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The Global Cold War
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  • 15 b/w illus. 10 maps
  • Page extent: 498 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.801 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 909.825
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: n/a
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Cold War
    • World politics--1945-1989
    • World politics--1989-

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521853644 | ISBN-10: 0521853648)

The Global Cold War

Cambridge University Press
9780521853644 - The Global Cold War - Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times - by Odd Arne Westad
Index


Index

Abdul Haq 354

Abernethy, David 90

Abrams, Elliot 353

Abu Nidal 449

Accra conference (1958) 98–99, 137

Acheson, Dean 114

Adams, John Quincy 14

Addis Tedla 267

Addou, Abdullahi Ahmad 260–261

Afanasenko, Evgeni 224–225, 227, 231, 232–233

Afghanistan

   civil war 306–307, 310, 315–316, 356–357, 378, 388 (see also Mujahedin)

   Communist takeover/rule 302–306, 308–310, 326, 348–350, 398–399

   domestic politics 299–302, 357, 375–376, 388, 400 (see also Communist Parties, Afghan; Islam; Taliban)

   rural society 349–350

   Soviet (civilian/advisory) involvement 300, 301–307, 308–316, 323–325, 348, 350, 367–368, 374–375

   Soviet invasion, plans for 316–321, 325–326, 458

   Soviet invasion, progress of 5, 6, 205, 321–322, 349–351, 356–357, 368–369, 458

   Soviet invasion, domestic/global impact 322–323, 326–330, 364, 367, 371, 401–402

   Soviet withdrawal, accomplishment 377

   Soviet withdrawal, aftereffects 378–379

   Soviet withdrawal, preparation for 372, 375–377

   Soviet withdrawal, reasons 379–387

   US policy/involvement 328–330, 331, 352–356, 363, 405, 459

Aflaq, Michel 123

Africa

   Cuban involvement in 177–180, 274–278

   formation of postcolonial states 89–91

   responses to US policy 135–136

   Soviet policy/intervention 213–218, 278–279, 415

   US policy/intervention 131–143, 156, 245–246, 434

   Western views of inhabitants 134

   see also names of countries

African Americans

   emancipation 27

   in military 132, 423

   struggle for rights 131, 143 (see also Civil Rights movement)

   white American attitudes to 13, 22

Aga Hassan Abedi 355

agriculture (colonial) 76

   see also land reform; peasantry

Aguinaldo, Emilio 409

aid programs 31–32, 34–35, 156

   Gorbachev’s conditions for 383, 384

   military 26, 36–37, 190

   US conditions for 96, 156, 358–359

AIOC (Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, later BP) 120

Akhromaeyev, Sergei, Marshal 320, 321, 375, 383

Akhtar, Abdur Rahman, General 352

al-Afghani, Jamal al-Din 452

al-Bakr, Ahmad Hassan, President 285, 292

al-Bitar, Salah al-Din 123

al-Qaeda 388–389

al Saud dynasty 120

Alaska 12

Aleksandrov-Agentov, Andrei 169, 318, 367, 440

Alexander II, Tsar 42

Algeria 89, 95, 106–107, 165, 399, 418–419

   War of Independence 105, 135–136

Algiers conference (1965) 398

Ali Nasir Muhammad 382

Allende, Salvador 201, 283

Alliance for Progress 35

Almond, Gabriel 33

Alves, Nito 239–240, 442–443

Americanism, theoretical model of 32–34

Amin, Hafizullah 300–301, 302, 303–306, 307, 308, 311–318, 319–320, 321, 323–325, 349, 399, 457

Amin, Idi 237

ANC (African National Congress) 133, 209, 215–216, 217, 243, 392–393, 401, 435

Andom, Aman, Lt.-Gen. 256, 267, 444

Andropov, Iurii 169, 215, 234, 275, 282, 297, 310, 314, 315, 317–321, 325, 336–337, 350–351, 450, 458, 461

Angola 134, 209, 220, 390–392

   civil war, outbreak 220–227

   civil war, military progress 228–237, 439–440

   civil war, aftermath 237–241, 243

   liberation movements 210–211, 212–213, 216–218

   other African states’ involvement 236, 237

   Soviet involvement 222–226, 233, 234–237, 238–240, 277, 279, 391, 436, 442

   US involvement 222, 228, 331, 391–392, 437–438

apartheid 208–209

Arab–Israeli wars 4, 128, 157, 197–200, 288

   Cuban involvement 214

   Soviet involvement 198–199

Arafat, Yassir 106, 200, 358

ARAMCO (Arabian American Oil Company) 120

Arbenz, Jacobo 146–148

archives 7

Arévalo, Juan José 146

Argentina 146

Argüelles, Raúl Díaz 232–233

Arias, Oscar 386

Arkhipov, Ivan 306

Armas, Carlos Castillo 148

ASEAN (Association of South-East Asian Nations) 389

Asia

   Soviet policy/intervention 112

   US policy/intervention 111–119, 128–131

assimilationism 75, 89

Ataturk see Kemal, Mustafa

Atnafu Abate 274

atomic power, impact on international politics 2

Australia, treatment of Aborigines 74

Avakov, Rachik M. 381

Ayalew Mandefro 274

Azerbaijan 61–64


Baath Party 123, 200, 285

Badie, Bertrand 90, 400

Bagirov, Mir 61–63

Baker, James 394

Bakhtiyar, Shahpur 295

Ball, George 150

Banda, Hastings 98

Bandung conference (1955) 2, 82, 99–103, 124, 400

   closing resolutions 102–103, 107

   superpower responses 103

Bao Dai 118

Barbados 97

Barzani, Mustafa 292

Bashkir region/people 52–53

Batista, Fulgencio 170, 171

Bearden, Milton 405, 464–465

Belgium, as colonial power 75, 136–137

Belgrade conference (1961) 107

Belokolos, D. Z. 216–217

Ben Bella, Ahmed 105, 106–107, 159

Berdiaev, Nikolai 44, 46

Berlin, Conference of (1878) 396

Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali 301, 351

bin Laden, Osama (and family) 388, 465

Blair, Tony 2

Bogomolov, Oleg 284

Bohannan, Charles 117

Bolivia 178

Bolsheviks 17, 40, 45–46, 49, 80

   see also Communist Party, Soviet

“Bonapartism” 284

Bonnet, Henri 132

Borge, Tomas 341, 342, 344, 347

Bosch, Juan 151–152

Bose, Subhas Chandra 87

Botha, J. S. F. 229–230, 237–238

Botha, Pik 246

Botha, P. W. 236, 390

Boucher, Richard 405

Boumedienne, Houari 159

Bourguiba, Habib 98

Brazil 149–151, 201, 334

Bretton Woods 153, 154

Brezhnev, Leonid 198, 199–200, 205–206, 214–215, 232, 233, 237, 241, 247, 297–298

