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Plants and Vegetation
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  • 367 b/w illus. 81 tables
  • Page extent: 706 pages
  • Size: 246 x 189 mm
  • Weight: 1.42 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 581.7
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: QK901 .K34 2007
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Plant ecology

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521864800)

Plants and Vegetation

Cambridge University Press
9780521864800 - Plants and Vegetation - Origins, Processes, Consequences - by Paul A. Keddy
Index


Index

Page numbers given for main entries which have subheadings refer to general aspects of that topic.

Page numbers given in italics represent figures. Page numbers given in bold represent tables.

abrasion stress, wind-driven snow 170

abundance, relative see relative abundance

Acacia/ant mutualism 387–389, 388, 389

Acadian Forest 442, 444

adaptations to stress see also arctic–alpine vegetation; deserts; flooding; peat bogs; salinity

   climatic extremes, morphological changes 132

   costs/cost-benefit trade-offs 131–133

   evolutionary costs 132–134

   fire adaptations, gymnosperm cones 295, 296

   growth rate reductions 133–134

   limestone versus productive grassland comparison 134, 134

   natural selection 131, 133

   production and operating costs 133

   risk-aversive strategy 133

   short-term versus long-term 131

adaptive ecosystem management 602

aerenchyma 176, 177, 343

Africa, grassland mammals 286–289, 287, 288

   evolutionary adaptations 286–289

agriculture, effects see eutrophication; fragmentation of natural landscapes; habitat destruction; humans ecological impact; introduced species; logging/paper industry; overgrazing; sheep, herbivory

Agriolimax reticulatus 292

air pollution stress 179, 179–180

Alaska, Glacier Bay 432, 432–434, 433, 434

Aldabra atoll Indian Ocean 290, 292, 306

algae, see also cyanobacteria, lichens, phytoplankton

   functional groups 281

   land plant ancestor 22

alkaloids 149

allelopathy/interference competition 194

alligator holes 242–243, 243

allogenic burial 244–246, 246 see also disturbance

alluvial deposition 274

Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario 506

alternation of generations/gametophytes

   Hofmeister, W. 416, 417

   plant life cycle evolution 415

   seed and pollen origin 415, 417

altitude/competition intensity gradients 220–223

altitudinal range, and species diversity 506–507, 507

alvars 154, 155, 218–220

Amazon

   basin 507–508, 508

   forest floodplains 237–238, 239

   ice age in 423–425, 423

Amborellaceae 42

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) 315

amino acid structure 65, 65

anaerobic

   gut organisms see gut symbiont micro-organisms

   respiration/fermentation 178–179

Andes

   biodiversity hotspot 573–574, 574, 575

   temperate evergreen forest 410

Andira inermis dispersal by bats 370–371

angiosperms see also classification, phylogenetic

   evolution see angiosperms, origin/evolution 40, 41, 508, 514, 515–516

   insect pollination 515

   life cycle 515

   secondary metabolites 515

angiosperms, origin/evolution 40, 41, 405–409, 406, 408, 508, 514, 515–516

   Australia 414

   and continental drift 405, 409, 410, 412–413

   deserts 411–412

   fossil 423

   and gymnosperm diversity 405–408

   Nothofagus 410, 411

   Proteaceae 413, 414

   Restionaceae 413, 414

   tropical floras 412–414, 413

animal–plant associations see gut symbiont micro-organisms; pollination; seed dispersal

animals

   defense of plants by, Acacia/ant example 387–389, 388, 389

   disturbance by 238–243 see also burial; disturbance; herbivory

      alligator holes 242–243, 243

      beaver ponds 238–242, 240, 241, 241

annuals 102

Antarctica, Vostok ice core 30, 31

Antennaria parvifolia 385

anthocyanin pigmentation 169

Anthoxanthum odoratum 381–382, 382

anti-freezing compounds 169

ants

   /Acacia mutualism 387–389, 388, 389

   colonies 109–110, 110

   seed dispersal 371–373, 372

aphid–rotifer model, clonal reproduction 142

apomixis 385–386

Appalachian Mountains, North America 522

   regeneration in deciduous forests 272–273, 273

Arecaceae 40

Araucariaceae 411

architecture, plant 70–73

   height, selection pressures 77–78

   mechanical ideal 70–71, 72

   net primary production and plant size 78, 78–79

   redundancy hypothesis 72

   selection for small leaves 72–73

arctic–alpine vegetation 167, 167–171, 169, 170, 171, 172

   abrasion by wind-driven snow 170

   anthocyanin pigmentation 169

   cliffs simulating arctic conditions 170–171

   effects of low temperatures 168

   frost tolerance 162, 168, 169

   lichens, cold/drought tolerance 173–174, 174

   stress avoidance 169

   stress tolerance through anti-freezing compounds 169

   sun tracking 169

   temperature limits 169

Argentina 307, 308, 308

arid conditions see drought stress

aridisols 119

Arion intermedius 292

Aristolochia genus 364–365

Asclepidiaceae 365

asexual reproduction 385–386 see also clonal reproduction

Assyria, ancient 550–551

Asteraceae 43–46

asymmetric competition 195, 198–200, 202–203, 211

atmosphere, origins 1–2, 5, 5, 20 see also biosphere; carbon dioxide/carbon; oxygen revolution

   Cambrian 21

   historical viewpoints 66–67

   oxygen 21, 22, 33

   ozone 19, 20–21, 22, 33

   photosynthesis, role in creation of 1–2, 33

   planetary comparisons, Earth/Mars/Venus 26, 27

atomic number, CHNOPS life forms 64, 65

ATP, phosphorus importance 67

Australia

   angiosperm evolution 414

   diversity, species 508–511, 518

   New South Wales 289

   River Murray 252

   succession, sand-dunes 437

   Tasmanian rainforest 444–446, 445

autogenic burial 244, 246 see also disturbance


banded iron formations 19

barrel cactus 111, 339

Bartram, William 243

bats, seed dispersal 370–371

beaver ponds 238–242, 240, 241, 241

Beltian bodies 387

Bentham, George 36, 37–38

Bernard, Frank 348

Bessey, C. E. 39–41

biennials 102–105

biodiversity maintenance 590, 592–593

biogenic accumulation 244, 246 see also burial; disturbance

biogeographic world regions 37 see also ecoregions; world floristic regions

biosphere, genesis 1–4, 3–4, 33 see also energy flow

   atmosphere, origins 1–2, 5, 5

   concept of term 2, 3–4

   early characteristics/conditions 5, 9

   experimental work 7–9, 8

   photosynthesis, role in creation of 1–2, 33

   water/hydrological cycle 4, 7

Biosphère, La (Vladimir Vernadsky) 2, 3–4

biotic disturbance see animals, disturbance by; see also herbivory

birds

   pollination (ornithophily) 359–361, 360, 361, 362

   predation of insects, and tree growth 305

bituminous shale cliffs 179, 179–180

block diagrams, vegetation patterns 458

blue-green algae see cyanobacteria

boreal forests see forests, boreal, conservation/management

bottom-up control see top-down/bottom-up control, plant communities

Boundary Waters Canoe Area, North America 440–442, 441

   Acadian Forest 442, 444

   fire-dependent species 442

   shade-tolerant species 442

broken stick model 534

Budworm Battles 331

burial 243–249, 246 see also disturbance

   adaptations of wetland plants to 248, 248

   allogenic 244–246, 246

   autogenic 244, 246

   deposition rates 247, 247–248

   recovery from 248–249

   sedimentation by rivers 243–249, 244, 246

butternut (Juglans cinerea) 584


cacti (Opuntia fragilis) study 218

   barrel cactus 111, 339

Cakile edentula

   density dependence 200–202

   seed dispersal 367–369, 368, 370

California, species diversity 518

Calluna vulgaris 292

CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) 46, 74–75, 147, 149, 150

Cambrian explosion, multicellular organisms 21

   and atmospheric oxygen 21

   and atmospheric ozone 21

   fossil record 21

Canada see also Ontario

   Algonquin Provincial Park 506

   boreal forests, conservation/management 569

   Ottawa River 268–269, 269

canopy

   architecture see architecture, plant

   ecology, epiphytes 109–110

Cape Province, South Africa 307, 307

carbon dioxide/carbon 26–28, 27, 29, 33

   atmospheric foraging 68–69

   C3/C4 plants 73–74

   coal/oil sequestration 27–28, 33

   distribution in plants and animals 35

   /drought trade-off 74

   greenhouse effect 26–27, 31, 32

   limiting/suboptimal levels 69, 69

   local depletion 69

   planetary comparisons, Earth/Mars/Venus 26, 27

   root uptake 75–76

Caribbean, tropical forest 423, 425, 583

carnivores, large

   conservation research study 580–581

   as indicators of ecological health 603

carnivorous plants 111–112, 112, 134–135, 138, 162, 520–521, 521

   Darwin's discovery 136-138, 138

carrion mimicry, by flowers 363, 364, 365

carrying capacity, global 595

Carson, Rachel Silent Spring 331

Carthaginian civilization 121–122

Castanea dentata 584, 586

catastrophes, high intensity 254 see also disturbance

   landslides 254–255, 256

   meteor impacts 259–264, 260, 261, 262

   nuclear war 264

   volcanic eruptions 255–259, 257

cell membranes, origins/evolution 10–11 see also eukaryotic cells, origins/evolution; prokaryotic cells

