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Making Sense of Mass Atrocity

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Making Sense of Mass Atrocity
Cambridge University Press
9780521861854 - Making Sense of Mass Atrocity - By Mark Osiel
Index

Index

abdication by dictators 220–222

abduction, of children 52, 102, 103

Abu Ghraib 18

accessories, accessorial liability 51, 58–59, 71, 81, 84–90, 102, 106, 110, 239

See also aiding and abetting, instigation

Afghanistan 72

Africa 111, 176, 219, 220, 233

aggression, crime of 60, 64, 139, 191

aiding and abetting 59, 62, 81–82, 89, 96, 106

Akayesu, Jean-Paul 161

Albania 155

Alfonsín, Pres. Raul 153

Alien Tort Claims Act 35, 37

Al Qaeda 72, 208

See also bin Laden, Osama

altruism 13, 198

Ambos, Kai 142

amnesties xiv, 11, 218–240

distortion in legal scholarship on 223, 236–239

revocation of xiv, 222, 230–232

anarchy 111

Angola 223

anomie 69

Anraat, Frans van 83

arbitrariness of defendant selection 20, 156

See also prosecutors, discretion of

Arbour, Louise 164

Arendt, Hannah 20, 95, 98, 115, 122

Argentina xiii, 16, 42, 43, 52, 86–88, 92, 93, 102, 103, 105, 114, 152, 164, 174, 209–211, 225, 228–231

military prosecutions in xiii, 42, 86, 93, 105, 114, 164, 174, 230, 232

Aristide, Jean Bertrand 233

Aristotle 130

Arkan (Željko Raznatović) 55

ascription/attribution of harm to accused 1, 7, 8, 16, 25, 45, 86, 91, 110, 126, 127–130, 153, 190, 202, 241, 243, 248

See also mass atrocity, modes of commission

Auschwitz 103, 111, 198

Austria 79

authoritarian regimes 43, 64, 100, 147, 153, 157, 179, 194

authority

charismatic 36

competing/overlapping 23, 40, 45, 64–65

de jure/de facto (formal vs. informal) 2, 36, 37, 40, 45, 77, 99, 104, 111

multiple lines of 40

See also control, superior responsibility, superior-subordinate relations

automatism 69–70, 105

Baath Party 82, 154

Bagasora, Col. Théoneste 161

banality 5, 86, 95, 122, 209

“bandwagon” effect 65

Bashir, Omar Al 94, 111–112

Belgrade 16, 39, 55, 67, 83, 88, 193

Bemba Gombo, Jean-Pierre 94

Berlin Wall 93

“big fish-small fry” 2, 8–9, 14, 17, 22, 49, 54, 67, 68, 81, 86, 91, 119, 161–162, 165, 171, 173, 241, 245, 246, 248

binary oppositions 38, 58, 148

bin Laden, Osama 43, 116

Blackwater, Inc. 203

Blagojević, Vidoje 83

blameworthiness

See culpability


Blaškić, Gen. Tihomir 40

boot camp 40

Bosnia 1, 55, 65, 68, 98, 158, 159, 165, 166, 192

Bosnian Serbs 35, 36, 37, 55, 56, 82, 83, 99, 193

Main Staff of 55

Bourdieu, Pierre 155, 183

Brazil 65, 223

bureaucracy, ideal-type of 97–98, 100

burglar/embezzler contrast 109, 140

bystanders xvii, 14, 148, 195–199, 205–215

Calley, Lt. William 197

camaraderie 104

Cambodia 17, 23, 43, 65, 98, 143

camps, detention/death 51, 52, 57, 73, 111, 148

Canada 63, 164

capitalism 98, 228

causation (legal and social) xi, 41–44, 81, 105, 106, 108, 110, 123, 128, 165, 176, 193, 200, 214, 215, 237

counter-factual 58, 108

in co-perpetration 50, 112

Cédras, Raoul 219

Central African Republic 233

Central Intelligence Agency 28

Chamberlain, Neville 176

Chaplin, Charlie 99

character, moral 130–143

Chechnya xvii

child soldiers 108–109, 111–112, 242

Chile xiii, 88, 164, 227–229, 231

China 69, 156

civilians

See noncombatants

“civilizing process” 98–99

“civil law” (contrast to common law) 7, 63, 73, 75, 84, 92–93, 123, 134, 167, 194