   dealings with Afghanistan 309, 312, 319–320, 325–326, 350

   dealings with Ethiopia 271, 275, 276, 277, 283

   failing health 315, 316–317, 321, 336

   Third World policies 159, 169, 189, 195

Brioni conference (1956) 103–104, 124

British Petroleum see AIOC

Brubeck, William 289

Brunei, Sultan of 355

Brutents, Karen 205, 281, 284–285, 318, 367

Bryan, William Jennings 8, 28

Brzezinski, Zbigniew 248–249, 251, 260, 282–283, 328–329, 331–332, 341, 460

Bulgakov, Sergei 44

Bulgaria 355

Bunche, Ralph 132

Bundy, McGeorge 150, 151

Burma 98, 128

Burundi 95, 165

Bush, George (sr.) 385, 386, 394


Cabral, Amílcar 95, 108, 211, 213, 420–421

Caetano, Marcelo 209–210, 218, 220

Cambodia 128, 189–190, 194, 389

Camdessus, Michel 466

capitalism

   balance of global power 58, 242

   Russian views of 43, 50–51

   see also market; United States

Caribbean, US intervention in 15

   see also names of countries

Carreira, Iko 232–233, 240

Carter, Jimmy 238, 248–249, 251, 260–261, 282–283, 293–294, 296, 328–329, 331, 340–341, 344–345, 358

Carter, Rosalynn 293–294

Casey, William 354, 355, 368–369, 468

Castelo Branco, Humberto de Alencar, General 150–151

Castro, Fidel 149, 160, 177, 178–179, 343, 390–391, 393, 395, 467

   biographical history 170–171

   foreign policy 213, 241, 274–275

   political standpoint 171, 172, 175–178, 393–394

   relations with Soviets 172–175, 213–214, 231–232, 233, 371–372, 383–384

   relations with US 171–172, 244, 427

Castro, Raúl 170–171, 172, 214, 232, 239, 240–241

Caucasus 41–42, 45

Central America, US policy in 338–339

   see also names of countries

Central Asia, Russian/Soviet control/policies 41–42, 48–49

   see also names of countries

centralization (of power)

   objections to 11, 399–400

   Soviet 48

Césaire, Aimé 85

Chamorro, Pedro Joaquín 340

Chamoun, Camille 126

Chaudhury, Nirad 77

Chebrikov, Viktor 215

Chechnya 401

Chernaiev, Anatolii 366–367, 369–370, 382, 383–384

Chernenko, Konstantin 321

Chervonenko, Stepan 164

Chettle, John H. 441

Chiang Kai-Shek see Jiang Jieshi

Chile 201

Chin Peng 180–181

China 95

   and Angolan civil war 226–227

   change to market economy 335, 361–362

   Cultural Revolution 163, 189

   friendly relations with USSR 64–65, 69–70, 99

   see also Sino-Soviet Treaty

   hostile relations with USSR 158, 160–165, 168, 183–184, 204, 215

   migrations to US 14

   political ideology 82, 161–164, 180

   political structure 78, 115

   relations with US 245, 362

   Soviet comments on 67, 70

   Third World relations/policy 161–165, 181–185, 189

   US intervention in 20, 112, 117–118

   see also India

Chinese Exclusion Act (US 1882) 14

Chipenda, Daniel 217, 222, 225

CIA (Central Intelligence Agency)

   role in Afghanistan 354–356, 368–369

   role in African countries 133–134, 139, 142, 228

   role in Indonesia 113–114, 129–130, 186

   role in Iran 122, 422

   role in Latin America 146, 147–148, 149, 201, 345–346

Cienfugos, Oscar 439

cities, colonial 77

civil wars, in Third World 398

   strategy 400

   see also Afghanistan; Angola

“civilization,” as aim of expansionism 41–42

Cleveland, Grover 144

Clinton, Bill 405

Colby, William 230

Cold War

   definition/first use of term 2, 3

   end 388–395, 404, 406

   ethos 5, 396–397

   genesis 25

   impact on Third World 87, 89, 92–93, 94, 396

   limitations of scope 4

   Third World attitudes to 100–101

collectivism, opposition to 11, 18–19

Columbié, Arquimedes, Ambassador 440

colonialism 73, 417

   administrative structures 75, 76

   aftereffects 5–6, 16–17

   avoidance of 78

   Cold War situation compared to 396–398

   collapse 26–27, 86–90

   conflict with Democrat ideals 8–9, 14–15

   construction projects 76

   ideology 74

   impact on native cultures 74–77, 400

   Marxist/Leninist theory of 50–51

   methods of enforcement 85

   (debates on) postwar reimposition 113–115

   resistance to 6, 51–52, 73–74, 77–86, 417

Comintern 51–52, 54–55, 98, 168

   congresses 52–53, 55

   dissolution 58

   suppression of dissension 53

Communism

   in anticolonialist movements 80–82

   ideals 48–49

   imposition in Eastern Europe 58–59

   US fear of 17, 18, 25–27, 33–34, 36–37, 38, 111–115, 131

   see also Communist Parties; Marxism

Communist Parties

   Afghan 300–306, 357, 374–375

   Albanian 161

   American 18

   Chinese 53, 64–65, 161, 418

   Cuban 172

   Guatemalan 146, 147

   Indonesian 129, 162, 163, 181, 185–189

   Iranian see Tudeh

   Malayan 114–115

   Philippines 191–192

   Portuguese 210

   South African 209, 215–216, 392–393, 440–441

   Soviet 46–47, 48, 67, 202, 203, 204, 205–206, 239–240, 241, 269, 373–374, 384, 414

