal anastomosis 192–3, 194

   complications 196, 197–8

   dysphagia 209–10

   end-to-end 196, 197, 198

   end-to-side 196, 209

   growth failure 211

   leak 196, 197, 229

   long-gap atresia 202–3

   strictures 196, 197, 198, 230

   techniques 227

esophageal atresia 193–4

   anterior flap repair 196–7

   antireflux procedure outcome 221–2

   birthweight 211

   chest wall deformities 203–4

   congenital anomaly association 208

   with distal tracheoesophageal fistula 192–3

   dysphagia 198–200

   esophageal complications 195–8

   esophageal problems 193

   feeding difficulties 208–11

   gastroesophageal reflux 199, 200–2, 208, 210, 222

   growth 211

   historic cases 5

   intrauterine growth 208

   liveborn 40

   long-gap 202–3

     esophageal replacement 227

   long-term psychological effects 60, 61

   lung disease 212–13

   lung function 212–14

   malignant risk 200–2

   mortality 194–5

   operative repair techniques 192–4

   outcomes 198–204

   parent support groups 204–5

   prematurity 208

   quality of life 192

   respiratory problems 211–14

   skin-tube conduit carcinoma 201–2

   swallowing in infants 212

   thoracoscopy 188

   thoracotomy 187, 189

esophageal body 416

   contraction 417

esophageal cancer, sclerotherapy risk 507–8

esophageal dehiscence, scoliosis 187

esophageal dilatation 235–6

   esophageal perforation 236

   pneumatic 235–6, 237

esophageal dysmotility 199, 200

   esophageal anastomosis 209

   long-gap esophageal atresia 202

   malignancy risk 201

esophageal motility disorders 416–17

esophageal perforation, esophageal dilatation 236

esophageal peristalsis, disordered 199

esophageal remnant 201

esophageal replacement 194, 227–31

   bowel obstruction 230

   colon interposition grafts 227–31

   colonic 194

   complications 229–30

   esophageal remnant 201

   feeding difficulties 209, 210

   fistulas 230

   gastric transposition 227–31

   gastric tube interpositions 227–31

   gastrointestinal bleeding 230

   graft necrosis 228–9

   graft redundancy 230

   indications 227

   long-gap atresia 203

   mortality 228

   outcome 231

   pneumonia 229–30

   procedures 227–31

   pulmonary complications 229–30

   reoperation 230–1

   ulcer development 203

esophageal spasm, diffuse 416

esophageal sphincter, lower 416

   esophageal dilatation 235

   gastroesophageal reflux 238

   pressure reduction 232

   rumination 417

esophageal sphincter, upper 416

esophageal strictures 196, 197, 198

   dysphagia 199, 209–10

   esophageal dilatation 236

   esophageal replacement 227, 230

   rhabdomyosarcoma 784

esophageal varices

   bleeding 502, 503

   complications of treatment 504–8

   endoscopic treatment 503–4

   outcomes 504–8

esophagocoloplasty 194

esophagography, cineradiographic tube 198

esophagomyotomy 236–9

   with fundoplication 238, 239

   gastroesophageal reflux 238

   laparoscopic 238–9

esophagostomy

   cervical 194

   feeding difficulties 209

esophagus

   foreign body impaction 199–200

   myotomy 194

   nutcracker 416, 417

esophogram, contrast 160

estrogen 245

Ethibloc® 84, 85

ethical issues

   gonadal tissue harvesting 733–4

   intestinal failure 371

   lymphatic malformations 86

   necrotizing enterocolitis surgery 332–3

   separation of conjoined twins 1006

   short bowel syndrome 371

ethnic groups

   disability 47

   renal transplantation 847, 850

evidence-based care, cleft lip/palate 68

Ewing’s sarcoma 123–5

   chemotherapy 125

   complications 125

   extraosseous 118

   histology 123

   imaging 124

   management 124

   morbidity 125

   radiation therapy 124

   site 123

   staging 124

   surgery 124–5

   survival 125

exanthema subitum 869

exercise capacity, heart–lung transplantation 910

exercise tolerance

   abdominal wall defects 282

   laryngotracheal stenosis reconstructive surgery 175

EXIT (ex utero intrapartum treatment) strategy 970, 988, 990–1

extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) 8

   bronchial stenosis 164

   congenital diaphragmatic hernia 151, 152, 153, 154

   EXIT strategy 990

   heart–lung transplantation 901

   vascular access 955

extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy 109, 698–9, 700, 703–4

extracorporeal veno-venous bypass 806

extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants 39

   economics 51

   inguinal hernia 288

   necrotizing enterocolitis 342–3

   neurodevelopment 342–3

facial growth, cleft palate surgery 72–4

facial nerve paralysis 113

fallopian tubes, perforated appendicitis 379, 380

falls, head injury 927

familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) 801

Farber S. 9

fatty acids, short-chain 363

fecal continence 431–2

fecal incontinence

   anorectal malformations 406–9

   Hirschsprung’s disease 388, 394–6

   MACE procedure 429, 431–2

   overflow pseudoincontinence 410

   psychological disorder 58, 60–1

   sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors 822

   soiling 395–6, 406, 407, 410

   spinal cord injuries 942

   total colonic aganglionosis 396

fecal retention, functional 422–4

fecaloma, anterior rectal pouch 389

feeding difficulties, esophageal atresia 208–11

feminization 595–607

femoral growth plate, distal, epiphysiodesis 838

fertility

   bladder exstrophy 628

   cancer treatment 729–33

     assessment 731–2

     chemotherapy effects 730–1

     neuroblastoma 755

     potential 731–2

     preservation 732–3

   cystic fibrosis 325

   exstrophy 591–2

   gonadectomy 719

   maternal–fetal surgery 968

   neuroblastoma treatment 755

   orchidopexy 656, 657

   preservation

     cancer treatment 732–3

     strategies 731

   radiotherapy effects 729–30

   see also infertility

fetal anomalies, maternal–fetal surgery 966

fetal surgery see maternal–fetal surgery

FETENDO (video-assisted fetal endoscopy) 970–1, 972, 973

fetoscopy, amniotic band release 993–4

fibrin matrix 258

fibrinolysis 261

fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 828

fibroblasts 258

Finney side-to-side anastomosis 353–4

fissures, Crohn’s disease 355

fistula, esophageal replacement 230

fistula in ano, Crohn’s disease 354

fistulotomy/fistulectomy 354

FK-506 see tacrolimus

fluconazole 868–9

fluid extravasation, vascular access 949

fluid/electrolyte status

   conjoined twins postoperative 1009

   intestinal transplantation 891

fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) 119

focal nodular hyperplasia 800

   surgical resection 806

Folkman J. 8

follicular cyst 710

follicular stimulating hormone (FSH)

   post-irradiation deficiency 728–9

   radiotherapy effects 774

Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Medical Device Amendments (1976) 18

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 20

food impaction, esophageal atresia repair 198, 199–200

foreign body

   embolism in vascular access 950

   esophageal impaction 199–200

foreskin 664

   preputial plasty 672

   see also circumcision

fractures, renal transplantation 854

Fraser syndrome 677

Frey’s syndrome 113

functional independence measurement (FIM) 941

fundoplication

   dumping syndrome 419

   techniques 202

     antireflux procedure outcomes 223

     with esophagomyotomy 238, 239

     open transabdominal 260

fungal infections 868

   heart–lung transplantation 904–5

   implantable devices 953

   intestinal transplantation 891, 894

G syndrome, laryngeal/laryngotracheoesophageal clefts 177

gallbladder

   biliary atresia 454

   cystic fibrosis 323

   malignancy 265

   sludge 483–4, 511

gallstones 264, 480–7

   asymptomatic 480, 485

     management 480–1

   bone marrow transplantation 486

   classification 480

   colon cancer 485–6

   complications 481

   Crohn’s disease 352

   hematologic disorders 480, 481, 482, 484–5

   ileal resection 262

   ileostomy 265

   infant 484

   neonatal 484

   organ transplantation 486

   outcome 486

   pancreatitis 481, 483–4, 523

   symptomatic 480, 481

   TPN 367, 422

   ulcerative colitis 357

game theory 26

gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) 447

ganciclovir 851, 868

Gans S. 7

Gardner’s syndrome 92–3

Garrington’s sign 121, 122

gastric acid, pyloromyotomy 300

gastric emptying 418

   pyloromyotomy 299–300

   see also stomach

gastric motility disorders 417–19

gastric transposition 194, 227–31

   long-term psychological effects 60

gastric tube interpositions 227–31

gastric varices 506

gastritis, duodenal obstruction 306

gastrocystoplasty 636–7

gastroesophageal reflux/gastroesophageal reflux disease 160

   abdominal wall defects 281

   antireflux procedures 217–24

   antroduodenal manometry 419

   cause 217–18

   chronic pulmonary disease 223

   congenital diaphragmatic hernia 153–4, 222–3

   cystic fibrosis 223, 321

   diagnosis 217–18, 220–1

   duodenal obstruction 306

   dysphagia 199

   esophageal atresia 199, 200, 201, 208, 210, 222

     long-gap 202

   esophageal dysmotility 199, 200

   esophageal malignancy 201

   esophagomyotomy 238

   gastric content inhalation 211

   laparoscopic techniques 223–4

   laryngomalacia 167

   laryngotracheal stenosis 173

   lower esophageal sphincter incompetence 238

   mechanism 416

   medical therapy effectiveness 220

   mortality 195

   natural history 218–19

   neurological impairment 221

   open surgery 223–4

   outcomes 220–1

     measures 219–20

   respiratory effects 200

   symptom control 222

   tracheomalacia 212

Gastrografin™ 322

gastrointestinal bleeding

   esophageal varices 502

   portal hypertension 491

     extrahepatic 507

gastrointestinal disorders

   biliary atresia 448

   cystic fibrosis 321–3

   motility 416–26

   rhabdomyosarcoma 784–5

   venous malformations 834

Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) 61

gastrointestinal tract

   duplications 265

   pathogen translocation 893

gastrojejunostomy 305

gastroparesis 417, 418

gastroschisis 14, 270

   abdominal wall hernias 281–2

   adhesive bowel obstruction 281

   amnioexchange 275

   amniotic fluid exposure 273, 275

   associated anomalies 274

   closure 275–8, 280

     primary 276

     staged 276–7

   cryptorchidism 274

   development 282–3

   epidemiology 273–4

   eviscerated bowel care 276

   experimental models 273, 274

   gastroesophageal reflux 281

   gastrointestinal function 280

   growth 282–3

   incidence 273

   intestinal atresia 277, 280

   intestinal dysmotility 273

   intestinal transplantation 885

   intestinal wall neuromuscular maturation delay 273

   jejunoileal atresia 308

   liveborn 40

   malabsorption 273

   management 274–5

   maternal age 273

   maternal–fetal surgery 994

   midgut volvulus 281

   necrotizing enterocolitis association 281

   nutritional support 280

   oligohydramnios 275

   parenteral nutrition 278

   pathogenesis 271–2

   pathophysiology 272–3

   peel 271–2, 273, 275

   polyhydramnios 275

   postoperative care 277–8

   prenatal diagnosis 274

   preoperative evaluation 275–6

   preterm delivery 275

   pulmonary function 282

   risk factors 273–4

   stoma 277

   surgical treatment 275–8, 280

   survival 279–80

gastrostomy 193

   percutaneous endoscopic 321

   tube migration 419

Gaucher’s disease 440

gender assignment

   female 604

   reassignment 669

gene mutations, renal agenesis 676

gene therapy

   CFTR in cystic fibrosis 317

   maternal–fetal surgery 994–5

general anesthesia in cystic fibrosis 318

genital reconstruction/genitoplasty 583, 586–93, 595, 669

   cosmetic outcomes 624

   exogenous tissue tumors/diseases 605–6

   feminizing

     delayed 596–7

     early 595

   functional outcomes 624

   see also named organs

genital sensitivity 597–8, Plate 1, Plate 2

genitalia

   ambiguous 604, 606

     psychosexual outcome 618

   deformities with conjoined twin separation 1012–13

   external 595

genitalia, female

   anatomy 588, 589

   bladder exstrophy 627

   reconstruction 589

     timing 590

genitalia, male

   anatomy 583–4

   bladder exstrophy 627–8

   reconstruction 586–8, 624

     timing 590

germ cell(s)

   development after orchidopexy 657

   harvesting 719–20

     ovarian tissue 733

   migration 815

   neonatal 660

   in vitro maturation 732

   Wilms’ tumor treatment 762

germ cell tumors 707–8

   benign 818

   cervicofacial 823

   chemotherapy 818–19, 820, 824

     timing 820–1

   embryogenesis 815

   extragonadal 815–24

   immature 821

   intracranial 818, 819, 823

   malignant 717, 817, 819–20, 823, 824

     mortality 717

     retroperitoneal 818

     staging 717

   mediastinal 816, 818

     age at diagnosis 823

     hematologic malignancy association 823

     outcome 822–3

     prognosis 822–3

     surgical resection timing 823

   neoplastic transformation 816–17

   outcomes 819–24

   pathology 816–17

   pelvic extension 817–18

   presacral 817

   prognosis 818

   radiotherapy 819

   retroperitoneal 818, 823

   sites 815–16

   staging 817

   surgery timing 820–1, 823–4

   surgical management 817–18

   vaginal 818, 823

   see also sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors

germinoma 816, 823

   intracranial 819

   prognosis 823

   treatment 818

gestational age

   mortality 41–2

   respiratory distress syndrome 43, 44

   small bowel length 362

Gibbon J. 7

Gilbert’s syndrome 485

Gil–Vernet procedure 574–5

gingival hyperplasia 872

gingivoperiosteoplasty 74

glans penis, anatomy 584

Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 915, 916–17

   head injury 928, 929

Glasgow Outcome Score 929

Glenn–Anderson procedure 576, 577

glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

   hypertrophy 545

   liver transplantation 871

   nephrectomy 763

     unilateral 678

   posterior urethral valves 543

   renal failure 563–4

   renal scarring 562

   renal transplant donation 680

   ureteric reimplantation 578

   Wilms’ tumor 763, 771

glomerulosclerosis, focal segmental 678, 679, 763

   renal transplantation 850–1

glucagon infusion 511

glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) 363, 364, 365

glucocorticoids 847

glucokinase 510

glucose

   insulin physiology 510

   renal agenesis 676

   see also hypoglycemia

β-glucosidase deficiency 440

glutamine, intestinal failure 364

gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) 447, 865–6

glycogen storage disease 800

glycosylation, congenital disorders 244

goiter

   ablation 91

   diffuse toxic 90–2

Gomco device 665, 667

   penile injury 669

gonadal tissue harvesting 732–4

gonadal tumors 707–20

   classification 707–8

   clinical presentation 708, 709, 710–15

   follow-up 718–20

   malignancy 289, 658–60, 708, 712, 713, 715, 717–18

     secondary 720

   management 708, 709, 710–15

   postoperative management 715, 717, 718

   psychosocial adjustment 720

   psychosocial sequelae 720

   stromal 708, 718

   surveillance

     contralateral 715, 717

     ipsilateral 715

gonadectomy, unilateral 718–19

gonadoblastoma 708

gonadotoxicity

   chemotherapy 730, 732

   marker 732

gonadotrophin deficiency 728–9

gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues 736

gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency 729

gonads, prepubertal function 718–19

gonocytes, fetal 660

Gorham–Stout disease 80, 833

Gortex wrap, procedentia repair 589–90

Goslon Yardstick 73

graft vs host disease, intestinal transplantation 892–3

granulosa–theca cell tumors 708, 718

Graves’ disease 90–2

   clinical manifestations 90

   complications 91–2

   diagnosis 90–1

   long-term outcomes 91–2

   medical treatment 91

   short-term outcomes 91

   treatment 91

great vessel anomalies 6

Grey–Turner’s sign 519

Gross R. 4, 5–6, 7

growth

   cancer treatment late effects 727–36, 765

   catch-up 735, 877, 878, 890

   esophageal atresia 211

   gastroschisis 282–3

   heart transplantation 907, 909–10

   heart–lung transplantation 909–10

   intestinal failure 369–70

   intestinal transplantation 339–40, 890

   liver transplantation 877–8

   lung transplantation 910

   necrotizing enterocolitis 336, 340

   portal hypertension shunt surgery 493

   pyloric stenosis 300–2

   renal transplantation 847, 852–3

   renal tubular acidosis 578

   rhabdomyosarcoma 788

   short bowel syndrome 340, 369–70

   Wilms’ tumor treatment 765

growth hormone (GH)