civil vs. penal sanctions 37, 92, 199, 224–225

See also collective sanctions

cogs/gears metaphor, physical perpetrators as 95

See also fungibility

Cohen, David 149

Cohen, Stanley 184

collective agency 201

collective memory

See memory, collective

collective punishment 195

collective sanctions xiv–xv, 5, 8, 15, 92, 187–217, 243, 245

See also military, officers

Collier, Paul 237

Colombia 160, 222

command, chain of 2, 3, 27, 28, 33, 36, 37, 87, 91, 97, 99, 101, 104, 114, 200

“Commissar Order” 43

complexity

factual vii, ix, xvi, 6, 23, 40, 53, 54, 58, 73, 79, 88, 98, 102, 103, 116, 130, 157, 236, 243, 247

legal 7–8, 23, 54, 161, 167

complicity 59, 81–90, 96, 173, 202, 216, 222–223, 228

Congo (Democratic Republic of) xvii, 159

conspiracy, common law of 23, 51, 52, 58, 60, 63, 81, 84, 89, 92, 120, 161, 181, 187

consultants, academic 9

control, over atrocities 2, 4, 34, 35–36, 37–38, 41, 42, 46, 49, 51, 52–53, 76, 78, 82, 92, 94, 95, 99, 102, 103, 106, 107, 111, 112, 115, 127–131, 141, 157, 181–182, 193, 201–204, 208, 244, 247

concealment of 45–46

delegation of 23, 35–36, 103, 134–135, 190, 207

fluidity of vii, 28, 38, 41

co-perpetration, co-perpetrators 50, 93, 99, 109, 112, 123, 196

essential contribution by 106, 108, 109

corporate crime 122

corruption 69, 224, 227

cosmopolitanism 8, 9, 175

costs xv, 5, 92, 150, 173, 190–212, 219, 221, 231, 235, 243

See also economics, incentives

cost-shifting 196, 199, 200, 209, 212, 243

crimes against humanity vii, 5, 6, 41, 50, 62, 82, 83, 86, 117, 119, 130, 138, 139, 143, 152, 161, 167, 228, 230, 232, 234

criminal law x–xii, 9–10, 14, 27–30, 44, 86, 107, 113, 116, 118, 121, 122, 129–137, 141–142, 148, 187–188, 192, 197, 199, 210, 223, 245

“general part” of 121–123

individualism of x, xi, 2, 21, 89, 187, 188, 192

liberalism of xi–xiii, 3, 14, 30, 44, 107, 116, 118–121, 125, 188, 189, 199, 245

mala in se vs. mala prohibita offenses 131–132, 137–139, 141, 142

See also int’l criminal law

criminal organization, membership in 60–62, 95

Croatia, Croats 55, 68, 158, 198, 248

crowds, crowd behavior 53, 69–70

culpability (as moral blameworthiness) 4, 5, 8, 15, 19, 20, 21, 25, 29–30, 62, 70, 72, 76, 78, 85, 86, 91, 92, 95, 101, 116, 118, 119, 120, 129–140, 153, 157, 174, 189, 195–196, 199, 202, 204, 208, 209, 243, 245

customary int’l law 124–125, 178, 232–235


Damaška, Mirjan 118

Darfur xvii, 1, 18, 94, 112, 152, 161

See also Sudan

death squads 2, 52, 205

defeasance 209, 215

del Ponte, Carla 61, 158, 160

dereliction of duty 41, 202, 209

Derrida, Jacques 166

“desk murderer” 109, 140

deterrence 15, 25, 79, 80, 135, 147, 157, 170, 180, 190, 193–195, 199, 204, 209, 212, 215–216, 220–221, 243