   clay particles hypothesis 11

   coacervate droplets 10

   lipid bilayer hypothesis 10–11, 11

cellulose

   degradation, by gut micro-organisms 390, 391

   versus chitin as structural molecule 92

centrifugal model, species diversity 273, 529–531, 530

change, inevitability/working with 592–593, 594

   dynamic nature of plant communities 590, 592–593

   resource bottlenecks 106

   resource fluctuations 105–108, 106, 107

chemical warfare/poison gas 87

chernozems 119

chestnut tree disease (Castanea dentata) 584, 586

Chile, diversity 518

chlorophyll, evolution 17–18

chloroplasts 14–15, 22

CHNOPS perspective 63–67, 64 see also carbon dioxide/carbon; nitrogen; oxygen; phosphorus

   amino acid structure 65, 65

   ATP 67

   chemical properties 64

   hydrogen 79

   ionization energy/atomic number 64, 65

   micro/macronutrients 67

   natural selection, molecules 64

   relative abundance in biomass/organisms 63, 64

chromosome volume, and radiosensitivity 181

Churchill, Winston 324

cities, human 593–595

   ecological footprints 595, 596

cladograms 42, 42–43

classification of vegetation 59–61 see also gradients/local patterns

   cladograms 42, 42–43

   climatic 56–58

   ecoregions 37, 61, 61

   Field Guide to Forest Ecosystem Classification 480–484, 481, 482, 483, 484

   functional 35, 50–51

   and land management 457, 474, 476–484

   molecular systematics 35, 41–43, 45

   phylogenetic see below

   phytosociology 475, 476, 477

   recent developments 42, 43

   value/limitations 48–50, 58–59, 457, 474–475

   world floristic regions 46–48, 47, 48

classification, phylogenetic 35, 36, 49

   Amborellaceae 42

   Arecaceae 40

   Asteraceae 43–46

   Illiciaceae 42, 43

   Magnoliales 39–40

   Nymphaeaceae 42

   Orchidaceae 40, 43, 46

   Poaceae 40

clay particles hypothesis 11

Clements, Frederick 450–451, 485–486, 488–490 see also community-unit concept/hypothesis

climate

   classification, vegetation types 56–58

   extreme, morphological changes 132

   warmth/moisture see rainfall/climatic warmth

climate change 28–33, 428

   carbon dioxide levels 30, 31, 32

   ice core, Antarctica 30

   plant-climate linkages 31

   Milankovitch cycles 31

   sediment cores 30, 31

climax vegetation 431, 450–451 see also succession

clonal reproduction 140–144, 141

   aphid–rotifer model 142

   elm–oyster model 142–144

   and foraging 143

   strawberry–coral model 142

   wetland species 140–141, 143

coacervate droplets 10

coal/oil, carbon sequestration 27–28, 33

coevolution see evolution

cold environments see arctic–alpine vegetation

Coleochaete 22

commensalism 336, 338, 355 see also mutualism; mycorrhizae

communities, plant see classification of vegetation; discrete communities debate; ecosystems; gradients/local patterns, vegetation; zoned communities

community-unit concept/hypothesis 491, 492, 496, 498, 499

competition, apparent 398–399

   parable from Darwin’s observations 398, 402

competition, intraspecific 188–190, 197, 215, 223 see also competitive (various entries); CSR synthesis

   above/below-ground 135

   asymmetric 195, 198–200, 202–203, 203, 211

   between cell lines 194

   between genotypes 194

   coniferous forests 159

   costs, stress/strain 187–188, 188

   definition 187

   density dependence 188–190, 197, 200–202

   diffuse 216

   and diversity 517

   economics analogy 215

   equation 190

   importance 186–187

   intensity 191–193, 193, 202–203 see also competition intensity gradients

   intra/interspecific, distinction 190–191

   and mycorrhizae 214–215, 215

   self-thinning 197, 197–198, 198

   stressed environments 129, 131, 341–342, 344

   and succession 453, 454

competition intensity gradients 216–223

   altitudinal 220–223

   cacti (Opuntia fragilis) study 218

   exemplary experimental study 222, 222–223

   hawkweed (Hierachium floribundum) study 216, 217–218

   measuring 216, 216–217

   and mutualistic interactions 341–342, 343, 344

   soil depth, alvar vegetation type 218–220, 219

   in wetlands 220, 222

competitive dominance 194–197, 195, 196

   asymmetric competition 195

   and dominance 196–197

   and interference competition/allelopathy 194

   and species diversity, field experiments 542, 542

competitive effect/response 193–194

competitive exclusion, and species diversity 546

competitive hierarchies 204–214

   asymmetric competition 198–200, 211

   consistency 206–209, 209, 210

   contingent competition 206

   de Wit replacement series 204

   establishing 204–207, 207, 208

   intraspecific size hierarchies 207

   light patches, foraging 212–214, 213, 214

   light and shoot size 209–215, 212

   mechanisms 199–200, 199

   monocultures 198–200

   resource depletion models 198–200

   resource foraging, soil nutrients 212–214

   resource pre-emption models 198–200

   and species diversity 526–527

Compton experiment 535, 535

computer modeling/simulation, succession 446–448, 447

   FORET 447

   JABOWA 447, 448

conservation 549–550, 604–608 see also fragmentation of natural landscapes; Galapagos Islands; habitat destruction; humans, ecological impact; indicators, ecological; management perspectives; nature reserves; restoration, habitat

   Assyria, ancient 550–551

   boreal forests 569–570

   carnivore conservation research study 580–581

   carrying capacity, global 595

   change, working with 592–593, 594

   deciduous forests, agricultural areas 584–585, 585

   degradation 598–599

   dynamic nature of plant communities 590, 592–593

   Easter Island 564, 564

   economic growth/human welfare 580–581, 581

   extinctions/ecosystem losses 549, 553

   fens, English 582–584

   goals 587–588

   Guyana highlands 578–579, 579

   habitat renewal 587

   and intermediate disturbance model 528

   optimism 550

   overgrazing 545–546, 595–598

   primary forests 574–576, 577

   priority locations 544, 544 see also hot spots, diversity

   Rome/Mediterranean, ancient 551–553, 552

   safety margins, species/habitat loss 592

   and species diversity 543–546, 544, 546

   strategies 584

   thresholds, critical 550, 595–599, 598

   tropical forest, Caribbean 583

   vegetation types at risk 553

   wetlands 576, 578, 578

consumer pressure 606

continental drift 405, 409, 410, 412–413, 514

   Gondwana 405, 409, 514

   Laurasia 405, 409, 514

continuum model see community-unit concept/hypothesis

Cook, Captain 403

Cooperation Among Animals with Human Implications (Warder Allee) 337

cost-benefit models

   mutualism 396–398

   mycorrhizae 347, 354–355, 355

coypu (nutria), impact on fringing reed/marsh vegetation 316–317, 317

crabs, herbivory in tropical forests 305–306

crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) 46, 74–75, 147, 149, 150

