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Business, Integrity, and Peace

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 (ISBN-13: 9780521862981)

Business, Integrity, and Peace

Cambridge University Press
9780521862981 - Business, Integrity, and Peace - Beyond Geopolitical and Disciplinary Boundaries - by Timothy L. Fort
Index


Index

9–11 see September 11, 2001 attacks


Abu Gheith, Suleiman 95

aggregate approach 87

   ability to promote peace 107

   and corporate responsibility 105

   and illicit market temptations 99–100

   and moral responsibility 92–3

   evolving legal view 89–90

   in transformations of the corporation 90–2

   see also contractarian approach

agricultural economies, potential for war-making 38

al-Qaeda 95, 237

Albright, Madeleine 230

Allison, Graham 95

Americans

   focus of anger and resentment 237–8

   market-dominant minority 237–8

Anglo-American system, contractarian approach 83

anthropological rootedness of war and peace

   agricultural/industrial dilemma 58–63

   community size and cultural development 58–63

   conflict and reconciliation in primates 50–5

   conflictual risks in large societies 61–3

   democracy 62–3

   development of religion and ideology 61

   domination of commoners by elites 61

   exploitation of commoners by elites 62

   hunter-gatherer societies 55–8

   intelligence and killing 48–50

   position of religion 63

   post-industrial issues 64

   shift from hunter–gatherer to agriculture 58–63

   terrorism 64

   totalitarian government 62–3

anthropological studies

   primate politics and peacemaking 48

   relevance to business organization 48

antisocial groups 218

Appleby, Scott 208–9

Applebys 187–8

Aquinas, Thomas 168–9, 170

Ardley, Robert 48

Aristotle 168, 170, 216

Arms Export Control Act (1976) 96

arms sales and exports

   Code of the Commission of Nobel Peace Laureates 97–8

   complexities of US export legislation 98–9

   corporate compliance systems 101–5

   dual-use technology 98

   effects of globalization 95

   efficacy of national control enforcement 97–8

   facilitation by the USA 96

   illicit market temptations 99–101

   international control agreements 97

   main countries involved 96

   regulation in the USA 96

   scale of global trade 96

   to countries with human rights violations 97–8

Arthur Andersen 101

Aum Shinrikyo 237

Autry, James 201

Avi-Yonah, Reuven 86–94, 105

Award for Corporate Excellence (State Department) 230–1, 233

Axelrod, Robert 176–7


Baker, Howard 118

Baker, Raymond 94

balances of power and values 45–6

Bank of the United States vs. Dandridge (1827) 90

Bank of the United States vs. Deveaux (1809) 89, 90

Bapst, Dean 106–7

Baumhart, Raymond 177

Bazerman, Max 222–4

bias adjustments 222–4

   external accountabilities 224

   self-deception 222–4

   theories about other people 223–4

   theories about ourselves 224

   theories about the world 223

bin Laden, Osama 95

Bobbitt, Phillip 13, 43, 63, 85, 237

   development of the market-state 44–5

   interconnection of government strategy and law 66–8

Bolino, Mark 190

Boyd, Robert 236

BP 187–8

BP Amoco 233

bribery 171–4

   consequentialist argument against 172

   deontological argument against 172

   effects of rules and laws against 172–4

British South Africa Company 37

Buchholtz, Rogene 85

Burlington Industries vs. Ellerth (1998) 91

business

   as agent of the state 37

   as a moral community 221–2

   as a peace interest 69–70

   links with war-making 37–8

   use of violence to obtain money and power 36–7

Business as Mediating Institution 82–3, 219–22

   businesses as moral communities 221–2

   consideration of stakeholder interests 219–20

   engagement of voice 220–1

   inculcation of moral values 221–2

   justice through social contracting 220

   organizational structure 219

business ethics

   aesthetic/spiritual approach 5–6

   integrated approach 5–6

   integration of approaches 131

   legal approach 5–6

   managerial approach 5–6

business ethics (descriptive approach) 177

   aims 183–4

   and social capital 190–1

   corporate social responsibility 185–8

   effective compliance programs 184–5

   good ethics and good business 185–8

   impacts on society 188–91

   organization structure and employee motivation 190

   relationship to financial performance 185–8

business ethics (normative approach)