   deficiency 727, 728

   intestinal failure 364–5

   radiosensitivity 727

   recombinant human 846

   replacement therapy 728, 729, 736

growth hormone (GH) deficiency, rhabdomyosarcoma treatment 789–90

growth hormone releasing factor (GHRF) 364, 365

gubernaculum 652

   migration failure 653

gustatory sweating 113

gynecomastia

   classification 245–6

   obesity 247

   treatment 246

H2 antagonists, gastroesophageal reflux 321

Haemophilus influenzae 440, 441, 442

hair growth

   cartilage–hair hypoplasia 397

   liver transplantation 872

handicap, definition 47

Hartmann’s pouch 354

head and neck region, rhabdomyosarcoma treatment effects 789–92

head and neck tumors 117–28

   benign 125, 126

   complications 125, 126

   Ewing’s sarcoma 123–5

   morbidity 125, 126

   osteosarcoma 120–3

   radiotherapy complications 125, 126

   rhabdomyosarcoma 117–20, 789–92

   second malignancies 125

head injury 926–33

   age effects 928–30

   behavioral disorders 932–3

   cerebral edema 928

   closed 927, 928

   cognitive deficits 929, 930–1

   coma state length 930, 932

   diffuse 927, 928

   epidemiology 926–7

   epilepsy 929, 932

   focal 927, 928

   intelligence outcome 929, 930–1

   language outcome 929, 931

   mechanisms 927–8

   memory outcome 931

   morbidity 929

   mortality 927, 928

   motor function outcome 929, 931–2

   neurologic/neuropsychologic function 929

   outcome 929–32

   penetrating 927–8

   recovery 933

   rehabilitation 933

   secondary effects 928

   seizures 929, 932

   severity 929, 930

   speech outcome 929, 931

   survival 928–9

   vascular disruption 928

headache

   hydrocephalus 961

   liver transplantation 873

   spinal 991

   tension 961

health maintenance organizations (HMOs) 18

health-related quality of life (HRQOL) 24–5

   renal transplantation 853–5

   Wilms’ tumor 775–6

hearing impairment/loss 49–50

   cleft lip/palate repair 75

   congenital 50

   congenital diaphragmatic hernia 155

   sensorineural 49

heart block, fetal 988

   see also cardiac entries

heart transplantation 897–910

   cholecystectomy 486

   growth 907, 909–10

   outcome 906–7

heart–lung machine 7, 15

heart–lung transplantation 897, 899–910

   ABO incompatibility 901, 902

   bronchiolitis obliterans 905–6

   complications 904–6

   contraindications 900, 901

   cystic fibrosis 319, 899, 909

   development 909–10

   domino procedure 900

   donor evaluation 901–2

   exercise capacity 910

   growth 909–10

   hemorrhage risk 900

   immunosuppression 903, 904

   infants 901

   infection 901, 903, 904–5

   monitoring of patient 901

   mortality 908–9

   neonates 901

   nutrition 901

   organ procurement 902–3

   outcome 908–9

   postoperative management 903

   post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease 903, 905

   preoperative evaluation 900–1

   rejection 903, 904, 905, 909

Heineke–Mikulitz strictureplasty 353

Heller myotomy 237

hemangioma 826, 827–31

   angiographic embolization 830

   complications 828–9

   congenital 826–7, 830–1

   congenital anomaly association 828

   diagnosis 827, 828

   hepatic 827–8, 830

   imaging 828

   infantile 826, 827–30

   involuting 828

   laser therapy 829–30

   outcomes 829–30

   parotid gland 111

   pathophysiology 828

   subglottic 175–6

   surgical resection 830

   tracheal 175–6

   treatment 829–30

   ulceration 828

   visceral 827

hematologic disorders

   biliary stone disease 480, 481, 482, 484–5

   mediastinal germ cell tumor association 823

hematometrocolpos 1012

hematuria, urolithiasis 697–8

hematuria–dysuria syndrome 637

hemihypertrophy, hepatoblastoma association 801

hemisplenectomy 438

hemodialysis 845, 846

   prior to renal transplantation 848

   vascular access 954

hemoglobin SC 438–9

hemoglobin SS 438, 439

hemoglobinopathies 994

hemolytic uremic syndrome 851

hemophilia, vascular access 953

hemoptysis, cystic fibrosis 318

hemothorax, pectus excavatum 141

Hendren vaginoplasty 603

hepatectomy 806

   epithelioid hemangioendothelioma 807

   surgical morbidity/mortality 808

   see also liver

hepatic adenoma 800

   malignant transformation 800

   surgical resection 806

hepatic artery

   chemoembolization (HACE) 805

   liver transplantation 860

   thrombosis 863, 864–5, 866

hepatic duct, common 467–9

   histologic damage 474–5

hepatic hemangioma 827–8, 830

hepatic venous malformations 834

hepaticoduodenostomy 476

hepaticoenterostomy 469

   anastomosis leakage 470

   revision 471–2

hepaticojejunostomy 453, 469–70, 476

   revision 472–3

   Roux loop 866

   strictures 471, 866

hepatitis 860

   neonatal 450

hepatitis B 801–2

   cirrhosis 810

hepatitis syndrome 448

hepatobiliary disorders, cystic fibrosis 323–4

hepatoblastoma 801

   chemotherapy 803–4

   disease-free survival 809–10

   liver transplantation indications 807

   recurrence 809

   resistance to chemotherapy 807

hepatocellular carcinoma 801–2

   chemotherapy 804–5

   disease-free survival 810–11

   fibrolamellar 802

   hepatic adenoma transformation 800

   hepatic artery chemoembolization 805

   liver transplantation 807

   lymphadenectomy of hepatoduodenal ligament 807

hepatocellular disease, biliary atresia differential diagnosis 448

hepatoduodenal ligament, lymphadenectomy 807

hepatomegaly, hepatic hemangioma 827

hepatopulmonary syndrome 456, 494, 859

hepatorenal syndrome 870–1

hepatosplenomegaly, cystic fibrosis 323–4

hereditary spherocytosis 438

   cholelithiasis 480, 484, 485

hereditary telangiectasia 831, 837, 838

hernia, incisional 258

   pyloromyotomy 298

herpes simplex 868

herpes zoster 868

   chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction 420

herpesvirus infections 869

   liver transplantation 868

   renal transplantation 851

Hickman® catheter 951

high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), congenital diaphragmatic hernia 151

Hirschsprung’s disease 8, 14, 385–98

   anal sphincters 395, 426

   anastomotic leak 387

   anastomotic stenosis 387–8

   anastomotic stricture 387

   bowel function 387–8, 393, 394–6

   classic 385

   complications 387

   constipation 388, 389, 391, 393

   defecation problems 425–6

   Down syndrome 392, 396–7

   fecal continence 388

   fecal incontinence 394–6

   fecaloma in anterior rectal pouch 389

   follow-up length 388–9

   inheritance 397

   intestinal obstruction 389

   long segment 385

   mini-invasive primary surgery 386

   mortality 386–7

   operative techniques 385–6

   outcomes 386–97

   outlet obstruction 389–92

   pelvic sepsis 387

   postoperative enterocolitis 387, 389, 392–3

   primary pull-through procedures 386

   psychological wellbeing 58, 59, 60

   psychosocial adjustment 395–6

   recurrence risk 397

   sexual function 397

   syndromic 396–7

   total colonic 385

   ultra short segment 426

   urinary incontinence 397

history of pediatric surgery

   European 13–16

   North American 3–11

HIV infection 860

   salivary disease 109–10

Hodgkin’s disease, splenectomy 439–40

home parenteral nutrition 370

homovanillic acid 745

hormonal manipulation 733

Horner’s syndrome 188, 189, 230

   pectus excavatum 142

hospitalization

   infants 55–7

   length 56

   neonates 55–7

   psychological responses 57–8

   repeat admissions 56

   separation 55–8

human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) 654, 707

   germ cell tumors 817

human growth hormone (hGH) 846

   recombinant 852

human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) 106, 869

human herpes virus 7 (HHV-7) 869

human leukocyte antigens (HLA), biliary atresia 447

human papillomavirus (HPV)

   aerodigestive tract 170

   biliary atresia 448

   warts after liver transplantation 872–3

hyaluronan 261

hydrocele, inguinal herniotomy postoperative 291

hydrocephalus 958–9

   airway obstruction 160

   anatomy 958

   communicating 962

   complications 959–62

   headache 961

   mortality 959–60

   necrotizing enterocolitis 341

   shunts

     dependence 961–2

     infection/malfunction 960–1

   transitioning care 963–4

   treatment 958–9

   ventricular shunts 960–1

   vocal cord immobility 169

hydrocolpos 405

hydronephrosis 533, 534–7

   antenatal diagnosis 572

   clinical improvement 534

   congenital 535

   functional improvement 534–5

   histologic changes 536

   multicystic kidney 685

   nephrectomy 679

   post-surgery 575

   prenatal 535, 560

   ultrasonography 534

   vesicoureteric reflux 556, 624

hydrops fetalis 81, 974

   intrauterine therapy 987, 988

hydrothorax, tension, maternal–fetal repair 987

hydroureter, post-surgery 575

hydroureteronephrosis 537–8, 541

hyperbilirubinemia

   conjugated 323, 448, 449

   neonatal 450

hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism 100

hypercalciuria

   treatment 701–2

   urolithiasis 696

hypercholesterolemia 854

hyperinsulinism 510–18

   diffuse/transient 516

hyperinsulinism–hyperammonemia syndrome 516

hyperlipidemia, liver transplantation 872

hyperoxaluria

   ileal resection 262

   urolithiasis 696, 700, 701

hyperparathyroidism 96

   diagnosis 98–9

   imaging 98

   long-term outcomes 100–1

   neonatal primary 99, 100

   operative technique 99–100

   physiology 98

   primary 696

   recurrent 91–2

   short-term outcomes 100

   surgery 99

   treatment 99–100

hypersplenism

   extrahepatic portal hypertension 507

   portal hypertension 437

   portal hypertension shunt surgery 493

hypertension

   liver transplantation 871–2

   multicystic kidney 685, 688, 690–2

   pregnancy 564

   renal scarring 563, 579

   renal transplant donation 680

   renal transplantation 847

   renal trauma 939

hypertrichosis, cyclosporin 872

hyperuricosuria 702

hyperuricuria 701

hypocalcemia 100

hypocitrauria 697

hypoganglionosis 390

hypoglycemia, persistent hyperinsulinemic 510–18

   clinical presentation 511

   diagnosis 511

   diffuse 512–13

   focal 512–13

   genetics 514, 516

   metabolism 513

   neurodevelopment 513–14, 515

   outcomes 513–14, 515, 516

   surgical treatments 512–13

   treatment 511–12

hypogonadism, Wilms’ tumor treatment effects 761

hypoparathyroidism 91, 94, 96

hypopituitarism 728

hypoplastic left heart syndrome 897

   heart transplant 906

   heart–lung transplantation 901

hypospadias 10, 611–18

   circumcision contraindication 669–70

   complications 613–15

   distal repair 616

   evaluation techniques 611–13

   intraoperative artificial 611

   liveborn 40

   midline dorsal plication technique 611, 612

   multiple repair failures 615

   onlay island flap procedure 611, 612

   outcomes 615–16

     analysis 36

     psychosocial 61, 616–17

   preputial skin graft 611

   psychosexual development 617–18

   psychosocial outcome 61, 616–17

   redo surgery 616

   severe 616

   strictures 613

hypothalamic–pituitary dysfunction 727–8

   early puberty 790

   irradiation 790

   rhabdomyosarcoma treatment 789

hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, cancer treatment 734–5

hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis

   cancer therapy 728–9

   suppression 733

hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis 829

hypothyroidism

   cancer therapy 734

   hemangioma 828–9

   rhabdomyosarcoma treatment 791

hypoxia, airway obstruction 159

hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy 41, 46

hysterectomy, procedentia repair 589

icodextrin intraperitoneal solution 261

idiothyronine deiodinase, type 3 828–9

ileal brake 363

ileal conduit 638–9, 792, 793

ileal cystoplasty 635–6

ileal loop 10

ileal pouch–anal anastomosis (IPAA) 354, 356, 357–8, 359–60

ileal resection 261

   extensive 264

   gallstones 262, 264

   hyperoxaluria 262

   outcome 264

   renal stones 262

   vitamin deficiencies 262, 264

ileocecal valve 261

   preservation in necrotizing enterocolitis 332, 336

   total parenteral nutrition dependency 337

ileocecectomy and anastomosis, Crohn’s disease 353

ileocolic anastomosis

   intestinal transplantation 887

   peri-anastomotic ulceration 262, 263

ileo-rectal anastomosis 354, 356

   Crohn’s colitis 355

ileoscopy, intestinal transplantation 890

ileostomy

   Brooks 887

   complications 264–5

   Crohn’s colitis 355

   end 887

   loop 887

ileovesicostomy 638

ileum

   augmentation cystoplasty 635–6

     clam 636, 637

   intestinal adaptation 336–7

   necrotizing enterocolitis involvement 332

   nutrient absorption 364

   resection 336–7

   vaginoplasty 604

ileus

   adynamic 520

   postoperative 261

ilioinguinal nerve, trapping in appendectomy 380

illness

   burden 47

   chronic physical 58

   severity 42

imaging 15

   brain injury 44, 45, 46

   urinary tract 10

131I-MIBG 754

imipramine 545

immunizations, liver transplantation 869

immunodeficiency

   chronic, vascular access 953

   in utero stem cell transplantation 994–5

immunoprophylaxis, overwhelming postsplenectomy sepsis 441–2

immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) 316–17

immunosuppression

   alternate day steroid protocols 852

   heart–lung transplantation 903, 904

   intestinal transplantation 889, 890–1, 892, 893

   liver transplantation 807, 811, 858, 873–4

     acute rejection 867

     complications 869–70

     mortality 875

     non-compliance 876

   malignancy 873–4

   nephrotoxicity 871

   polyclonal antibodies 851

   renal transplantation 847, 849, 851, 852, 853

     quality of life 854

   tolerogenic protocols 889, 890–1, 892, 893

impairment, definition 47

imperforate anus with rectourethral fistula 403

impotence, anorectal malformations 412

in vitro fertilization 732

inborn errors of metabolism 859

incisional hernia 258

indol-3-carbinol/diindolylmethane (13C/DIM) 171

infants

   diuretic renography 534

   esophageal atresia

     feeding difficulties 209

     respiratory problems 212

   gallstones 484

   heart transplantation 897–8

   heart–lung transplantation 901

   hospitalization 55–7

   inguinal hernia in females 288–9

   neuroblastoma 750

   persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 510–18

   posterior urethral valves 541

   psychological responses to hospitalization 57

   regurgitation 218–19

   renal pelvis 534

   rumination syndrome 417

   stridor 167

   vomiting 219

infections

   central venous catheter 338–9, 367–8

   cholangitis 453–4

   circumcision 667, 668

   esophageal replacement wound 230

   gastroparesis 418

   heart–lung transplantation 901, 903, 904–5

   hydrocephalus shunt 960

   intestinal transplantation 368, 891, 893–4

   liver transplantation 867–9

     mortality 863

   pancreatic 522, 524

   pectus excavatum surgical wound 142

   post-pneumonectomy 186

   pyloromyotomy wound 298

   recurrent bronchopulmonary 178

   renal failure mortality 846

   renal transplantation 849, 851

   tracheotomy 164

   umbilical hernia wound 293

   urinary tract 545

   urolithiasis 695, 697

   vascular access 947–8, 954

   wound 893

   see also bacterial infections; fungal infections; viral infections

inferior vena cava anomalies, abdominal wall defects 274

infertility

   cystic fibrosis 325

   perforated appendicitis in girls 379–80, 381

inflammatory bowel disease 351–60

   appendectomy association 381–2

   colorectal cancer risk 265

influenza A virus 106, 869

influenza B virus 869

information, truthful about ambiguous genitalia 607

informed consent

   abdominal surgery 266

   feminizing genitoplasty 596

   lymphangioma treatment 86

inguinal hernia 286–92

   complications 289–91

   congenital indirect 286

   contralateral exploration 287–8

   development after appendectomy 380

   generalist repair 291

   genetic testing in girls 288–9

   incarceration 288, 289, 292

   ipsilateral recurrence 290

   laparoscopic repair 287, 289

   laparoscopy in contralateral exploration 287

   low birthweight 288

   metachronous 287, 288

   morbidity/mortality 289

   mortality, postoperative 292

   nerve damage 291

   prematurity 286, 288

   risk factors 286, 287

   specialist repair 291

   stitch granuloma 291

   taxis 289

   testicular ascent 289, 290

   testicular atrophy 290–1

   unilateral 287–8

   vas deferens damage 291

inguinal herniography, patent processus vaginalis investigation 287

inguinal herniotomy 286–7

   complications 289–90

   mortality 292

   postoperative complications 290–1

inguinoscrotal descent 652

inhibin B 732

injection sclerotherapy, portal hypertension 454–5

injury see trauma

injury severity scores (ISS) 918–19

   trauma outcomes 31, 32

innominate artery

   erosion in tracheotomy 164–5

   reimplantation 179

   tracheal compression 178, 179

inotropes 903

instruments, development 15

insulin

   residual secretion 513

   secretion 510

   therapy in hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 513

insulin-like hormone 3 (INSL3) 652

   deficiency 653

intelligence, head injury outcome 929, 930–1

intensive care 15

intensive care, neonatal

   long-term outcomes 46–51

   outcomes 39–51

   short-term outcomes 41–6

intensive care nurses 15

interferon-[alpha] 2a 171, 176, 829

interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor antibodies 847, 867, 870, 871

intermittent catheterization 411, 625

   bladder dysfunction 646

International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies, classification scheme 826, 827