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary 260–262

cryptophytes 51, 513

CSR (competition, disturbance, stress) synthesis 276–280, 279

   botanical (Philip Grime, University of Sheffield) 277–279, 278, 280

   Raunkiaer system 280

   zoological 277

cyanophytes see cyanobacteria

cyanobacteria

   abundance with N:P ratio 82

   heterocysts 82

   origin of plant cell 11–15, 14

cypress swamps, Louisiana 559–564

   cypress regeneration 560, 562

   drainage ditches 560

   pull boat logging 559, 561

   salt water intrusion 560

   water table lowering 560


Darwin, Charles 186, 565

   buried seed banks 453

   carnivorous plants 136–138

   collaboration with Hooker 38

   collaboration with Wallace 36, 38–39

   Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, The 186

   Expression of the Emotions 136

   Insectivorous Plants 136–138

   Origin of Species, The 136

   outcrossing 381

   parable, apparent competition 398, 402

   plant demography 104

   sundews 136-138, 138

data matrices 465–466, 466

Dawkins, Richard The Selfish Gene 9

Day, W.Genesis on Planet Earth 10

DCA (detrended correspondence analysis) 471

deciduous

   forests see forests, deciduous

   plants, resource acquisition 114–116

decomposition 602

deer herbivory

   American ginseng 315

   impact on deciduous forest 313–316, 314, 314

defense of plants by animals, Acacia/ant example 387–389, 388, 389 see also mutualism

defenses, plant 149, 293–303 see also herbivory; secondary metabolites

   coevolution 302–303, 303

   dilemma, pollen/seed distribution versus herbivory deterrence 302

   evolutionary context 293, 293

   interpretation of anti-herbivore traits 299

   morphological 293

   nitrogen content and food quality 300–302, 301, 323

   present-day defenses protecting from extinct herbivores 295, 300, 301

   Salvinia molesta example 301–302

   seed-protecting structures 293–295, 303

   strobili in gymnosperms 294, 294–295, 296

   toughness 302

De Luc, J. A. Geologic Travels 450

demography, Darwinian approach 104

deposition 243–246, 244246, 274 see also burial; disturbance

   Pleistocene glaciations 419, 421

   rates 247, 247–248

   and resource gradients 94

Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, The (Charles Darwin) 186

deserts

   angiosperms 411–412

   geographical data 144

   rainfall 144

deserts, plant adaptations 144–149, 145, 146, 146

   anti-herbivory 149

   CAM (crassulean acid metabolism) photosynthesis 147, 149, 150

   drought escaping/evading/enduring classification 145, 146

   epidermal/stomatal 146–147

   leaf surface area 147, 147, 148, 149

   reproductive 514

   seed dispersal 372–373

   spines 148–149

   water absorption/storage 147–148

detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) 471

de Wit replacement series 204

diffuse competition 216 see also competition intensity gradients

Dionaea muscipula (venus fly trap) 521, 522, 522

direct gradient analysis 458 see also gradients/local patterns, vegetation

discrete communities debate 485–486, 491 see also gradients/local patterns, vegetation cover types/templates

   community-unit concept/hypothesis 491, 492, 496, 498, 499

   critique/discussion of 486–487

   individualistic concept/hypothesis 486–487, 491, 492, 492, 496

   pragmatic method (James) 487

   superorganisms, communities as 437, 485–486

   synthesis, Gleason/Clements 497

diseases/pest introductions, deciduous forest fragments 584, 586 see also introduced species

   butternut (Juglans cinerea) 584

   chestnut (Castanea dentata) 584, 586

   elm (Ulmus americana) 584, 586

   waldsterben 585

disturbance 225–226, 282 see also burial; catastrophes, high intensity; CSR synthesis; fire; gap dynamics; herbivory; intermediate disturbance model; water erosion

   area (property) 228, 282

   biotic see animals, disturbance by; see also herbivory

   definition 225–226

   duration (property) 226

   Everglades, Florida 275–276, 276

   frequency (property) 227, 227

   Hubbard Brook, White Mountains, New Hampshire 264–268, 265, 266, 267

   ice 249, 250, 250

   intensity (property) 226, 226–227, 282

   measuring effects 264

   Ottawa River, Canada, herbaceous marshes 268–269, 269

   storms 252–254, 253, 254

   stressed environments 134, 184

   and succession 447, 452

   waves 249–252, 251

diversity 502, 546–547, 547 see also centrifugal model, species diversity; hot spots, diversity; humped-back model; intermediate disturbance model; relative abundance

   and altitudinal range 506–507, 507

   angiosperms 508

   artificial grassland communities 539

   artificial wetland communities 539–540, 541

   climatic warmth/moisture relationship 57, 508–513

   and competitive exclusion 546

   and competitive hierarchies 526–527

   conservation implications 543–546, 544, 546

   deciduous forests 522

   endemism 522–523, 523

   and environmental factors 546

   equatorial areas 508–513, 509, 509

   eutrophication, effects of 525, 531

   evolution see evolution

   and fertility 537, 542, 542, 543

   field experiments 541–543, 543

   fugitive/interstitial/peripheral species 506

   gymnosperms 508

   and habitat diversity 505–508

   historical factors 522

   laboratory experiments 539–540, 540, 540

   and life form 513

   local versus larger scale 545, 546, 547

   lowland tropical forest 507–508, 508

   mangrove swamps 517

   Mediterranean climate 518–520, 520

   microcosms 539

   models, small scale 523–524 see also centrifugal model, species diversity; humped-back model

   New Jersey experiment, USA 542–543

   overstorey 509–510, 510, 511, 512

   Park Grass experiment 535, 535, 536–538, 541–542

   physiological constraints, additive effects 516–518, 518

   Pleistocene glaciations 423

   primary forests 574

   pteridophytes 508

   and radiation 181

   and speciation rates 518, 519

   species-area model 502–505, 503, 504, 506, 519

   species flocks 508

   species pools 516, 516

   stressed environments 134, 135

   understorey 510

DNA based classification see molecular systematics

dodo 377–379

domatia/ant colonies 109–110, 110

dominance, definitions 196–197 see also competitive dominance

drought stress see also deserts; forests, coniferous; Mediterranean shrublands; rock barrens

   escaping/evading/enduring classification 145, 146

   lichens, cold/drought tolerance 173–174, 174

   Pleistocene glaciations 423

   and salinity 163, 164

Dutch elm disease 584, 586


earthworms, soil formation 120

Easter Island 564, 564

ecological footprints 595, 596 see also humans, ecological impact

ecological meltdown 587 see also conservation; humans, ecological impact

ecological research see research, ecological

economic growth, and conservation 580–581, 581

   carnivore conservation research study 580–581

ecoregions 61 see also floristic regions, world

   world map 37, 61

ecosystems see also classification; discrete communities debate; gradients/local patterns

   engineers 238–242 see also disturbance

   integrity, preservation 599–600 see also restoration, habitat

   losses see habitat destruction; see also conservation; humans, ecological impact

   management, adaptive 602 see also management, land/ecosystem; restoration, habitat

   as superorganisms 437, 485–486

ectomycorrhizae see mycorrhizae

electromagnetic spectrum, selection for exploitation 16, 16–17, 17

eliasomes 371

elm-oyster model, clonal reproduction 142–144

elm tree (Ulmus americana) disease 584, 586

endemism 522–523, 523

   causal variables 522–523

endolithic communities 174–176, 175

endomycorrhizae see mycorrhizae

endosymbiosis, serial 12–15, 14

energy flow 4–9

   and biological systems 4–5

   ionization energy/atomic number 64, 65

   and molecular complexity 5–6, 6, 8

   replication/reproduction of molecules 9

   stability/natural selection of molecules 7, 9, 64

   synthesis, evolutionary possibilities 16, 17

   thermodynamics, second law 5–6, 7

England, fens 582–584

Engler, Adolf 39

entisols 119

Epic of Gilgamesh, The 550–551

epidemics see disease/pest introductions

Epidendrum ciliare 382–385, 383

epiphytes 109–110

Erie, Pennsylvania 158, 158

erosion

   ice 419, 421

   rivers see water erosion

eukaryotic cells, origins/evolution 11–15, 33

   chloroplasts 14–15

   extant example 15, 15

   flagella 15

   mitochondria 13–14

   serial endosymbiosis theory 12–15, 14

eutrophication, effects on species diversity 525, 531 see also fertility; humans, ecological impact

evaporative coefficient equation 509

evapotranspiration 79–80, 80

Everglades, disturbance 275–276, 276

evergreen foliage 114–116, 160

evolution see also selection, natural

   angiosperms see angiosperms, origins/evolution

   chlorophyll 17–18

   chloroplasts 22

   and continental drift 514

   defenses, plant 302–303, 303

   drought, reproductive adaptations to 514

   fungal–plant associations 22, 23

   gymnosperms 405–408

   insect pollination 515

   key events 514

   land living, adaptations 514

   life cycle simplification 515

   mammals, African grassland 286–289

   parasitism 113

   passerine birds 423

   photosynthesis see photosynthesis, origins/evolution

   plant defenses 293, 293, 302–303, 303

   plant/fungal symbiosis 22, 23

   secondary metabolites 515

   seed dispersal by animals 365, 366, 373–374, 377–378

   sexual reproduction 22, 23–24

   and species diversity 513, 514, 515–516

   succession 24, 24–26, 25, 33

   tree masting 373–374

   trends in vascular plants 26

evolutionary trees see cladograms

Expression of the Emotions (Charles Darwin) 136

extinctions 549, 553 see also habitat destruction

   large mammals 429


fens, English 582–584

fermentation 15

   as adaptation to flooding 178–179

   foregut 390–393, 392, 393, 394

   hindgut 393–395, 394

ferralsol 119

fertility see also eutrophication

   and competitive dominance 542, 542

   and diversity 537

   gradients 250, 252

   natural/man-made sources 85–86

   stressed environments 135

Field Guide to Forest Ecosystem Classification for the Clay Belt, Site Region 3E 480–484, 481, 482, 483, 484

