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Gandhi's Philosophy and the Quest for Harmony
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 (ISBN-13: 9780521867153 | ISBN-10: 0521867150)

Gandhi’s Philosophy and the Quest for Harmony


Cambridge University Press
0521867150 - Gandhi’s Philosophy and the Quest for Harmony - by Anthony J. Parel
Index


Index

Acharyas, the 10, 32–33

Ahimsa see non-violence

Ahmed, Akbar 46, 48

Ahmedabad 94

Alberuni, Abu Rihan Muhammad 10, 33–34

Ambedkar, B. R. 66, 89, 106, 201

American Declaration of Independence 53

American War of Independence 95

Andrews, C. F. 59, 130

Anti-Indian South African Laws 94

Aparigraha 71–72

Aristotle 31

Arjuna 87, 185, 187, 198

Arnold, David 39

Art 158, 160, 162, 169

   and economics 161–62

   and politics 159

   and religion 110, 158–59, 162, 165, 166

   and society 3–4, 158, 164, 169, 170

   and truth 164, 165

   autonomy of 161

   definition of 160

Artha 5, 14, 18, 23, 29, 39, 52, 64, 66, 68, 182, 196, 198, 199, 201

   and the state 52

   definition of 29

   relationship to moksha 15, 19, 20, 114, 184, 205

   relationship with the other purusharthas 21, 45, 61, 65, 66, 83, 114, 115, 129, 201

   see also economics; politics; nationalism

Arthasastra, The 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 31, 53, 69

Arya Samaj 42

Aryans, the 42–43

Ashram Hymnal, the 165, 167, 195

Ashramas, the 9, 85, 87, 90, 91, 98, 144, 146, 178, 182

Asoka the Great 7

Astea 71–72, 92

Atma-jnana 12

Atma vidya 177

Atman 22, 23, 119, 120, 177, 189, 195, 196, 203

Attlee, Clement 73

Auckland Star, The 170

Aurobindo, Sri 37, 44–45, 70, 178, 179–80, 182, 183

   Bande Mataram 45

Austin, Granville 38, 55, 66

Avatar 103, 111, 186–87

Azad, Abul Kalam 45, 46, 49–50, 51, 66


Bacon, Francis 71

Baptista, Joseph 45

Bard, Joseph 165

Bardoli 94

Barker, Sir Ernest 4

Bayly, Susan 55

Berlin, Isaiah 203, 204–05

Birdwood, Sir George 162

Bhagavad Gita, The 21, 22, 26, 69, 70, 71, 76, 77, 89, 91, 103, 105, 107, 111, 113, 133, 138, 151, 155, 175, 180–82, 183–84, 186, 187, 189, 190, 191, 192–93, 198