International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOPEL) 802, 803

   studies 802, 804, 810

intestinal adaptation

   intestinal failure 363, 364

   necrotizing enterocolitis 336

   nutritional supplements 364–5

intestinal atresia

   gastroschisis 277

   gastroschisis association 280

   intestinal transplantation 885

   jejunoileal atresia 308

intestinal duplication 309–10

intestinal dysmotility

   gastroschisis 273, 280

   intestinal stomas 264

   prenatal 273

intestinal failure 362–71, 885

   complications 366–8

   development 369–70

   early management 363

   economics 370

   end-stage 888

   enteral feeding 364

   ethical issues 371

   etiology 362–3

   growth 369–70

   intestinal adaptation 364

   long-term management 364–6

   medical treatment 364–5

   mineral deficiencies 364

   outcome 368–9

   quality of life 370–1

   surgical treatment 365–6

   survival 368–9

   vitamin deficiencies 364

   see also short bowel syndrome

intestinal loop strangulation 289

intestinal malignancy, cystic fibrosis 323

intestinal malrotation 310–11

   associated anomalies 311

   chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction 420

   intestinal obstruction 260

   jejunoileal atresia 308

   midgut volvulus 281

   outcome 310–11

   presentation 310

intestinal motility

   jejunoileal atresia 308

   testing 421

intestinal obstruction

   appendicitis 379

   cystic fibrosis 321–2

   Hirschsprung’s disease 389

   intestinal malrotation 310–11

   meconium ileus 320–1

   peritoneal adhesions 258, 259

intestinal perforation, necrotizing enterocolitis 332

intestinal pseudo-obstruction, chronic 420–2

   diagnosis 420–1

   intestinal transplantation 888, 889

   mortality 422

   outcome 421–2

   surgery 422

   treatment 421–2

intestinal resection 261–2, 263, 264

   nutrient absorption 336–7

intestinal rotation, abnormal in gastroschisis/omphalocele 274

intestinal stoma 264–5

intestinal strictures

   anastomotic 262, 264

   balloon catheter dilatation technique 335

   Crohn’s disease 353

   necrotizing enterocolitis 334–5

   resection 335

intestinal transplantation 884–95

   allograft biopsy 890

   allograft function 894

   caregivers 890

   chimerism 893

   chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction 422

   in combination with liver 886, 887

   complications 368

   contraindications 889

   development 339–40

   fluid/electrolyte status 891

   graft survival 891–2

   graft vs host disease 892–3

   growth 339–40, 890

   ileoscopy 890

   immune complications 889

   immunosuppression 339, 889, 890–1, 892, 893

   indications 885

   infections 368, 891, 893–4

   intensive care 889

   in isolation 886–7

   live donation 888

   monitoring 890–1

   multivisceral graft 886

   necrotizing enterocolitis 339

   nutrition 888, 890, 891, 894

   outcome 369

   pancreas 887, 888

   patient evaluation/selection criteria 888–9

   post-transplant management 889–91

   prognosis 339

   pseudo-obstruction 888, 889

   quality of life 340, 370–1, 894

   rehabilitation 890

   rejection 890–1, 892

   short bowel syndrome 365–6

   survival 340, 369, 891–2

   techniques 885–8

intestinal varices 506

intestinal wall, neuromuscular maturation delay 273

intestine, hernial sac 289–90

intra-abdominal pressure, pulmonary function 282

intracranial pressure (ICP)

   hydrocephalus shunt removal 962

   low 961

   raised in hydrocephalus 958

intracytoplasmic sperm injections 720, 732, 733

intrafetal ablation 978

intrahepatic cysts 455–6

intraosseous infusion 954–5

intrapubic stitch 622–3

intrapulmonary shunting 456

intrapulmonary vascular dilatation 456

intrauterine growth, esophageal atresia 208

intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) 41

   cerebral palsy 49

   necrotizing enterocolitis 336

   parenteral nutrition 994

intrauterine insemination (IUI) 719

intra-velar veloplasty 70, 72

intravenous urography 557–8

intraventricular hemorrhage 151

intussusception 311–12

   cystic fibrosis 323

   laparoscopy 312

inversin gene 448

iodine 91

   deficiency 92

ischiopagus 1009, 1010, 1012

   separation 1012

isoproterenol 903

itraconazole 868

Jarcho–Levin syndrome 147, 148

jaundice

   biliary atresia 34

   cholestatic 338

   chronic pancreatitis 524

   epithelioid hemangioendothelioma 800

   liver transplant rejection 867

   obstructive with choledochal cyst 477

   physiologic 448, 449

   portoenterostomy 453

jejunal atresia, vitamin E malabsorption 262

jejunocolic anastomosis, peri-anastomotic ulceration 262, 263

jejunoileal atresia

   apple peel 307, 308

   complications 308

   and web 307–8

jejunojejunostomy, Roux-en-Y limb 470

jejunostomy, proximal 333–4

jejunum

   necrotizing enterocolitis involvement 332

   nutrient absorption 364

   resection 336–7

   Roux loop 451, 452

     obstruction 454

Jeune’s syndrome 147, 148

joint disease, renal transplantation 854

Jonas R. 5

jugular vein

   autologous graft 502

   stenosis 954

   vascular access 955

Kallmann’s syndrome, X-linked 677

Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma 826–7, 831

karyotyping, lymphangioma 81

Kasabach–Merritt phenomenon 827, 831

Kasai portoenterostomy 34, 35

keloid scars 257

   umbilical hernia surgery 293

kidneys

   dysplastic fetal 548

   human remnant 679–80

   imaging 534, 684

   loss 939

   metachronous Wilms’ tumor 761

   multicystic 683–92

     contralateral kidney 685

     diagnosis 683–5

     follow-up 692

     hydronephrotic variant 683

     hypertension risk 690–2

     malignancy risk 690

     nephrectomy 687–92

     outcome 687

     postnatal outcome 687

     prenatal diagnosis 686

     presentation 683–5

     prevalence 686

     segmental of duplex system 685

     urological anomaly association 687, 689

   radiotherapy 762–3

   rhabdomyosarcoma 787

   single 675–80

     congenital 675–8

     definition 675

     diagnosis 675

     hyperfiltration damage 677–8

     hypertrophy 677

     incidence 676

     prognosis 678–9

     transplant donation 680

     urinary tract malformations 676, 678

   small 562

   trauma 939

   unilateral multicystic dysplasia 683

   upper urinary tract obstruction 533–4

   see also nephrectomy; renal entries

Klean Prep, intestinal obstruction 322

Klebsiella, liver transplantation 868

Klinefelter’s syndrome, gynecomastia 245

Klippel–Trenaunay syndrome 831, 837–8

Kock ileostomy 265

Koff technique 588

Koop E. 7

Kropp urethral lengthening 633, 635

kyphoscoliosis 147

kyphosis, spinal cord injuries 941–2

labia, fusion 589

lactate dehydrogenase 707

D-lactic acidosis, short bowel syndrome 366

lactulose, intestinal obstruction 322

Ladd procedure 310

Ladd W. E. 3, 4–5, 6, 7

laminectomy, neuroblastoma intraspinal extension 752

language, head injury outcome 929, 931

Lanman T. 4, 5

laparoscopy

   inguinal hernia contralateral exploration 287

   ovarian tumors 711–12

laparotomy, ovarian tumors 711

large bowel, ganglion cell absence 385

laryngeal atresia 168

laryngeal clefts 176–7

laryngeal papilloma 170–1

laryngeal shaver 170

laryngeal webs 168

laryngofissure 169–70

laryngomalacia 167–8

laryngotracheal stenosis 171–5

   causes 172

   complications 175

   Cotton–Myer grading system 172

   decannulation 174

   outcomes 175

   reconstructive surgery 172–5

     with cartilage interpositional grafting 174

   stents 174

   tracheotomy 174

laryngotracheoesophageal clefts 176–7

laryngotracheoplasty 167

   posterior graft 170

larynx 159

laser photocoagulation

   parotid ducts 113

   retinopathy of prematurity 49

   twin–twin transfusion syndrome 975–6

   umbilical cord 977

laser therapy

   amniotic bands 993

   amniotic membrane defect 993

   capillary malformations 835

   cystic congenital adenomatoid malformation 974

   hemangioma 829–30

   sacrococcygeal teratoma 983

   ureterocele incision 983

laser therapy, carbon dioxide

   airway obstruction 169, 170

   laryngotracheal stenosis 173

   subglottic hemangioma 176

   tracheal hemangioma 176

laser therapy, KTP

   laryngotracheal stenosis 173

   subglottic hemangioma 176

   tracheal hemangioma 176

laser therapy, pulsed dye 170–1

latissimus dorsi, involuntary twitch 189

Leadbetter–Politano procedure 574, 576, 579

Legionella 869

LeJour’s technique 246

Lembert stitches 537

leptomeningeal anomalies 835

Lesch–Nyhan syndrome 701

Letterman’s technique 246

leukemia 9

   mucoepidermoid carcinoma 112

   second primary 738, 772

levatorplasty 410

Lewis J. 7

Leydig cells 786

libido 590

Lich–Gregoir procedure 575

lichen sclerosus 614–15

   see also balanitis xerotica et obliterans

Lillehei C. W. 7

limbs, replantation 9

lip see cleft lip/palate

lipase 322, 519

lipectomy, suction-assisted 246

lithotripsy see extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy

litigation 51

liver

   biochemical tests 449

   biopsy in biliary atresia 449, 450

   lobectomy 806

   malignant change with biliary atresia 456

   reduction techniques 860–1

   trauma 938–9

   see also hepatic entries

liver cirrhosis 801

   hepatitis B-related 810

   inborn errors of metabolism 859

liver disease

   cancer treatment 737–8, 764–5, 774

   cholestatic 337–8

   chronic 858–9

   cystic fibrosis 323–4

   gynecomastia 245

   portal hypertension 502

   TPN 337–8, 367

   vitamin E deficiency 456

   Wilms’ tumor treatment 764–5, 774

liver donors 860

   contraindications 860

   living 860, 862–3

   non-heart beating 860

liver failure

   acute 859

   epithelioid hemangioendothelioma 800

liver sarcoma 802, 805

liver transplantation 806–7, 858–79

   biliary atresia 34, 457–8, 459, 859, 867

   biliary complications 866, 875

   bowel complications 867

   coagulopathy 863

   complications 863–75

   contraindications 859

   cystic fibrosis 324

   donor liver procurement 860

   first year after 863

   graft dysfunction 863

     late 876

   graft failure 875

   growth 877–8

   hair growth 872

   headache 873

   hyperlipidemia 872

   hypertension 871–2

   immunizations 869

   immunosuppression 807, 811, 858, 873–4

     acute rejection 867

     complications 869–70

     mortality 875

     non-compliance 876

   indications 807, 858–9

   infection 863, 867–9

   with intestinal transplant 886, 887

   liver reduction techniques 860–1

   living donor 860, 862–3

   malignancy 873–4

   mood disorders 873

   mortality 863

     late 875–6

   motor function 878

   necrotizing enterocolitis 339

   neurodevelopmental outcome 878–9

   neurologic disorders 873

   nutrition 877–8

   operative techniques 860–3

   oral complications 872

   orthoptic 858, 860

   parental attitudes 879

   portal hypertension 865–6

     shunt surgery 493, 503

   portal vein thrombosis 865

   postoperative bleeding 863

   post-transplant management 878

   pre-transplant management 877–8

   primary 810

   primary non-function 863

   prognosis 859

   psychiatric disorders 873

   psychosocial adjustment 878–9

   pulmonary hypertension 456

   quality of life 878–9

   recurrent disease 875

   rejection

     acute 867

     chronic 862–3, 867, 875

   renal disease 870–1

   renal insufficiency 870–1

   rescue 810

   retransplantation 877

   seizures 873

   short stature 877

   split liver grafts 807, 861–2

   survival 810, 863, 864

   thrombocytopenia 863

   timing 859

   vascular complications 864–6

   vascular thrombosis 864–5, 865–6

   vena cava 866

   warts 872–3

liver tumors 799–811

   benign 799–800, 806

   biliary complications 808–9

   biopsy 802

   chemotherapy 803–5

     adjuvant 811

   diagnostic imaging 802

   disease-free survival 809–11

   hepatic artery chemoembolization 805

   hepatic regeneration 808

   malignant 801–2, 806–7

   metastases 809

   operative bleeding control 806

   outcome 802–3, 807–11

   portal hypertension surgical shunt 495

   recurrence 809

   re-resection 809

   stages 802, 803

   surgical morbidity/mortality 808–9

   surgical resection 806–7, 809

   treatment 803–7

lobectomy 185

longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring (LILT) 365, 368

Lugol’s solution 91

lung(s)

   compensatory growth 184–5, 186

   cystic fibrosis pathology 318

   development 184

   living donor lobectomy 903

   metachronous metastases 809

   resection 188, 318

   segmental resection 5

   segmentectomy 185

   tidal volume/functional residual capacity ratio 186

   see also pulmonary entries; respiratory entries

lung disease

   chronic

     gastroesophageal reflux 223

     outcomes 50–1

   esophageal atresia 212–13

   gastroesophageal reflux 200, 223

lung function

   abdominal wall defects 282

   after pulmonary resection 185–6

   esophageal atresia 212–14

   fetal obstructive uropathy 982

lung transplantation 897–910

   bilateral 899

   bronchiolitis obliterans 907–8

   cystic fibrosis 319, 899, 907

   growth 910

   living donor lobectomy 903

   lobar 908

   outcome 907–8

   pulmonary arterial hypertension 899, 907

   risk factors 908

   single 899

luteinizing hormone (LH), post-irradiation deficiency 728–9

luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) 654

lymph node metastases 112

   Wilms’ tumor 759

lymphangioma 79–87, 826

   adjunctive therapies 83–5

   cavernous 79, 83

   cervical 80, 85

   cervico-mediastinal 85

   cystic 79, 83

   diagnosis 81

   enlargement 80

   esophageal 83

   etiology 79–80

   excision 82, 111

   EXIT strategy 990

   intestinal 83

   intra-abdominal 83

   intralesional therapies 83–5, 111

   karyotyping 81

   outcomes 81–5

   pathogenesis 79–80

   percutaneous embolization 84

   postnatal outcome 81–5, 86

   postoperative complications 82

   prenatal counseling 86

   prenatal outcome 81

   presentation 80–1

   recurrence 83

   salivary gland 111

   site 80, 82

   symptoms 80, 81, 82

   tracheostomy 82

   treatment modality 82, 111

lymphangiomatosis of bone 80

lymphatic malformations 79–80, 85–6, 826, 832–3

   complications 832–3

   diagnosis 832

   economic aspects 85–6

   ethical issues 86

   gastrointestinal lesions 833

   imaging 832

   macrocystic 833

   medicolegal issues 86

   outcomes 833

   treatment 833

lymphedema, inherited 832

lymphocytic choriomeningitis 106

lymphoma

   B-cell of salivary gland 110

   post-transplant 874

lymphoproliferative disease

   Epstein–Barr virus-associated 851, 893–4

   see also post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD)

