ANCIENT GREEK PORTRAIT SCULPTURE
This book offers a new approach to the history of Greek portraiture by focusing on portraits without names. Comprehensively illustrated, it brings together a wide range of evidence that has never before been studied as a group. Sheila Dillon considers the few original bronze and marble portrait statues preserved from the Classical and Hellenistic periods together with the large number of Greek portraits known only through Roman copies. By moving away from the traditional concern with names and dates, Dillon investigates the range of strategies and styles used by these portraits to construct subject identity. This study calls into question two basic tenets of Greek portraiture: first, that it was only in the late Hellenistic period, under Roman influence, that Greek portraits exhibited a wide range of styles, including descriptive realism; and second, that in most cases, one can easily tell a subject’s public role – that is, whether he is a philosopher, an orator, a poet, or a general – from the visual traits used in this portrait. The sculptures studied here instead show that the proliferation of portrait styles takes place much earlier, in the late Classical period, and that the identity expressed by these portraits is much more complex and layered than has previously been realized. Despite the fact that these portraits lack the one feature most prized by scholars of ancient portraiture – a name – they are evidence of the utmost importance for the history of Greek portraiture.
Sheila Dillon is assistant professor of art history at Duke University. A recipient of fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the American Academy in Rome, she is co-editor of Representations of War in Ancient Rome.
Contexts, Subjects, and Styles
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo
Cambridge University Press
40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521854986
© Sheila Dillon 2006
This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception
and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published 2006
Printed in the United States of America
A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library.
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Ancient Greek portrait sculpture : contexts, subjects, and styles / Sheila Dillon.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-521-85498-9 (hardback)
1. Portrait sculpture, Greek. 2. Portrait sculpture, Ancient–Greece. I. Title.
733′.3 – dc22 2005036462
ISBN-13 978-0-521-85498-6 hardback
ISBN-10 0-521-85498-9 hardback
Publication of this book has been aided by a grant from the
Millard Meiss Publication Fund of the College Art Association.
Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for
the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or
third-party Internet Web sites referred to in this publication
and does not guarantee that any content on such
Web sites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.
To Alex and Donald, with love.
To my teachers Eve Harrison, Gunter Köpcke, Jim McCredie, and Bert Smith, with gratitude.
|List of Illustrations||page ix|
|CHAPTER 1. Facing up to Anonymity||1|
|FACING THE PAST: GREEK PORTRAITS IN ROMAN CONTEXTS|
|CHAPTER 2. Making Portraits of the Greeks||15|
|CHAPTER 3. Displaying Portraits of the Greeks||38|
|FACING THE SUBJECT: INTERPRETING IDENTITY IN GREEK PORTRAITURE|
|CHAPTER 4. The Appearance of Greek Portraits||61|
|CHAPTER 5. Greek Portraits in Practice||99|
|APPENDIX 1. Museum Index||129|
|APPENDIX 2. Portrait Catalogue||135|
|1||Naples–Rome Old Man with Matted Beard Type. Front, Naples version (cat. A19.1)||page 3|
|2||Naples–Rome Old Man with Matted Beard Type. Left profile, Naples version||3|
|3||Diphilos Type. Vienna version (cat. A12.3)||7|
|4||Bronze portrait from the Villa of the Papyri (cat. B64)||7|