   and caste 87, 88, 182

Bhagavata, The 153

Bhakti 103, 190, 192, 198

Bhave, Vinoba 139

Bodhisattva 179

Body-force 119; see also soul-force soul-force

Boer War, the 59, 129

Bond, The 126

Bondaref, Timofei 76

Bondurant, Joan 56, 62, 157

Bose, Nandalal 157, 167

Bose, Nirmal Kumar 153, 154, 170

Brahman 177

Brahmasutra, The 185

Brahmi-state 190

“Bread Labor” 76–77

Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishad 195

Brown, Judith 54, 200

Buber, Martin 125–6; see also Bond, The

Buddha, the 7, 78–79, 122, 123, 146, 169, 181, 197

   and nirvana 7, 146

Buddhi 11, 22, 92–93, 95, 111, 112, 119, 188, 189, 190, 203, 204

Buddhism 7, 35, 43, 108, 112, 115, 121, 130

   and artha 202

   and human suffering 79

   and manual work 77–78

   and the monastic tradition 78, 79–80

   see also Navayana Buddhism

Bureau, Paul 141, 142

   Towards Moral Bankruptcy 141


Canada 41

Caste system, the 79, 87–88, 90, 91, 99, 103, 192 varna

   and the Gunas of 88

   in the scriptures 106

   see also varna

Celibacy (brahmacharya) 17, 137–38, 143, 148, 151, 155, 156

   and kama 17

   and God 151–52

   and self-purification 21

   at Sabarmati Ashram 19, 139–40

   civic 139, 140, 151

   definition of 138–39

   within marriage 139, 140, 147

   heroic 140

Chadwick, Owen 114

Chagla, Muhamad Currim 193

Champaran 94

Chapple, Christopher 17

Charkha 171, 172

   and poverty 172

Chastity 140, 143, 147, 149

Chatterjee, Margaret 99, 178, 200

   Gandhi’s Religious Thought 99

Chatterjee, Partha 65–66

Child marriage 143–44

Child widows 144

Christianity 13, 36, 44, 64, 89, 110, 114

   and civic nationalism 36

   and Hinduism 103, 110

   and non-violence 119

   and religious pluralism 110

Churchill, Sir Winston 170

Civic nationalism 35, 36, 38, 47, 50, 52, 60, 92, 197

   and religion 35, 36, 41, 50

   and language 37, 39

   and non-violence 40

   and the “clay pot” metaphor 39

   and the “oceanic circle” metaphor 40

   definition of 41

Civil disobedience 55–56, 62, 171, 199–200

Civil society 62, 63, 197

Clark, Kenneth 73

Clash of civilizations x, 47

Collectio Purushartha 6

Colonialism 52, 53, 57, 58, 59, 60, 72, 75, 90, 119, 171, 182, 184

Coomaraswamy, Ananda K. 162–63

   Essays on National Idealism 162, 163

Copleston, Frederick 203

Copley, Antony 40, 200


Dalits x, 24, 50, 90–91, 94, 99, 103, 119, 202

Dalton, Dennis 200

Darwin, Charles 73

Darwinism 203

Dasgupta, S. N. 17

Daya Krishna 11, 184

De Bary, William Theodore 6

Derrett, Duncan M. 178

Desai, Mahadev 25, 26, 181, 182

   Secretary’s Diary 25

Desai, Valji 160

Descartes, René 71

Dhamma 202

Dharma 5, 6, 20, 21, 65, 85, 91, 92, 93, 96, 133, 141

   and economics 6

   and politics 66, 129

   as duty 85, 87, 92, 95, 153

   as ethics 52, 83, 85, 153, 197

   as religion 20, 44, 45, 85, 114

   definition of 92–93

   natural 92–93, 95

   positive sources of 92

   relationship to moksha 8

   universal 92

   see also purusharthas, the

Dharmasastra, The 6, 7, 98, 178

Divetia, Narasinhrao 168

Diwan, Romesh 71, 72

Doke, Joseph 110, 168

Doniger, Wendy 146, 152

Dumont, Louis 8–9

Dutt, Romesh Chunder 69, 72

   Economic History of India 72


Eastern civilization x

Economics ix–x, 19, 73, 74, 75

   and ethics ix, 69, 72, 73, 76

   and industrialization 76

   and technology 81–82

   and trusteeship 70, 71

Ego, the 100–02, 119, 121, 185, 186, 188, 191, 204

Eliade, Mircea 11

Ellis, Havelock 141

Enlightenment, the 114

Erikson, Erik 154

Ethnic nationalism 41–42, 44, 50

European Community, the 133


Fabri, Dr. Charles 112

Fate 5, 14, 16, 23–24

First World War, the 52, 59, 129

Flood, Gavin 11

Forster, E. M. 205

Francis, St. 4

French Revolution, the 95

Freud, Sigmund 142, 203, 204


Gadgil, D. R. 82

Gandhi, Harilal 124

Gandhi, Kasturba 124, 145, 147

Gandhi, Maganlal 158, 163

Gandhi, Manilal 147–48, 149

Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand

   An Autobiography or the Story of My Experiments With the Truth 20, 73, 101, 112, 113, 139, 145–46, 163, 177, 193, 195