DeWaal, Alex 112

“dirty war” 42, 102, 211

disappearances 42

Drumbl, Mark xii, 19, 25, 119, 188

due process, fair notice 75, 77, 120, 132, 133, 141, 150, 226

duress 116, 119, 161

Durkheim, Emile 69–70, 184, 195

economics, economic reasoning 5, 10–15, 88, 173, 190, 196, 204, 206, 214–220, 230, 235, 240

crowding out ethical motives 216–217

of information 208–211

of mass atrocity 5, 10–14, 196, 204, 214

of military organization 197–199, 203–209

See also incentives

Ecuador 219

Eichmann, Adolf 19, 20, 42, 93, 95, 96, 103, 105, 109, 111, 148

Eisenhower, Dwight D. 100

Elster, Jon 238

emergency, law of national 139 227, 228

Enlightenment, the 98, 131

Ethiopia 98

“ethnic cleansing” 54, 62, 68, 137, 242, 246

See also forcible deportation

euphemism, in criminal commands 16, 241

evidence, evidentiary questions vii, ix, 3, 16, 28, 33, 34, 39, 46, 56, 58, 61, 62, 64, 77, 83, 86, 87, 91, 101, 106–109, 112, 113, 114, 115, 117, 122, 128, 134, 137, 139, 151, 161, 162, 167, 170, 181, 182, 193, 200, 204, 210, 243

ex ante/ex post perspectives 9, 79, 96, 110, 115, 120, 135, 141, 190, 191, 201, 202, 204, 207, 224, 242, 243

exit/voice dynamics 212

expert witnesses 36

“failed states” 111, 211

False Claims Act, U.S. 207

Fenrick, William 63

fictions, legal 6, 24, 28, 29, 75, 78, 85, 101, 216, 243

Fletcher, George xii, 19, 25, 190

Force Patriotique pour La Liberation du Congo 108–109

forcible deportation 54, 62, 138, 140

See also ethnic cleaning

forgiveness 166, 224

formalism, legal 77–78

Foucault, Michel 39–40

France x, 148, 156, 214, 219, 220

Fujimori, Alberto 88, 93

fungibility/interchangeability, of operatives 42, 44, 57, 94–95, 101–102, 103

See also cogs/gears

Galston, William 130

Gardner, John 127

Garzón Real, Judge Baltasar 164

gas chambers xv, 23, 57

Geneva Conventions 27, 33

genocide vii, ix, 1, 5, 6, 7, 11, 13, 23, 41, 56, 59, 63, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 75, 76, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 98, 111, 116, 117, 118, 121, 122, 127, 129, 137, 138, 139, 154, 159, 161, 177, 178, 179, 182, 191, 192, 193, 213, 214, 219, 224, 230, 232, 236, 239, 241, 242

Convention against 82, 178

specific intent requirement 6, 66, 67, 83, 85, 117, 122

Georgia (country) xvii

Georgia (U.S. state) 42

Germany 7, 21, 43, 51, 57, 67, 93, 99, 114, 148–150, 166, 198, 200, 211, 214, 226, 228, 230

Democratic Republic of 110

de-nazification of 150

Third Reich 7, 43, 51, 57, 67, 97, 110, 114, 148–150, 166, 197, 198, 200, 211, 214, 227

globalization 172, 180–181

Goldstone, Richard 164

Good Samaritan duties 216

Greece 230

Grotius, Hugo 200

Guantánamo 18, 51

Guatemala 79, 219, 221

Haditha 209

Hague, The 4, 29, 49, 55, 150, 165, 169, 211, 218


Haiti 219, 223, 224, 233

hate speech 182

heroism 205

hierarchical organization, perpetration through an 14, 93–98, 101–102, 105, 108

automatic compliance in an 95, 103

culpability of inferiors in an 95

watchmaker analogy to 105, 108, 109

See also Roxin, Claus

history, historians, historiography vii, xiii, 1, 5, 6, 7, 22, 36, 38, 42, 60, 81, 85–88, 116, 148, 156–157, 162, 184, 198, 214, 219

Hitler, Adolf 60, 176

Holmes, O.W. 13

Holmes, Stephen 167

Holocaust xv, 5, 22, 26, 65, 67, 94, 95, 98, 160, 198, 199, 214

Hoth, Gen. Herman 43

House of Lords 139

human capital 203–204

humanitarianism xvi, xvii, 5, 14, 184, 199, 246

human rights xvii, 18, 75, 82, 82, 84, 93, 113, 132–133, 160, 176, 179, 182, 183, 184, 221, 223, 224, 225, 226, 228, 230, 231, 234, 236