   Third World 51–52, 58, 168–169

   Vietnamese 163, 180, 181–183

Congo/Zaire 36, 136–143, 168, 178–179, 424

   and Angolan civil war 212–213, 222, 224–225, 226, 231–232, 236

   natural resources 137–138

Connelly, Matthew 105

Conrad, Joseph, Heart of Darkness 396–397

Cordovez, Diego 376

Coutinho, Rosa 224

Cronkite, Walter 344

Cuba 393

   Communist revolution 149, 158, 170–171, 179–180

   foreign policy 6, 175–180 (see also Africa; Latin America)

   involvement in Angola 212–214, 227, 231–237, 240–241, 244, 390–391, 439

   involvement in Ethiopia 271

   missile crisis 168, 175

   political ideology 82, 393–394

   relations with US 171–180, 338

   relations with USSR 172–175, 213–214, 218, 232–233, 239, 240–241, 434, 439

   as role model 339

   US invasion 171–172

   US occupation 15, 23

Cunhal, Alvaro 224

Czechoslovakia, Soviet invasion 195, 214


Daoud, Mohammed 299–300, 307, 313, 325

   opposition to 300

   repressive measures 301, 302

Dashichev, Viachislev 451

Davis, Mike 73

de Gaulle, Charles 136, 152

de Klerk, F. W. 393, 401

del Pero, Mario 436

Democratic Party of Kurdistan 61–62

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea see North Korea

Deng Xiaoping 162, 245

Depression, the Great (1930s) 19

Derg (Ethiopian Coordinating Committee)

   conduct of affairs 258–259, 262, 280–281, 287

   internal differences 259, 270, 271, 278, 281–282

   political orientation 256–257, 258–259, 269–270

   relations with foreign powers 263–268

   rise to power 255–256

   see also Mengistu

détente 169, 194–197, 199–200, 206, 241, 332–333, 371

   objections to 233, 244–245, 248–249

   obstacles to 284, 318

Deutsch, Karl 78

development

   “barrier” 91

   models 92–93

Dillon, C. Douglas 138–139

Dobrynin, Anatolii 318, 369, 383, 458

Dominican Republic 151–152

Dorronsoro, Gilles 463

dos Santos, José Eduardo 222–224, 225

Du Bois, W. E. B. 55, 98, 414

Dulles, Allen 138, 139

Dulles, John Foster 31, 103, 119–120, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 129–130, 135, 148


East Germany 214, 218

East Timor 247

Eastern Europe, Soviet assumption of control 58–59

Easum, Donald 229–230

economy, global, inequalities in 91, 110–111

   see also under Third World; United States

Eden, Anthony 125

education, in postcolonial states 93, 253–254

   see also students

Egypt 94, 96, 104–105, 123–126, 156, 250, 355

   conflicts with Israel 198–200

Eisenhower, Dwight D. 27, 128, 129, 130–131, 138, 139, 147, 148, 171, 195

   dealings with Middle East 119–120, 122, 123, 125–127, 128

   dealings with Vietnam 119, 180

   Third World policies 26, 103, 118, 131

El Salvador 338–339, 342–343, 344, 346, 395

   casualties of war 347

Enders, Thomas 343

Epishev, Aleksei, General 311–312, 324

Eritrea 254, 259, 267, 280–281, 390, 415

Erofeieva, Elena 384

Ethiopia 6, 287, 335, 361, 389–390, 400

   conflict with Somalis see Ogaden; Somalia

   history 253–254

   land reform 257, 287

   relations with US 254, 259–261, 264–266, 267, 282–283, 363, 445

   Soviet (advisory) involvement 261–272, 273–276, 279–282, 365, 383, 444, 450, 451

   Soviet (military) involvement 251–253, 272, 276–279, 399

   unrest (under emperor) 254–256

   unrest (under military regime) 256–258

Europe

   reforming trends 75–76

   relations with US 131–132

   relations with USSR 371, 374

   US attitudes to 16, 18–19

   see also colonialism; New Left; names of countries

expansionism

   American 12–13, 14–15, 75

   Russian (pre-Soviet) 40, 41–45, 52

   see also colonialism; Japan


famine see natural disasters; poverty

Fanon, Frantz 85

   The Wretched of the Earth 105

Fereda, Enio 262

Fessek Gedda 262–263

foco theory 177–178, 179–180

Ford, Gerald 237–238, 245, 247–248, 260, 333

Foreign Assistance Act (US, 1961) 156

Fortas, Abe 151–152

France

   colonialism 75, 89, 101, 118–119, 125–126, 135–136, 153, 418–419

   language/terminology 2

   Revolution 10, 11

   Union 97–98

Franco, Francisco 56, 220


Gagarin, Iurii 71

Galiev, Mirsaid Sultan 52–53, 162, 413

Gandhi, Mahatma 55, 80, 418

Gates, Robert 329

GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) 154–155

genocide 42, 73, 74, 95

Georgia 47–48

George, Clair 355

Germany (West/Unified)

   economy 204

   expansionist policies 45

   invasion of USSR 57–58

   Third World approaches to 79, 87

Ghana 91, 135, 137

Giorgis, Dawit Wolde 287

Gleijeses, Piero 147, 176, 213, 227, 231, 439–440

“global,” defined 3

globalization 387–388

Godley, G. McMurtrie, II 142

Gomes, Francisco de Costa, General 219

Goncharenko, Sergei 69

Goodwin, Jeff 82

Gorbachev, Mikhail 2, 7, 363, 393, 466

   Afghan policy 367, 372, 375–378, 379–380

   disillusion with earlier policies 365–367, 374, 384–385

   reform program 381

   relations with US 386–387 (see also under Reagan)