fields, limestone versus productive comparison 134, 134

fire 228–236 see also disturbance

   critical temperature 228

   dependent species 442

   and meteor impacts 261–262

   and plant diversity in boreal forests 528–529, 529

   and prairie/savanna vegetation types 230–232, 231

   Sphagnum peat communities 232–236, 236

   tree bark insulation 228–230, 229, 230, 230, 231

   in wetlands 232, 234, 235

Fisher, Sir R. A. 488, 536

flagelli 15

Flagstaff, Arizona 158

flooding see also water erosion

   aerenchyma 176, 177

   anaerobic respiration/fermentation 178–179

   and diversity 517

   Epic of Gilgamesh, The 550–551

   Pleistocene glaciations 430

   pneumatophores 176–177, 178

   tolerance 176–179

floristic regions, world 46–48, 47, 48

flowers, pollination see pollination

fly pollination 363–365

   Aristolochia genus 364–365

   Asclepidiaceae 365

   carrion mimicry 363, 364, 365

   Rafflesia genus 363–364

footprints, ecological 595, 596 see also humans, ecological impact

foraging see also resource acquisition

   atmosphere/soil 63, 68–69

   and clonal reproduction 143

   light patches 212–214, 213, 214

   root proliferation, transitory nutrient patches 100, 100–101, 101

   soil nutrients 212–214

Forest Ecosystem Classification for the Clay Belt, Field Guide 480–484, 481, 482, 483, 484

forest site types 460, 461 see also gradients/local patterns, vegetation

forests, alluvial see Louisiana, alluvial forest destruction

forests, boreal, conservation/management 569–570

   clear-cutting 569

   fire vs. clear-cutting 569–570

   fire and plant diversity in 528–529, 529

   logging/paper industry 569

forests, coniferous 156–159, 157, 159 see also Boundary Waters Canoe Area; gymnosperms; strobili in gymnosperms

   affected by fire 439–440

   and competition 159

   water/temperature interactions 156–157

forests, deciduous

   in agricultural areas, fragmentation 584–585, 585

   climatic conditions 157–158

   conservation strategies 584

   deer herbivory 313–316, 314, 314

   disease/pest introductions 584, 586

   indicators 603

   insect herbivory 304–305, 305

   regeneration 272–273, 273

   species diversity 522

forests, primary 574–576, 577

   and diversity 574

forests, temperate evergreen 410, 411

forests, tropical

   Caribbean 583

   habitat/species diversity correlation 507–508, 508

   insects, canopy 289–290, 291

   land crab herbivory 305–306

   overstorey diversity 509–510, 510, 511, 512

   rhinoceros herbivory 313

   secondary metabolites 297–298, 299

FORET 447

fossil record

   multicellular organisms 21

   plant defensive morphology 293, 293

   prokaryotic cells 11

   studying 404

fragmentation of natural landscapes 581, 583

   conservation strategies 584

   deciduous forests in agricultural areas 584–585, 585

   diseases/pests 584, 586

   fens, English 582–584

   tropical forest, Caribbean, history 583

Frank, Bernard 348

frontier forests see forests, primary

frost tolerance 162, 168, 169 see also arctic–alpine vegetation

fruit production 365, 366 see also seed dispersal, by animals

   ripening 366

fugitive species 506

functional

   classification 35, 50–51

   perspective, land management 588–592, 589, 591

fungal–plant associations see also lichens; mycorrhizae

   difficulties in studying 350

   evolution 22, 23

fynbos 151, 518


Galapagos Islands 290, 306, 565–568, 566

   goat introduction/overgrazing 567–568, 569

   tortoise grazing 566–567, 567, 568, 568

gametophyte see also sporophyte

   alternation of generations 415–418

   apomixis 385

   description 415

   fossil 417

   phylogeny 42

   plant colonization of land 22, 415

   pollinators 382

   size in terrestrial plants 77–78, 415–417

   taxonomic classification 49

Ganges-Brahmaputra River 244

gap colonization 527–529

gap dynamics 269–270, 527

   alluvial deposition 274

   freshwater marshes 274–275, 275

   regeneration from buried seed banks 270–272, 271

   regeneration in deciduous forests 272–273, 273

gene-based classification see molecular systematics

Genera Plantarum (George Bentham/Sir Joseph Hooker) 37

Genesis on Planet Earth (W. Day) 10

geographic regions see floristic regions, world

Geologic Travels (J. A. De Luc) 450

geological record, Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary 260–262

geometric ranked abundance model 534

geophytes 513

Gilgamesh, Epic of 550–551

Ginkgo biloba/Ginkgoales 406

Glacier Bay, Alaska 432, 432–434, 433, 434

glaciations see Pleistocene glaciations

Gleason, Henry 451–452, 485–487, 488–490 see also individualistic concept/hypothesis

Glossopteris/Glossopteridales 405–406

goats, overgrazing by 567–568, 569

Gondwana 405, 409, 514

gradients/local patterns, vegetation 457–458, 500–501 see also classification of vegetation; competition intensity gradients; discrete communities debate; resource gradients; zoned communities

   aggregation, statistical tests 498–499

   block diagrams 458

   direct gradient analysis 458

   empirical studies 491–499, 492, 492

   exposure gradients, measuring 251–252

   fertility gradients 250, 252

   forest site types 460, 461

   freshwater marsh example 495–496, 496

   importance of pattern analysis as research tool 496

   lakeshore example 493–494, 494, 495

   measurable properties 457

   Morisita’s index 498, 499

   natural gradients 458–464

   nested patterns 498–499

   null model 487–490

   patterns 458

   profile diagrams 458, 460

   quantitative studies 491

   salt marsh example 163–165, 492–493, 493

   searching for patterns see multivariate methodology

   statistical tests 498–499

   summary displays 463, 463

   vegetation cover types 460, 461

   vegetation templates 462, 462

   wetland vegetation analysis 496–499, 499

grazing see herbivory

Great Lakes, development 421, 430

greenhouse effect 26–27, 31, 32

Grime, Philip, (University of Sheffield)

   artificial grassland communities 539

   CSR synthesis 277–279, 278, 280

   humped-back model 524, 524–526, 526

   limestone versus productive grassland comparison 134, 134

Grisebach, A. H. R. Die Vegetation der Erde 51

growth rates, and resource capture 100–101, 101

growth rates, in stressed environments 133–134

   above/below-ground competition 135

   anti-grazing strategies 135

   consequences of low 134–135

   and disturbance/management strategies 134, 184

   ecological interest 135, 184

   and fertilization 135

   mycorrhizae 135

   and plant diversity 134, 135

   RGR screening 162

   symbiotic interactions 135, 138

gut symbiont micro-organisms 15, 15

   cellulose degradation 390, 391

   foregut fermentation 390–393, 392, 393, 394

   hindgut fermentation 393–395

   Myxotricha paradoxa 15, 15

   nitrogen economy, host species 392

Guyana highlands 578–579

gymnosperms

   and angiosperm evolution 405–408

   species diversity 508

   strobili see strobili in gymnosperms

   taxonomic divisions included 49


Haber, Fritz 87–88, 87, 605

habitat destruction 549, 553, 588 see also conservation; humans, ecological impact; logging/paper industry

   critical thresholds 598–599

   historical 550–553, 552, 583 see also Louisiana, alluvial forest destruction

habitat/species diversity correlation 505–508

   altitudinal range 506–507, 507

   fugitive/interstitial/peripheral species 506

   lowland tropical forest, e.g. Amazon basin 507–508, 508

   Saxifraga aizoon, Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario 506

   species flocks/redundancy 508

Harrison, John 403

hawkweed (Hieracium floribundum) study 216, 217–218

heather moorlands 292

herbivory 284–286, 332–334 see also defenses, plant; disturbance; species composition, top-down/bottom-up control

   aquatic macrophytes/algae/terrestrial plants comparison 320–322

   coypu/nutria, impact on fringing reed/marsh vegetation experiment 316–317, 317

   deer, impact on deciduous forest experiment 313–316, 314, 314

   demographic study, deer grazing on American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) 315