|5||Statue of Demosthenes||8|
|6||Bust of Demosthenes||9|
|7||Head from a late Classical grave monument||9|
|8||New York–Rome–Caesarea Type. Front, New York version (cat. A19.3)||16|
|9||New York–Rome–Caesarea Type. Front, Rome version (cat. A19.4)||16|
|10||New York–Rome–Caesarea Type. Front, Caesarea version (cat. A19.1)||17|
|11||New York–Rome–Caesarea Type. Right profile, New York version||18|
|12||New York–Rome–Caesarea Type. Right profile, Rome version||18|
|13||New York–Rome–Caesarea Type. Left profile, New York version||19|
|14||New York–Rome–Caesarea Type. Left profile, Rome version||19|
|15||New York–Rome–Caesarea Type. Left profile, Caesarea version||19|
|16||New York–Rome–Caesarea Type. Back, New York version||20|
|17||New York–Rome–Caesarea Type. Back, Caesarea version||20|
|18||Getty–Woburn Abbey Type. Front, Getty version (cat. A29.1)||21|
|19||Getty–Woburn Abbey Type. Front, Woburn Abbey version (cat. A29.2)||21|
|20||Getty–Woburn Abbey Type. Right profile, Getty version||22|
|21||Getty–Woburn Abbey Type. Right profile, Woburn Abbey version||22|
|22||Getty–Woburn Abbey Type. Left profile, Getty version||22|
|23||Getty–Woburn Abbey Type. Left profile, Woburn Abbey version||22|
|24||Getty–Woburn Abbey Type. Back, Getty version||23|
|25||Getty–Woburn Abbey Type. Back, Woburn Abbey version||23|
|26||Hermarchus Type B. Front, Naples version (cat. A1.9)||24|
|27||Hermarchus Type B. Front, American Academy version (cat. A1.12)||24|
|28||Hermarchus Type B. Front, Hanover version (cat. A1.5)||25|
|29||Hermarchus Type B. Right profile, American Academy version||26|
|30||Hermarchus Type B. Right profile, Hanover version||26|
|31||Hermarchus Type B. Left profile, American Academy version||26|
|32||Hermarchus Type B. Left profile, Hanover version||26|
|33||Hermarchus Type B. Back, Naples version||27|
|34||Hermarchus Type B. Back, American Academy version||27|
|35||Hermarchus Type B. Back, Hanover version||27|
|36||Marble portrait of Metrodorus||29|
|37||Sophocles Type III. Front, Naples version (cat. A2.7)||32|
|38||Sophocles Type III. Front, London version (cat. A2.5)||33|
|39||Striding Poet. Rome version (cat. A14.3)||34|
|40||Seated statue of a poet by the sculptor Zeuxis, front||35|
|41||Seated statue of a poet by the sculptor Zeuxis, left||35|
|42||Sophocles Type III. Front, Copenhagen version (cat. A2.2)||35|
|43||Sophocles Type III. Left, Copenhagen version||35|
|44||Herculaneum and its vicinity in the eighteenth century||42|
|45||Plan of the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum||43|
|46||Bronze portrait from the Villa of the Papyri (cat. B65)||43|
|47||Bronze portrait from the Villa of the Papyri (cat. B66)||44|
|48||Crates Type. Front, Naples version (cat. A18.2)||45|
|49||Crates Type. Right, Naples version||45|
|50||Marble herm from the Villa of the Papyri, front (cat. B68)||46|
|51||Marble herm from the Villa of the Papyri, left||46|
|52||Marble herm from the Villa of the Papyri, front (cat. B69)||46|
|53||Marble herm from the Villa of the Papyri, left||46|
|54||Marble herm from the Villa of the Papyri, front (cat. B70)||47|
|55||Marble herm from the Villa of the Papyri, right||47|
|56||Marble herm from the Villa of the Papyri, front (cat. B71)||47|
|57||Marble herm from the Villa of the Papyri, left||47|
|58||Map of villas in the Tivoli area, with the location of the Villa of “Cassius”||50|
|59||Plan of the remains of the Villa of “Cassius,” Tivoli||51|
|62||Footed herm base of Peisistratos||53|
|63||Statue of Aeschines||63|
|64||Statue of “Hippokrates”||64|
|65||Hellenistic grave relief from Rheneia||64|
|66||Bronze portrait statue||65|
|67||Hellenistic grave relief from Rheneia||65|
|68||Grave stele of Artemon||67|
|69||Detail, head of Artemon||68|
|70||Detail, head of older man on Artemon stele||68|
|71||Grave naiskos of Prokles, found near the Dipylon Gate||69|