   Third World policies 364, 370–372, 382–384, 385, 386–387, 389, 395

Gorchakov, Aleksandr 42

Gordon, Lincoln 150

Gorelev, Leonid, General 325

Goulart, João 149–150

Grass, Günter 193

“gratitude,” as concept in US foreign dealings 22–23

Great Leap Forward (China) 161, 166, 183

Greece 21

   Ancient 408

Grenada 345, 366–367

Griffin, Jasper 1

Gromov, Boris V., Lt.-Gen. 377

Gromyko, Andrei 206, 282, 304, 309, 310, 312, 314, 315, 318, 320, 321, 367, 450

Guatemala 26, 146–148, 177, 339

   impact of US intervention 148–149

Guevara de la Serna, Ernesto “Che” 143, 149, 171, 172, 177–180, 192

   death 178, 180, 212, 213–214, 244, 392

   political philosophy 177–180, 190, 398

guidance, role in US political theory 22, 32

Guinea-Bissau 95, 98, 211, 213, 220

Gulyabzoi, Sayed Muhammad 317–318

Guomindang (GMD) 64–65


Haig, Alexander 337, 338

Haile Fida 445

Haile Selassie, Emperor 253–254

   downfall 255–256, 259–260, 262, 265, 444

Halle, Louis 147

Hammerskjöld, Dag 139

Hani, Chris 216

Harriman, Averell 121, 134, 140

Harvey, David 397

Hassan II of Morocco 143

Hawaii 15

Hekhmatyar, Gulbuddin 301, 307, 326, 327, 349, 356, 388, 465–466

Henderson, Loy 122

Henze, Paul 259–260, 261

Herat conflict 306–307, 308

Herter, Christian 133, 138

“high modernism” 397–398

Hitler, Adolf 55, 57

Ho Chi Minh 55, 83, 89, 92, 118, 180, 183, 418

Hoffman, Paul 25

Honecker, Erich 218, 271–272, 274–275, 281, 285, 298, 382, 393

Hong Kong 334

Huerta, Victoriano, General 144–145

Huks (Philippine insurgents) 115–117

Humphrey, Gordon, Senator 353

Hungary 125–126

Hunt, Michael 9

Huntington, Samuel P. 458–459

Hussain, Imam (Islamic martyr) 295

Hussein, King, of Jordan 127

Hussein, Saddam 272, 285, 292, 298, 448


Iakovlev, Aleksandr 433

identitarianism 400–401

Iklé, Fred 338, 345, 346, 353

IMF (International Monetary Fund) 30, 153–154, 358–359, 360, 361–362, 400, 466

immigration, US policy 13–14, 17–18, 31

Immigration Restriction League 14

India 55

   conflicts with Pakistan/China 4, 107, 163

Indonesia 66–67, 77, 87–89, 113–114, 128–130

   military takeover 185–189

   Soviet attitudes to 187–188, 189, 416

   US attitudes to 185–186, 188–189, 247

industry, in postcolonial states 93–94

Ingersoll, Robert 445

Institute of Oriental Studies (Soviet Academy of Sciences) 68

interest rates 360

International Court of Justice 462

interventionism 1, 3

   defined 3

   literature on 7

   moral justification 404

   negative effect on superpowers 7

   origins 9–12, 21, 24

   reasons for 4–5, 110, 111, 332–334, 405

   relationship with international norms 39

   results 404–407

   Soviet withdrawal from 7

Iran 6, 26, 60–64, 112, 119–123, 157, 250

   domestic politics/economy 60–61, 62, 292–293

   military conflicts see Iraq

   relations with neighbors 300, 323–324

   relations with US 200–201, 289, 292, 293–294, 296, 315, 330, 415

   relations with USSR 296–299

   revolution (1979) 288, 295–299, 307–308, 323

   US arms sales (Iran–Contra Affair) 374

   “White Revolution” 289–290, 292–293

Iraq 94–95, 120, 126–127, 200, 250, 285, 292, 294

   conflicts with Iran 298

   US invasion 405–406

Islam

   Afghan movements 301, 307–308, 326–330, 349, 388, 464–465 (see also Mujahedin; Taliban)

   internal divisions 94–95, 121–122

   political ideology 288–289, 295–296, 326–328, 388–389

   see also Baath; Muslims; Shia

Ismail, Abd al-Fattah 250, 285

Ismail Khan 307

“isolationism” (US) 17, 19, 28

Israel 390

   foundation 127–128, 423

   relationship with US 128, 156, 197, 292

   see also Arab–Israeli wars

Ivanov, Boris, General 319, 325

Ivory Coast 361


Jafari, Shaban “No Brains” 422

“Jakarta Axiom” 119

Jakeš, Milos 393

Japan 197, 337

   economy 204

   expansionist policies 45, 87

   involvement in Ethiopia 253

   migrations to US 14

   postwar restructuring 24–25

   wartime strategies 57–58

Jefferson, Thomas 9, 10–11, 12, 16, 21, 28, 406

Jiang Jieshi 20, 25–26, 53, 64–65, 112, 117–118

Johansen, Pål 430

Johnson, Lyndon B. 27, 34, 35, 135, 141–142, 149–150, 151–152, 159–160, 165, 178, 185–186, 189, 193, 195, 209, 254, 290, 426, 427

Jones, Joseph 25

Jordan 127


Kagan, Robert 345

Kapitanov, V. P. 315

Kapustin, E. N., Col. 319

Karmal, Babrak 300–301, 302, 303–304, 317–318, 320, 321–322, 348, 349, 350, 357, 368, 374–375

Katanga (province of Congo) 138–140

Kaunda, Kenneth 237

Kazakhstan see Virgin Lands campaign

Kemal (Ataturk), Mustafa 85–86, 95

Kennedy, John F. 27, 34–37, 134–136, 140–141, 156, 166, 171–172, 180, 186, 195, 290

Kennedy, Robert 172

Kenya 90

Kenyatta, Jomo 98, 143

Keshtmand, Sultan Ali 304, 311

Keynes, J. M. 153

KGB 214–215, 234, 298–299, 317–318, 325, 375, 381–382, 454, 457

Khalis, Mohammed Younus 327

Khmer Rouge 189–190, 332

Khomeini, Ahmad 296

Khomeini, Ruhollah, Ayatollah 60, 121–122, 295, 308, 358

   criticisms of shah/exile 291–292, 294

   political/religious ideology 294–296, 415

   relations with foreign powers 296–299, 330, 459

Khrushchev, Nikita 67–72, 103, 126, 127, 129, 159, 160, 166, 174, 184

Kianuri, Nureddin 297

Kim Il Sung 66, 163–164

King, Martin Luther, Jr. 37–38

Kipling, Rudyard 15

Kirilenko, Andrei 275, 281–282, 286, 316, 319, 321

Kirkpatrick, Jeane J. 345, 358

Kissinger, Henry 35, 195, 196–197, 200–202, 212, 220, 222, 237–238, 244–247, 260, 265, 331, 344, 411, 443