   creating Real Trust 181–3

   good ethics and good business 182

   Integrative Social Contracts Theory 181

   managerial incentive systems 182–3

   natural law 178

   Philosopher’s Formula 178–81

   social contract approach to stakeholders 180–1

   stakeholder rights 178–80

   treatment of stakeholders 181–2

   utilitarian approach to stakeholders 181

business schools, influence on moral responsibility 77–8


Cameron, Rondo 40

Champlain, Samuel 37, 38–9

chemical industry, social and financial performance 188

Chevron/Texaco 230

Chicago Cubs (Shlensky vs. Wrigley) 8–9, 138

Chindex 231

Chua, Amy 237–8

citizenship, wider obligations 218–19

   see also corporate citizenship

Clarkson, Max 83

Coase, Ronald 79–80

Coca-Cola 231

Cochran, Robert 210–11

Coleman, James 176–7, 221

Collier, Paul 106

colonialism 37

   and mercantilism 39–41

   trade and conquest 38–9

commerce

   historical actions against peace 35–6

   requirement for peace and stability 17

   role in fostering peace 17

   see also Peace Through Commerce

Commission of Nobel Peace Laureates 97–8

commodity exports, risk of civil war 106

commoners

   domination by elites 61

   exploitation by elites 62

communism 63

communitarian approach 79

   alternative to 82–3

   and ethical business 82–3

   and the well-being of the nation-state 83

   beyond the contractarian–communitarian dichotomy 84–6

   challenges to 82–3

   corporation as a social organization 81

   de-humanizing of the individual 84

   duty to stakeholders 83

   geopolitical distinctions 83

   Germany and Japan 83, 85

   “legal entity” view 79

   nature of the firm 83

   origins and influences 83

   oversocialized view of human nature 84

   variety of views 81–2

   see also concession approach

community size and violence 58–63

community within the corporation 21–3

concession approach 79, 85, 87–8

   ability to promote peace 107

   and corporate responsibility 105

   and illicit market temptations 100

   and moral responsibility 92–3

   evolving legal view 89–90

   in transformations of the corporation 90–2

   see also communitarian approach

conflict

   effects on businesses 106

   firm as an instrument of peace 106

   risks in large societies 61–3

conflict zones

   business strategies to respond to violence 106

   models for corporate engagement 17–18

conflicts of interest, managing 119–20

contractarian approach 79

   alternative to 82–3

   and ethical business 82–3

   Anglo-American system 83

   assumption of perfect market conditions 80–1, 82

   beyond the contractarian–communitarian dichotomy 84–6

   challenges to 81, 82–3

   Coase approach 79–80

   de-humanizing of the individual 84

   geopolitical distinctions 83

   handling conflicts of interest 79–80

   hierarchical organization 79–80

   market forces 79–80

   need for transparency and informed choice 80

   “nexus of contracts” view 79, 80, 81

   non-existence of the corporation as an entity 81

   primacy of shareholders 79–80

   shareholders as stakeholders 79–80

   undersocialized view of human nature 84

   voluntary agreements 79–80

   see also aggregate approach; value-maximization model

Cook, Captain James 172–3

corporate citizenship

   community within the corporation 21–3

   engaging with communities 20–1

   impressions among developing countries 20–1

   mediating institutions 21–3

   utilitarianism 190–1

corporate compliance systems

   and corporate culture 101–5

   arms-related technology exports 101–5