   Anasakti Yoga 181

   and his clothes 161, 164, 169–71

   and the Indian National Congress 37, 46, 58

   and international relations 58, 131, 132, 133

   and Jinnah 47–48

   and moksha 154, 155

   and national movement 52

   and Rajchandbhai 14–15, 92

   and religion 99

   and Tagore 77, 171–73

   and “The Jews” 125, 126

   and “The Satyagraha Pledge” 57

   and the Second World War 130

   and Tilak 25–26

   and Tolstoy 119

   and Unto this Last 73

   as an ascetic 68, 171

   as a celibate 145, 147

   as a Hindu 103, 110, 196

   as a pacifist 58

   as a philosopher 4–5, 104, 159

   as a politician 9

   as a reformer 143

   as a sannyasi 9

   as a writer 163–64

   Constructive Programme: Its Meaning and Place 38, 61–62, 98, 109, 124, 200

   “Declaration of Independence,” the 53, 68

   eleven virtues of 135, 137, 196, 197

   Gandhian paradigm, the 13, 19, 21, 23, 25, 26, 200, 205

   Gandhijinu Gita Shikshan (Discourses on the Gita) 181

   Gita-bodh (Letters on the Gita) 182

   Gita Padartha Kosha (Concordance to the Gita) 181

   Gospel of Selfless Action or Gita According to Gandhi 182

   Hind Swaraj 18, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36, 38, 52, 54, 61, 73, 76, 81, 96, 102, 103, 145, 150, 159, 161, 162, 163–64, 203

   in India 54, 94, 125, 126

   in South Africa 14, 15, 54, 80, 82, 93–94, 125, 126, 150, 168, 192

   Indian Opinion 74, 119, 162

   “Is this Humanity?” 122

   on non-cooperation 171, 199

   on ahimsa

   on art 157, 159, 160, 162, 164, 165, 171, 196

   on artha 25, 115, 201

   on caste 87–88, 89, 90, 91

   on celibacy 137–40, 143, 149, 152, 154

   on civic nationalism 33, 35, 37, 38–39, 40, 43, 49, 50

   on colonialism 53

   on economics 68–69, 75, 80, 82

   on fate 23–24

   on God 70–71, 99, 100, 101, 102, 111–12, 166, 186–87

   on Hinduism 99, 100, 102–05, 106

   on Hindu–Muslim conflict 110, 127

   on human rights 93–97

   on India 35

   on industrialization 76

   on the interpretation of the Gita 21, 70, 105, 107, 181–82, 183–84, 185, 193

   on the interpretation of scripture 105–07

   on karma yoga 190, 191, 194, 196

   on mediation 112, 113

   on moksha 17, 56, 175, 177–79, 180, 183, 184

   on music 166–67

   on national defence 58–59, 60, 129–32

   on non-violence 3, 118–19, 120–21, 123–24, 126, 128, 129, 132

   on nuclear weapons 131–32

   on politics 62, 183

   on poverty 161–62

   on private property 69

   on religion 99, 100, 106–07, 108, 116

   on religious pluralism 108–09

   on renunciation 15

   on Ramarajya 63–64

   on satyagraha 55–57

   on secularism 3, 114, 116

   on spirituality 196, 197

   on selfless service 104, 190, 191

   on sexuality 13, 137, 140, 141, 142, 143, 151, 152, 153

   on spinning 172–73

   on swadeshi 72

   on swaraj 75

   on technology 69, 80, 81–82

   on the state 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 61, 62, 63, 64