Kolosovskii, Andrei 385

Komer, Robert 152, 188

Korean War 26, 66, 99, 115, 118, 136, 180

Kornienko, Georgi 439

Kosygin, Aleksei 159, 165, 189, 216, 286, 306, 309, 310, 316, 319, 321

Kozyrev, Andrei 385–386

Krahl, Hans-Jürgen 192

Krakowski, Elie 353

Kruichkov, Vladimir A. 375, 378

Kuomintang see Guomindang

Kurds 292

Kuwait 270

Kuzichkin, Vladimir 453

Kuznetsov, V. E. 267, 268–269


Lafayette, Gilbert du Mottier, Marquis de 10–11

Lamming, George, In the Castle of My Skin 97, 419

land reform, postcolonial programs 94–95 see also Ethiopia

Laos 128, 189

Lara, Lúcio 224, 232, 240, 241

Larosière de Champfeu, Jacques de 466

Laski, Harold 92

Latin America

   Cuban relations with 176–177

   economic dependence on US 144

   living conditions 334–335

   national economies 78

   US attitudes to 10–11, 23, 143–152

Lebanon 126

Lenin (Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov) 40, 43, 49, 55, 68, 412, 420, 442

   criticisms 52

   death 48

   memorials 240, 390

   political ideology 45–47, 50–51, 167, 205, 366

LeoGrande, William 347

Leopold II of Belgium 136

Lerner, Daniel 33

Liakhovskii, Aleksandr, General 319

liberation movements, problems of 217

   see also nationalism; nativism; names of countries

liberty, US ideal of 10–11, 13, 22, 405–406

   exclusions from 10–11

   fears for 11

Libya 59–60, 372

Lieven, Dominic 43

Litvinov, Maksim 59–60, 415

Liu Shaoqi 162–163

Lleras, Alberto 152

Lodge, Henry Cabot 188–189

London conference (1900) 98

London School of Economics (LSE) 417

Longfellow, H. W., Paul Revere’s Ride 101, 420

Lonsdale, Edward, Major 115, 117

Lumumba, Patrice 137–140, 168

Lunacharskii, Anatoli 412


Macdonald, Douglas 111

Machel, Samora 243, 362

Macmillan, Harold 98

Magsaysay, Ramon 115–117

Malaka, Tan 55

Malaya 113, 114–115, 129, 180–181

Malaysia 186, 191

Malcolm X 38, 135, 143

Mali 361

Malone, E. M. 230

Maltsev, Igor 281

Manchester conference (1945) 98–99

Mandela, Nelson 106, 133, 393, 401

Mao Zedong 64–65, 69–70, 83, 95, 158, 161–162, 165, 166, 172–174, 183, 184, 185, 226–227, 245, 247

Marcos, Ferdinand 192

Marcum, John 217

market economy, Third World moves toward 361–363

market(s)

   critiqued 28–29

   international 12

   role in US foreign policy 27–29

   role in US political theory 12

Marshall, George 26

   Marshall Plan 24, 25, 69, 114

Martí, Farabundo 342

Marx, Karl 49–50, 403

Marxism/Marxist theory 32–33

   applied to Third World politics 203–204, 299, 365, 370, 380–381

   applied to US politics 28, 29

   disintegration 402–403

   diverse interpretations 49–51, 52–53, 58, 65, 82–83

   Third World states/movements 93, 96–97, 108–109, 167, 177–178, 207–208, 210, 242–243, 251, 254–255, 258–259, 280–281

Massoud, Ahmad Shah 307, 356

Mauritius 165

Mbeki, Thabo 393, 469

McCarthy, Joseph 25–26, 118

McFarlane, Robert 464

McGhee, George 133, 141

McKinley, William 15

McNamara, Robert S. 36–37, 151, 160, 426, 427

Medvedev, Vadim 433

Menelik II of Ethiopia 253

Mengistu Haile Mariam 251–252, 284, 287, 365, 380, 382–383, 389–390, 444

   biographical background 256–257

   elimination of opponents 258, 259, 270, 271–272, 276, 278

   relations with foreign powers 260, 261, 262–263, 264, 268, 269–270, 274–275, 276, 277–278, 280–282

Mexico 334

   economy 360

   revolution (1910–11) 17, 144–145

   U.S.–Mexican war (1846–48) 15, 144

Middle East politics 107, 250

   see also names of countries

Mikoyan, Anastas 172–174, 175

military dictatorships, US support of 148, 150–152, 159, 171, 188–189, 201, 247

Millikan, Max 33–34

Mirskii, Georgii 381

missionaries 22–23

MNC (Congolese National Movement) 137

Mobutu, Joseph Désiré, General 36, 139–140, 142, 143, 157, 210, 212, 230

modernism see “high modernism”

Mohammad Rashid Rida 452

Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran 60–61, 64, 85–86, 112, 121, 122–123, 200–201

   dealings with foreign powers 292–294, 296

   opposition to 290–292, 293, 297

   overthrow 288, 295

   political aims 289–291

Molotov, Vyacheslav 60, 62–63

Mondlane, Eduardo 134, 210

Mongolia 51, 183

Monroe Doctrine 21, 143–144

Morocco 361

Morozov, Aleksandr 325

Mossadeq, Mohammad 61, 121–122, 289, 297

Mozambique 1–2, 76, 134, 209–210, 220, 243, 366

   economy 362, 363

Muelenaere, Felix de 132

Mugabe, Robert 362

Muhammad Abdu 452

Muhammad Nabi Muhammadi 349

Mujahedin 368–369, 377, 378

   foreign support 332, 348, 351–356, 372

   weaponry 355–356, 465

   see also Islam: Afghan movement

Muslims 52–53

   oppression of 42

   resistance by 49, 81

   see also Islam; Mujahedin; Taliban; names of Muslim states


Najib(ullah) 374–376, 377, 378, 388, 468

Namibia 228, 391–392

Nascimento, Lopo do 239–240

Nasser, Gamal Abdel 67, 70, 103–105, 107, 123–126, 127, 198

Nasution, Abdul, General 129, 130, 188

nationalism 16

   African 207, 251

nationalization, programs of 96, 121–122, 335

native Americans, treatment of 12–13, 21, 74, 409

nativism 80–82, 101, 108, 210

   US clashes with 119–120, 121–122

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) 24, 26, 318, 371

natural disasters 73, 287

Negade Gobeze 445

Nehru, Jawarhalal 55, 67, 70, 80–81, 82, 93, 99, 101–102, 103–104, 107, 124, 163, 235, 419

neoconservative politics/ideology (US) 357–359

Netherlands, as colonial power 114, 129

Neto, Antonio Aghostino 210, 216–218, 220–221, 222–226, 227, 231, 238–239, 240–241, 244, 435, 440–441