lymphoscintigraphy 84–5

macrocysts, percutaneous aspiration 833

macromastia 246–7

Maffucci syndrome 837, 838

MAG3 cystography 556, 557

magnesium

   bile requirement for absorption 456

   deficiency in short bowel syndrome 366

magnetic resonance cholangipancreatography (MRCP) 466, 467

   common bile duct stones 483

   forme fruste choledochal cyst 476

   pancreatic malformations 519

   pancreatitis 521

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 15

   periventricular leukomalacia 44, 45, 46

magnetic resonance urography 534

MAGPI technique 616

Major Trauma Outcome Study (MTOS) 921, 936

malabsorption

   gastroschisis 273, 280

   portoenterostomy 456

malignancy

   abdominal surgery 265

   bile duct hilar carcinoma 476

   biliary stone disease 485–6

   choledochal cyst excision 473, 475

   cystic fibrosis 323

   esophageal atresia 200–2

   germ cell tumors 717, 816–17

   gonadal tumors 289, 658–60, 708, 712, 713, 715, 717–18

     secondary 720

   heart–lung transplantation contraindications 901

   immunosuppression 873–4

   liver

     in biliary atresia 456

     transplantation 873–4

   neovaginal carcinoma 606

   nephrectomy risks 689–90

     multicystic kidney 688

   obesity 736

   ovarian tumors 712, 713, 717–18

   portal hypertension surgical shunt 495

   PTFE implants 573

   renal transplantation 849, 850

     de novo 853

   sclerotherapy risk 507–8

   second

     following cancer treatment 738

     neuroblastoma 753–4

     rhabdomyosarcoma 788–9

     Wilms’ tumor 761, 774

   splenectomy 439–40

   testicular 658–60, 708, 715

   see also metastases

malnutrition, prior to liver transplantation 877

Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) 429–32

   complications 431

   Mitrofanoff channel 638

   quality of life 431

   success rate 432

   surgical techniques 430–1

Malone appendicostomy 425

mammary tissue 242–3

   aberrant 244

mammoplasty, reduction 246, 247

managed care 18

mandible, Ewing’s sarcoma 123, 124

manometry, antroduodenal 417, 418, 419

Marfan syndrome

   pectus carinatum association 144

   pectus excavatum association 135

marginal vein of Servelle 837

mast cells, appendicitis 375

maternal age, gastroschisis 273

maternal deprivation 55

maternal–fetal surgery 8, 966–95

   amniotic band syndrome 993–4

   applications 967

   benefits 966, 968

   chronic fetal vascular access 994

   cleft lip/palate 995

   congenital diaphragmatic hernia 152, 968–73

   congenital heart defects 987–8

   EXIT strategy 970, 988, 990–1

   fertility effects 968

   gastroschisis 994

   gene therapy 994–5

   maternal risk 966, 968

   myelomeningocele 966, 967, 984–6

   obstructive uropathy 978–83

   premature rupture of membranes 991, 992, 993

   preterm labor 968

   risks 966, 968

   sacrococcygeal teratoma 983–4

   tension hydrothorax 987

   thoracic lesions 973–4

   twin–twin transfusion syndrome 966, 967, 974–8

Mathieu flip–flap procedure 614

matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 828

maxillectomy, osteosarcoma 122

Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome 604–5

measles virus, Crohn’s disease 351

meatotomy 670

meatus see urethral meatus

Meckel’s diverticulectomy, laparoscopic 308–9

Meckel’s diverticulum 270, 308–9

meconium ileus

   cystic fibrosis 320–1

   intestinal obstruction 260

   jejunoileal atresia 308

   management 320

   neonates 320–1

   surgery 320–1

meconium staining 276

   amniotic fluid 273

mediastinal germ cell tumors 816

   age at diagnosis 823

   hematologic malignancy association 823

   outcome/prognosis 822–3

   surgical resection timing 823

Medicare 18

medico-legal issues

   abdominal surgery 266

   appendicitis 382

   gonadal tissue harvesting 733–4

   lymphatic malformations 86

   neonatal intensive care outcomes 51

megaduodenum, duodenal obstruction 306

megarectosigmoid 410

megaureter 10, 405

   obstructed 537–8

   repair 537, 576

memory, head injury outcome 931

menopause, early 730–1

Mental Development Index 343

mesenchymal hamartomas 799–800

   etiology 799

   surgical resection 806

mesenteric sclerosis 892

mesenteric vein thrombosis 524

meso-Rex shunt 808

meta-analysis 24

metabolic acidosis

   hyperchloremic 636

   necrotizing enterocolitis 330

   short bowel syndrome 366

metabolic disease, heart–lung transplantation contraindications 901

metanephros 543

metastases

   liver tumors 809

   lung metachronous 809

   lymph nodes 112

   osteosarcoma 122

   rhabdomyosarcoma 119, 120

   thyroid carcinoma 93, 94

   Wilms’ tumor 759, 770, 773

methimazole 91

methylprednisolone 904

see 131I-MIBG

microalbuminuria, nephrectomy 763

microcolon 410

microprematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis 336

microsphere preparations, enteric coated 321

microthelia 244

micturating cystourethrogram 556

   antibiotic prophylaxis 561

mid-facial bony surgery 67–8

midgut

   physiologic herniation 271

   volvulus 281

migraine 961

migrating motor complex 419, 420, 422

Mikulicz stoma 333

Milroy syndrome, lymphatic malformations 832

mineral deficiencies, intestinal failure 364

mineral oil 423

mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE) 420

mitomycin C 163–4, 168

mitral valve disease

   pectus carinatum 145

   pectus excavatum 144

Mitrofanoff conduit 546, 547, 575, 632, 637–8

   complications 638

Mogen clamp 665

molecular absorbent recirculating system (MARS) 867

monsplasty 590

Monti-MACE conduit 430

mood disorders, liver transplantation 873

mortality, perinatal 39–41

motility index 419

motor development, congenital diaphragmatic hernia 154–5

motor function

   head injury outcome 929, 931–2

   liver transplantation 878

   spinal cord injuries 941

motor vehicle collisions

   head injury 926–7

   pancreatic trauma 939

Mowat–Wilson syndrome 397

mucinous adenocarcinoma 708

mucinous cystadenoma 708

mucoepidermoid carcinoma 111–12

mucopolysaccharidoses, umbilical hernia 292

mullerian inhibiting substance 8, 652, 653

multi-center studies 20

multidisciplinary teams, trauma systems 921

multiple births, cerebral palsy 48–9

multiple endocrine neoplasia

   adenomas 516

   genetic testing 97

   Hirschsprung’s disease association 397

   hyperparathyroidism 98

   medullary carcinoma of thyroid gland 95, 96, 97–8

multiple hereditary exostosis gene deletion 774

multivisceral transplantation 884–95

   full 887

   modified 887–8

mumps 105–6

   gynecomastia 245

Munchausen’s syndrome see pediatric condition falsification

Murray J. 8

muscle/musculocutaneous flaps

   breast reconstruction 248

   conjoined twin separation 1008

musculoskeletal disorders, Wilms’ tumor treatment 765, 773

Mustarde-type flap 614

MYCN oncogene 777

mycobacterial infection

   Crohn’s disease 351

   cystic fibrosis infection 317–18

   liver transplantation 869

Mycobacterium paratuberculosis 351

mycophenolate mofetil 847, 867, 871, 892

   heart–lung transplantation 903

myelomeningocele 14, 958

   ambulation 962–3

   amnioexchange 986

   anatomy 959

   complications 959–60, 962–3

   fetoscopic repair 984–6

   intellectual impairment 962

   liveborn 40

   maternal–fetal surgery 966, 967, 984–6

   mortality 959

   open repair 986

   spinal defect closure 959

   tethering 963

   transitioning care 963–4

   treatment 959

myenteric plexus, neuronal hypertrophy 375

myoablation, neuroblastoma 751–2

N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG) 566–7

N-acetylcysteine 322

Namba technique 244

nasal deformity, primary correction 69

nasal polyps, cystic fibrosis 319

naso-biliary drainage 483

National Information Center on Health Services Research and Health Care Technology (NICHSR) 18

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development 20

National Institutes of Health (NIH), clinical trials 20

National Multicystic Kidney Register 685

National Pediatric Trauma Registry (NPTR) 936–7

National Wilms Tumor Study Group (NWTSG) studies 759–60, 774–5

neck masses, fetal 990, 991

necrotizing enterocolitis 14, 329–44

   bowel preservation 332

   central venous catheter sepsis 338

   clinical diagnosis 329–30

   colonic involvement 332

   enteral nutrition 335

   epidemiology 329

   ethical issues in surgery 332–3

   extremely low birthweight babies 342–3

   gastroschisis association 281

   growth 336, 340

   hospitalization 329

     duration 335

   ileal involvement 332

   ileocecal valve 332, 336

   intestinal adaptation 336

   intestinal obstruction 260

   intestinal perforation 332

   intestinal strictures 334–5

   intestinal transplantation 339, 885

   intrauterine growth restriction 336

   liver transplantation 339

   medical management 331

   metabolic acidosis 330

   mortality 329, 330, 331, 332, 336

   multisegmental 332

   neurodevelopmental outcomes 340–3

   neurological impairment 341

   paracentesis 331

   peritoneal drainage 331–2

   platelet count 330

   pneumatosis intestinalis 330, 331

   portal venous gas 330, 331

   postoperative management 333

   prematurity 329, 336, 343

   preterm infant outcome 49

   prognosis 339

   radiography 330

   recurrent 333

   septic shock 330

   short bowel syndrome 332, 336–7

   stomal complications 333–4

   surgery 331–3

     neurodevelopment 341–2

   survival 336

   total parenteral nutrition 332, 335

     liver disease 281

   very low birthweight 343

Neisseria meningitidis 440, 441, 442

neomycin 338

neonatal deaths 42

neonatal intensive care units (NICU) admissions 329

neonates

   adhesive intestinal obstruction 259–60

   chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction 420, 422

   circumcision 665, 668

   gallstones 484

   heart transplantation 897

   heart–lung transplantation 901

   hepatitis 450

   hospitalization 55–7

   meconium ileus 320–1

   neuroblastoma 749–50

   organ donors 902

   posterior urethral valves 541

   psychological responses to hospitalization 57

   surgery 14

     neurodevelopment impact 342

     psychological studies 55–7

   umbilical artery catheterization 954

   vesicoureteric reflux 559

   see also necrotizing enterocolitis

neoplasia, benign, abdominal surgery 265–6

neourethra formation 615

neovagina carcinoma 606

nephrectomy

   complications 760

   indications 687–8

   laparoscopic 689

   malignant change risk 689–90

   multicystic kidneys 685, 687–92

   renal disease 679–80

   renal donors 848

   renal function 763

   robotic 689

   subtotal 679–80

   technique 689

   transplant donation 680

   trauma outcome 939

   Wilms’ tumor 260, 760, 762, 763, 769–71

nephritis, shunt 961

nephroblastoma 690

nephrocalcinosis 696

nephrolithiasis 695–6

   clinical presentation 697–8

   etiology 696

   recurrence 703

   see also renal stones; urolithiasis

nephrolithotomy, percutaneous 699, 700

nephroma, mesoblastic 685

nephron

   damage 545

   development 543

   hyperfiltration 545, 763

   hypertrophy 545

nephropathy see reflux nephropathy

nephrosclerosis 847

nephrostomy tubes 536

nephrotic syndrome

   renal transplantation 847

   steroid-resistant 850

nephroureterectomy 544

neuroblastoma 117, 745–56

   adolescents 751

   adults 751

   advanced 751–2

   biological markers 746

   bone marrow transplantation 751–2

   chemotherapy 749, 752–3

   diagnosis 745

   health care of survivors 755

   histopathological classification 746

   infants 750

   intraspinal extension 752–3

   mass screening 748

   morbidity 748–9

   myoablation 751–2

   neonatal 749–50

   neurological function 752, 753

   neuropsychological outcome 754–5

   outcome 749

   palliation 751

   pelvic 752

   presentation 745

   prognosis 745–6, 752

   radiotherapy 749

   recurrence 748

     risk 751

   resection 751

   risk stratification 746–8

   4S 747, 748, 750–1

   second malignancies 753–4

   staging 746

   stem cell transplantation 751–2

   surgery 749, 752

     palliative 751

   survival 746–8, 750

   thoracic 752

   treatment 746–8

     fertility effects 755

neurodevelopment, liver transplantation 878–9

neuroendocrine dysfunction, rhabdomyosarcoma treatment 789

neurofibroma, salivary gland 111

neurofibromatosis, gynecomastia 245

neurologic impairment

   liver transplantation 873

   necrotizing enterocolitis 341

neuronal dysplasia, intestinal 390–1

nevus flammeus neonatorum 835

nipple

   inverted 244

   malformations 243–4

   supernumerary 243–4

nipple–areola complex 246, 247

   deformity 248, 249

Nissen fundoplication 202

   dumping syndrome 419

   with esophagomyotomy 238

   open transabdominal 260

   outcome 223

nitrates, esophageal achalasia 233

nitric oxide, inhaled 151, 153

Nixon H. 13

NMYC oncogene 746

nocardiosis 869

nocturnal enuresis 643, 644, 645

   detrusor instability association 649

   outcome

     measures 647–8

     without treatment 648

   prevalence 648

   psychosocial adjustment 649

   treatment 647

   urge incontinence association 649

   urinary tract infection 646

nodular regenerative hyperplasia 865–6

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, splenectomy 440

Noonan syndrome, lymphatic malformations 832

Norwood procedure 897, 901

nuclear imaging 15

nursing 15

nutcracker esophagus 416, 417

nutrients, absorption with intestinal resection 336–7

nutrition

   chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction 421

   congenital diaphragmatic hernia 153

   cystic fibrosis 321

   heart–lung transplantation 901

   home parenteral nutrition 370

   hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 510, 512

   intestinal transplantation 888, 890, 891

   liver transplantation 877–8

   necrotizing enterocolitis 335

   see also enteral feeding; total parenteral nutrition (TPN)