   arms sales and exports 101–5

   Liebman 101, 103–4

   Nunn–Wolfowitz task force 102–4

corporate culture

   ability to promote peace 107–8

   and corporate compliance systems 101–5

   and corporate responsibility 105

   and ethical business behavior 93–4

   calls for development of ethical cultures 14–15

   challenges from globalization 94–5

   importance in entity approach 93–4

   influence of the value-maximization model 15

   level of moral maturity 15

   protection against illicit behavior 100–1

corporate decision-making

   dangers of financial focus 13–15

   reflexive models 14–16

   threats which are not considered 13–15

corporate diplomacy, Motorola 41

corporate form controversy, and legal transformations 90–2

corporate form transformations 86–92

   closely held to widely held institutions 87, 90–2

   evolving legal view 89–90

   move to for-profit status 86–7, 90–2

   national to multinational enterprises 87, 90–2

   under Roman law 86, 90–2

corporate governance

   education about rules of behavior 174–5

   law not equated with administration of justice 174–5

   law used to benefit wealthy interests 174–5

   law viewed as a constraint on behavior 174–5

corporate responsibility

   and corporate culture 105

   beyond the contractarian–communitarian dichotomy 84–6

   commitment to ethical behavior 126

   integration of approaches 126–8, 131

   integration of approaches to business ethics 5–6

   legal standards of conduct 125–6

   rebuilding moral stature 125

corporate social responsibility (CSR) 8–11

   and financial performance measures 10–11

   and market pressures 10–11

   and sale of weapons technology 13–15

   and short-term management strategies 10–11

   as secondary to the profit motive 16–17

   calls for ethical corporate cultures 14–15

   daily interactions within the corporation 21–3

   effects of organizational size 21–3

   impacts on society 188–91

   influence of the value-maximization model 15

   relationship to financial performance 185–8

   requirements for the present-day situation 16–17

corporate strategy

   focus on financial performance 10–11

   market pressures 10–11

   short-term focus 10–11

   ways to Peace Through Commerce 218–19

corporation concept, and ability to promote peace 85, 86

corporations

   application of natural law 171

   awards for promoting peace 230–1, 233

   creation of Real Trust 171

   focus for anger and resentment 237–9

   growing interest in promoting peace 230–2

   history of scandals and misbehavior 239

   positive and negative activities 232–4

   role in shaping the international system 209

   threat of terrorism 237–8

   variety of roles which can be played 210–13

corruption, association with violence 20, 107 see also bribery

crime, increase because of globalization 94–5

CSR see corporate social responsibility

cultural change, possibility of 35

cultural development and violence 58–63

cultures of negotiation, reluctance to go to war 57

Cummins Engine 104

Cyprus, economic cooperation for peace 77


Dartmouth College vs. Woodward (1819) 87–8, 89, 90

Deming, W. Edwards 201

democracy 62–3

democratic countries

   not going to war with each other 106–7

   reluctance to go to war 57

developing countries, impressions of foreign corporations 20–1

Dhooge, Lucien 96

Diamond, Jared 59–61

Dirksen, Everett 117–18

Dodd, E. Merrick 83

Dodge vs. Ford 8–9, 138, 232–3

Donaldson, Tom 180–1, 220

Dunbar, Robin 22–3

Dunfee, Tom 171–2, 180–1, 220