   and ecosystem management 334

   experimental design, enclosure experiments 312–313

   experimental meta-analyses/multiple regression analyses 318–322, 319

   field experiments 303–304, 304, 321, 322

   field observations, wildlife diets 286

   giant tortoises, island 290, 292, 566–567, 567, 568, 568

   grassland herbivores experiments 306–313

   impact on plant communities 285–286, 333, 334

   insects, impact on deciduous forests experiment 304–305, 305

   insects, tropical forest canopy 289–290, 291

   land crabs in tropical forests experiment 305–306

   mammals, African grassland 286–289, 287, 288

   man-made landscapes 292

   modeling see mathematical modeling

   and mowing 325

   plant–herbivore interactions 284–285, 285

   rhinoceros, tropical floodplain forests experiment 313

   selective 290, 324–325

   sheep 292

   slugs 292

   squirrel herbivory, gymnosperm cones 295, 296

heterocysts 82

Hieracium floribundum (hawkweed) study 217–218

history, habitat destruction 550–553, 552, 583 see also Louisiana, alluvial forest destruction

histosols 119

Hofmeister, W. 416, 417

Holland 37

Holocene 418

hominids/Homo sapiens 426, 428–430 see also humans, ecological impact

   extinction of large mammals 429

Hooker, Sir Joseph 36, 37–38

hot spots, diversity 544, 544, 572, 573–574, 574, 576

   conservation value 573

   degree of risk 573

   Indo-Burma 573

   Philippines 573

   protected status 574

   vegetation cover losses 573

Hubbard Brook, White Mountains, New Hampshire 264–268, 265, 266, 266, 267

humans, ecological impact 549 see also conservation; eutrophication, effects on species diversity; fragmentation of natural landscapes; habitat destruction; introduced species; management, land/ecosystem

   Assyria, ancient 550–551

   Carthaginian example 121–122

   cities 593–595

   ecological footprints 595, 596

   ecological meltdown 587

   economic growth and conservation 580–581, 581

   Europeans, impact 557–558

   extinction of large mammals 429

   global appropriation of primary production/water supplies 553

   habitat loss 588

   man-made landscapes 292

   Mayan example 122, 123

   overgrazing 545–546, 549, 567–568, 569, 595–598

   perspectives, American/European 601

   Rome/Mediterranean, ancient 551–553, 552

   soil erosion 121–122, 555

humming birds, pollination 360, 360

humped-back model 524, 524–526, 525, 525, 526

Huntingdonshire fen 582–584

hybrid vigor 381, 385

hydrogen 79 see also CHNOPS perspective

hydrological cycle 4, 7

   early experimental work 7–9, 8

hydroseres 450


ice

   abrasion 170

   ages see Pleistocene glaciations

   erosion 249, 250, 250

Illiciaceae 42, 43, 45

inbreeding depression 381, 385

indicators, ecological 602–603, 604

   adaptive ecosystem management 602

   biological properties 602

   critical values 602

   deciduous forest 603

   decomposition 602

   keystone species 603

   large carnivores 603

   monitoring 571, 602, 603

   physical factors 602

   primary production 602

   snags (dead trees) 603

individualistic concept/hypothesis 486–487, 491, 492, 492, 496

Indo-Burma 573

Insectivorous Plants (Charles Darwin) 136–138

insects

   bird predation, and tree growth 305

   impact on deciduous forests 304–305, 305

   pollination 359, 359, 515 see also fly pollination

inselbergs/tepui 579

intensity, competition 191–193, 193

   asymmetric 202–203

   gradients see competition intensity gradients

interference competition/allelopathy 194

intermediate biomass, Grime’s humped-back model 524, 524–526, 525, 525, 526

intermediate disturbance model 527, 527–529, 546

   boreal forests, fire and plant diversity in 528–529, 529, 529

   conservation implications 528

   contingency factors 528

   gap dynamics 527

interspecific competition 190–191, 191, 215 see also competition

interstitial species 506

intraspecific

   competition see competition, intraspecific

   size hierarchies 207

introduced species see also diseases/pest introductions

   goats, overgrazing by 567–568, 569

   nutria (coypu), impact on fringing reed/marsh vegetation 316–317, 317

ion capture 100

ionizing radiation see radiation, ionizing

Isoëtes 75–76


JABOWA 447, 448

James, W. philosopher 487

Juglans cinerea (butternut) 584


keystone species 603

Köppen, W. 57–58, 58

Ksudach volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 255–258, 257

Küchler, A. W. 37, 55–56, 56

kwongan, southwestern Australia, diversity 518


land, colonization 21–26, 33

   adaptations 514

   and atmospheric oxygen 22, 33

   and atmospheric ozone 22, 33

   and chloroplast evolution 22

   evolutionary succession 24, 24–26, 25, 33

   and oceanic nutrient depletion 22, 33

   and plant/fungal symbiosis evolution 22, 23

   selection pressures 23

   and sexual reproduction, evolution 22, 23–24

land management see conservation; management land/ecosystems

landslides 254–255, 256 see also disturbance

Lapland 37

Laurasia 405, 409, 514

Lavoisier, Antoine 66–67

leaves

   epidermal/stomatal adaptations to drought 146–147

   lobed/toothed and climate 171–173, 172

   selection for small size 72–73

   surface area 147, 147, 148, 149

Lepidodendron trees 24, 25

Les Commensaux et les Parasites (Pierre van Benden) 337

lichens 355–358, 356, 357

   cold/drought tolerance 173–174, 174

   mycobionts 356

   as parasitism 356, 358

   phycobionts 355

   relative benefit to partners 356

Liebig’s Law of the Minimum 536

life-form classification (C. Raunkiaer) 513

life history, and succession 444, 444

life/living organisms

   energy needs 4–5

   resource needs 5

light acquisition see also photosynthesis

   photon harvesting measures 70

   and plant architecture 70–73

   root uptake of carbon dioxide 75–76

   selection for visible light exploitation 16, 16–17, 17

limestone versus productive grassland comparison 134, 134

Linnaeus, Carolus 36–37, 508

   botanical pornography 37

   Systema Naturae 36, 37–38

lipid bilayer membrane hypothesis 10–11, 11

Lithops (stone plants) 149

Lobelia dortmanna 345, 354

local patterns, vegetation see gradients/local patterns, vegetation

loess 419–421, 422

log-normal relative abundance model 534

logging/paper industry 569

   pull boat logging, Louisiana 559, 561

   and succession 446

Long Island forest experiment 180, 180–181, 181

Lotka–Volterra models, mutualism 395

Louisiana, alluvial forest destruction 553–557, 563 see also conservation; cypress swamps, Louisiana

   European human influences 557–558

   Mississippi delta 553–557, 554, 556, 557

   pull boat logging 559, 561

   soil erosion 555

   sugar cane/cotton plantations 558–559

Lupinus texensis 381

Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico 254–255


Magnoliales, classification 39–40

Malthus, Thomas 186

   An Essay on the Principle of Population 187

mammals, African grassland 286–289, 287, 288

   evolutionary adaptations 286–289

management, land/ecosystem see also conservation; restoration, habitat

   adaptive ecosystem management 602

   and herbivory 334

   rehabilitation programs 546

   stressed environments 134, 184

   and succession 446

   and vegetation classification/description 457, 474, 476–484

management perspectives 588–592, 589 see also conservation

   biodiversity maintenance 590, 592–593

   functional redundancy 592

   service of humans/functional perspective 588–592, 589, 591

   structural/community perspective 589–592

man-made landscapes, herbivory 292 see also humans, ecological impact

mangrove swamps, diversity 517

maquis 151

Marat, Jean Paul 67

Mars, atmosphere 26, 27

marshes, freshwater

   gap dynamics 274–275, 275

   vegetation patterns 495–496, 496

marshes, salt see salinity, salt marsh studies

mast years 373–375, 374

   coevolution 373–374

   pig dispersal 374

   squirrel dispersal 375

   zoological perspective 375

mathematical modeling, herbivory 325–327, 326

   critical herbivore density 328, 329–331

   extended models 327–332, 329, 330

   spruce budworm population dynamics 331–332, 332

mathematical modeling, mutualism

   cost-benefit models 396–398

   facultative/obligate 395, 396

   Lotka–Volterra models 395

   population dynamics 395–396

mathematical modeling, relative abundance see ranked abundance models

Maximilliana maripa dispersal by tapir 370

Mayan civilization 122, 123

meanders, river 236–237, 237, 243–249, 244, 246 see also burial; disturbance

Mediterranean climate, and species diversity 518–520, 520

   California 518

   central Chile 518

   Mediterranean basin 518

   South Africa (fynbos) 518

   southwestern Australia (kwongan) 518

Mediterranean shrublands 150, 150–152, 152

   fynbos (South Africa) 151

   kwongan (southwestern Australia) 518

   life-form spectra 151

   maquis 151

   plant community/soil characteristics 153

meiosis, cost 379–381, 382

membranes, cell see cell membranes

meteor impacts 259–264, 260, 261, 262 see also catastrophes, high intensity

   disturbance fires 261–262

   study through geological record discontinuities, Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary 260–262