nutritional support

   abdominal wall defects 280

   intestinal failure 885

obesity

   gynecomastia 247

   macromastia 247

   malignancies 736

observational studies 23

octreotide 510, 511, 513

   chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction 421–2

   dumping syndrome 419

OEIS complex, abdominal wall defects 274

OK-432 83–4, 111

OKT3 867, 892, 903, 904

oligohydramnios

   obstructive uropathy 979–80, 982, 983

   premature rupture of membranes 993

   pulmonary hypoplasia 541

oligomeganephronia 678

oligospermia, Wilms’ tumor treatment effects 761–2, 774

Ombredanne procedure 615

omega flap, posterior 600, 602

omphalocele 270

   abdominal wall hernias 281–2

   adhesive bowel obstruction 281

   associated anomalies 274, 278

   chromosomal abnormalities 274

   closure 278, 280

   cryptorchidism 274

   epidemiology 273

   gastroesophageal reflux 281

   gastrointestinal function 280

   giant 272, 274

   incidence 273

   midgut volvulus 281

   non-operative management 278–9

   pathogenesis 271

   pathophysiology 272–3

   postoperative care 279

   prenatal diagnosis 274–5

   preoperative evaluation 278

   pulmonary function 282

   risk factors 273

   survival 279–80

   syndromic 273

omphalopagus 1010

   separation 1012

oocyte harvesting 731, 732

oophorectomy, ovarian tissue harvesting 733

oophoropexy 713–14

ophthalmic disorders, renal transplantation 854

opsoclonus–myoclonus–ataxia (OMA) 745, 753

oral aversion, congenital diaphragmatic hernia 153

oral cavity

   liver transplantation 872

   rhabdomyosarcoma 118

orbit, rhabdomyosarcoma 118, 119, 120

orchidectomy, inguinal 708

orchidopexy 290

   age 654

   complications 655

   fertility 656

   outcome 655–8

   referral 661

   semen analysis 656–8

orchitis, gynecomastia 245

organ failure, multiple 901

organ transplantation 8

   gallstones 486

   history 884–5

   see also transplantation of named organs

orgasm 591, Plate 2

orofacial cleft deformity 71

oronasal fistula 72

oropharyngeal teratoma 991

oropharynx, meconium staining 276

orthognathic surgery 67–8

orthopedics, presurgical 70, 74

orthophosphates 702

Osler–Weber–Rendu disease 831, 838

osteochondrodystrophy, autosomal recessive inherited 147

osteoporosis 833

osteosarcoma

   chemotherapy 122, 123

   complications 125

   head and neck 120–3

   imaging 121, 122

   management 122

   morbidity 125

   pulmonary metastases 122

   radiotherapy 122, 123

   staging 121–2

   surgery 122

     preoperative chemotherapy 123

   survival 123

osteotomy, neonatal 583

ostomy, high-output 363

outcomes 255–7

   assessment 19–20

   categorization 256–7

   disabilities 46–7

   evaluation 256

   patient-centered 24

   psychosocial 54

   research 19

   studies 255–6

outcomes analysis 17–27

   biliary atresia 33–5

   history 17–19

   intensive care 39–51

   long-term 46–51

   surgical care systems 29–37

   trauma 30–3

   urology 35–6

outlet obstruction, Hirschsprung’s disease 389–92

   diagnosis 390

   management 391–2

ovarian cysts 710, 717

ovarian dysfunction, rhabdomyosarcoma treatment 786

ovarian failure, Wilms’ tumor treatment 762, 774

ovarian tumors

   bilateral synchronous 714–15

   malignant 708, 712, 713, 717–18

   management 708, 709, 710–14

   prepubertal 714

   presentation 708, 709, 710–14

ovaries

   hernial sac 289–90

   preservation 719

   radiotherapy effects 773

   solid masses 711, 713

   tissue harvesting 733

   torsion 712–14, Plate 14

   viability 713

overflow pseudoincontinence 410

oxalate 262, 366

   urolithiasis 696, 700, 701, 702

oxaluria, primary 702

oxybutynin 559, 632–3, 645, 647

4p- syndrome 677

pain-associated disability syndrome 421

palate see cleft lip/palate; cleft palate

palivizumab 50

Pallister–Hall syndrome 177

pancreas

   abscess 524

   cystic fibrosis 324–5

   exocrine insufficiency 321, 524, 525

   fistulae 524

   infections 522, 524

   intestinal transplantation 887, 888

   non-operative trauma management 940

   pseudoaneurysms 524

   pseudocysts 524, 939–40

   resection 525

   stone extraction 524

   trauma 939–40

pancreas divisum 519

pancreatectomy 513

   distal 524, 940

pancreatic cystosis, cystic fibrosis 324–5

pancreatic duct

   anomalies 468

   stents 940

   stone formation 472

   trauma 940

pancreatic endoprostheses 524

pancreatic enzymes

   deficiency 525

   preparations 321, 322

pancreatic malignancy, cystic fibrosis 323

pancreatic sphincterotomy 524

pancreatic venous sampling 512, 513

pancreaticobiliary channel, common 475

pancreaticobiliary ductal malunion 265, 475–6

pancreaticojejunostomy 472, 524, 525

pancreatitis 481

   acute 519–23

     complications 521–2

     diagnosis 519–21

     drainage 523

     etiology 519

     necrosectomy 523

     outcome 523

     prognosis 522

     treatment 522–3

   causes 520

   chronic 524–5

     complications 522, 524

     diagnosis 524

     etiology 524

     minimally invasive therapy 524

     outcome 525

     treatment 524–5

     variants 525

   cystic fibrosis 324, 325

   gallbladder sludge 483–4

   gallstone 481, 483–4, 523

   hereditary 525

   idiopathic fibrosing 525

   imaging 520–1

   necrotizing 519, 523

paracentesis, necrotizing enterocolitis 331

parafollicular cells 95

parainfluenza viruses 106

parameningeal regions, rhabdomyosarcoma 118, 119, 120

parapagus 1011

paraphimosis 665

parathyroid disorders 98–101

parathyroid glands, autotransplantation 96, 99–100

parathyroid hormone (PTH) 98

   urolithiasis 701

parathyroidectomy

   minimally invasive/subtotal 99

   total 96, 99, 100–1

parent roles

   ambiguous genitalia 607

   hospitalization of child 55–7

   liver transplantation 879

   rectal examination 410

   relationship with child 57–8

   stresses of children with biliary atresia 460

parent support groups, esophageal atresia 204–5

parenteral nutrition

   intrauterine growth restriction 994

   see also total parenteral nutrition

Parkes–Weber syndrome 837, 838

parotid ducts, laser coagulation 113

parotid gland

   congenital salivary carcinoma 112

   hemangioma 111

   malignancy 111, 112

parotidectomy

   facial nerve paralysis 113

   subtotal 111

   total 112

parotitis, allergic 109

parvovoirus B19 869

Passerini–Glazel procedure 603

paternity after orchidopexy 656, 657

patient-centered outcomes 24

pectoralis muscles, Poland syndrome 248

pectus carinatum 135, 136, 144–5

pectus deformities, congenital diaphragmatic hernia 155

pectus excavatum 135, 136, 137–8, 139–40, 140–4, 145

   body image 144

   complications 141–2

   connective tissue disorder association 135

   conservative treatment 137

   exercise program 137

   history of repair 135, 137

   incidence 135, 137

   long-term outcome 142–4

   pathophysiology 135

   patient evaluation 137–8

   posture program 137

   pulmonary function testing 143, 144

   recurrence 142–3

   surgery 139–40, 140–4

   symptoms 135, 136, 137

   treatment 137–8, 139–40, 140–4

pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions 927

pediatric condition falsification 421

pediatric logistic organ dysfunction (PELOD) score 522

Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 25

Pediatric Research Initiative Act (US) 20

pediatric trauma centers 30, 31–2, 33, 936–7

pediatric trauma score 917–18

pelvic diastasis closure 621

pelvic floor muscles

   sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors 822

   training 646

pelvic fracture 940–1

pelvic osteotomy 621, 622

pelvic ring 583

pelvis

   orientation in females 588

   sacral ratio 405, 406

penile curvature

   correction 611–12

   midline dorsal plication technique 611, 612

   residual 615

penis

   ablation 669

   adult epispadic 584–5

   appearance after hypospadias surgery 617

   burying 668, 670

   chordee reconstruction 587

   corporal fibrosis 669

   denuded shaft 669

   exstrophy 583–4

   length reconstruction 586–7

   major injury 669

   neuroanatomy 612, Plate 7

   reconstruction 624

   shortening 628

   straightening 611

peptic ulceration

   duodenal obstruction 306

   pyloric stenosis 300, 301

peptide YY 363

percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy 321

perianal abscess/disease in Crohn’s disease 354

pericardial teratoma 988

pericardiocentesis, fetal 988

pericarditis, pectus excavatum 142

perinatal asphyxia 41

   cerebral palsy 48

perinatal morbidity/mortality 39–41

perineal fistula 403

perineum 588

peripheral arterial cannulation 954

peripheral venous catheters, extravasation 949

peripherally-inserted central catheters 951

peritoneal dialysis 549–50, 845, 846

   prior to renal transplantation 848

   vascular access 954

peritoneal lavage 261

peritoneal trauma 258

   minimizing 261

peritoneum, mesothelial repair 259

periurethral slings 634

periventricular leukomalacia, occipital cystic 44, 45, 46

persistent Mullerian duct syndrome 653

persistent pulmonary hypertension

   congenital diaphragmatic hernia 152

   hearing loss 49

personal injury litigation 51

Peyer’s patch hypertrophy 311

PHACES syndrome 828

phalloplasty 587

pharyngeal flap, posterior 70

phenobarbitone 453

phimosis 664

   recurrent 668, Plate 8

phosphatase tensin homologue (PTEN) mutation 838

phosphodiesterase inhibitors 903

phrenic nerve injury 188

Pippe–Salle procedure 633–4

pituitary hormones, radiotherapy effects 728

placebo effect 22

plasmin 258

plasminogen 258

Plastibel device 665, 667

   penile injury 669

platelets, amniopatch 991

platinum chemotherapy 819

Platt report (UK, 1959) 55

pleural effusion

   fetal intervention 987

   pectus excavatum 141–2

PLUG technique 969–70

pneumatosis intestinalis 330, 331

pneumococcal vaccination 442

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia 869

pneumocytes 184

pneumonectomy 185–6

pneumonia

   aspiration in congenital diaphragmatic hernia 154

   esophageal atresia 212

   esophageal replacement 229–30

   post-intestinal transplantation 893

pneumonitis

   adenovirus 868

   Wilms’ tumor treatment 764

pneumoperitoneum, tension 311

pneumothorax

   cystic fibrosis 318–19

   pectus excavatum 141

   tracheotomy 163

Poland syndrome 135, 136, 146

   amastia 244

   breast abnormalities 244, 247–8

   pectoralis muscles 248

policy making 26

polyclonal antibodies, immunosuppression 851

polyethylene glycol 424

polyhydramnios 974

   amniocentesis 975

   duodenal obstruction 305

polymastia 244

polypropylene mesh, gastroschisis closure 276

polysplenia syndrome 448

polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)

   endoscopic injection 572

   hazards 573

   paste 573

   periurethral slings 634

   prostheses 491

polythelia 243–4

   intra-areolar 244

polyuria 546–7

   nocturnal 645

port wine stains 835

porta hepatis 450, 451

   biliary channels 34

   dissection 452

   stone formation 473

portal cavernoma bypass 808

portal gastropathy 503

portal hypertension 491–9

   biliary atresia 454–5, 457

   bypass surgery 496–7, 498

   complications 503

   definition 502

   endoscopic treatment 502–8

   extrahepatic 506–7

   gastrointestinal bleeding 491

     prevention 493

   hemorrhage prevention 493

   hypersplenism 437

   injection sclerotherapy 454–5

   intrahepatic 507

   liver transplantation 865–6

   palliative treatment 503

   percutaneous radiologic procedures 497, 498

   shunt surgery 491–5

     adverse effects 493–5

     benefits 493

     failure 495

     indications 491

     mortality 493

     outcome 492–5

     patency 492

     porto-systemic encaphalopathy 493–4

     venous complications 494

   surgery

     indications 502–3

     PTFE prostheses 492

   TIPS 491, 495, 496

   variceal ligation 504, 505–6

   see also esophageal varices

portal obstruction

   extrahepatic 491, 492, 493, 494

   intrahepatic 491

portal triad, clamping 806

portal vein bypass see Rex shunt

portal vein obstruction

   extrahepatic 496–7, 498, 502, 503

   intrahepatic 497

portal vein thrombosis

   liver transplantation 865

   post-transplantation 496–7, 498

portal venous gas, necrotizing enterocolitis 330, 331

porto-appendiceal-duodenostomy 452

porto-cavo-jugular bypass 806

portocholecystostomy 453

portoenterostomy 34, 35, 447

   antibiotic prophylaxis 453

   bile flow 450

   biliary atresia 859

   cholangitis 453, 454, 457

   malabsorption 456

   outcome 453, 460

   prognosis 458

   survival 457

   technique 451–2

portosystemic encaphalopathy 493–4

portosystemic shunting

   biliary atresia 455

   esophageal varices 503

   intestinal transplantation 887

positron emission tomography (PET)

   cancer treatment response 117

   [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose 809

   [18F]-fluoro-L-dopa 512–13

post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) 368, 850, 853, 873–5

   heart–lung transplantation 903, 905

   incidence 874

   intestinal transplantation 893–4

post-traumatic stress syndrome, child cancer survivors 754–5

potassium channel, ATP-dependent 510

potassium citrate 701, 702, 703

potassium supplementation 702

Potts W. 6

pouch failure, ulcerative colitis 359–60

pouchitis, ulcerative colitis 358–9

prednisolone 858, 867

preferred provider organizations (PPOs) 18

pregnancy

   anorectal malformations 413

   biliary atresia 459–60

   bladder exstrophy 628

   cystic fibrosis 325

   edema 564

   exstrophy 592

   hypertension 564

   procedentia 589

   proteinuria 564

   rhabdomyosarcoma 786

   termination for conjoined twins 1010

   urinary tract infection 564, 578–9

   vesicoureteric reflux 564

   Wilms’ tumor treatment 762, 774

Prehospital Index 917

premature rupture of membranes (PROM) 991, 992, 993

prematurity 41

   esophageal atresia 208

   inguinal hernia 286, 288

   necrotizing enterocolitis 329, 336, 343

   perinatal mortality 39

   psychiatric outcomes 50

   quality of life 50

   visual handicap 49

preputial plasty 672

preputial skin graft, hypospadias 611, 616

preschool children, psychological responses to hospitalization 57

presurgical orthopedics 70, 74

preterm labor, maternal–fetal surgery 968

PRETEXT grouping 802, 803

Pringle’s maneuver 806

procedentia repair 589–90

processus vaginalis

   incomplete disappearance 653

   patent 286, 287

proctectomy, ulcerative colitis 357, 358

proctitis, ulcerative colitis 356

proctocolectomy

   with end ileostomy 354, 355

   restorative 392

proctosigmoiditis, ulcerative colitis 356

prolactin, rhabdomyosarcoma treatment 791

propylthiouracil 91

prospective payment system (PPS) 18

prostaglandin E1 901

prostate

   anatomy 584

   bladder neck reconstruction 626

   rhabdomyosarcoma treatment 792–3

protein-losing enteropathy 83

protein-restricted diet 510, 512

proteinuria

   nephrectomy 679, 763

   pregnancy 564

   renal scarring 563

   renal transplant donation 680

   renal transplantation 847

   Wilms’ tumor 763

Proteus syndrome 837, 838

proton pump inhibitors 321

prune belly syndrome 270

   abdominal wall defects 274

   fetal obstructive uropathy 979

pruritis, liver transplant rejection 867

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cystic fibrosis infection 317, 318