ecologizing values (Frederick) 47, 49

economic cooperation for peace 77

economic development

   contribution towards peacebuilding 19–20

   management training and technology transfer 19–20

economizing values (Frederick) 47, 49

Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. 48

Eisenhower, Dwight 37–8

El Salvador 77

Ellul, Jacques 174–6

England, colonialism and mercantilism 39–41

Enron 11, 101, 136–7, 185

   case review 145–7

entity approach 79, 86, 87, 88–9

   ability to promote peace 107–8

   and corporate responsibility 105

   and illicit market temptations 100

   and moral responsibility 93–4

   evolving legal view 89–90

   importance of corporate culture 93–4

   in transformations of the corporation 90–2

ethical behavior

   commitment to 126

   integration of trust-building regimes 126–8

   lessons from quality management 123–4

   preventing dilemmas 123–4

   see also Honest Brokers

ethical business and war-making capability 68–71

ethical business behavior

   importance of corporate culture 93–4

   role in peacebuilding 18–19

   unexpected payoff 5–6

   see also business ethics

ethical corporate cultures

   development of 126–8

   role of Hard Trust 154–5

Etzioni, Amitai 83, 85, 221

EU Privacy Directive 125–6

Exxon 187–8


F. C. Schaffer 231

Fabbro, David 24, 56–8, 236–7

fascism 63

Fastow, Andrew 146, 185

Federal Sentencing Guidelines (1991) 91

   ad hoc advisory group 147–50

   Amendments (2004) 14–15

   amendments to compliance program requirements 150–2

   assessment of the Amendments 152–4

   call for increased focus on ethics 147–50

   Enron case review 145–7

   impact of the Guidelines 144–7

   ineffective compliance programs 144–7

   organizational criminal liability 140–4

   “reverse whistle blowing” 144–5

Ferguson, Niall 64–5, 68

financial performance focus

   dangers in corporate decision-making 13–15

   effects on corporate strategy 10–11

Finnis, John 166–7, 168–9, 170

Fiorelli, Paul 144, 147

Firestone 233

Fisher, Helen 48

Ford, Henry 8–9, 138, 232–3

Ford, William Clay, Jr. 233

Ford Motor Company 232–3

Foreign Assistance Act (1961) 96

Frederick, William 44, 178, 209–10

   ecologizing values 47, 49

   economizing values 47, 49

   power-aggrandizing values 47, 49

   techno-symbolic values 47–8, 49

   value clusters 46–8, 49

free market model 7–8

   market-dominant minorities 237–8

Freeman, Ed 83, 210

Friedman, Milton 8, 138–9

Frigorifico Canelones 231

Fuller, Lon 169


gender equality and non-violence 56

Germany

   communitarian approach 83, 85

   moves toward the contractarian model 10

Getz, Kathy 106

Ghoshal, Sumantra 77–8, 81

Global Crossing 136–7

global economy, effects of expansion of values 12–13

global violence

   business contributions to peace 4–5

   feelings of powerlessness 4

globalization

   and illicit commercial behavior 94–5

   and state control of borders 13

   and state control of violence 13

   and terrorism 95

   challenges to business culture 94–5

   increase in crime 94–5

   international weapons trade 95

   violence and perceived injustice 95

Good Trust 25–6, 124–5

   beyond individual self-interest 199–200

   bias adjustments 222–4

   commitment to ethical behavior 126

   commitment to non-violence 225–6

   direction of passion 199–200, 225–6

   energizing passion 199

   example (Russ Davison) 192–3

   mediating institutions 200, 217–22

   more mediation 200

   Music see Good Trust (spiritual sense, Music)