   Tunguska event, Siberia 264

micro-organisms, digestive see gut symbiont micro-organisms

migration, ice-age 426–428, 428, 429

mineral nutrients see nutrients; resource acquisition

Mississippi delta 553–557, 554, 556, 557

mitochondria 13–14

models see computer modeling/simulation; mathematical modeling

moisture/climatic warmth, and diversity 508–513

molecular systematics 35, 41–43, 45

   cladograms 42, 42–43

molecules

   amino acid structure 65, 65

   complexity 5–6, 6, 8

   replication/reproduction of 9

   stability/natural selection 7, 9, 64

mollisols 119

Monks Wood experiment 534, 535

monocultures 197–200

moorlands 292

Moosonee, Ontario 158

Morisita’s index 498, 499

mosaics, successional 237–238

Mount St. Helens, US 258–259, 259

multicellular organisms, evolution see Cambrian explosion, multicellular organisms; see also eukaryotic cells, origins/evolution

multivariate methodology 464–465, 500–501 see also gradients/local patterns, vegetation

   abundance data 467

   correlations 470

   data matrices 465–466, 466

   detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) 471

   factor analysis 470

   functional simplification, ordination 471–474, 474

   measuring similarity 466–468

   ordination techniques 468

   presence/absence data 466–467, 467

   principal components analysis (PCA) 468

   species data ordinations 468–470, 469

   species/environmental data ordinations 470–471, 472

   TWINSPAN classification 471

Murray River, Australia 252

mutualism 399–402 see also gut symbiont micro-organisms; lichens; mycorrhizae; pollination; seed dispersal, by animals

   animal-plant, Acacia/ant example 387–389, 388, 389

   asymmetric 336

   commensalism 336, 338, 355

   and competition, apparent 398–399

   definitions 336–337

   divine order, confusion with 400

   facilitation 338

   facultative/obligate 395, 396

   fungal–plant associations, difficulties in studying 350

   history of research into/use of term 337, 337–338

   measuring, importance of 400, 401

   modeling see mathematical modeling

   parable from Darwin’s observations 398

   plant–plant see nurse plants; plant–plant associations

   stressed environments 135, 138

   and symbiosis 336

mycobionts 356

mycorrhizae

   and commensalism 355

   and competition 214–215

   cost-benefits 347, 354–355, 355

   discovery 348

   economics analogy 215

   ectomycorrhizae/endomycorrhizae 346

   ectomycorrhizae in forests 337, 349–350, 351352

   infection rates/commonality 352, 353, 353–354

   and nitrogen uptake 347

   oxygen availability 350, 354

   and parasitism 355

   phosphorus uptake 347–349

   and resource capture 83–85, 347–349

   and resource gradients 95, 97

   and soil fertility 352

   stressed environments 135

   in wetlands 350–354, 353

myrmecochory 371–373, 372

Myxotricha paradoxa 15, 15


Narrative of Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro, A (Alfred Wallace) 38

natural selection see selection, natural; see also evolution

nature reserves 550

   buffer zones 572

   designing 570–573, 571

   and diversity 546 see also hot spots, diversity

   ecological interest of stressed communities 135, 184

   gap analysis 573

   representativeness of habitat type 573

   size 505, 571–572, 586–588 see also species-area model

   steps to follow 570–571

   wildlife corridors 584

nature study, and biology 399

nectar, availability 108

Netherlands 596, 597

New Jersey, USA, species diversity 542–543, 545

New South Wales, Australia 289

nitrogen 65, 82, 85–86 see also fertility

   content and food quality 300–302, 301, 323

   cycle/Fritz Haber’s work 87–88, 605

   limitation 83–85, 86–91, 90, 91–93, 93

   natural/man-made sources 85–86

   secondary metabolites 297

   uptake, and mutualism 347, 392

Nothofagus 410, 411

nuclear testing 606–607

nuclear war/nuclear winter 264, 604 see also catastrophes, high intensity; disturbance; radiation, ionizing

null model 487–490, 488–490

nurse plants 338–341 see also plant–plant associations

   Barrel cactus/perennial bunch grass mutualism 339

   competition from 340, 341

   during primary succession 341

   effects on physical environment 340

   Saguaro cactus/creosote bush mutualism 338–339, 339, 340, 341

nutria (coypu), impact on fringing reed/marsh vegetation 316–317, 317

nutrient/s see also resource acquisition

   conservation 114–116

   cyanophyte single cell model 81–83, 82

   gradient studies 116, 116

   resorption/resorption efficiency/proficiency 115–116

   soil 212–214

   uptake components 83

Nymphaeaceae 42, 43, 44


oceanic

   chemistry 18–19, 33

   nutrient depletion 22, 33

oil sequestration 27–28, 33

Ontario

   Algonquin Provincial Park 506

   Moosonee 158

Oparin, Aleksandr 5, 10

Opuntia fragilis study 218

orchid (Epidendrum ciliare) 382–385, 383

Orchidaceae 40, 43, 46

Origin of Species, The (Charles Darwin) 136

ornithophily (bird pollination) 359–361, 360, 361, 362

Ottawa River, Canada, marshes 268–269, 269 see also disturbance

overgrazing 545–546, 549, 567–568, 569, 595–598

oxisols 120

oxygen

   release, Lobelia dortmanna 345

   uptake, and mycorrhizae 350, 354

oxygen revolution 15, 18–21, 33 see also atmosphere, origins; photosynthesis

   and atmospheric composition 20, 33

   and ocean chemistry 18–19, 33

   ozone layer formation 19, 20–21, 33

ozone layer 21, 22

   formation 19, 20–21, 33


palynology 31, 404

   Amazon 424

   evergreen forests 410–411

   fire history 232

   plant succession 450

Pampas, South America 307–309

Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) 315

paper industry 569 see also logging/paper industry

parasitism 112–114, 113

   aerial parasites 114

   documentation, historical 113

   evolution 113

   hemiparasites/holoparasites 113

   influence on host species 114

   limitation to dicotyledons 112

   and mutualism 355, 356, 358 see also fly pollination

Park Grass experiment, Rothamsted, England 534, 535, 535, 536–538, 541–542

patches, resource see also resource gradients

   resource patches other than water 108

   small-scale heterogeneity 93–94, 94

   transitory patches 100, 100–101, 101

patterns, vegetation see classification of vegetation; gradients/local patterns vegetation

peat bogs 160–161

   carnivory 162

   evergreen foliage 160

   pH gradients 161

   Sphagnum moss 160–161, 161, 232–236, 236, 434

   succession 434, 434–437, 435, 436, 454

Pereira, Ferdinand, conservationist 606

perennials/biennials 102–105

peripheral species 506

pesticide use, conifer timber plantations 331

pests see disease/pest introductions; see also defenses, plant; secondary metabolites

phanerophytes 513

phenolics 297

Philippines 573

phosphorus 67, 83–85

   levels, lake 602

   limitation 83–85, 86–91, 90, 91–93, 93

   uptake, and mycorrhizae 347–349

photon harvesting 70

photosynthesis 71

   C3/C4 73–74

   CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) 46, 74–75, 147, 149, 150

   carbon dioxide/drought trade-off 74

   origins/evolution see below

   sciophytes 76–77

   type classification 73–75, 76, 77

photosynthesis, origins/evolution 15–18

   chlorophyll evolution 17–18

   electromagnetic spectrum, selection of visible light exploitation 16, 16–17, 17

   energy synthesis, evolutionary possibilities 16, 17

   and fermentation 15

   role in creation of atmosphere 1–2, 33

   selection for 16

phycobionts 355

phylogenetic classification see classification, phylogenetic

phytoplankton

   nitrogen and phosphorus 81–83, 81, 82

phytosociology 475, 476, 477 see also classification of vegetation

pine cones see strobili in gymnosperms

plant–animal mutualism see animal–plant associations

plant architecture see architecture, plant

plant communities see classification, phylogenetic; discrete communities debate; ecosystems; gradients/local patterns, vegetation