New International Economic Order (NIEO) 334–335

New Left 192–193

Ngo Dinh Diem 181

Ngouabi, Marien 224–225, 231, 233

Nicaragua 15, 84, 145, 331, 339–348, 394–395

   casualties of war 347

   Soviet/Cuban involvement 343–344, 370, 394–395

   US attitudes/policy 339, 340–341, 343, 344–345, 354, 363, 394–395

   US military intervention 345–348, 374

Nicholas II, Tsar 17

Niemeyer, Gerhart 131–132, 423

1950s, political trends 31–32

1960s, political trends 97, 106–109, 251

1970s, political trends 4, 251, 288, 387

1980s, political trends 4, 387

1990s, political trends 404–405

nineteenth-century politics

   Russian 41–45

   UK 154

   US 12–15, 144

Nixon, Richard 119, 148–149, 154, 170, 193, 195–197, 199–202, 212, 214, 292, 338

Nkrumah, Kwame 91, 92, 98, 107, 108, 135, 137, 242, 419, 420

Nolting, Frederick 421

Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) 107–108, 187, 351–352, 434

North Korea 66, 163–165, 183, 363

North Vietnam 89, 94

   Communist revolution 158

   foreign policy 6

   relations with USSR/China 164–165, 183–184

nuclear war, threat/avoidance of 100

Nuñez Téllez, Carlos 343–344

Nur Ahmad Nur 303–304

Nyerere, Julius 95, 108, 143, 226, 234, 246, 251, 257


OAU (Organization of African Unity) 98–99, 106–107, 237, 254

Ochoa, Arnaldo 275

Ogaden conflict 267, 271, 273–279, 281

Ogarkov, Nikolai, Marshal 320

oil trade 102, 119–123, 156–157

   price fluctuations 293, 336

   working conditions 120

Olney, Richard 144

OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) 102, 156–157

Oramas, Oscar 213

Ortega, Daniel 340, 341, 343, 344, 370, 383, 394

Ortega, Humberto 340, 341, 344

Orwell, George 2

Ovanessian, Ardasher 415


Pakistan 107, 301

   conflicts with India see under India

   involvement in Afghanistan 300, 323–324, 327–328, 348, 351–353, 356, 368–369, 376–377, 388

Palestine 101, 128

pan-African/-Asian conferences 98–99

pan-Arabism 123–124

Panama 340

   Canal 76

Panjshiri, Ghulam Dagastir 322, 458

Parsons, Talcott 33

Pastora, Eden 340

Pavlov, Iurii 394

Pavlovskii, Ivan 312, 324

Peace Corps 35

Pearl Harbor 20

peasantry

   moves against 398–399, 400

   resistance by 399–400

   see also Russia

People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen see South Yemen

Perkins, Bradford 12

Perle, Richard 338, 353

Peron, Juan, Colonel 146

Perry, Matthew 15

Peter the Great, Tsar 41

Petrov, Vasilii 276–277

Philippines 8, 115–117, 191–192, 361, 409

   American occupation 15, 23

Pinochet, Augusto, General 201, 358

Pipes, Richard 338

piracy 21

Pirandello, Luigi 422

Pishevari, Jafar 62, 63–64

PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) 200

Podgornyi, Nikolai 159

Pokidko, Viktor 268

Pol Pot 190, 389

“policemen,” global, US plans for 197, 200–201, 212, 247, 289, 331

Polk, William R. 290–291

Ponomarenko, I. F. 240–241

Ponomarev, Boris 68, 169, 273–274, 278, 282, 297, 304–305, 309, 310, 311, 314, 367, 369, 381, 450

Port Huron statement see Students for a Democratic Society

Portugal, as colonial power 75, 96, 131, 134, 153, 215, 396

   domestic politics/economy 218–220

   rebellions against 207–208, 209–210, 211

   relations with US 220

Post, Ken 55

postcolonial states

   debts 96

   developmental projects 93–95, 398–399

   establishment/problems of 89–92, 397–398

   ethnic/religious divisions 94–95

   international dealings 97–98

   political freedoms 102

   US dealings with 134

poverty, Third World 92, 156, 334–335, 361, 387–388, 390, 406

   causes 404

Prestes, Luis Carlos 55

Primakov, Evgenii 284, 451

prisoners of war, treatment of 369, 467

Puzanov, Aleksandr 302–306, 308–315, 322, 323–324, 454


Qassim, Abdel Karim 126–127

Qavam, Ahmed 61, 62–64, 112

Qazi Mohammad 62


Rabbani, Burhanuddin 301, 307, 349

racism, role in US politics 12–14

Radchenko, Sergei 428

Rahman, Tunku Abdul 115

Ratanov, Anatolii 263, 264, 266–267, 268–269, 271–272, 274, 276, 277–278

raw materials, role in Third World economies 155, 334, 335–336, 359–360, 427

Rawlings, Jerry 361

Reagan, Ronald 7, 24, 28, 247–248, 283, 329, 344, 346, 353, 356, 360, 363, 374, 385, 443