   Peace Through Commerce 225–7

   religion and work 200–1

   three dimensions (M3) 200

   to foster a common good 199–200

Good Trust (spiritual sense, music) 200–1

   lessons from Lord of the Rings 208

   power of stories 209–10

   quest for a sense transcendence 201–3

   religion’s naturalistic inevitability 203–9

   tales of the good 209–10

   variety of roles which corporations can play 210–13

Granovetter, Mark 84, 85, 176–7

Green Giant 179–80

Griffin, Jennifer 188

group size

   and consequences of actions 217–18

   moral identity/sense of belonging 218–19


Haas, Jonathan 235–6

hard power (military capability) 12

Hard Trust 25–6, 124–5

   and accountability 158

   and business law 134, 136

   and public confidence in business 133–4, 154–7

   and public regulation of business 134–6

   characteristics 133–4

   creation of order with laws 133

   enforcement/prevention through technology 157–8

   influence of advocacy groups 134

   influence of public opinion 134

   laws as a check on power 132–3

   legal standards of conduct 125–6

   managers’ basic duties 136–9

   non-legal enforcement mechanisms 157–8

   protection of voice 133

   reflexive statutes 154–5

   requirement for Peace Through Commerce 155–7

   role in ethical culture building 154–5

   rules need to make sense to those affected 173–4

   unpopularity of laws 132

   see also Federal Sentencing Guidelines (1991); laws

Hartman, Edwin 82

Hauerwas, Stanley 225–6

Hayek, F. A. 17, 42

Hedges, Chris 199–200

hierarchies

   and oppression 46

   domination of commoners by elites 61

   exploitation of commoners by elites 62

Hizballah 237

Honest Brokers

   Baker, Howard 118

   building social capital 121–2

   businesses as 117–19

   commitment to a common good 122–3

   control systems to avoid illegality 121

   corporate citizenship 121–2

   creating order and peace 121

   Dirksen, Everett 117–18

   economic development and employment 122

   ethical behavior can reduce violence 122–3

   ethical behavior is good for business 117

   going beyond self-interest 122–3

   link between ethics and peace 121–3

   qualities of 117–19

   restoring trust in business 117

   Simon, Paul 119

Hooters Restaurants 187–8

Hosmer, LaRue 165, 182–3

human evolution, optimal size of groups 22–3

human nature

   complexity of 84–6

   oversocialized communitarian view 84

   undersocialized contractarian view 84

   violence between groups 35–6

hunter–gatherer societies

   level of violence 55–8

   shift to agriculture 58–63

Huntington, Samuel 42–3, 237


ideology, and conflict 61

illicit commercial behavior, effects of globalization 94–5

illicit market temptations 99–101

instability, through weakening of the nation-state 6–7

integrity, concept of 131–2

Inteko 106

International Alert 18

international weapons trade see arms sales and exports

Israel 77


Japan

   communitarian approach 83, 85

   moves toward the contractarian model 10

John Paul II, Pope 43

Johnson & Johnson 9, 104, 187–8

   Credo 138

Juran, Joseph 201

justice

   in return for military capability 68–71

   through social contracting 220


Kant, Immanuel 17, 42

kapu (taboo), need for rules to make sense 172–3

Keeley, Lawrence 55, 58, 62

Kelly, Raymond 24, 36, 57, 62, 223, 236–7

Kissinger, Henry 43, 209


Ladek, Stephen 106

Laufer, William 144–5

laws

   as a check on power 132–3

   creation of order 133

   protection of voice 133

   stages of development 174–6

   unpopularity 132

   used to benefit wealthy interests 174–5

legal entity view of the corporation 79

Liebman, John 101–2, 103–4

Locke, John 170

Lord of the Rings (J. R. R. Tolkien), lessons from 208

Lorenz, Konrad 48


MacIntyre, Alasdair 172–3

Mahmood, Cynthia 236

Mahon, John 188

managers’ basic duties

   agency issue in corporations 137

   balance of discretion and duty 139

   Business Judgment Rule 138

   carry out lawful directives of shareholders 137–9

   conflicts of interest 137

   duty of care 139

   duty of loyalty 137

   fiduciary obligation to shareholders 136–7

   in relation to profitability 137, 138

   legal duties relating to shareholders 8–9

   mission statements 138

   non-financial objectives of shareholders 137–9