|72||Detail, figure of Prokleides||69|
|73||Gravestone of Ktesileos and Theano||70|
|74||Head of Alexos||70|
|75||Grave monument of man in military dress||71|
|76||Fragment of the grave naiskos of Polystrate||71|
|77||Fragment of Attic document relief||71|
|78||Old man from the Ilissos stele||73|
|79||Head of old man from grave relief||73|
|81||Statue from the Heraion on Samos||75|
|82||So-called Arundel Homer||75|
|83||Marble head, front (cat. B55)||78|
|84||Marble head, right profile||78|
|85||Kolotes–Lycurgus Type. Front, Tirana version (cat. A3.7)||79|
|86||Kolotes–Lycurgus Type. Left, Tirana version||79|
|87||Sophocles Type III. Right profile, Naples version (cat. A2.7)||80|
|88||Sophocles Type III. Left profile, Naples version||80|
|89||Sophocles Type III. Right profile, London version (cat. A2.5)||81|
|90||Sophocles Type III. Left profile, London version||81|
|91||Marble head (cat. B74)||81|
|92||Oxford–Vatican–Villa Albani Type. Front, Oxford version (cat. A16.2)||82|
|93||Oxford–Vatican–Villa Albani Type. Right profile, Oxford version||82|
|94||Galleria Colonna–Vatican Type. Front, Galleria Colonna version (cat. A25.1)||82|
|95||Galleria Colonna–Vatican Type. Right profile, Galleria Colonna version||82|
|96||Aranjuez–Vatican Theophrastus Type. Front, Aranjuez version (cat. A26.1)||83|
|97||Aranjuez–Vatican Theophrastus Type. Right profile, Aranjuez version||83|
|98||Front, Madrid, Prado 14-E (cat. B59)||83|
|99||Right profile, Madrid, Prado 14-E||83|
|100||Alicibiades–Philip Type. Front, Copenhagen version (cat. A4.1)||84|
|101||Alicibiades–Philip Type. Front, Vatican version (cat. A4.6)||84|
|102||Marble herm from the Villa of the Papyri (cat. B69)||84|
|103||Torlonia–Vatican Type. Front, Torlonia version (cat. A17.1)||85|
|104||Torlonia–Vatican Type. Right profile, Torlonia version||85|
|105||Copenhagen National Museum–Conservatori Type. Conservatori version (cat. A20.3)||85|
|106||Marble head, front (cat. B85)||87|
|107||Marble head, right profile||87|
|108||Rieti-Type Euripides. Front, Terme version (cat. A5.6)||87|
|109||Rieti-Type Euripides. Left profile, Terme version||87|
|110||Copenhagen–Florence–Liverpool Type. Front, Naples version (cat. A6.6)||88|
|111||Copenhagen–Florence–Liverpool Type. Left, Naples version||88|
|112||Berlin–Copenhagen–Munich Eudoxos Type. Front, Berlin version (cat. A15.1)||89|
|113||Berlin–Copenhagen–Munich Eudoxos Type. Left profile, Berlin version||89|
|114||Marble herm, front (cat. B37)||89|
|115||Marble herm, right profile||89|
|116||Marble head, front (cat. B38)||90|
|117||Marble head, right profile||90|
|118||Marble head, front (cat. B97)||91|
|119||Marble head, right profile||91|
|120||Marble head, front (cat. B98)||91|
|121||Marble head, left profile||91|
|122||Striding Poet Type. Head, front, Vienna version (cat. A14.4)||92|
|123||Naples–Rome Type. Front, Naples version (cat. A23.1)||92|
|124||Naples–Rome Type. Left profile, Naples version||92|
|125||Berlin–Lateran Type. Lateran version (cat. A30.2)||93|
|126||So-called Hipponax: found in the Kerameikos||93|
|127||Tall marble herm, front (cat. B91)||94|
|128||Tall marble herm, right profile||94|
|129||Marble portrait of a poet (?) (cat. B46)||94|
|130||Statue of New Comedy poet Poseidippos; head reworked||95|
|131||Ennius–Vergil New Comedy Poet Type. Front, Copenhagen version (cat. A10.1)||96|
|132||Ennius–Vergil New Comedy Poet Type. Right profile, Copenhagen version||96|
|133||Marble portrait of wreathed poet, front (cat. B57)||96|
|134||Marble portrait of wreathed poet, right profile||96|
|135||Marble herm portrait of a poet, so-called Pseudo-Menander (cat. B48)||97|
|136||Marble statue of the Pseudo-Menander, head reworked||97|
|137||Marble herm from the Auditorium of Maecenas, front (cat. B87)||97|
|138||Marble herm from the Auditorium of Maecenas, left||97|
|139||Plan of Classical Athens||101|