   on truth 20, 21, 195–96, 204, 205

   on war 52, 59–60, 128, 129

   on wealth 23

   philosophy of 3–4, 9, 14, 27, 57, 65, 69, 70, 71, 75, 83, 109, 196

   prayer schedule of 113–14

   preference for Rama 113

   rejection of the “mahatma” title 113

   Sarvodaya 74, 76, 141

   Satyagraha in South Africa 168

   Story of a Soldier of Truth 118

   voluntary poverty 68

   Young India 36, 141, 144

Gandhi, Narandas 22

Gandhi, Sushila 160

Gladstones, the 147

Glorious Revolution, the 95

Godse, Nathuram 44, 191

Gokhale, Gopal Krishna 19–20

Golwalkar, Mahadev Sadashiv 42

Gopal, Sarvepalli. 54

Gordon, Leonard 54

Guha, Ranajit 39, 201


Habermas, Jürgen 11–12

Hadith, the 49

Hardiman, David 39

Harmony ix, x, 3, 19, 50, 69, 166, 197, 204, 205

   between the aesthetic and the spiritual 196

   between the purusharthas 12, 63, 155

   between politics and morality ix–x, 26, 197

   between religions 42, 108, 109, 196

   between the ego and the self 100–01, 121, 188

   between secularism and spirituality x, 18, 36, 45, 99, 105

   between materialism and spirituality 18, 19, 21, 23, 82, 83, 188

   between nation-states 51

Havell, E. B. 162

Hedgewar, Keshav Baliram 42

Hill, J. C. 170

Hindu Mahasabha, the 42, 44

Hindu–Muslim conflict 18, 34, 47, 99, 109–10, 127, 196

Hinduism 13, 43, 69, 78, 90, 99, 102–05, 110, 115

   as an institution 103–04

   as an idea 99, 103

   and Christianity 103

   and the authority of scripture 103, 105–07

Hindutva 42, 43, 45, 46, 104, 114, 116, 200

Hoare, Sir Samuel 32

Hobbes, Thomas 40, 52, 59, 94, 95, 96

Hoyland, John S. 167

Human rights 37–38, 53, 54, 55, 68, 69, 71, 85, 93–94, 95, 96, 184

Humanism

   Gandhian 122, 197

   secular 116, 202, 203, 204, 205


India 10, 31, 32, 33–34, 35, 40, 52, 60, 65, 72, 76, 108, 130, 140, 184, 193, 197, 205