Margolis, Joshua 188, 189–90

market-dominant minorities, focus of resentment 237–8

market forces 79–80

market pressures

   on corporate strategy 10–11

   sale of weapons technology 13–15

market-state, replacement of the nation-state 44–5

market-state challenge

   business as a peace interest 69–70

   changing institutional values 70–1

   communism 67–8

   competing systems of government 67–8

   cost of technology to fight wars 64–5

   democracy 67–8

   ethical business and war-making capability 68–71

   fascism 67–8

   governmental evolution and war-making 66–8

   justice and peace 70–1

   justice in return for military capability 68–71

   popular support and war-making capability 66–7

   raising money to fight wars 64–5

   representative taxation to finance wars 65

   terrorism and perceived injustice 69

Marshall, Chief Justice 87–8, 89–90

mathematical modeling, influence on thinking 77–8, 81

McDonald’s, violence sparked by insensitivity 37

McWilliams, Abagail 186–7

Mead, Walter 41–4, 45–6

mediating institutions 169, 200, 217–22

   anti-social groups 218

   Business as Mediating Institution 219–22

   characteristics 21–3, 24

   corporate ways to Peace Through Commerce 218–19

   group size and consequences of actions 217–18

   moral identity/sense of belonging 218–19

   wider obligations of citizenship 218–19

mercantilism and colonialism 39–41

Merck 104

Mernissi, Fatema 238

Messick, David 222–4

Milgram, Stanley 46

military capability, in return for justice 68–71

military-industrial complex, dangers of 37–8

mission statements 138

Mohammed 240

Montesquieu 17, 42

moral maturity in corporate culture 15

   managing conflicts of interests 119–20

moral responsibility

   and the aggregate approach 92–3

   and the concession approach 92–3

   and the entity approach 93–4

   influence of business schools 77–8

moral values, inculcation in mediating institutions 221–2

more mediation 200

Morgan, J. Pierpoint 174–5

Morris, Thomas 82

Motorola 41

Motorola Malaysia 20, 231


Nagler, Michael 58

Naim, Moises 94–5

Napoleon 13, 66–7

Napoleonic Code 13, 66–7

Nash, Laura 201

nation-state

   loss of power over corporations 6–7

   replacement with the market-state 44–5

Native Americans

   trade and wars 38–9

   trade with settlers 37

natural law

   and organizational justice 175–6

   application to the corporation 171

   architectural design approach 167–70

   common good 168–9

   concept 165–6

   harmonious life 170

   historicist approach 167

   impartiality 168

   implementation 170

   mediating institutions 169

   property rights 169–70

   proportionist approach 167

   reciprocity 170

   “right reason” approach 167

   rules need to make sense to those affected 171–6

   subsidiarity 169

   sustainable peace as a telos 168

   traditionalist approach 166–7

Naylor, R. T. 236

Nelson, Jane 17–18

New York Times 9, 138

nexus of contracts view of the corporation 79, 80, 81

Nichols, Philip 171–2

Nigeria 77

non-economic values in business 6

non-governmental organizations (NGOs), influence on corporations 15–16

non-violence, commitment to 225–6

Northern Ireland 77

nuclear weapons 95

Nunn, Sam 102–4

Nunn-Wolfowitz task force, corporate compliance systems 102–4

Nye, Joseph 43


Oetzel, Jennifer 106

organizational justice 175–6

organizational size, mediating institutions 21–3

organizational structure

   and employee motivation 190

   in mediating institutions 219

Orlitzky, Marc 188


Paine, Lynn 175–6

Palestine 77

Paramount Communications vs. Time Warner (1989) 8–9, 91

Pauchant, Thierry 203–4

Paul VI, Pope 69

peace entrepreneurship concept 18

Peace Through Commerce 17

   and Good Trust 225–7

   and Hard Trust 155–7

   and Real Trust 191–2

   and theories of the firm 107–8

   and Total Integrity Management 226–7, 234–7, 239–40

   conceptual frameworks 4–5

   critical need in the present day 239–40

   framework 24–6

   growing interest from corporations 230–2

   managing conflicts of interest 119–20

   moral maturity in corporations 119–20

   next steps 234–7

   opportunities for business 5–6

   positive and negative corporate activities 232–4

   vision for contribution from business 239–40

peacebuilding

   avoidance of corruption 20