Hume, David 130

Hussein, Saddam 2, 16, 17, 48, 74, 82, 83, 150, 151, 162, 233

Hutus 21, 70, 152, 154, 159

hybrid courts 8, 18, 143, 151, 167, 173

ideal-types 29, 70, 99, 100, 115, 247

impunity 11, 21, 96, 111, 118, 129, 179, 222, 227, 230, 232

incarceration 9, 199–206, 212

incentives 10–15, 38, 78, 86, 92, 161–162, 167, 169–184, 190–197, 201–217, 219–240, 242, 245

strategy of aligning 10–15, 167, 245

individualism xi, 2, 21, 53, 89, 119, 187–188, 189, 192, 201

methodological 53, 89, 188

See also criminal law and

Indonesia 92, 154, 176

innocence, presumption of 107–108, 121

instigation 59, 81, 84, 87, 88, 96, 106

insurgencies vii–ix, 99, 111, 227, 236

See also rebel movements, armed groups

Inter-American Human Rights Commission 225, 230

“international community” x, xvii, 76, 100, 132, 139, 141, 168, 178, 191, 218, 225, 234, 236, 245

Int’l Court of Justice (ICJ) 191, 192, 235

international courts xi, 13, 19, 75, 77, 84, 104, 118, 132, 136, 143, 157, 158, 159, 170, 174, 175, 177, 178, 179, 180, 182, 191, 193, 223, 225, 247

Int’l Criminal Court (ICC) 5, 13, 18, 44, 50, 71, 93, 94, 95, 96, 101, 102, 103, 106, 107, 108, 109, 111, 112, 115, 123, 141, 142, 151, 159, 161, 164, 174, 175, 176, 179, 182, 193, 236, 243, 244

Chief Prosecutor of 13, 18, 94, 96, 106, 109, 111, 159, 175

“complementarity” and 157, 175, 179

Rome Statute of 5, 6, 18, 42, 50, 106, 108–111, 123, 141, 143, 174, 176, 232

int’l criminal law ix, x, xiii, xvii, 3, 4, 8, 14, 22, 24, 78, 93, 99, 104, 119, 120, 125, 141, 143, 156, 161, 163, 164, 169, 170, 171, 174, 176, 179, 180, 188, 235, 245

as emergent field, profession ix, xvii, 4, 91, 162, 164, 165, 170–171, 182–184, 245

as floor/ceiling for national law 179

coherence/fragmentation of xiv, 1, 4–5, 8, 13, 51, 78, 169, 174, 177–180, 243

desirable ambiguity within 124–125, 127, 134–136, 140–143, 202

dilemmas of 3, 4, 91

local adaptation of 4, 179–180

moral soundness of ix, xi, xiv, xv, xvi, 6, 13, 20, 28, 35, 58, 76, 78, 85, 102, 115–142, 148, 153, 160, 162, 171, 174, 188, 189, 190, 193, 199, 219, 225, 245

normative harshness of 129

rudimentary state of 24

Western, individualist bias of 8, 20, 34, 99, 104

See also criminal law

Int’l Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) 143, 158, 159, 161, 174, 181, 182, 219, 244, 248

Int’l Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 6, 17, 18, 19, 21, 26–27, 28, 29, 30, 34, 35, 36, 39, 40, 46, 48, 49, 51, 53, 54, 57, 58, 60, 62, 63, 64, 66, 71, 72, 73, 74, 77, 78, 83, 84, 86, 89, 90, 91, 93, 110, 114, 115, 124, 128, 139, 142, 143, 155, 158, 161, 164, 170, 172, 173, 174, 175, 177, 178, 181, 196, 216, 243, 244, 246, 248

int’l relations theory 235

interrogation 28, 33, 102

Iraq 150, 154, 209, 248

Irish Republican Army 45


Jackson, Justice Robert 165

Japan 38, 149, 195, 200

Jaspers, Karl 198

Jelisić, Prosecutor v. Goran 116

Jerusalem 105

Jews 20, 65, 72, 103, 148, 211, 214

joint and several liability 190

joint criminal enterprise 4, 5, 6, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 48–90, 91, 92, 109, 114, 135, 169, 172, 173, 177, 178, 179, 181, 182, 193, 196, 199, 200, 212, 215, 216, 244, 246