   and Hindutva 43

   and Muslim Influence 34–36

   and civic nationalism 34, 38, 41, 50–51

   and self-defense 57–58, 59, 60

Indian Constitution, the 37, 55, 57, 67, 97, 98

Indian Culture 35

Indian National Congress, the 19, 36–37, 42, 45, 49, 54, 56, 58, 109

   and the Constituent Assembly 66

   as the vehicle of nationalism 36–38

   Moderates and extremists 37, 41

Industrial Revolution, the 75, 161

Ingalls, D. H. H. 8

Ishopanishad, The 69–70

Islam 13, 34, 35, 40, 49, 50, 64, 115, 125

   and harmony x

   and Hindutva 42, 44

   and jihad 110

   and separatism 34, 41, 46–47, 49, 63, 127, 128, 200

   Azad’s interpretation of 49–50

   see also Hindu–Muslim conflict

Island, The 165

Italy 31, 32

Iyer, Raghavan 64–65, 79, 157


Jalal, Ayesha 46

James, William 101, 113

Jati 42

Jewish Frontier, The 126

Jihad 48, 113, 127, 133

Jinnah, Mohammed Ali 18, 45–49, 128

   and separation 47, 48

   and secularism 48–49

   letters to Gandhi 47

Jivanmukta 121, 178, 179, 180, 190

Jnanadev 78


Kakar, Sudhir 142, 144, 149–51

Kama 5, 6, 10, 13, 137, 138, 140, 141, 155, 188

   relationship with the other purusharthas 17, 140, 155, 156

   and celibacy 137

Kamasutra, The 6, 7, 142

Kane, Pandurang Vaman 10, 98, 178

   History of Dharmasastra 10

Kant, Immanuel 133

Karma 5, 14, 16, 23, 24, 110, 191

Karma yoga 190, 191–92

Kashmir 49, 60

Kautilya 6, 7, 9, 12, 31, 53

Keats, John 159, 161

Khadi 77, 170

Khare, Pandit Narayan Moreshwar 166

Khudai Khidmagar movement 125

King, Martin Luther Jr. 125

Kipling, Rudyard 79–80

Klostermaier, Klaus 11, 12

Kotak, Harijivan 146, 150

Kripalani, J. B. 66

Krishna, avatar of Vishnu 87, 88, 103, 111, 113, 155, 186–87, 189

Kundalini yoga 150


Lahore Resolution, the 47

“Lead, Kindly Light” 110, 113, 157, 167, 168

Lenin, Vladimir 205

Lipner, Julius 93, 178

Livy, Titus 88–89

Locke, John 40

Lokasamgraha 191, 197

Lutz, Mark 72


Machiavelli, Niccolò 5, 52, 59–60, 89, 198

Macpherson, C. B. 40

Madan, T. N. 115

Madhva 179, 182

Magnes, Judah 125, 126

   see also Bond, The

Mahabharata, The 5, 91, 98, 117, 130

Mainkar, T. G. 17

Malaviya, Pandit Madan Mohan 167

Manu 6, 7, 8, 92

Maoism 201

Maritain, Jacques 97

Marx, Karl 73, 74

Marxism 200–01, 202

Maududi, Maulana 128

Mazzini, Giuseppe 31, 96

Meditation 112, 113, 137

Mehta, Dr. Pranjivan 147

Meinecke, Friedrich 198

Mill, John Stuart 74

Miraben 158

Mirza, Humayun 48

Mirza, Iskandar 48

Mishra, Pankaj 79–80, 203

   An End to Suffering: The Buddha in the World 79–80

Mitter, Partha 157

Modern civilization 18–19, 142, 158

Mohammad of Ghazni 43

Moksha 5, 6, 8, 9, 11–12, 15, 17, 25, 83, 100, 103, 111, 118, 141, 178–80, 186, 187, 193, 198, 202