   domestic opposition 347–348

   economic policy 360–361

   meetings with Gorbachev 368, 370, 371, 376–377, 386

   political ideology 337–339, 358–359, 364

   presidential style 331–334

recession (1980s) 359–360, 387

religion, influence on Third World populations 95

   see also Islam

revolutionary leaders, personal qualities/background 82–83, 85–86

Risquet, Jorge 213, 240–241

Ritter, Don, Congressman 353, 464

Roberto, Holden 134, 210, 212, 217, 222–224, 225, 230, 235, 236, 237, 437

Rodriguez, Carlos Rafael 281, 338, 461

Romashkin, Viktor 262

Roosevelt, Franklin D. 19, 20, 21, 293

   “New Deal” 19, 24

Roosevelt, Theodore 15

Rostow, Walt Whitman 33–34, 36, 178, 290–291, 332, 399

Rothman, Gert 230

Roxas, Manuel 115

Roy, Mahabhendra Nath 52, 53, 79–80, 82

Rubayyi, Salim Ali 250, 274, 285

Rumsfeld, Donald 247

Rusk, Dean 141–142, 209–210

Russell, Richard, Senator 186

Russia (post-Soviet), state archive 430, 440–441

Russia (pre-Soviet) 41–45

   ethnic composition 41

   imperial mission 43–45, 46

   legacy to Soviet Union 40, 46–47, 56

   peasantry 42–43

   revolution (1917) 17, 49, 51, 53–54, 79–80, 265, 322, 385

Rwanda 95


Sadat, Anwar 199, 250, 316

Safronchuk, Vasilii 311, 325, 456

Salazar, António de Oliveira 209

SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty) talks 195, 247, 318

Samantar, Mohammad Ali 275

Sánchez, Celia 171

Sandinistas (Nicaragua) 394–395

   foreign policy 341–343

   political ideology 341, 346–347

   resistance to US invasion 346

   rise to power 339–341

Sandino, Augusto César 84, 145, 339, 342

Sartre, Jean-Paul 105

Sarwari, Asadullah 317–318, 320, 463

Sassou-Nguesso, Denis 361

Saudi Arabia 120, 156–157, 270, 388

Savimbi, Jonas 211, 224, 225, 230, 233–234, 235, 237, 390, 392

Sayed Bahauddin Majrooh 465–466

Sayyaf, Abdul Rasul 327, 356, 465

Schlesinger, Arthur 35

science, role in US political theory 11–12

Scott, James C. 78–79, 397

Scowcroft, Brent 260

September 11 attacks 401, 405, 406

Shakhnazarov, Georgii 205

Sharpeville massacre 133–134

Shebarshin, Leonid V. 297, 298–299, 316

Shevardnadze, Eduard 375, 378, 383, 385

Shia Islam 291

Shultz, George P. 337, 353–354, 356, 371, 465

Siad Barre, Mohammad 270–271, 273–275, 276, 278, 282, 287, 331–332

Sihanouk, Noroddom, Prince 128, 189–190

Simoniia, Nodari 381

Singapore 87, 334

Sinitsin, Sergei 262

Sino-Soviet Treaty (1950) 65, 69

Sisay Habte 259, 267, 270

Sison, Jose Maria 192

Sjahrir, Sutan 77

Skorikov, Lt.-Gen. 265

slavery 21–22

   (supposed) causes 22

Slovo, Joe 216

Smith, Ian 212, 231, 246

Social Science Research Council 32

Somalia 254, 287

   hostilities with Ethiopia 251, 273, 274–278, 446

   relations with foreign powers 260–261, 267, 270–271, 273–274, 287, 331–332

Somoza, Anastasio (and family) 145, 339–341

South Africa 6, 96, 101, 133–134, 208–209, 362, 392–393

   economy 208–209

   involvement in Angola 228–231, 234, 235–236, 390–391

   relations with US 212, 229–230, 231, 236, 237–238, 246

South Korea 334, 404

South Vietnam 128, 156, 181, 193–194, 201–202

   political instability 180

   role in regional politics 180–181

South Yemen 250–251, 285, 329, 382–383

Soviet Union

   agricultural policy 54

   borders 120

   collapse 401, 404

   criticisms 101, 191

   economy 242, 336, 379, 384, 401, 461

   foreign policy 39, 56–57, 59–72, 180, 194–195, 414

   foundation 39, 46–48

   intellectual elites/advisers 202, 205, 284–285, 369–370, 380–381, 402–403

   intelligence services 68 (see also KGB)

   internal differences 168, 364, 378, 384–385, 402

   international hostility 336–337, 351–352, 371

   international status 24, 25, 279

   leaders’ characteristics 336

   military budget 402

   military capabilities 168, 202–203, 251–252, 356–357

   (perceived) threats to 39

   political ideology 4–5, 39, 40, 72

   political vocabulary 2

   reforms (1980s) 363

   rejection of advice 286

   relations with US see under US

   role in Middle East 126, 127–128

   as role model 79–80, 81, 92–93, 108–109, 204, 207, 269–270, 300

   Third World approaches to 79–80, 124–125, 129, 172–175, 198–199, 211

   Third World policies 6, 159, 165–169, 202–206, 241–243, 250–253, 284–287, 364–365, 381–384, 397–398

   see also Afghanistan; Africa; Angola; Asia; China; Cuba; Ethiopia; Iran; Latin America; Vietnam

   Third World policy, errors of 365, 380–381

   view of global mission 48

space program 71

Spanish–American War (1898) 15, 23

Spanish Civil War 56

Spinola, António de, General 219–220

Stalin (Josif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) 112, 121, 127, 167, 416

   death/legacy 67, 69, 99

   early political career 47–48, 53–54

   political objectives 54–55

   posthumous criticisms 67–68

   purges 56

   wartime/postwar strategies 57–67

Stockwell, John 228

students

   impact of Western education 37, 76–77, 93, 254–255

   role in Third World politics 257, 288, 296, 301

Students for a Democratic Society 28, 106

Sudan 76

Suez Canal 76

   1956 crisis 104–105, 125–126

Suharto, General 187, 188, 247

Sukarno 66, 67, 83–84, 87–89, 99–101, 103, 107, 113, 129–130, 247, 419, 421

   overthrow 185–189, 242

   political ideology 186–187

Suri, Jeremi 97

Suslov, Mikhail 164, 318

Syngman Rhee 85–86

Syria 123, 200, 250


Tabeev, Fikrat 315–316

Taiwan 334, 404, 419

Taliban 378, 388

Tambo, Oliver 215, 243

Tanzania (Tanganyika) 95, 96, 209, 216, 360

Taraki, Nur Mohammad 300, 302, 303–306, 308–309, 316, 319, 322–325, 456

tariffs 30

Teferi Bante 258, 259, 263, 264, 265, 266

teleology see US: as global leader

terrorism 401

Thailand 191

Thatcher, Margaret 359, 374

Thieu, Nguyen Van 201–202

Third World

   alliances 399

   debts 157, 360–361, 384

   economic dependence on West 30–31, 95–97

   ethnic divisions 207–208

   in global economy 154–157

   hostility to West 400–401

   imports/exports 155

   intellectual elites 167

   living conditions see poverty

   loss of identity 387, 395

   national economies 155–156, 334–336, 359–363, 387

   origin/definitions 2–3, 334

   policy errors 366

   political instability 168–169, 381

   political/social changes 1–2, 3, 6, 86, 96–97, 166–167, 378–379, 387

   relations with international financial institutions 153–154

   sense of community 97–98, 100, 104, 334

   spread of left-wing ideologies 51–53, 54, 91–93, 157, 158, 167, 241 (see also Communist parties; Marxism)