   contributions which business can make 18–23

   engaging with communities 20–1

   impressions of large foreign corporations 20–1

   role of ethical business behavior 18–19

   technology transfer 20

   through economic development 19–20

peaceful societies, characteristics 24

Penn, William 37

Peters, Tom 201

Pfizer 187–8

Philosopher’s Formula 178–81

Pipes, Richard 169–70

Plato 170, 213

Polanyi, Karl 69–70

popular support and war-making capability 66–7

poverty-stricken countries, tendency toward violence 19

Powell, Colin 6–7, 230

power

   balances of 45–6

   hierarchies and oppression 46

   sharp power 41–2

   soft power 43–4

   sticky power 42–3

power-aggrandizing values (Frederick) 47, 49

Presser, Stephen 170

primate behavior 50–5

   contested hierarchies 50–2

   exchange considerations 50–1, 52–3

   politics and peacemaking 48

   reconciliation 51–2

   “softening” attributes 50–1, 53–4

   techno-symbolic dimension 54–5

Prince of Wales Business Leadership Forum 4–5

professional responsibility, variety of roles which can be played 210–13

profitability focus 7–11

   risks in the present day 11–17

   see also value-maximization model

public opinion, and Real Trust 158

Putnam, Robert 176–7


Rawls, John 180–1

Rayonier 231

real entity approach see entity approach

Real Trust 25–6, 124–5

   and organizational justice 175–6

   and perception of fairness 175–6

   and social capital 176–7, 190–1

   creating business conditions for 181–3

   creation in corporations 171

   education about rules of behavior 174–5

   enforcement/prevention through technology 157–8

   execution of effective programs 184–5

   force of public opinion 158

   good ethics is good business 165

   integrity-based vs. rule-based systems 175–6

   natural law 165–77

   nature of 165

   non-legal enforcement mechanisms 157–8

   organization structure and employee motivation 190

   Peace Through Commerce 191–2

   perceived unfairness in the law 165–6

   rebuilding moral stature 125

   rules need to make sense to those affected 173–4

   why the law needs more 165–6

   win-win environments for multiple stakeholders 182–3

reflexive models of corporate behavior 14–16

reflexive statutes, and Hard Trust 154–5

religion

   and conflict 61

   and terrorism 237, 238

   relationship to economizing forces 63

   relationship to power-aggrandizing forces 63

   restraint on military action 69

religion and spirituality

   at work 203

   attitudes toward non-believers 208–9

   commitment to non-violence 225–6

   evolutionary perspective 204–8

   fundamental aspect of human nature 203

   good and bad sides 208–9

   naturalistic inevitability 203–9

   personal wholeness and social cohesion 204–8

   quest for a sense of transcendence 201–3

   reasons for the search for meaning 203–4

   self-monitoring and self-esteem 207

Revlon vs. MacAndrews and Forbes Holdings, Inc. (1986) 91

Rhodes, Cecil 37

Rice, Condoleezza 230

Richerson, Peter 236

Ridley, Matt 170

Rosenthal, Sandra 85

Rue, Loyal 204–8

Rummel, R. J. 62–3

Rynes, Sara 188


Sahlins, Marshall 173

Sapolsky, Robert 35

Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002) 14–15, 91, 125–6, 154–5

   protection against corruption 107

Schipani, Cindy 239

Schmidt, Frank 188

Schrage, Elliot 107

Seabright, Paul 35–6, 48–50, 70–1

securities markets, need for peace and stability 69–70

SELCO Vietnam 231

Semon, Richard 206

Sen, Amartya 42–3, 223–4

Sentencing Reform Act (1984) 140

September 11, 2001 attacks 3–4, 12, 95, 98, 237–8

Shaffer, Thomas 210–11

shareholder profitability, corporate focus on 7–11

shareholders

   managers’ legal duties relating to 8–9

   reasons for protecting

   see also managers’ basic duties

sharp power (Mead) 41–2

Shell Oil 158, 233–4

Shlensky vs. Wrigley 8–9, 138

Siegel, Donald 186–7

Simon, Paul 119

Smith, Adam 40

social capital

   and corporate citizenship 190–1

   and Real Trust 176–7, 190–1

social substitutability 24, 36, 57, 223

society, impacts of corporate social responsibility 188–91

soft power (projection of capitalist values) 12, 43–4

Solomon, Robert 82

spirituality see Good Trust (spiritual sense); religion and spirituality Good Trust (spiritual sense)