psoas hitch 538, 544

psychiatric disorders

   liver transplantation 873

   low birthweight 50

psychological aspects of surgery 54–62

   cleft lip/palate repair 75

   conjoined twin separation 1012–13

   hospitalization effects 55–8

   long-term 58, 59–60, 60–2

   separation effects 55–8

psychological disorder

   fecal incontinence 58, 60–1

   rumination syndrome 417

Psychomotor Development Index 342

psychosexual development

   genital ambiguity 618

   hypospadias 617–18

psychosocial adjustment 54

   ambiguous genitalia 606–7

   anorectal malformations 58, 414

   assessment 54–5

   bladder dysfunction 649

   bladder exstrophy repair 627–8

   cancer treatment 738

   congenital anomalies 58, 59–60

   esophageal atresia 60, 61

   gonadal tumors 720

   Hirschsprung’s disease 58, 59, 60, 395–6

   hypospadias 61, 616–18

   liver transplantation 878–9

   neuroblastoma 754–5

   nocturnal enuresis 649

   renal transplantation 852, 854

   urogenital surgery 61

   Wilms’ tumor 775–6

puberty

   anorectal malformations 413

   breast development 243

   cystic fibrosis 325

   early 729, 790

   gynecomastia 245

   precocious 729, 765

   radiotherapy effects 729

   urodynamic abnormalities 546

pubic diastasis

   closure 621

   recurrence 622

pubic hair 584, 585, 588

   monsplasty 590

publication bias 24

pull-through procedures

   coloanal 835

   enterocolitis 392

   primary 386

   repeat 392, 393

   vaginoplasty 604

   see also Duhamel’s rectorectal pull-through

pulmonary arterial hypertension 859

   biliary atresia 456

   heart–lung transplantation 900–1

   lung transplantation 899, 907

   portal hypertension shunt surgery 494–5

pulmonary arteriovenous shunting 494

pulmonary artery sling 178, 179

pulmonary atresia 897

pulmonary disease

   cancer treatment 737, 764, 773

   rhabdomyosarcoma 784, 793–4

   Wilms’ tumor treatment 764, 773

   see also airway disease; lung(s); respiratory disease

pulmonary embolism, spinal cord injuries 942

pulmonary function

   pectus excavatum 143, 144

   pulmonary resection 185–6

pulmonary hypoplasia

   congenital diaphragmatic hernia 152

   oligohydramnios 541

   omphalocele 278

   posterior urethral valves 541

pulmonary metastases, osteosarcoma 122

pulmonary resection 184, 185–6

pulmonary stenosis, ultrasound-guided balloon valvuloplasty 987–8

pulmonary valve obstruction 988

pulmonary valvuloplasty

   fetal 988

   ultrasound-guided balloon 987–8

pulmonary vascular resistance 900

pulse oximetry, transcutaneous 166

pupillary dysfunction, head injury 929

pyelonephritis 577–8

   chronic 561–2

   post-reimplantation 578

   pregnancy 564

   recurrent 565

   scarring 562

pyeloplasty 536

   complications 536

   outcome 535, 536

   ureteropelvic junction obstruction 535, 536, 537

pyloric stenosis 14

   anatomy 299

   cognitive impairment 301

   complications 296–9

   development 300–2

   diabetes mellitus 301–2

   dyspepsia 300, 301

   etiology 302

   gender 302

   growth 300–2

   infantile hypertrophic 296–302

   mortality 297

   outcomes 296–9

   peptic ulceration 300, 301

   prevalence 302

   Ramstedt’s procedure 296, 299

pyloric tumor 298

pyloromyotomy

   bleeding 298

   circumumbilical 257

   diabetes mellitus 301–2

   extramucosal 296

   gastric acid 300

   gastric emptying 299–300

   incisional hernia 298

   incomplete 298–9

   laparoscopic 296

   mortality 297

   pyloric motor activity 300

   pylorus anatomy 299

   vomiting 298

   wound dehiscence/infection 298

pylorus

   hypertrophy 299

   motor activity 300

pyoderma gangrenosum 352, 356

pyopagus 1009, 1010

pyroxidine 702

quality adjusted life years (QALYs) 26, 27

quality of life 24, 25–6, 27

   anorectal malformations 414

   biliary atresia 459–60

   chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction 422

   esophageal atresia 192

   exstrophy 592–3

   intestinal failure 370–1

   intestinal stomas 265

   intestinal transplantation 340, 370–1, 894

   liver transplantation 878–9

   living renal donors 855

   MACE 431

   portal hypertension shunt surgery 493

   prematurity 41, 50

   psychological health 54–5, 61

   renal transplantation 853–5

   short bowel syndrome 370–1

   spinal cord injuries 942

   trauma

     assessment 938

     outcome 30–1

   Wilms’ tumor 775–6

   see also health-related quality of life (HRQOL)