|140||Plan of the Athenian Agora in about 300 BCE||103|
|141||Base for the portrait statue of the poet Menander||105|
|142||Base for the portrait statue of the philosopher Carneades||105|
|143||Reconstruction of the portrait statue of the general Chabrias||108|
|144||Grave stele of Chairdemos and Lykeas||108|
|145||Attic document relief: Herodoros crowned by Athena||109|
|146||Marble portrait of a strategos||109|
|147||Marble bust, front (cat. B67)||111|
|148||Marble bust, left||111|
|149||Cast reconstruction of the portrait statue of Epicurus||114|
|150||Marble statue of Chrysippus, head restored||114|
|151||Cast of lost bust of Carneades||115|
|152||Bronze philosopher on a column||117|
|153||Detail: bronze philosopher on a column||117|
|154||Marble statuette of so-called Cleanthes Type. Front, New York version||117|
|155||Marble statuette of so-called Cleanthes Type. Left, New York version||117|
|156||Aranjuez–Naples–Louvre Type. Front, herm restored Aranjuez version (cat. A21.1)||119|
|157||Copenhagen–Capitoline Type with Toupee. Front, Copenhagen version (cat. A24.1)||120|
|158||Copenhagen–Capitoline Type with Toupee. Right profile, Copenhagen version||120|
|159||Copenhagen–Capitoline Type with Toupee. Left profile, Copenhagen version||120|
|160||Copenhagen–Capitoline Type with Toupee. Front, Capitoline version (cat. A24.2)||121|
|161||Copenhagen–Capitoline Type with Toupee. Right profile, Capitoline version||121|
|162||Copenhagen–Capitoline Type with Toupee. Left profile, Capitoline version||121|
|163||Copenhagen–Getty Poet with Fillet. Front, Copenhagen version (cat. A27.1)||122|
|164||Copenhagen–Getty Poet with Fillet. Right profile, Copenhagen version||122|
|165||Capitoline–Getty Poet with Fillet. Front, Getty version (cat. A28.1)||122|
|166||Capitoline–Getty Poet with Fillet. Left, Getty version||122|
|167||Seated poet from Claros||123|
|168||Seated statue of poet or philosopher||123|
|169||Votive relief of a seated poet, Acropolis west slope||124|
|170||Bronze head of a poet, front||125|
|171||Bronze head of a poet, right||125|
This study has its origins in my doctoral dissertation, completed in 1994 for the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University. During the long period of time that I have worked on this project since then, I have been the fortunate recipient of help, advice, and encouragement from many friends and institutions. I owe a profound debt to my advisor, Bert Smith, who first suggested the dissertation topic of unnamed Greek portraits to me and then supported the project with unfailing enthusiasm and encouragement through to its completion as a much different, thoroughly reconceived and revised book. He has been a generous mentor, who has always had the time to read and to comment on my work with care and speed. Numerous friends have also provided helpful advice, intellectual support, and friendship over the years. I would like to thank a few of them here: Carla Antonaccio, Tolly Boatwright, Diskin Clay, Katherine Dunbabin, Janet Grossman, William Harris, Tonio Hölscher, Ralf von den Hoff, Natalie Kampen, Tina Salowey, William Slater, Annabel Wharton, and Irene Winter. I have been particularly lucky to be involved with the excavations at Aphrodisias in Turkey since 1992, first as a graduate student and then as a staff member of the sculpture study team. The members of this team – Chris Hallett, Julia Lenaghan, Julie van Voorhis, and Katherine Welch – deserve special thanks for teaching me so much about ancient sculpture during many long summers spent handling, discussing, and arguing over thousands of statue fragments. While my participation in the Aphrodisias Excavations undoubtedly delayed the completion of the present project, it has deeply informed the way I approach ancient portraiture, and I am certain that it has made this a better book.