agreement within a 49, 50, 51, 52, 62–64, 92

as blunt instrument 246

as “guilt by association” 71, 120

attractions to prosecutors of 54, 91

breadth of 58, 61, 72–78, 84

definition of 50–51

“liberalism” of 30, 92, 107, 118–120, 129, 130, 136

no statutory basis for 74

rationale for 52–53

third, controversial type of 52, 71, 172

Judge Advocate Generals (JAGs) 207–208

Kahan, Dan 131–141, 217

Karadžić, Radovan 36, 54, 67, 172

Karamov, Islam 238

Katanga, Germain 94, 96

Khmer Rouge 17, 23, 65

knowledge of crimes 2, 57, 83, 85, 107, 113, 122, 181

See also perpetrators, mental states of

Kolokowski, Leszek 195

Koran 46

Kordić, Rajic 40

Kosovo Liberation Army 67, 155

Krstić, Gen. Radislav 40, 84

Kunarac, Dragoljub 35

Kutz, Christopher 82

Kvočka, Miroslav 40

labor, division of xi, 8, 23, 24, 55, 64–65, 70, 247, 248

Lacey, Nicola 125–126, 129, 131

Latour, Bruno 3

lawyers xi, xvii, 1, 21, 24, 61, 73, 117, 156, 163–165, 170–171, 175, 177, 180, 184, 207–208, 241, 246

legality, principle of 124–125

See also nulla poena sine lege

lenity, lenience; rule of 136, 139, 142, 143, 242

Levinson, Sanford 188

liberalism xi–xiii, 3, 14, 21, 30, 44, 92, 107, 116, 118–121, 125, 129, 130, 136, 141, 184, 188–189, 190, 199, 208, 221, 245–246

libertarianism 107, 119

“loopholing” 135–136, 141, 242

looting 38, 66, 85, 211

Luban, David 231

Lubanga Dyilo, Thomas 108–109, 123

madrassas 46

mafia 61, 157

“manifest” illegality 109, 140

Mann, Michael 69

Marcos, Ferdinand 238

mass atrocity

as carnivalesque 70

authorial distance from xv–xviii

“bandwagon effect” within 65

“brokers” within, role of 54–55

bureaucratic, hierarchical organization of xi, 14, 18, 20, 22, 23, 27, 58, 77, 87, 91–117, 162, 164, 246–247

by franchise 116

bystanders to xvii, 14, 148, 195–199, 205–215

centralization/decentralization of, ix 42, 64, 100, 104, 110, 115

collaboration in 2, 23, 28, 45, 148, 150, 192, 194, 213, 222, 228, 233

collective aspects of x–xiii, 3, 10, 14, 21, 44, 89, 92, 107, 116, 118–121, 125, 129, 130, 136, 141, 184, 188–189, 192, 245

cost-shifting among parties to 196, 199, 200, 209, 212, 243

crowd behavior in 53, 69–70

deterrence of 15, 25, 79, 80, 135, 147, 157, 170, 180, 190, 193–195, 199, 204, 209, 212, 215–216, 220–221, 243

financing of 71, 73, 96, 190

fungibility of operatives during 42, 44, 57, 94–95, 101–102, 103

horizontal vs. vertical influence among participants in 25–26, 91, 212, 246–247

indifference to 117, 122, 162, 198, 199

initiative of subordinates in 26, 40, 57, 70, 99–100, 102, 104

insurance against 196

intermediate ranks in 43, 247

inter-organizational dynamics in 23, 40, 45, 64–65

legal elusiveness of vii, 17, 26, 64, 241, 243

legal scholarship on xvi, 12, 25, 117, 127, 188, 223

“masterminds”/“intellectual architects” of 44, 103, 114, 118, 140–141, 147, 242, 247

modernity of 97–98, 100, 114

overlapping/competitive jurisdiction over 23, 40, 45, 64–65

perpetrators of

See perpetrators

punishment for

See punishment

quasi-firms within 45

rationality of 10, 13, 69, 97–99, 199

recrudescent primitivism of 98–99

relative responsibility of various participants in 8, 22, 58, 78, 87, 91, 174

reparations for xiv, 191, 200, 219, 239

social dynamics of vii, 1, 14, 25, 130, 188, 195

sociopolitical context of xi, 3, 119, 156, 188

state responsibility/liability for 192–194

“substantial” contribution of defendant to 46, 59, 62, 71, 81, 89, 110, 202

“systems of ill-treatment” in 51

use of legal system to advance

See impunity

victims of x, xv, xvi, xvii, 5–6, 10, 19, 21, 38, 52, 54, 79, 102, 105, 148, 153–155, 165, 170, 179, 191–192, 195, 198, 201, 214, 219–225, 230, 239, 242