questionnaires 20, 24–6

   cultural appropriateness 25–6

   design 25

   psychosocial adjustment 54, 61

radial artery cannulation 954

radiation exposure, environmental 92

radiofrequency ablation

   sacrococcygeal teratoma 983

   selective termination 978

radioiodine ablation 91

   Graves’ disease 91–2

   postoperative 94, 95

   thyroid carcinoma 93

radiotherapy

   age of child 728

   bone metabolism effects 735–6

   cardiovascular disease 736–7, 763

   fertility 729–30, 731–2

   germ cell tumors 819

   germinoma 818

   gonadotrophin deficiency 728–9

   growth effects 735

   growth hormone deficiency 727, 728

   intensity modulated 783

   long-term risks 738

   musculoskeletal disorders 773

   neuroblastoma 749

     palliative 751

   pituitary hormone impairment 728

   postoperative for salivary gland tumors 112

   puberty impact 729

   pulmonary disease 737, 764

   renal effects 762–3

   renal impairment 737

   rhabdomyosarcoma 782, 783

     late effects 784–94

   second malignancies 738, 753, 754, 788

   spinal 765

   thyroid disorders 734

   TSH deficiency 734

   Wilms’ tumor 759–65, 770, 772–5, 777, 785

Ramstedt’s procedure 296, 299

randomization 21, 22

randomized controlled trials (RCT) 19, 20–2

   blinding 21–2

   randomization 21, 22

   surgical skill/technique 22

ranitidine 505

ranula 110

RAS proto-oncogene 92

reactive oxygen intermediates, Crohn’s disease 351

records, patient 16

   medico-legal issues 51

rectal atresia 404

rectal examination 410

rectal prolapse, cystic fibrosis 322

rectal stenosis 404

recto-anal inhibitory reflex 426

rectobladder neck fistula 403–4

   prognosis 409

rectocolonic spur formation 389, 391

rectoperineal fistula 410

rectoprostatic fistula 407, 408

rectosigmoid motility 410

rectosigmoidectomy, Swenson’s 385

   complications 387, 389, 393

   enterocolitis 392

rectosphincteric inhibitory reflex 426

rectourethral fistula 403

rectovaginal fistula 402

rectovestibular fistula 402, 404

rectus muscles 271

recurrent laryngeal nerve injury 91, 94, 96, 188, 189

   esophageal replacement 230

reflux nephropathy

   antireflux surgery 579

   definition 556

   end-stage renal failure 563–4

   etiology 559

   outcome 561–2

   prevention 564–6

   radiology 557–9

   renal function 562

   screening 566–7

   surgical management 571–80

regurgitation, infants 218–19

Rehbein’s anterior resection 386

   complications 387, 388, 390, 393

Reifenstein’s syndrome 616

rejection

   acute 847, 849, 850, 853

   chronic 849, 850, 853

   heart transplantation 906, 907

   heart–lung transplantation 903, 904, 905, 909

   intestinal transplantation 890–1, 892

renal agenesis

   associated syndromes 677

   definition 675

   developmental anatomy 676

   diagnosis 675

   familial 676–7

   incidence 676

   molecular etiology 676

   unilateral 675–8

   see also kidneys

renal atrophy 939

renal blastema, nodular 690

renal carcinoma, nephrectomy 680

renal cysts, simple 685

renal dialysis 542, 549–50

renal disease

   fetal obstructive uropathy 982

   liver transplantation 870–1

   nephrectomy 679–80

   progression 563–4

renal donors 847

   cadaveric 846, 848–9, 851

   living 846, 848, 855

   morbidity 848

   nephrectomy 848

   quality of life 855

renal dysfunction, cancer treatment 737

renal dysplasia 543, 677

   congenital 562

   nephrectomy 679

renal failure 845–55

   chronic 549–50, 579

   hemolytic uremic syndrome 851

   liver transplantation 871

   management 549–50

   nephrectomy 763

   posterior urethral valves 541, 542

   with proteinuria 678

renal failure, end-stage 563–4, 845, 846

   neurodevelopmental outcome 852

   posterior urethral valves 543

   renal agenesis 678

   survival 846

renal function

   end-stage renal failure 563–4

   posterior urethral valves 543

   reflux nephropathy 562

   ureteric reimplantation 578

   urodynamic parameter association 546

renal hypertrophy 762

renal pelvis

   infants 534

   stent placement 623

renal replacement therapy 549–50

renal scarring 559, 560

   chronic renal failure 579

   E. coli vaccine 567

   GFR reduction 562

   hyperplastic 578

   hypertension 563, 579

   management 565

   outcome 561–2

   post-surgical 578

   progressive 562–3

   proteinuria 563

   recurrent pyelonephritis 565

   urinary tract infection 579

   vesicoureteric reflux diagnosis 566

renal stones

   Crohn’s disease 352

   ileal resection 262

   recurrent 701–2

   renal damage 562

   short bowel syndrome 366–7

   ulcerative colitis 357

   see also nephrolithiasis; urolithiasis

renal transplantation 542, 550, 845–55

   behavioral disorders 854

   bone disease 854

   cardiovascular disorders 849, 854

   center effect 848

   dialysis mode 848

   donation 680

   donors

     age 846–7

     options 848–9

     source 847

   ethnic group differences 847, 850

   graft survival rates 849, 851

   growth 852–3

   hemolytic uremic syndrome 851

   immunosuppression 847, 849, 851, 852, 853

     quality of life 854

   infections 849, 851

   joint disease 854

   living donor 846

   malignancy 849, 850

     de novo 853

   management 846–8

   matching 847

   morbidity 850–1

   mortality 849, 850

   neurocognitive development 851–2

   outcome

     long-term 851–5

     short-term 849–51

   post-transplant phase 849

   preadolescence 854

   pre-emptive 845, 848

   pretransplantation care 845–6

   primary diagnosis 847

   psychosocial adjustment 852, 854

   quality of life 853–5

   recipient age 846

   recurrent disease 850–1

   rejection

     acute 847, 849, 850, 851, 853

     chronic 849, 850, 851, 853

   retransplantation 851

   school performance 854

   sex differences 847, 851

   success factors 847–8

   ureteral complications 851

   vascular thrombosis 849, 851

   Wilms’ tumor 771

renal tubular acidosis 578

renography

   diuretic 533–4

   radioisotope 541

reovirus, biliary atresia 448

respiratory disease

   cystic fibrosis 317–19

   esophageal atresia 211–14

   gastroesophageal reflux 200

   posterior urethral valves 541

   see also airway disease; lung(s); pulmonary disease

respiratory distress syndrome 44

   congenital tracheal stenosis 177

   mortality 42–3

respiratory papillomatosis

   malignant degeneration 170

   recurrent 170–1

RET proto-oncogene 92, 96, 97

retinoblastoma 117

retinoic acid 171

retinopathy

   of prematurity 49

   rhabdomyosarcoma treatment 791

revised trauma score (RTS) 917

Rex shunt 496–7, 498, 502–3

rhabdomyosarcoma 782–94

   alveolar 120

   amputation 782

   biliary tree 802, 807

   bladder 787–8, 792–3

   bone growth impairment 788

   brachytherapy 783

   cardiac disease 783–4

   chemotherapy 119, 120, 782

     late effects 783–94

   chest wall 793–4

   complications 125, 126

   dental complications 792

   ejaculation problems 786–7

   extremity 793–4

   gastrointestinal disorders 784–5

   GH deficiency 789–90

   gonadal damage 785–6

   growth 788

   head and neck 117–20

     treatment effects 789–92

   histology 117–18

   incidence 117

   kidneys 787

   management 119

   metastases 119, 120

   morbidity 125, 126, 782

   ophthalmological complications 791

   orbital tumors 782, 788

   otological complications 791

   paratesticular 793

   pituitary dysfunction 789–91

   pregnancy 786

   prognosis 120

   prostate 792–3

   pulmonary disease 784, 793–4

   radiotherapy 119–20, 782, 783

     late effects 784–94

   salivary glands 112–13

     complications 792

   scoliosis 793–4

   second malignancy 788–9

   site 118

   soft tissue growth impairment 788

   staging 118–19

   surgical resection 119, 782

   survival 120, 782

   treatment effects 789–92

     late 783–94

   ureters 787

   urethra 787–8

Rhodes J. 7–8

ribs

   absent 148

   deformities after thoracotomy 187

   fused 148

rickets 262

right pneumonectomy syndrome 186

right ventricle, double-outlet 897

risk, attributable/relative 23

Roberts syndrome, lymphatic malformations 832

Robinow syndrome 244

rotavirus

   biliary atresia 448

   Crohn’s disease 353

Roux-en-Y biliary reconstruction 470

Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy 469–70

   revision 472–3

Roux-en-Y jejunal anastomosis 452

Roux-en-Y jejunojejunostomy 470

Roux-en-Y pancreaticojejunostomy 524, 525

rubella, biliary atresia 448

rumination syndrome 416–17, 418

sacral abnormalities 405

   anorectal malformations 413

sacral ratio 405, 406

sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors 815–16

   complete resection 820

   complications 822

   histology 820

   malignant foci 821

   outcomes 819–22

   preoperative prognostic factors 819–20

   presacral component 822

   recurrent 821–2

   surgical management 817

   survival 822

sacrococcygeal teratoma 815

   cyst–amniotic shunt 983

   maternal–fetal surgery 983–4

salivary duct atresia 104

salivary gland disorders 104–13

   agenesis 104

   autoimmune disease 109

   basal cell adenoma 111

   B-cell lymphoma 110

   benign neoplasms 110–11

   complications of surgery 113

   congenital conditions 104–5

   cysts 105

     retention 110

   developmental conditions 104–5

   incontinence 113

   inflammatory conditions 105–10

   lipoma 111

   lymphangioma 111

   malignant neoplasms 111–13

   metabolic 110

   mucoepidermoid carcinoma 111–12

   neoplastic 110–13

   neurilemmoma 111

   neurofibroma 111

   pleomorphic adenoma 111

   rhabdomyosarcoma 112–13

   rhabdomyosarcoma treatment 792

   sublingual 110

   systemic 110

salivary tissue, ectopic 104–5

salpingo-oophorectomy 712

Sano procedure 897

Santorini duct 524

sarcoma

   of indeterminate histology 118

   undifferentiated 118

   see also Ewing’s sarcoma

scapula, winged 187, 188

scars

   abdominal surgery 257–8

   hypertrophic 257, 258

   keloid 257, 293

Schiller–Duval bodies 817

school performance 50

   liver transplantation 879

   myelomeningocele 962

   spinal cord injuries 942

Schuster S. R. 6

sclerosants 505

sclerotherapy

   arteriovenous malformations 836

   Klippel–Trenaunay syndrome 838

   lymphatic malformations 833

   ulcers 505

   venous malformations 835

sclerotherapy in portal hypertension 454–5

   endoscopic injection 503, 504–5

     outcomes 504–8

   injection 504

   neoplasia risk 507–8

   strictures 505

scoliosis

   congenital 148

   congenital diaphragmatic hernia 155

   esophageal dehiscence 187

   pectus carinatum association 144

   pectus excavatum association 135

   repair 148

   rhabdomyosarcoma 793–4

   separated ischiopagus 1012

   spinal cord injuries 941–2

   thoracotomy 186–7, 188, 204

seizures

   head injury 929, 932

   hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 514

   hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy 46

   liver transplantation 873

   necrotizing enterocolitis 341

semen

   analysis and orchidopexy outcome 656–8

   quality in cancer patients 731

seminal tract obstruction 291

seminoma 708

senna 423–4

separation, hospitalization 55–8

Seprafilm® 261

sepsis

   catheter-related 947–8

   central venous catheter 338–9, 948

   conjoined twins postoperative 1009

   perinatal and cerebral palsy 49

   postsplenectomy 438

     overwhelming 440–2

     prevention 441–2

   short bowel syndrome 338

septic shock, necrotizing enterocolitis 330

septostomy, twin–twin transfusion syndrome 976

Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) 522

serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) 337, 365, 366

serous adenocarcinoma 708

serous cystadenoma 708

Sertoli–Leydig cell tumors 708

severe combined immune deficiency (SCID), X-linked 995

severity of injury (SOI) scale 915, 918–20

sex cord tumors 708

sexual activity, urinary tract infection 578–9

sexual function/dysfunction

   anorectal malformations 412–13

   bladder exstrophy 627

   exstrophy 590–1, 593

   female 591

   genital sensitivity ratings 597–8, Plate 1, Plate 2

   Hirschsprung’s disease 397

   male 590

   posterior urethral valves 543

   rhabdomyosarcoma 786–7

sexual health, exstrophy 592

Shah–Waardenburg syndrome 397

Shaw B. 3

short bowel syndrome 280

   Bianchi procedure 337

   carer education 365

   causes 362–3

   central venous catheter sepsis 338

   colon transit time 337

   complications 366–8

   Crohn’s disease 355

   development 369–70

   early management 363

   economics 370

   ethical issues 371

   etiology 362–3

   growth 340, 369–70

   intestinal failure 362–71

   intestinal length increase 337

   intestinal transplantation 365–6

   jejunoileal atresia 307, 308

   long-term management 364–6

   medical treatment 364–5

   metabolic acidosis 366

   necrotizing enterocolitis 332, 336–7

   outcome 368–9

   quality of life 370–1

   sepsis 338

   surgical treatment 365–6

   survival 368–9

   total parenteral nutrition 337, 366

   see also intestinal failure

Short Form (SF-36) instrument 25

short stature

   liver transplantation 877

   rhabdomyosarcoma 788

   Wilms’ tumor 765

   see also growth

shoulder deformities after thoracotomy 187

shunt nephritis 961

shunts

   cyst–amniotic in sacrococcygeal teratoma 983

   thoracoamniotic 974

   see also hydrocephalus, shunts

sialadenitis

   acute bacterial 107–8

   acute viral 105–6

   autoantibodies 107

   granulomatous 109

   neonatal 108

   obstructive 108

   recurrent of childhood 106–7

   strictures 108

sialography 107–8

sialolithiasis 108–9

sickle cell anemia 438–9

   cholelithiasis 480, 482, 484, 485

sigmoid colon

   augmentation cystoplasty 635

   colon vaginoplasty 606

Silastic silo, preformed 276–7

silicone

   gastroschisis closure 276

   injection hazards 573–4

   particulate injections 573

silver sulfadiazine 278, 279

sinus disease, cystic fibrosis 319

sirolimus 847, 852, 867, 871, 872, 892

Sistrunk procedure for thyroglossal cysts 101–2

situs inversus, biliary atresia 448

Sjögren’s syndrome 109

skin-tube conduit carcinoma, esophageal atresia 201–2

skull changes with shunting 962

slings 634

slit ventricle syndrome 961

small bowel

   length and gestational age 362

   necrotizing enterocolitis involvement 332

   resection outcome 264

   transplantation 337

   see also short bowel syndrome

small bowel disorders 305–12

   motility 419–22

   obstruction in Crohn’s disease 353

   rhabdomyosarcoma 784–5

small for dates (SFD) infants, school performance 50

Snodgrass modification for urethroplasty 611, 612, 616

Soave’s endorectal pull-through 386

social needs of child 57–8

socioeconomic factors, heart–lung transplantation contraindications 901

sodium nitroprusside 903

soft tissue growth impairment with rhabdomyosarcoma 788

soiling

   constipation 423–4

   fecal incontinence 395–6, 406, 407, 410

   sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors 822

   surgery for Hirschsprung’s disease 425–6

solumedrol, heart–lung transplantation 904

sonographic contrast, air enhanced 556–7

spasticity, necrotizing enterocolitis 341

speech

   cleft palate repair outcomes 72

   head injury outcome 929, 931

   tracheotomy 165–6

speech surgery, secondary 70, 72

   outcomes 74–5

sperm

   banking 732

   storage 719

spermatic cord 287

spherocytosis, hereditary 438

   cholelithiasis 480, 484, 485

sphincter pharyngoplasty 70

sphincterotomy 426

spina bifida see myelomeningocele

spinal cord injuries 941–2

   ventilator-dependent 942

spinal cord tethering

   myelomeningocele 963

   sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors 822

   surgical release 963

spinal headache 991

spinal malformations

   anorectal malformations 413

   myelomeningocele 959

spine

   irradiation 765, 788

   jumbled 147

spleen

   anatomy 435

   angiography 437

   biliary atresia 448

   embolization 437

   embryology 435

   function 435–6

   host defense against bacteria 436

   injuries 32–3, 437

   portal hypertension 865

   preservation 32–3

   pseudocyst 524

   red pulp 435, 436

   trauma 33, 938–9

   white pulp 435

splenectomy 435, 436–43

   with cholecystectomy 485

   Gaucher’s disease 440

   immune thrombocytopenic purpura 439

   indications 436, 438–40

   laparoscopic 436–7

   malignancies 439–40

   open 436

   operative technique 436–8

   outcomes 438–40

   partial 437, 438, 439

   postsplenectomy sepsis 438

     overwhelming 440–2

     prevention 441–2

   sickle cell disease 439

   thalassemia major 438

   total 438, 439

splenic artery 435

   ligation 860

splenomegaly

   biliary atresia 455

   Gaucher’s disease 440

   portal hypertension 455

     shunt surgery 493

splenorrhaphy 437–8

spondylothoracic dysplasia 147

sports-related injuries, head injury 927

Stafne bone cavity 105

Staphylococcus aureus 107, 108

   cystic fibrosis infection 317

   liver transplantation 868

stapling, intestinal stomas 264

steatosis, intestinal transplantation 339

stem cells

   transplantation in neuroblastoma 751–2

   in utero transplantation 994–5

   in vitro maturation 732

stents

   ductus arteriosus 901

   hydroureteronephrosis 537

   laryngotracheal stenosis 174

   pancreatic duct 940

   renal pelvis 623

   ureteric 576, 623, 625, 699

   ureteropelvic junction obstruction 536

   vena caval obstruction 866

Stephens D. 7

sternum

   cleft 146

   defects 146–7

stillbirths 39, 40, 42

stitch granuloma, inguinal herniotomy 291

stoma

   catheterizable abdominal 627

   gastroschisis 277

   stenosis 430, 431

   tracheotomy 161

stomach

   anatomy 417

   content inhalation 211

   partial thoracic 218

   rhabdomyosarcoma 784–5

   see also gastric entries; gastrointestinal entries

stool softeners 424

stools, white 449

Streptococcus pneumonia 440, 442

Streptococcus viridans 106–7

stress incontinence 647–8

strictureplasty, Crohn’s disease 353–4, 355

stridor

   congenital tracheal stenosis 177

   infants 167

   tracheomalacia 211

Sturge–Weber syndrome 835

subclavian artery

   aberrant 178, 179

   Poland syndrome 248

subcutaneous ports, vascular access 953

subdural hematoma 927

subglottic hemangioma 175–6

subglottic stenosis 171–5

   causes 172

   hemangioma 175

sublingual glands, malignant neoplasms 111

submandibular gland

   cranial nerve risk in removal 113

   malignant neoplasms 111

   sialolithiasis 108

sucralfate 505

sulfonylurea-receptor (SUR1) gene 514, 516

sulfonylureas 510

superior mesenteric artery 886, 887

superior vena cava syndrome 961

support groups, ambiguous genitalia 606–7

supraglottic stenosis 168

supraglottoplasty, laryngomalacia 167–8

suprapubic catheter drainage 547, 632

suprapubic diversion 632

suprapubic tube 625

surgical innovation 19

surgical skill/technique, RCTs 22

survival probability 919

swallowing

   esophageal achalasia 233

   esophageal anastomosis 209–10

   esophageal atresia in infants 212

   esophageal atresia repair 198–200

     long-gap 202, 203

   laryngotracheal stenosis reconstructive surgery 175

   tracheotomy 165–6, 166

sweat test, cystic fibrosis 316

Swenson O. 8, 15

Swenson’s rectosigmoidectomy 385

   complications 387, 389, 393

   enterocolitis 392

synostosis, after thoracotomy 187, 188

syringomyelia 941–2

systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) 521

T3 90

T4 90

tacrolimus 847, 854, 867

   heart–lung transplantation 903

   intestinal transplantation 892

   liver transplantation 807, 867, 871, 872

   long-term use 878

   nephrotoxicity 871

   renal transplantation 853

   seizures 873

   side effects 870

Taussig H. 7

99mTc cystography 556

99mTc DMSA scan 558, 561, 579

technology in medical practice 17–18

teeth, rhabdomyosarcoma treatment 792

tension pneumoperitoneum 311

teratogens, renal agenesis 676

teratoma 707–8, 816–17

   benign mature 710–11

   cervical 990

   cervicofacial 818

   immature 820, 821

   malignant 817

   management 718

   mature 821

   metastasizing immature 817

   oropharyngeal 991

   pericardial 988

   prognosis 823

   sacrococcygeal 815, 983–4

testes

   ascending 290, 653, 660–1

   atrophy 289, 290

   degeneration 654

   inguinoscrotal descent 652

   malignancy 658–60

   mediastinal germ cell tumors 816

   retractile 653, 661

   rhabdomyosarcoma treatment 785–6

   surgery outcome analysis 36

   tissue harvesting 732

   transabdominal descent 652

   Wilms’ tumor treatment 761, 774

testes, undescended 543, 652–61

   age at intervention 654

   azoospermia 657

   carcinoma in situ 660

   classification 653

   etiology 652–3

   fertility 656, 657

   iatrogenic 290

   management 653–5, 660–1

   oligospermia 657

   position 655–6

   semen analysis 656–8

   size 655–6

   surgery

     complications 655

     outcome 655–8

   testicular malignancy 658–60

   see also cryptorchidism; orchidopexy

testicular tumors

   benign 708

   fertility after chemotherapy 719

   malignant 658–60, 708, 715, 718

   management 715, 716

   presentation 710, 715

testosterone 245

tetralogy of Fallot, historic repair 7

thalassemia major 438

   bile stasis 485

   cholelithiasis 480, 484, 485

   vascular access 953

thermal coagulation, umbilical cord 977

thioamides 91

third-party payers 18

thoracic abnormalities

   chest wall deformities 135–48, 187–8, 203–4

   EXIT strategy 990

thoracic dystrophy, asphyxiating 148

thoracic hypoplasia

   anterior 248

   unilateral 147

thoracic insufficiency syndrome 147–8

thoracic transplantation see heart transplantation; heart–lung transplantation; lung transplantation

thoracoamniotic shunt 987

thoracocentesis, ultrasound-guided 987

thoracoomphalopagus 990

thoracopagus 1009, 1010, 1011

   separation 1012

thoracoplasty, expansion 147–8

thoracoscopy 188

thoracostomy, wedge 148

thoracotomy 184

   breast development 189

   chest wall deformities 187–8, 203–4

   esophagomyotomy 237

   esthetic morbidity 189

   hepatoblastoma 807

   muscle-sparing 189

   musculoskeletal morbidity 186–8

   neurologic morbidity 188–9

   scoliosis 186–7, 188, 204

thrombocytopenia

   extrahepatic portal hypertension 507

   hemangioma 827

   liver transplantation 863

   venous malformations 834

thrombocytopenic purpura, immune

   management 439

   splenectomy 436, 439

thrombocytosis, Crohn’s disease 352

thromboembolism

   catheter-related 948–9

   parenteral nutrition catheter-related 951–2

thrombophlebitis 837

thrombosis

   catheter-related 948–9

     cystic fibrosis patients 953

   mesenteric vein 524

   parenteral nutrition catheter-related 951–2

   vascular access 954

   see also vascular thrombosis

thyroglobulin 93

thyroglossal duct 101

   cysts/disorders 101–2

thyroid carcinoma 92–8

   medullary 95–8

     clinical presentation 95–6

     diagnosis 96

     hereditary 96

     Hirschsprung’s disease association 397

     long-term outcomes 96–8

     physiology 95

     short-term outcomes 96

     sporadic 96

     surgical resection 96, 97–8

     treatment 96

   radiotherapy-induced 734, 791

   rhabdomyosarcoma treatment 791

   risk in Graves’ disease 91

   second malignancy 92, 754

   well-differentiated 92–5

     clinical features 95

     clinical manifestations 93

     complications 94

     diagnosis 93

     disease progression 94–5

     lung metastases 94

     mortality 94

     outcomes 93–5

     regional metastases 93, 94

     treatment 93

thyroid gland

   disorders 90–8

     cancer treatment 734

   malignancies 92–8

thyroid nodules, benign 734

thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

   elevation 92

   radiation-induced deficiency 734

thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor 90

thyroidectomy 90, 97

   subtotal 91–2

   total 93

thyroiditis, autoimmune 92

thyrotoxicosis 90

tidal volume/functional residual capacity ratio 186

time trade-off 26

tissue expanders

   breast reconstruction 248

   monsplasty 590

tissue inhibitors matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) 828

toilet training, anorectal malformations 408

tolbutamide 510

tolterodine 632, 633, 645, 647

Torulopsis, intestinal transplantation 894

total parenteral nutrition (TPN) 8

   amino acid solutions 338

   catheter sepsis risk 948

   chemotherapy risk for sepsis 948

   chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction 421, 422

   gallstones 367, 422

   gastroschisis 280, 281

   ileocecal valve 337

   independence 368

   intestinal transplantation 888, 894

   jejunoileal atresia 307, 308

   liver disease 281, 337–8, 367

   necrotizing enterocolitis 332, 335

   short bowel syndrome 337, 366, 368

   vascular access 951–2

   weaning 337

Toupet fundoplication 202, 239

   outcome 223

toxoplasmosis 869

trachea

   cartilaginous rings 177

   hemangioma 175–6

   meconium staining 276

   open fetal occlusion 970–3, 991

   resection 9

   suprastomal collapse 167

tracheal granuloma 163–4

   suprastomal 164, 167

tracheal stenosis 164

   congenital 177–8

tracheal wall erosion 165

tracheobronchial tree 159

   compression 178–9

tracheobronchial vascular compression 178–9

tracheocutaneous fistula 161

tracheoesophageal fistula

   closure 197–8

   distal 192–3

   esophageal atresia repair 196, 197

   esophageal replacement 227

   management 198

   recurrent 198

   scoliosis after repair 187

tracheo-innominate fistula 163, 165

tracheomalacia 159–60

   esophageal atresia 211–12

   gastroesophageal reflux 212

   mortality 195

   suprastomal 167

   tracheobronchial vascular compression 179

tracheoplasty

   anterior 178

   cervical 167

tracheotomy 160–1, 162, 163–7

   complications 163–5

   decannulation 166, 167, 174

     accidental 163, 164

   home care 166

   laryngeal papilloma 171

   laryngomalacia 167

   laryngotracheal stenosis 174

   long-term outcome 162

   lymphangioma 82

   outcomes 50–1

   speech 165–6

   subglottic hemangioma 176

   swallowing 166

   technique 161, 163

   tracheal hemangioma 176

tracheotomy tubes 161, 163

   failure 164

transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) 258

transhepatic cholangioscopic lithotomy, percutaneous 472

transjugular endomyocardial biopsy, echocardiography-guided 904

transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic stent shunt (TIPS) 491, 495, 496