plant defenses see defenses, plant

plant–plant associations 338, 342–346, 346 see also nurse plants

   aerenchyma oxygen transport by Typha latifolia 343

   beach/bay study 341–342

   and competition/stress gradients 341–342, 343, 344

   marsh elder seedling recruitment 342

   oxygen release by roots of Lobelia dortmanna 345

   salt marsh study mutualistic interactions 342

Plants and Vegetation, overview/scope 605

Pleistocene glaciations 418–419

   drought 423

   erosion/deposition 419, 421

   extinction of large mammals 429

   flooding 430

   Great Lakes development 421, 430

   Hominids/Homo sapiens 426, 428–430

   ice cores, Vostok 30

   ice sheet advances/retreats 418–419, 430

   loess 419–421, 422

   migration 426–428, 428, 429

   passerine birds, evolution 423

   pluvial lakes 422, 422

   refuge model, tropical forests 423, 423

   sea level changes 425–426, 426, 430

   sediment cores, deep sea 30, 31

   species diversity 423

pneumatophores 176–177, 178

Poaceae 40

Podocarpaceae 237, 410–411, 412

podsols 119

pollination 515

   birds (ornithophily) 359–361, 360, 361, 362

   ecology 362–363, 363

   efficiency 382–385

   and herbivory deterrence dilemma 302

   insects 359, 359 see also fly pollination

   and nectar supply 358–361

population dynamics, mathematical models 331–332, 332, 395–396

Portland, Oregon 158, 159

positive topography 95, 95

prairie/savanna vegetation types, and fire 230–232, 231

Prantl, Karl 39

precipitation/temperature see rainfall/climatic warmth

primary forests see forests, primary

primary production 602

   gradients 323–324

   and plant size 78, 78–79

principal components analysis (PCA) 468

Principles of Animal Ecology (Warder Allee) 337

profile diagrams 458, 460

prokaryotic cells 11, 12, 12, 13 see also gut symbiont micro-organisms

   fossils 11

Proteaceae 413, 414

protest, active 606

pteridophytes, diversity 508

Puerto Rico, Luquillo Mountains 254–255

pull boat logging 559, 561

pyroclastic flows 255, 257, 259


Quaternary 418–419

Queensland, Australia 437


radiation, ionizing

   Long Island forest experiment 180, 180–181, 181

   and plant diversity 181

   radiosensitivity and chromosome volume 181

Rafflesia genus 363–364

Rainbow Warrior, sinking 606–607

rainfall/climatic warmth

   and diversity 508–513

   interactions 156–157

   ratios 57

ranked abundance models 532–539, 533, 535, 535

   broken stick model 534

   Compton experiment 535, 535

   geometric model 534

   log-normal model 534

   Monks Wood experiment 534, 535

   Zipf–Mandelbrot model 534, 535

Raunkiaer, C. 51, 51–55, 54

   life-form classification 280, 513

   null model 488–490

red grouse 292

redundancy hypothesis, leaf architecture 72

refuge model, tropical forests 423, 423

regeneration see also restoration, habitat; succession

   from buried seed banks 270–272, 271

   cypress swamp 560, 562

   deciduous forests, Appalachian Mountains 272–273, 273

relative abundance 532–539, 535 see also diversity

   evenness 532

   ranked abundance models 532–539, 533, 535

   Shannon–Weaver index 533

   Simpson’s index 533

relative growth rates (RGR) screening 162 see also growth rates

reproduction see clonal reproduction; sexual reproduction

research, ecological see also science

   locations 544, 545

   projects/careers 605, 608

   reading monographs/papers, cautionary advice 592

   role in conservation 606

reserves see nature reserves

resource acquisition 123–125 see also carbon dioxide/carbon; CHNOPS perspective; foraging; light acquisition; photosynthesis, origins/evolution; resource gradients

   acquisition costs 67–68

   availability patterns 93–99, 101–105, 102, 103 see also below

   bottlenecks 105–108, 106, 107

   commodity concept 67–68

   depletion models 198–200

   energetic costs 68

   ion capture 100

   and life span 102–105

   limitation 91, 108–109

   mineral nutrients, cyanobacteria single cell model 81–83, 82

   needs 5

   nutrient conservation 114–116

   nutrient uptake components 83

   pre-emption models 198–200

   resorption/resorption efficiency/proficiency 115–116

   small-scale heterogeneity 93–94, 94

   stress-tolerant plant attributes 109

   symbiotic mycorrhizae 83–85

   transitory patches 100, 100–101, 101

   water/evapotranspiration process 79–80, 80

resource fluctuations, study complications 105–108, 106, 107

resource gradients 94–99, 95, 96, 99

   biogeographical (long term) approach 106

   examples 97, 98, 129–131, 132, 252

   forest-soil treatise 95

   mycorrhizal associations 95, 97

   nutrient gradient studies 116, 116

   scales 97–99

   terminology 95

   water erosion/deposition 94

Restionaceae 413, 414

restoration, habitat 599–601, 600

   history 600–601

   integrity of community, preservation 599–600

   objectives/targets 599

   perspectives, American/European 601

   rehabilitation programs 546

   reversing changes 600

   safety margins 592

   thresholds, critical 550, 595–599, 598

RGR (relative growth rates) screening 162 see also growth rates, in stressed environments