Two particular institutions provided both material support and access to wonderful library collections at important stages of this work: the American School of Classical Studies, where I carried out the research for the dissertation, supported first by the Institute of Fine Arts and then by a Kress Art History fellowship from the ASCSA; and the American Academy at Rome, where I held a post-doctoral fellowship in 1997–1998 and completed the fieldwork that formed the basis for Chapters 2 and 3. At the Academy I would like particularly to acknowledge the support and encouragement of Caroline Bruzelius, Lisa Fentress, and Pina Pasquantonio; all three were instrumental in making it possible for me to combine single parenting of a newborn and academic research. My gratitude for their good humor and unfailing support knows no bounds.
I have spoken on different aspects of this project at the College Art Association meeting in 1995, at the Archaeological Institute of America meeting in 1998, at the American Academy in the same year, and at the Institute of Fine Arts in 2002, and I thank those present at these occasions for their helpful comments. The section in Chapter 3 on the portraits from Herculaneum and Tivoli was first published in a slightly different version in the Journal of Roman Archaeology 13 (2000). I am grateful to John Humphrey for allowing me to update this study and include it here.
The actual writing of the book was primarily accomplished while I was a faculty Fellow at the John Hope Franklin Institute for Interdisciplinary Studies at Duke University in 2002–2003 and during my junior faculty leave in the spring of 2004. I would like to thank my colleagues at Duke for providing the kind of dynamic intellectual atmosphere that encourages thinking and working across disciplines. I also owe a debt of gratitude to my immediate colleagues in the Department of Art and Art History for providing the most genial and supportive environment in which to be a junior faculty member. On a more practical note, the chair of the department, Patricia Leighten, generously set aside a fund for junior faculty that has helped to offset the cost of purchasing some of the many photographs for this book. The Office of Undergraduate Research at Duke provided funds to hire a series of talented and hard-working research assistants – Anne Douty, Kira Rosoff, and Emma Wallace – who helped with the illustrations, bibliography, and museum index. A publication subvention from the Millard Meiss Foundation made it possible to include so many illustrations, and I am very grateful for its generous support.
For their help in obtaining photographs and securing permissions, I would like particularly to acknowledge Benedicte Gilman and Janet Grossman of the J. Paul Getty Museum, Jan Jordan of the Agora Excavations, Michael Krumme of the DAI in Athens, Michael Kunst of the DAI in Madrid, Richard Posamentir of the DAI in Istanbul, Luisa Veneziano of the DAI in Rome, Heidie Schj⊘tt of the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Katja Leiskau of the Bildarchiv Foto Marburg, Lutgarde Vandeput of the Forschungsarchiv für Antike Plastik in Köln, and Chris Gravett of Woburn Abbey. For kindly allowing me to include their own photographs and illustrations, I would like to thank Greg Anderson, John Buckler, Ralf von den Hoff, and Carol Lawton.
I must also single out for special thanks the generous colleagues who read various parts of the manuscript and offered helpful comments and suggestions, while saving me from numerous errors, both of judgment and of fact: Mark Fullerton, Chris Hallett, Brunilde Ridgway, and Andrew Stewart, as well as an anonymous reviewer for the Press. Any faults that remain are, of course, entirely my own. I am grateful to Beatrice Rehl of Cambridge University Press for taking on this project so enthusiastically, and for working diligently to see it come to fruition. This book is dedicated to those who have made such a difference in my life, both personally and professionally.
Durham, North Carolina
Abbreviations of journals and standard works follow the format set out in American Journal of Archaeology 104 (2000), 3–24. References to ancient authors and their texts follow the abbreviations listed in the third edition of The Oxford Classical Dictionary, eds. S. Hornblower and A. Spawforth (Oxford, 1996). Abbreviations specific to this work follow.