memory, collective 11, 22, 87–88, 147–149

military, militaries

as labor market monopsonies 203–204

cohesion in combat 213

gatekeepers within 207

“hardliners” within 240

juntas 2, 42, 43, 52, 86–87, 102, 105, 114, 152

national security, as first purpose of 215

officers

collective sanctioning of xiv, xv, 5, 203–217, 243, 245

self-interests of xvii, 162, 192–202

staff vs. line 55–56

See also superior/command responsibility

organizations 197–199, 203–209

regimes 28, 43, 209, 223, 231–232, 237–240

social mobility/social status within 204–206

militias (irregulars, guerrillas) 2, 35, 39, 55, 67, 68, 79, 112, 165, 222, 229, 241, 247

Milošević, Slobodan 2, 16, 17, 21, 36, 37, 48, 55, 57, 67, 74, 76, 82, 83, 99, 150, 162, 165, 172, 244

mistake, of law, legal element 95, 121, 137, 138, 141–142

Mladić, Ratko 36, 40

money-laundering 66

morale, military 41

Moreno-Ocampo, Luis 13, 111

multinational corporations 71, 82, 84, 232

multiplier effect 194

murder xi, 13, 35, 37, 38, 40, 42, 51, 52, 54, 62, 68, 79, 91, 97, 99, 100, 102, 109, 111, 114, 115, 119, 127, 140, 164, 167, 195, 211, 219, 220, 228

Murphy, Justice Frank 38

Musharraf, Gen. Perez 227

NATO 150

negligence 19, 52, 54, 71, 83, 112, 113, 124, 181, 200, 201

Netherlands 83

networks

advocacy xvii

“brokers” within 54–55

criminal 1, 27, 29, 44–45, 54–55, 58, 69, 72–73, 91, 99, 115–116, 228, 246

terrorist 1, 27

Nigeria 233

Nino, Carlos 238

noncombatants, civilians viii, ix, 3, 108, 155, 195, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 241

norms, social x, 25, 128, 131–132, 140, 175, 179, 199, 201, 204, 207, 208, 213, 216

nulla poena sine lege 125, 138, 143, 242

Nuremberg, Int’l Military Tribunal at 16, 18, 51–52, 60, 62, 98, 165, 172

criminal organization charges at 60–62

Justice case at 51–52

obedience, military 41 100, 101, 109, 119

Olásolo, Héctor 118

Omarska camp 40

“optimism bias” 231

orders, commands 2, 16, 33, 39, 40, 43, 87, 96, 100, 104, 109, 111, 114, 140, 161, 162, 241

no evidence of, in atrocity trials 16–17, 33

“organization man,” theory of 98–99

organization theory 63, 97–104

organized crime 122, 157

Orić, Naser 106

ostracism 206


Pakistan 28, 227

Palsgraf v. Long Island Railway 128

Panama 219

paramilitaries 40, 54, 68, 71, 73, 99, 193, 212, 222, 247

See also militias

passions (vs. interests) 10, 13, 231

perpetrators

differing goals of joint 53, 57

groups as 5–6

ingenuity of 27–28, 135–141

mental states of 5, 27, 34, 67–68, 75, 83, 108, 113, 114, 122, 127, 128, 137, 140, 181, 196, 215

motives of xi, xvii, 27, 34, 53, 66–68, 83–85, 86, 108, 132, 139, 153, 181, 209, 211, 214, 215

moral character of 130–143

persecution, as crime against humanity 5, 83, 139, 143, 167, 178, 227

Peru 88, 93

pillage 38, 85, 103, 211

Pinkerton, U.S. v. 52

Pinochet, Gen. Augusto 2, 48, 139–140, 162, 171, 193, 228

Poland 222, 230

policy, public 11, 81, 117, 128, 130, 148, 154, 166, 170, 176

political cycles 150–151

Posner, Eric 82

power xiii, 1, 2, 10, 14, 23–28, 36–37, 39, 41, 42, 46, 54, 68, 69, 77, 78, 87, 91–92, 95, 96, 97, 99, 100, 101, 102, 106, 109, 111, 112, 115, 119, 134, 149, 152–153, 156, 165, 167, 169, 176, 180, 188, 194, 203–206, 218–224, 232, 237, 238