Sri Lanka 77

stability

   requirement of business 6–7

   role of the state 6–7

stakeholder model of corporate responsibility, variety of forms 15–16

stakeholder theory, Philosopher’s Formula 178–81

stakeholders

   consideration in mediating institutions 219–20

   impacts of corporate citizenship 190–1

   responsibility to 8–11

Stalin, Joseph 43

sticky power (Mead) 42–3

stories, power of 209–10


taxation with representation to finance wars 65

techno-symbolic values (Frederick) 47–8, 49

technology transfer, role in peacebuilding 20

terrorism

   acquisition of WMDs 95

   and perceived injustice 69

   and religious groups 237, 238

   characteristics in the twenty-first century 13

   economic targets 12

   in the twenty-first century 64, 237–8

   market for weapons technology 13–15

   response to intrusion of external values 12–13

   responsibilities of businesses 12–13

Tetlock, P. E. 189

theories of the firm see aggregate approach; concession approach; entity approach

Thucydides 41–2

Timberland 9, 104, 138

Tocqueville, Alexis de 63

Total Integrity Management 5–6

   and Peace Through Commerce 226–7, 234–7, 239–40

   ethical formula 124–5

   framework 24–6

   holistic view of business ethics 131–2

   integration of disciplinary approaches 25–6

   see also Good Trust; Hard Trust; Real Trust

totalitarian government 62–3

Trevino, Linda 175–6, 184–5

trust, integration of forms 25

   see also Good Trust; Hard Trust; Real Trust

Turnley, William 190


United Nations 4–5

United Nations Global Compact 18

US Steel 230–1

utilitarianism, and corporate citizenship 190–1


value clusters (Frederick) 46–8, 49

   ecologizing values 47, 49

   economizing values 47, 49

   power-aggrandizing values 47, 49

   techno-symbolic values 47–8, 49

value-maximization model 7–8

   dilemma of good done via selfishness 10

   financial performance measures 10–11

   increasing influence 10

   influence on corporate culture 15

   moral issue 10

   reasons for protecting shareholders 9–10

   sale of weapons technology 13–15

   short-term management strategies 10–11

   see also contractarian approach

values

   and power 45–6

   and soft power 44

   expansion in the global economy 12–13

   non-economic 6

Vanderbilt, Cornelius 36–7

violence

   and perceived injustice 95

   association with corruption 20

   between groups of humans 35–6

   effects of globalization 95

   social substitutability notion 24

   tendency in poverty-stricken countries 19

   use in business 36–7

voice

   engagement of 220–1

   protection of 133

voluntary agreements 79–80


Waal, Frans de 48, 50–5

Walsh, James 188, 189–90

Walton, Mary 201

war

   debt financing, British model 65

   driving forces 36

   expense of technology 64–5

   representative taxation to finance war 65

   state’s need to raise money 64–5

   to secure economic advantage 39–41

   see also anthropological rootedness of war and peace

war-making capability

   and popular support 66–7

   dangers of the military-industrial complex 37–8

   effects of ethical business 68–71

weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) 69

   acquisition by terrorists 95

   proliferation, effects of corporate cultures 107–8

   sale of components 13–15

   technology sales and export controls 101–5

weapons technology, market opportunities 13–15

weapons trade see arms sales and exports

Weaver, Gary 175–6, 184–5

Werhane, Patricia 178–9

Wolfowitz, Paul 102–4

World Bank 4–5, 106

Worldcom 11, 136–7


© Cambridge University Press


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