ABr P. Arndt and F. Bruckmann, Griechische und römische Porträts (Munich, 1891–1942).
Amelung W. Amelung, Die Skulpturen des Vatikanischen Museums, I (Berlin, 1903); II (Berlin, 1908).
Bergemann, Demos und Thanatos J. Bergemann, Demos und Thanatos: Untersuchungen zum Wertsystem der Polis im Spiegel der attischen Grabreliefs des 4. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. und zur Funktion der gleighzeitigen Grabbauten (Munich, 1997).
Blümel, Berlin C. Blümel, Katalog der Sammlung antiker Skulptur: Staatliche Museen, IV (Berlin, 1931), V (Berlin, 1938).
CAT C. W. Clairmont, Classical Attic Tombstones (Kilchberg, 1993).
CDP D. Comparetti and G. de Petra, La Villa Ercolanese dei Pisoni: I suoi monumenti e la sua biblioteca (1883; reprint, Naples, 1972).
Fittschen, Griechische Porträts K. Fittschen ed., Griechische Porträts (Darmstadt, 1988).
Frel, Greek Portraits Getty J. Frel, Greek Portraits in the J. Paul Getty Museum (Malibu, CA, 1981).
Giuliano A. Giuliano, ed., Museo Nazionale Romano: le sculture, I, 9 (Rome, 1987).
Hekler A. Hekler, Die Bildniskunst der Griechen und Römer (Stuttgart, 1912).
Johansen, Catalogue F. Johansen, Catalogue Greek Portraits: Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek (Copenhagen, 1992).
Lippold, Vatikan Katalog G. Lippold, Die Skulpturen des Vatikanischen Museums III, 2 (Berlin, 1956).
Lorenz, Galerien T. Lorenz, Galerien von griechischen Philosophen- und Dichterbildnissen bei den Römern (Mainz am Rhein, 1965).
Mansuelli G. A. Mansuelli, Galleria degli Uffizi: Le sculture II (Rome, 1961).
Neudecker, Villen R. Neudecker, Die Skulpturenausstattung römischer Villen in Italien (Beiträge zur Erschliessung hellenistischer und kaiserzeitlicher Skulptur und Architektur 9; Mainz am Rhein, 1988).
Piekarski, Anonyme griechische Porträts D. Piekarski, Anonyme griechische Porträts des 4. Jhs. v. Chr.: Chronologie und Typologie. Internationale Archäologie Studia Honoraria, vol. 32. (Rahden and Westfallen: Leidorf, 2004; Ph.D. dissertation, Bonn University, 2002).
Poulsen, Portraits grecs V. Poulsen, Les Portraits grecs, Glyptothèque Ny Carlsberg (Copenhagen, 1954).
Pozzi, MN Napoli E. Pozzi, ed., Le Collezioni del Museo Nazionale di Napoli (Rome, 1989).
Richter, POG G. M. A. Richter, The Portraits of the Greeks (London, 1965), 3 vols.
Richter-Smith G. M. A. Richter, The Portraits of the Greeks. Abridged and revised by R. R. R. Smith (Ithaca, NY, 1984).
Schefold, Bildnisse K. Schefold, Die Bildnisse der antiken Dichter, Redner und Denker (Basel, 1943).
Smith, BM Catalogue A. H. Smith, Catalogue of Sculpture in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities, British Museum (London, 1892–1904).
Stewart, Attika A. F. Stewart, Attika. Studies in Athenian Sculpture of the Hellenistic Age, Supplementary Paper no. 14 (London, 1979).
Villa Albani P. C. Bol, ed., Forschungen zur Villa Albani. Katalog der antiken Bildwerke I–IV (Berlin, 1989–1994).
von den Hoff, Philosophenporträts R. von den Hoff, Philosophenporträts des Frühund Hochhellenismus (Munich, 1994).
Zanker, Mask of Socrates P. Zanker, The Mask of Socrates: The Image of the Intellectual in Antiquity (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA, 1995).