See also control

pragmatism 11, 160, 180, 192

Prijedor 62

primus inter pares 43

professionalization, of int’l crim. law, ix, xvii 4, 91, 162, 164, 165, 170–171, 182–184, 205

proof, burdens of 17, 37, 106–107

Prosecutors, prosecution

discretion of viii, 78, 152–155, 211, 158, 159, 167

incentives of 5, 24, 78, 156, 161–162, 164, 167, 171–175, 245

motivations of xvii, 10, 156–158, 161–162, 164, 167, 184

national vs. int’l 4, 9–10, 15, 20, 49, 88, 91, 107, 150, 156–157, 160, 166, 169–184, 245–246

political constraints on ix, xiii, 4, 6, 10, 156, 159

resource scarcity 6, 91, 159, 163

self-restraint/overreach by 30, 71, 73, 90, 153

strategies of 21, 49, 86, 101, 111, 112, 148–166, 173, 211, 244

Prussia 100

Przeworski, Adam 238

punishment 8–9, 57–59, 78, 79, 110, 117, 133, 135, 141, 143, 157, 169, 187, 189, 195, 205, 213, 217, 227, 229, 241–243, 246

sentencing 21, 57, 59, 60, 78, 79

punitive damages 37

quasi-firms 45

racketeering statutes 58, 61, 84, 89, 135, 181, 192

rape 35, 42, 65, 103, 161–162, 165, 167

Rapp, Stephen 51

Rawls, John 79–80

Raz, Joseph 130

rebel movements vii–viii, 99, 111–113, 159, 242

See under(see armed groups)

reciprocity 155, 160, 205, 217

recklessness 75, 113, 133

reconciliation xi, 4, 11, 92, 152–157, 156–157, 165–166, 170, 179–180, 221–225, 239, 245

reductionism 1, 188

reparations xiv, 191, 200, 219, 239

retribution 11, 13, 25, 147, 150, 157, 167, 170, 173, 179–180, 193, 195, 229, 231, 245

revolution, social xv, 43, 69, 139–140, 214, 226–227

risk, appetite for/aversion toward, risk assessment 43–44, 79–80, 100, 105, 107, 113, 128, 138, 172–173, 196, 198–199, 205, 215, 216, 220–221, 223, 231–232, 239

Robinson, Daryl 118, 119, 137

Roth, Brad 138

Roxin, Claus; legal theory of 93–117, 244

Russia 129, 149, 151, 228

Rutledge, Justice Wiley 38

Rwanda xii, 7, 56, 67, 69, 70, 88, 92, 98, 99, 100, 152, 154, 158, 159, 170, 214, 239

sadism 68

Salvador, El 35, 38, 160, 223

Sankoh, Foday 224

scapegoating 152

scholarship, legal xvi, 12, 24–25, 34

Scilingo, Adolfo 211


Searle, John 53

securities regulation 137

self-defense 88, 139, 155

self-interest 10–14, 152, 184, 198, 205, 210, 212, 213, 217, 245

See also incentives

sensationalism xv

Serbia 1, 21, 35, 39, 51, 55, 67, 68, 76, 77, 82, 83, 128, 150, 154, 159, 191, 192