   endoscopic treatment failure 503

   patency 495, 496

transplant coronary artery disease 905

transposition of the great arteries 897

transverse advancement technique 577

trauma 915–24

   abdominal 519

   adult setting 937

   care funding 920

   functional outcome 30–1

     assessment 937–8

   functional status 938

   head injury 926–33

   injury-specific outcomes 938–9

   intestinal 885

   kidneys 939

   liver 938–9

   morbidity/mortality 915

   optimal care 936–7, 937

   outcomes analysis 30–3, 921–4

   pancreatic 939–40

   pediatric centers 936–7

     outcomes 30, 31–2, 33

   pediatric systems 920–3

   pelvic fracture 940–1

   peritoneal 258

     minimizing 261

   quality of life assessment 938

   scoring systems 915–20

   spinal cord injuries 941–2

   spleen 32–3, 938–9

   truncal 936, 938–42

trauma score and injury severity score (TRISS) 919, 936

   pediatric age-adjusted 919–20

trauma surgeons 937

trauma systems 936–7

   components 920–1

   effectiveness 921–3

   emergency department 922–3

   mortality rates 921–2

   multidisciplinary teams 921

   patient volumes 922

   patterns of death 922

   population-based studies 921–2

   practice-based studies 921

   transfer patterns 922

triage scores 916–18

triage systems 921

triage trauma rule 917

trigonoplasty 574–5

trisegmentectomy 806, 807

   surgical morbidity/mortality 808

trisomy 13, umbilical hernia 292

trisomy 17, biliary atresia 447

trisomy 18

   biliary atresia 447

   lymphatic malformations 832

   umbilical hernia 292

trisomy 21

   biliary atresia 447

   duodenal atresia 305

   duodenal obstruction 306–7

   lymphatic malformations 832

   see also Down syndrome

trisomy 22, partial 677

truncal trauma 936, 938–42

truncus arteriosus 897

Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas’ disease) 233

trypsin, immunoreactive 316–17

T-tube problems 866

tuberculosis

   liver transplantation 869

   pneumonectomy 186

tunica albuginea excision 615

Turner syndrome, lymphatic malformations 832

twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) 976–8

   endoscopically guided suture ligation of acardiac twin 977

twins 49

   discordant for a lethal anomaly 978

   endoscopically guided suture ligation of acardiac twin 977

   intrafetal ablation 978

twins, conjoined 1005–13

   anesthesia 1008

   classification 1006

   emergency separation 1007–8

   etiology 1006

   follow-up 1012–13

   historical accounts 1005–6

   imaging 1008

   incidence 1006

   non-operative management 1007

   operative procedures 1008–9

   outcome of separation 1009–10, 1011, 1012

   planned separation 1008

   postnatal management 1007–8

   postoperative management 1009

   pregnancy termination 1010

   prenatal diagnosis 1006–7, 1010

   separation 1006

   skin cover 1008

   thoracoomphalopagus 990

twin–twin transfusion syndrome

   amnioreduction 976

   anteriorly placed placenta 976

   maternal–fetal surgery 966, 967, 974–8

   septostomy 976

   treatment strategies 975–6

   twin reversed arterial perfusion 976–8

   twins discordant for a lethal anomaly 978

   umbilical cord occlusion 976

tyrosinemia 801

ulcerative colitis 351, 356–60

   antineutrophil antibodies 356

   appendectomy association 381–2

   cancer risk 360

   clinical presentation 356–7

   epidemiology 356

   gallstones 357

   incidence 351

   outcome 358–60

   pathology 356

   pouch failure 359–60

   pouchitis 358–9

   prevalence 356

   proctectomy 357, 358

   proctitis/proctosigmoiditis 356

   renal stones 357

   surgical indications/treatment 357–8

ultrasonography

   appendicitis 375

   brain injury 44, 45

   multicystic kidneys 684

   prenatal for multicystic kidneys 683

   reflux nephropathy 559

   renal/bladder 698

umbilical artery catheterization, neonatal 954

umbilical cord

   amniotic bands 993

   laser photocoagulation 977

   occlusion 976, 978

   thermal coagulation 977

   transection with bipolar energy 977

umbilical hernia 270, 292–3

umbilical ring 271, 292

umbilical vein, ultrasound-guided catheterization 994

United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry 847

   allocation system 849, 901

uremia 852

ureter(s)

   cephalo-trigonal reimplantation 625

   entrance anomaly 646

   implantation 544

   renal transplantation 851

   rhabdomyosarcoma 787

   tapering 544

ureteric bud 676

ureteric reimplantation 544, 565, 574

   contralateral reflux 576–7

   obstruction 576, 579

   postoperative complications 578

   renal function 578

ureterocele 10

   bladder neck 412

   laser incision 983

ureterocystoplasty 637

ureteropelvic junction obstruction 534

   lower pole aberrant vessels 536

   pyeloplasty 535, 536, 537

ureteroscopy 699, 700, 704

ureterosigmoidoscopy 623

ureterostomy 547

   bilateral 978

   loop vesicostomy 544–5

   refluxing 638

   secondary 544

   tubeless 10

   upper tract decompression 544

ureterovesical junction 559

urethra

   anatomy 584

   circumcision damage 669

   hairy 614

   lengthening 633, 635

   perineal 598

   posterior

     closure 621–4

     injury 412

   proximal and submucosal bulking agents 626

   reconstruction 624

   rhabdomyosarcoma 787–8

urethral diverticulum

   hypospadias 613–14

   posterior 412

urethral duplication 547

urethral meatus Plate 10

   balanitis xerotica et obliterans 671

   beard 614

   dilatation 615

   retrusive 614

   stenosis 668, 670, 671, Plate 11

   strictures 613

   ulceration 664, 670

urethral obstruction

   congenital 543

   posterior 540

urethral plate preservation 611, 612

urethral suspension, clitoral erectile tissue 598

urethral valves 10

urethral valves, posterior 540–51

   ablation 542

   antenatal diagnosis 548–9

   embryology 540

   fetal obstructive uropathy 979, 981–2

   imaging 541

   management 541

   mortality 541–2

   prenatal screening 541

   prenatal treatment 979, 981–2

   presentation 541

   prognosis 550

   sexual function 543

   signs/symptoms 541

   upper tract dilatation 544

   in utero treatment 549

urethrectomy, clitoral erectile tissue 598

urethrocutaneous fistula 613, 669, Plate 9

urethroplasty 587

   hypospadia 611

   preputial flap 614

   Snodgrass modification 611, 612, 616

   tubularized incised 611, 612, 616

urethrostomy, perineal 542

urge incontinence 644, 645, 647, 649

urge suppression 645

urge syndrome 644, 645, 646, 648

uric acid renal stones 352, 357, 696–7

   recurrent 701

urinary continence, bladder neck reconstruction 626

urinary drainage tubes 623

urinary extravasation 547

urinary function

   anorectal malformations 411–12

   spinal cord injuries 942

urinary incontinence 545–6

   adolescents 648–9

   anorectal malformations 406

   bulking agents 634

   clean intermittent catheterization 631–2

   daytime 644

   Hirschsprung’s disease 397

   mixed 645

   pharmacotherapy 632–3

   prevalence 647–8

   sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors 822

   stress 647–8

   suprapubic diversion 632

   surgery 631, 633–9

   urge 644, 645, 647

     dysfunctional voiding 649

     nocturnal enuresis association 649

   see also clean intermittent catheterization; nocturnal enuresis

urinary inhibitors of crystallization 703

urinary sphincter, artificial 626–7, 634–5

urinary tract, lower

   congenital anomalies 583

   fetal obstruction 978–83

   rhabdomyosarcoma treatment 792–3

   surveillance 624

urinary tract, upper

   decompression 544

   dilatation 533–8

     antenatal diagnosis 548

     persistent 544–5

   dilated non-functioning 547

   diversion 547

   hydronephrosis 534–7

   hydroureteronephrosis 537–8

   imaging 534

   obstruction 533, 548, 562, 575, 576

   persistent urinary tract infection 545

   pop off 547–8

   stones 695

   ultrasonography 576

   see also ureteropelvic junction obstruction

urinary tract imaging 10

urinary tract infection 545, 560–1

   augmentation cystoplasty 636

   bladder dysfunction complications 646

   circumcision 665

   compliance with therapy 565

   investigations 561

   management 565

   outcome 578–9

   postoperative 578

   pregnancy 564

   prophylaxis 561

   recurrent 560–1, 562

   reflux screening 566

   renal scarring 579

   surgical management 577–8

   treatment 561

   urolithiasis 698

   vesicoureteric reflux 559

     screening 566

urinary tract malformations, congenital single kidney 676, 678

urine

   concentrating ability 545

   false residual 544

   leakage 851

   retention post-surgery 575

   unconscious storage 625

   see also clean intermittent catheterization

urine culture 624

urine flow, congenital impairment 36

urodynamic studies 546, 547

urogenital sinus mobilization, total 404–5, 602

urogenital surgery, long-term psychological outcome 61

urography, intravenous 557–8

urolithiasis 695–705

   clinical presentation 697–8

   epidemiology 695–6

   etiology 696–7

   evaluation of child 698

   evidence-based literature 702–3

   health impact 703–4

   ileostomy 265

   imaging 698

   location 695–6

   open stone surgery 699–700

   outcomes 703–4

   presentation 695, 703

   prevention 702, 703

   recurrence 695, 700–1, 703

   surgical treatment 698–700

   treatment 703–4

urology 9–10

   outcomes analysis 35–6

uropathy, obstructive 847

   fetal 548–9, 978–83

     catheter shunts 979

     cystoscopy 983

     lung development 982

     management algorithm 978, 979

     oligohydramnios 979–80, 982, 983

     outcomes 980–3

     renal disease 982

     treatment strategies 978–80

     vesicoamniotic shunt placement 978–82

urotherapy 645, 646

ursodeoxycholic acid 338, 367

uterus

   hernial sac 289–90

   radiotherapy effects 773

utility 26

   scores 51

utilization review 18

vaccination

   pneumococcal 442

   postsplenectomy sepsis prevention 441–2

VACTERL association 147

   abdominal wall defects 274

   laryngeal/laryngotracheoesophageal clefts 177

vagina 588

   construction 599–600, 601, 602–6

   introitus 588, 589, 592

   neovaginal carcinoma 606

   replacement 413

   stenosis 604

vaginal suspension, clitoral erectile tissue 598

vaginal switch 405

vaginal tract without skin graft 602–3

vaginoplasty 589, 598, 599–600, 601, 602–6

   amnion 605

   bladder mucosa 605

   bowel segment 604–5

   outcomes 602

   peritoneum 605

   pudendal thigh fasciocutaneous flap 604

   pull-through 604

   sigmoid colon 604–5

     ulcerative colitis 606

   skin flap 603–4

   split-thickness skin graft 603

valves ureteral reflux dysplasia (VURD) syndrome 547–8

valvuloplasty, ultrasound-guided balloon 987–8, 989

van der Woude syndrome 75

vanillylmandelic acid 745

vanishing twins, cerebral palsy 49

variceal ligation 504, 505–6

   biliary atresia 455

varicella zoster immune globulin 851

varicella zoster virus (VZV), renal transplantation 851

vas deferens, inguinal hernia 291

vascular access 947–55

   arterial cannulation 954

   arteriovenous fistulae 953, 954

   chemotherapy 948, 951

   chronic immunodeficiency 953

   coagulopathies 953

   complications 947–51, 954

   dialysis 954

   dislodgement 949–50

   ECMO 955

   fetal chronic 994

   fluid extravasation 949

   foreign body embolism 950

   implantable devices 950, 953

   infection 947–8

   intraosseous infusion 954–5

   malposition 949–50

   outcomes 951–5

   parenteral nutrition 951–2

   procedures 947, 948

   subcutaneous ports 953

   surgical injury 951

   vascular stenosis 950

vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) 828

vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) 832

vascular malformations 826–7, 831–8

   arteriovenous 836–7

   capillary 835–6

   combined 837–8

   diagnosis 832

   venous 833–5

   see also lymphatic malformations

vascular ring 178, 179

vascular stenosis 950

vascular thrombosis

   liver transplantation 863, 864–6

   renal transplantation 849, 851

vascular tumors 826–7

VATER syndrome, laryngeal/laryngotracheoesophageal clefts 177

velocardiofacial syndrome 70, 72, 75

velopharyngeal competence, outcomes of surgery 72

velopharyngeal insufficiency 70

   secondary speech surgery outcomes 74–5

veloplasty, intra-velar 70, 72

vena cava obstruction in liver transplantation 866

venous access device, cystic fibrosis 318

venous malformations 833–5

   diagnosis 834

   hepatic 834

   imaging 834

   outcomes 834–5

   presentation 833–4

   recurrence 835

   surgical resection 834–5

   treatment 834–5

venous thromboembolism, spinal cord injuries 942

ventilation, artificial

   gastroschisis surgery 277–8

   high frequency oscillatory 151

   outcomes 50–1

   respiratory distress syndrome 43, 44

ventilator-dependent spinal cord injuries 942

ventricular pacemaker, fetal 988

ventricular septum, intact 897

ventriculostomy, IIIrd 962

vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) 147–8

verumontanum 412

very low birthweight

   inguinal hernia 288

   necrotizing enterocolitis 343

   neurodevelopment in necrotizing enterocolitis 341

very low birthweight (VLBW) infants 39, 41

   cerebral palsy 48

   disabled survivors 47

   IQ 50

   laryngotracheal stenosis 172

   twins 49

   visual handicap 49

vesicoamniotic shunt placement 548–9, 978–82

   complications 981

vesicostomy 547

   loop 544–5

   neuropathic bladder diversion 638

   suprapubic button 632

vesicoureteric reflux 10, 14, 544, 555–67

   bladder dysfunction 646

   causes 571

   chronic renal failure 579

   congenital single kidney 676

   definition 555

   diagnosis 556

   E. coli vaccine 567

   etiology 559

   grading system 556

   hydronephrosis 624

   imaging 556–9

   injection treatment 572–3

   management 564–5

   multicystic kidney 685

   nephrectomy 679

   outcomes 561–4

   pregnancy 564

   presentation 556

   prevalence 559–60

   prophylactic antibiotics 565–6

   refluxing ureterostomy 638

   renal scarring 563

   sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors 822

   screening 566–7

   severity reduction 560

   surgical management 565, 566, 571–80

     complications 572, 575–7

     pyelonephritis 577–8

   see also antireflux procedures

vesicourethral angle, anterior suspension 625

vestibular fistula 402

   female sexual function 413

videofluoroscopy, swallowing 166

Vincent’s sign 645

vincristine 829, 831

viral infections 868–9

   acute sialadenitis 105–6

   biliary atresia 448

   chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction 420

   gastroparesis 418

   heart–lung transplantation 904–5

   intestinal transplantation 893–4

   recurrent sialadenitis 107

visual handicap 49

vitamin(s)

   deficiencies

     ileal resection 262

     intestinal failure 364

   fat-soluble 453

vitamin B12 deficiency 262, 264

   chronic pancreatitis 525

vitamin D 98

   bile requirement for absorption 456

   deficiency 262

     short bowel syndrome 366

vitamin E

   deficiency 456

   malabsorption 262

vocal cords

   fixation/immobility 168–70

   paralysis 160, 168–70

voice

   hoarseness with laryngeal webs 168

   laryngotracheal reconstructive surgery 175

   loss in tracheotomy 164

voiding

   complete 646

   defecation association 646

   dysfunctional 643, 644, 645–6

     post-surgical 575

     treatment 646, 647

     urge incontinence 649

     urotherapy 646

   postponement 645

   regular 646

   suppression 645

volvulus, intestinal transplantation 885

vomer flap 70, 74

vomiting

   esophageal atresia 208

     infants 212

   gastroparesis 417

   infants 219

   pyloromyotomy 298

voriconazole 868

vulvoplasty 589

Warren J. C. 3

Warren J. M. 3

Warthin’s tumor 111

warts, liver transplantation 872–3

Waterston D. 13

wheezing, esophageal atresia 212

White M. 13

Williams D. I. 13

Wilms’ tumor 769–77

   age at diagnosis 769

   bilateral 770–1

   biopsy 770

   chemotherapy 759–65, 770, 771–2, 775, 776

     second malignancy risk 761

   classification 774–5

   complications 760

   health-related quality of life 775–6

   lymph node metastases 759

   metachronous in contralateral kidney 761

   metastases 759, 770, 773

   mortality 776

   multicystic kidneys 685

   nephrectomy 260, 679, 762, 763, 769–71

   prognosis 770, 776

   progression to 690

   psychosocial adjustment 775–6

   radiotherapy 759–65, 770, 772–4, 775, 777, 785

   relapse 760

   renal mass preservation 770–1

   renal transplantation 771

   second malignancy 761, 774

   staging 759, 774–5

   surgery 760, 769–71

   survival 775, 776

   treatment 759–60

     late effects 761–5

     musculoskeletal disorders 765

Wilson’s disease 859

Wirsung duct 524

wound healing, fetal 258

wound infections 893

WT1 gene 776

xerophthalmia, rhabdomyosarcoma treatment 791

Yang–Monti ileovesicostomy 638

yolk sac tumor 707–8, 718, 817

Young H. H. 10

Young repair for epispadias 624

Young–Dees–Leadbetter technique

   modified 624–5

   neurogenic incontinence 634

   repeat 62

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