Rhine, River 274

rhinoceros, in tropical floodplain forests 313

Richards, P. W. 55, 55

risk-aversive strategies 133

rivers

   erosion see water erosion

   meanders, river 236–237, 237, 243–249, 244, 246 see also burial; disturbance

   sedimentation see deposition

   valleys/floodplains 236–238

rock barrens 152–156

   alvars 154, 155

   serpentine rock communities 155–156

   tepui 154

rock domes 154

Rome/Mediterranean, ancient 551–553, 552

   deforestation/erosion 551–553

Rothamsted, England, Park Grass Experiment 535, 535, 536–538, 538, 541–542

ruderals

   life history 102

   strategy see CSR synthesis

ruminants see gut symbiont micro-organisms

Russia

   boreal forests, conservation/management 569

   Ksudach volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula 255–258, 257


Saguaro cactus/creosote bush mutualism 338–339

salinity 162–165, 163

   and diversity 517

   and drought 163, 164

   and plant distribution 163–165

   salt marsh studies 164–165, 342, 492–493, 493

   soils (solonchaks) 119

Salvinia molesta 301–302

sand dunes, succession 437–439, 438, 439

savanna vegetation types, and fire 230–232, 231

Saxifraga aizoon, Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario 506

scale effects, species distribution 182–183, 183

science see also research, ecological

   importance of 400, 401

   nature study, and biology 399

sciophytes 76–77

sea level changes, Pleistocene glaciations 425–426, 426, 430

secondary metabolites 149, 297, 297–299, 298, 323 see also defenses, plant

   angiosperms 515

   nitrogen containing 297

   phenolics 297

   terpenes 297

   tropical forest example 297–298, 299

   wetland plants 298–299, 300

sedimentation by rivers see deposition

seed banks 102

   Darwin’s observations 453

   regeneration from 270–272, 271

   and succession 453

seed dispersal, by animals 365–367 see also mutualism; mast years

   Andira inermis dispersal by bats 370–371

   Cakile edentula on sand dunes 367–369, 368, 370

   coevolution 366

   cost benefits 366–367

   evolution 365, 366, 373–374, 377–379

   fruit production 365, 366

   Maximilliana maripa dispersal by tapir 370

   myrmecochory 371–373, 372, 372–373

   obligate (single-species) dependence 377–379

   quantitative studies 376, 376–377, 377

   seed distribution versus herbivory deterrence dilemma 302

   tambalacoque (Sideroxylon) and dodo 377–379

seed production/output 386–387

   number/size relationship 386, 387

   and shoot size 386–387

   stressed environments 135–140, 139, 140

seed-protecting structures 293–295

   hard coats 303

   strobili in gymnosperms 294, 294–295, 296

seedling

   mortality, stressed environments 140–141, 143

   recruitment, marsh elder 342

selection, natural see also evolution

   cellulose versus chitin as structural molecule 92

   height 77–78

   land, colonization 23

   of molecules 7, 9, 64

   photosynthesis 16

   for small leaves 72–73

   stress adaptations 131, 133

   visible light exploitation, electromagnetic spectrum 16, 16–17, 17

Selfish Gene, The (Richard Dawkins) 9

self-thinning 197–198

Serengeti National Park, Tanzania 289, 309–313, 310

seres 431, 450, 451

serial endosymbiosis theory 12–15, 14

serotinous cones see strobili in gymnosperms

serpentine rock communities 155–156

sexual reproduction

   Antennaria parvifolia 385

   Anthoxanthum odoratum 381–382, 382

   and apomixis 385–386

   cost benefits 379–381, 380

   evolution 22, 23–24

   inbreeding depression 381, 385

   Lupinus texensis 381

   meiosis, cost 379–381, 382

   orchid (Epidendrum ciliare) 382–385, 383

   out-crossing, experimental measures 381–382

   pollination efficiency 382–385

shade-tolerant species 442

shading, and shoot size 209–215, 213

Shannon–Weaver index 533

sheep, herbivory 292

shorelines, succession 448–450, 449, 454–455

Siberia, Tunguska event 264

Sideroxylon see tambalacoque

Silent Spring (Rachel Carson) 331

Simpson’s index 533

slugs, herbivory 292

smoking hills 179, 179–180

snags (dead trees) 603

snow abrasion, wind-driven 170

soils 116–120

   classification 118, 118–120

   earthworms, role 120

   electrical charge 117

   erosion 121–122, 555

   fertility, and mycorrhizae 352

   forest-soil treatise 95

   formation, factors driving 117

   surface area 117

solonchaks 119

South Africa

   Cape Province 307, 307

   fynbos 151, 518

South America, Pampas 307–309

speciation rates, and diversity 518, 519

species-area model 502–505, 503, 504, 506, 519, 571

   conservation implications 505, 586–588

   equation 503

   extinction rates 505, 547

species composition

   grazed/ungrazed vegetation 318–320, 320

   top-down/bottom-up control 305, 322–324

species data ordinations 468–470, 469, 470–471, 472

species diversity see diversity

species flocks 508

species pools 516, 516

Sphagnum peat communities 160–161, 161, 232–236, 236, 434

spines, desert plants 148–149

spodosols 119

sporophyte see also gametophyte

   alternation of generations 415–418

   description 415

   phylogeny 42

   plant colonization of land 22, 415

   size in terrestrial plants 77–78, 415–417

   Sphagnum 161

   taxonomic classification 49

Sprengel, C. K. 362–363

spruce budworm population dynamics 331–332, 332

squirrels

   dispersal, tree seeds 375

   herbivory 295, 296

statistical tests for species aggregation 498–499

   Morisita’s index 498

   nestedness 498–499

stone plants (Lithops) 149

strawberry-coral, model clonal reproduction 142

stress 182–183, 184–185 see also adaptations to stress; arctic–alpine vegetation; CSR synthesis; drought, definitions; flooding; growth rates; peat bogs; radiation, ionizing; salinity

   air pollution stress 179, 179–180

   categorization/classification 184–185

   competition, role of 129, 131, 341–342, 344

   ecological interest of communities 135, 184

   ecological/physiological responses 129, 130

   endolithic communities 174–176, 175

   experimental examples 129–131, 132

   importance of accurate definitions/terminology 126

   lichens, cold/drought tolerance 173–174, 174

   plant attributes 109

   regulators, stress 160–161, 162–179

   resource unavailability 159–162

   RGR screening 162

   scale effects, moisture and temperature 182–183, 183

   scope of chapter 127

   seed size 135–140, 139, 140

   seedling mortality 140–141, 143

   short-term metabolic costs 128–131

   strain, definition 127

   stress avoidance 127, 169

   stress, definition 126, 127, 128

   stress factor/stressor, definition 127

   stress response/state of stress, definition 127

   stress tolerance 124, 127, 169

strobili in gymnosperms 294, 294–295, 296

   fire adaptations, gymnosperm cones 295, 296

   squirrel herbivory on 295, 296

structural perspective, land management 589–592

succession 431–432, 454–455

   Acadian Forest 442, 444

   barrens 446

   Boundary Waters Canoe Area, North America 440–442, 441

   buried seed banks 453

   climax 431, 450–451

   and competition 453, 454

   conifer forests affected by fire 439–440

   controversy/synthesis 431, 448, 452–454, 455

   and disturbance 447, 452

   facilitation 453

   fire-dependent species 442

   historical views 454

   hydroseres 450

   and landscape management 446

   and life-history 444, 444

   mechanisms of change 452–453

   mosaics, successional 237–238

   peat bogs 434, 434–437, 435, 436, 454

   and plant size 78, 78–79

   post-glacial, Glacier Bay, Alaska 432, 432–434, 434

   predictive models 446–448, 447

   primary 431

   progressive/retrogressive 437

   sand dunes 437–439, 438, 439

   secondary 431

   seres 431, 450, 451

   shade-tolerant species 442

   shorelines 448–450, 449, 454–455

   Tasmanian rainforest 444–446, 445

   usefulness of concept 455

   vegetation dynamics approach 452, 455

   zoned communities 403, 448–450, 453

succulents 110–111, 111

sugar cane/cotton plantations 558–559

sulfur see CHNOPS perspective

summary displays 463, 463

sun tracking 169

sundews 136–138, 138

superorganisms 437, 485–486

Sweden 37

symbiosis 336–337 see also gut symbiont micro-organisms; mutualism

Systema Naturae (Linnaeus) 36, 37–38


Takhtajan, A. regional floristic classification 46–48, 47, 48

tambalacoque (Sideroxylon) and dodo coevolution 377–379

   re-evaluation 378

Tanzania, Serengeti National Park 289, 309–313, 310

tapir, Maximilliana maripa dispersal by 370

temperature/rainfall see rainfall/climatic warmth

tephra deposits 255, 257, 259

tepui 154, 579

terpenes 297

terrestrial species see land colonization

Tertiary/Cretaceous boundary 260–262

thermodynamics, second law 5–6, 7

Thornthwaite, C. W. 57

thresholds, critical 550, 595–599, 598

   degradation 598–599

   overgrazing 595–598

   reversing changes 600

time/timescales 403–405, 404 see also succession

   climate change 428

   ecological 403–405

   fossils, studying 404

   historical research 404

   measurement 403

Titus Smith Jr. 121

top-down/bottom-up control, plant communities 322–324

   other plant–animal interactions 324

   primary productivity gradients 323–324

   trophic cascades/effects of carnivorous predators 323

tortoises, giant 290, 292, 566–567, 567, 568, 568

tragedy of the commons 331

tree/s see also canopy; forests (various)

   bark insulation, from fire 228–230, 229, 230, 231

   mast see mast years

   overstorey diversity 509–510, 510, 511, 512

trophic cascades/effects of carnivorous predators 323

tropical floras 412–414, 413 see also forests, tropical

   Australia 414

   New-World vertebrates 413–414

Tunguska event, Siberia 264

TWINSPAN classification 471

Typha latifolia 343


Ulmus americana 584, 586

ultisols 120

Umbilicaria species, cold/drought tolerance 173–174, 174


van Helmont, J. B. 120–121

vascular plants, evolutionary trends 26

vegetation cover types 460, 461

vegetation dynamics 452, 455

vegetation templates 462, 462

vegetative reproduction see clonal reproduction

Venus, atmosphere 26, 27

venus fly trap (Dionaea muscipula) 521, 522, 522

Vernadsky, Vladimir La Biosphère 2, 3, 3–4

volcanic eruptions 255–259, 257 see also catastrophes; disturbance

   distribution, western US 255

   Ksudach volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 255–258, 257

   Mount St. Helens, US 258–259, 259

   tephra deposits 255, 257, 259 air borne pyroclastic material

von Humboldt, A. 51, 52, 52–54


waldsterben 585

Wallace, Alfred 36, 37, 38–39, 186

   A Narrative of Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro 38

warfare

   chemical 87

   nuclear 264, 604 see also catastrophes; disturbance; radiation, ionizing

warmth, climatic see rainfall/climatic warmth

water absorption/storage, desert plants 147–148

water erosion 236–238

   Amazon forest floodplains 237–238, 239

   meanders, river 236–237, 237, 243–249, 244, 246 see also burial; disturbance

   mosaics, successional 237–238

   podocarp forests 237

   and resource gradients 94

   river valleys/floodplains 236–238

water evapotranspiration 79–80, 80

water table lowering 560

waves 249–252, 251

   exposure gradients, measuring 251–252

   fertility gradients created by 250, 252

   and vegetation types, River Murray, Australia 252

wetland/s

   clonal reproduction 140–141, 143

   competition intensity gradients 220, 221

   conservation 576, 578

   ecological role 576

   fire in 232, 234, 235

   largest in the world 576, 578, 578

   mycorrhizae 350–354, 353

   resource gradient experimental example 130–131, 132

   secondary metabolites 298–299, 300

   vegetation analysis 496–499, 499

wildlife corridors 584

world floristic regions 46–48, 47, 48 see also ecoregions


Zipf–Mandelbrot relative abundance model 534, 535

zonation see gradients/local patterns, vegetation

zoned communities 403, 448–450, 453


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