Serrano Elías, Jorge 219

Shabuddeen, Judge Mohamed 49

Shaw, Martin 214

Sherman, Gen. William T. 42

Shiites 35

Sierra Leone 50, 51, 104, 143, 224, 242

Sinn Féin 45

Smith, Adam 23, 217

“social capital” 104

social science (including sociology, political science) vii, ix, xiii, 1, 5, 6, 7, 12, 24–25, 27, 63, 69, 87, 101, 116, 176, 188, 197, 198, 213, 217, 223, 237

sociology 3, 12, 24, 55, 69, 76–77, 170, 188, 211, 212

South Africa 79, 147, 164, 220, 221, 224, 225, 233, 235, 239

South America 28, 43, 63, 104, 178, 228, 229

Spain 164, 178, 223, 226

Special Court for Sierra Leone 50, 51, 104, 143

Spinoza, Baruch 130

“spoilers” 232

Srebrenica 36, 37, 66, 82, 83, 99

Sri Lanka 214

Stalinism, legal theory of 129

state liability xiv–xv, 192–194

stigmatization/shaming, as goal of punishment 84–85, 204, 205, 210

strict liability 128, 189

Strugar, Pavle 48

Sudan 18, 94, 111, 112, 137, 152, 161, 242

Sunnis 150, 154

supererogation 216

superior/command responsibility ix, 4, 13, 14, 17, 18, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33–47, 55–57, 70, 76, 77, 78, 79, 81, 88, 92, 96, 99, 101, 102, 104, 106, 110, 112, 113, 114, 115, 141, 156, 169, 172, 173, 174, 178, 179, 181, 182, 202, 243, 244, 246, 247

as commission by omission 44

civilian vs. military standard for 56–57

dereliction of duty, contrasted 41

duties of supervision 34, 41

“effective control” requirement within 34–44, 46, 49, 76, 92–93, 100–103, 107, 112, 127, 141, 181, 202, 244

superior-subordinate relations vii, 23, 26, 28, 33, 34, 35, 39, 56, 88, 101–102, 106, 107, 110, 112, 122, 128, 140, 162, 164, 200, 211, 213, 217, 247

Supreme Court, U.S. 38

“symmetrical barbarism” 160

Tadić, Dusan 19, 51, 62, 68, 162

taxation 45, 138, 191–194, 200, 212, 219, 241

Taylor, Charles 16, 233

team production 213

terrorism 1, 27, 28, 33, 37, 43, 55, 63, 65, 73, 190, 195, 226

Tilly, Charles 214

Tokyo trial, Int’l Military Tribunal for the Far East 38

torture 35 37, 38, 63, 139, 147, 208, 215, 228, 229, 232, 234

Torture Victims Protection Act 35, 37

totalitarianism 110–111, 129, 228

transitional justice x, xiv, 4, 6, 9, 11, 49, 78, 84, 87, 88, 91, 147–168, 173, 179–180, 229–240, 245, 246, 247

“pacted” transitions 223, 231–232, 237–238

truth commissions xiv, 157, 224, 225, 232, 239

Tutsis 66, 152, 154, 158–159, 182

United Nations 150, 167, 170, 182

United States, U.S. 18, 25, 28, 37, 38, 51, 52, 59, 61, 73, 84, 121, 122, 135, 138, 181, 189, 192, 200, 207, 208, 209, 222, 247

universal jurisdiction 164, 230

utilitarianism 219–220

Uzbekistan 238

“veil of ignorance” 79–80

vendettas, grudges 23, 68, 69, 85, 233

Venezuela 223

Vergès, Jacques 39

vetting, lustration xiv, 210

vicarious liability 18–19, 45

victims

See mass atrocity, victims of

war, wars, armed conflict ix, x, xi, 16, 38, 42, 44, 60, 64, 68, 69, 75, 83, 85, 102, 139–141, 152, 156, 157, 160, 170, 178, 179, 195, 203, 210, 211, 213, 215, 220, 221, 223, 224, 227, 232, 233, 234, 236, 237

Balkan 68, 191, 198

civil x, xi, 38, 79, 85, 156, 160, 179, 223, 232–237

war crimes vii, 38, 41, 50, 62, 79–80, 86, 119, 139, 142, 154, 155, 159, 160, 162, 174, 199, 202, 205, 209, 232, 236, 241

proportionality and 108, 139, 142

warlords 111, 224

Weber, Max xviii, 36, 64, 97, 99, 100

elective affinity concept of 163

Weizacker, Ernst von 43

whistleblowing 207

Wilson, Richard 69

wishful thinking viii, 171, 231, 236

See also optimism bias

Yamashita, Gen. Tomoburni 38–39, 156

Yugoslavia, former 7, 19, 67, 69, 77, 88, 93, 152, 153, 154, 160, 170, 173, 175, 177, 198




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