   superpower policies toward 1, 54–55, 56–57, 59–72, 89, 96–97 (see also Soviet Union; United States)

   see also postcolonial states; names of countries/regions

tiermondisme 106, 408

Tito, Josip Broz 103–104, 124, 187

Tonkin, Gulf of 141

totalitarianism 460

   vs. authoritarianism 358

Tothill, David 438

Traoré, Moussa 361

Tripolitania see Libya

Trotsky, Leon 53

Truman, Harry S. 21, 25, 111, 112, 117–118, 129

Tshombe, Moise 140, 143

Tsongas, Paul, Senator 353, 464

Tudeh (Iranian People’s Party) 60–62, 63, 120, 297, 298–299, 415

Turkey 21, 59, 95

Turki al-Faisal, Prince 330, 349, 459–460

Turner, Stansfield, Adml 328–329


Ubico, Jorge 146

Ukraine 47

Ulianovskii, R. A. 281, 453

United Fruit Company 146, 148

United Kingdom

   colonialism 50, 75, 125–126, 186

   Commonwealth 97–98

   economy 154

   intelligence services 453

   relations with USSR 57

   role in Middle East 120, 124, 127

United Mine Workers of America 14

United Nations 136, 138–140

United States

   Agency for International Development 31

   as capitalist leader/enforcer 31–32, 58, 119

   civil rights movement 134

   constitution 11

   Declaration of Independence 89

   domestic politics 9, 18, 19, 25–26, 27, 37–38, 135–136, 406

   domination of global economy 19–21, 29–30, 110, 152–154, 360–361, 387–388

   economy 29–30, 360–361, 410

   ethnic composition 132

   foreign investment in 30

   foreign policy 8–10, 15–21, 22–32, 110–111, 195, 244–249

   foreign policy, critiqued 37–38

   as global leader/model 9, 11–12, 14–15, 17–18, 32, 92, 143–144, 154

   international hostility to 157, 374

   international status 15, 204, 403

   justification for policies 403–404

   National Security Council 111, 113, 114, 129, 212, 328

   (perceived) threats to 39

   political ideology 4–5, 8–15, 30, 38, 40 (see also Americanism)

   political vocabulary 2

   presidency 28–29

   relations with USSR 3, 57, 248–249, 283–284, 318, 325, 333–334, 337, 370, 371–372, 376–377, 385–386

   siege mentality 357–358

   social/political reforms 38 (see also African Americans)

   Third World approaches to 63, 64, 70, 79, 83, 110

   Third World policies 6, 26, 159–160, 195–197, 251, 299, 329–330, 331–334, 338–339, 344–345, 357–361, 364, 386, 397–398, 404–406 (see also Afghanistan; Africa; Angola; Asia; China; Cuba; Ethiopia; Iran; Latin America; Mujahedin; Vietnam)

Uruguay 151

Ustinov, Dmitri 309, 310, 314, 315, 316–321, 325, 350–351


Valdés Vivó, Raúl 240, 278

van den Bergh, Hendrik 230

Vance, Cyrus 248–249, 282, 445

Vanderbilt, Cornelius 409

Varennikov, Valentin, General 320

Veliotes, Nicholas 353

Venezuela 340, 361

Versailles Peace Conference (1919) 83

Verwoerd, Hendrik 208

Vietnam 389, 399

   partition 180

   postcolonial establishment 118–119

   US attitudes to 180

   see also North Vietnam; South Vietnam; Vietnam War

Vietnam War 27, 36–37, 96–97, 141

   European impact 192–193

   impact on Third World politics 190–192, 211

   outcome 191, 193–194, 201–202

   repercussions for superpowers 195, 197, 202, 206, 238, 331

   Soviet attitudes to 169–170, 181–185, 189, 194

   US involvement/tactics 5, 159–160, 184, 399

Viljoen, Constand, General 230

Vinogradov, Vladimir 198–199, 298, 330

Virgin Lands campaign (USSR) 71, 165

Volskii, Dmitrii 384–385

von der Pahlen, Konstantin, Count 42

Vorster, John 229–231, 235, 236, 246


Wali, Shah 313

Walker, William 15, 409

Wallerstein, Immanuel 408

“Washington Consensus” see United States: domination of global economy

Willoch, Kåre 371

Wilson, Charles, Congressman 353, 355, 465

Wilson, Harold 165

Wilson, Woodrow 15–17, 20, 29, 79, 144

Wolfowitz, Paul 353

Wood, Elisabeth 346

Wood, Robert E. 360

Woodward, Bob 355

World Bank 153–154, 358–359, 400

World Trade Center see September 11

World War I

   impact on Third World 73–74, 79–80

   US response to 15–18

World War II

   impact on Third World 74, 86–89

   Soviet response to 57–59

   US response to 20–21, 24–25, 110, 145–146

Wright, Marshall 196, 431

Wright, Richard 18, 99, 400


Yakub Khan 310

Yasuhiro, Nakasone 337

Yazov, Dmitrii 378, 383

Yeltsin, Boris 385

Yemen see South Yemen

Yom Kippur see Arab–Israeli wars

Youssaf, Mohammad, General 356, 463

Yugoslavia 124


Zagladin, Vadim 205

Zahedi, Fazlollah, General 122

Zahir (Shah), King, of Afghanistan 299, 307, 325, 348, 349, 375

Zaire see Congo

Zaitsev, Mikhail M., General 368

Zambia 163, 215, 222, 237

Zaplatin, V. P., Maj.-Gen. 319

Zhou Enlai 101, 162–163, 180

Zia-ul-Haq, Mohammad, General 301, 328, 349, 351–352, 353, 356, 376–377, 463, 466, 468

Zimbabwe 95, 96, 246, 362

Zverev, G. A. 238–239


© Cambridge University Press


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