   Advaita doctrine of 184

   and celibacy 138, 139, 140, 152, 154, 156

   and samsara 148, 178

   as a pursuit 20, 25, 177, 178, 180, 184, 192, 197, 198

   as a state of affairs 178, 180, 186

   definition of 177

   four states of 179

   relationship to the other purusharthas 7–8

Moonje, Dr. B. S. 38

Mother-cult 154

Muggeridge, Malcolm 36, 51

Mullahs 36

Malthus, Thomas Robert 142

Mumukshu Prakarna, The 16–17

Munshi, K. M. 57

Music 111, 159, 161, 163, 166–67, 169

Muslim League, the 42, 45


Nadvi, Abdul Hasan Ali 128

Nagarjuna 8

Naipaul, Sir V. S. 201

Nair, C. Sankaran 56–57

   Gandhi and Anarchy 56

Nanda, B. R. 200

Nandy, Ashis 39

Naoroji, Dadabhai 69, 72

   Poverty and Un-British Rule in India 72

Narayan, Jai Prakash 168

Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza 128

Nation (praja) 31, 33, 34, 41

Nationalism 29, 31, 32, 33, 41

   definition of 41

   see also civic nationalism; ethnic nationalism; religious nationalism

Natural justice 55, 68, 74, 75

Navayana Buddhism 200, 201–02

Nazis, the 43, 125–26

   satyagraha against 125, 126

Nehru, Jawarharlal 37, 54, 66, 91

Neo-Malthusian theory 142

New Testament, The 70

Nichols, Beverley 170

Nietzsche, Friedrich 119, 203, 204

Nirvana 7, 10

Non-violence 3, 31, 55, 64, 70, 85, 92, 95, 96, 109, 117, 120, 123, 192, 197

   active 122

   and animals 123–24

   and Hindutva 43

   and religion 127–28, 133

   and satyagraha 57, 199

   and self-defence 122, 133

   and the “vast majority principle” 132–33

   and truth 117

   and war 59

   as creed 122

   as duty 95

   as policy 122

   civic 122, 123, 125, 126, 127, 133

   definition of 121

   fields of 124–25

   heroic 122, 126, 127

   in international relations 58, 129–32, 133

   passive 121

   perfect 120


Ojas 150

Olivelle, Patrick 146

Orwell, George 116


Pakistan 48–49, 125

   and non-violence 125

   the raison d’être of 128

Pakistan Resolution, the 46

Pancatantra 5

Pantham, Thomas 200

Paramahansa, Ramakrishna 8

Parekh, Bhikhu 39, 65, 150, 157, 200

Patel, C. N. 163

Patel, Vallabhbhai 66

Paul, St. 89

Pelagianism 153

Phoenix Settlement 80, 118, 147

Plato 118, 141

Polak, Henry 164

Polak, Millie Graham 169

Political, the 19, 20, 25, 26, 183, 197–200

   definition of 197

   and moksha 15, 19, 20

   and spirituality 66, 198

   and non-violence 125–27

   as a purushartha 197, 198

Prasad, Rajendra 66

Prayer 99, 111, 113, 137, 189

   as meditation 111, 112

   as purification 112–13

   as worship 111

   definition of 111–14

Psalm 153

Purusa sukta 87

Purusha 5–6, 22, 23, 25, 87, 196, 205

Purushartha, the concept of 16, 18, 22, 23, 24, 27, 39, 177, 194

   Gandhi’s concept of 21, 22, 26

   definition of 5–6

   theory of 12

   and modern civilization 18–19

   and fate 5, 23–24

   supreme 23, 99

   and secularism 12–13

Purusharthas, the 5–6, 10–11, 14, 138

   Gandhi’s theory of ix, 14, 21, 64, 66, 129, 155, 157, 184, 195, 203

   theory of 5, 10, 13, 19, 20, 61, 64, 99, 114, 115, 140, 141, 156, 165, 183, 202

   relationship between 6–7, 8–9, 10, 11, 12, 29, 65, 183, 197

   mutuality 12

   see also artha; dharma; kama; moksha

Purva Mimansa 146


Quit India campaign 60

Quran, The 49–50, 127


Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli 4, 91, 93, 104, 167

   Contemporary Indian Philosophy 104

   on the Gita 91

Raj, the 32, 53, 73, 90, 106, 116, 129

Rajaji 66, 170

Rajan, R. Sundara 10–11

Rajchandbhai 14–15, 92, 103, 104, 123, 147, 179, 184, 186

Rama, avatar of Vishnu 15, 16, 63, 103, 149, 167, 186–87, 190

Ramana Maharshi 179, 180

Ramanuja 7, 179, 182

Ramanujan, A. K. 8, 9

Ramarajya 54, 63–64

   definition of 63–64

Ramayana, The 5, 63, 130, 190

Ramdhun 113, 167–68

Rajputs, the 59

Rashtriya Swyamsevak Sangh (RSS) 42

Rawls, John 56, 199

   on civil disobedience 56

Religion 35, 85, 99, 100–02, 103, 106–07, 133

   and nationality 33, 39

   and God 99, 100, 101, 102, 108, 178

   and politics 114

   and prayer 99, 111

   and scripture 106–07

   and self-purification 101–02

   and truth 101, 108

   as idea 99, 100, 102

   as institution 35, 36, 99, 100, 102, 103, 108, 113

Religious nationalism 37, 50

   definition of 42

Religious pluralism 99, 107–11, 128, 129, 167

Religious tolerance 108–09

“Resolution on Fundamental Rights and Economic Changes,” the 53–55, 61, 94, 129

Renan, Ernest 39, 202

Rich young man parable, the 83

Rig Veda 87, 88, 89, 108

Robinson, Francis 46

Rolland, Romain 165

Roosevelt, Franklin D. 130

Rowlatt Agitation 94

Roy, M. N. 54

Roy, Raja Ram Mohan 7, 8

Rudolph, Susanne and Lloyd 200

Ruskin, John 69, 72–75, 80, 161, 169

   Unto This Last 72, 73–74, 141

   “A Joy for Ever”: and Its Price in the Market 18, 73, 159, 161–62

   on wealth 74–75, 83

Russell, Bertrand 141


Sabarmati Ashram, the 19, 77, 91, 139–40, 166

Sacrifice (yagna) 77, 107, 185, 192

Sadharana dharma 92, 95, 98, 180

St. Mark’s Gospel 83

St. Matthew’s Gospel 73, 153

Saladin 46

Salt March, the 94, 181

Samsara 5, 148, 152, 177, 178, 196

Sankara 7, 8, 11–12, 70, 177, 179, 182

Sankaracharyas 59, 106

Sannyasa 178, 185

Sannyasis 78, 107, 146, 193

Sanskriti 42

Saraswati, Swami Dayanand 42

Sarva dharma sama bhava 114, 127

Satyagraha 54, 56, 57, 96, 97, 121, 126, 196, 199, 205

   and non-violence 122, 125, 199

   and human rights 94

   and constructive work 62

   definition of 55–57, 94

   heroic 145, 150

Satyagrahi 56, 97, 145

Savarkar, Vinay Damodar 37, 42, 43, 44

   Hindutva: Who is a Hindu? 42–43

Schumacher, E. F. 82

Second Round Table Conference, the 58, 129

Second World War, the 59, 60, 130

Secularism ix–x, 21, 48–49, 62, 70, 99–100, 193, 203

   definition of 114–16

Seeley, Sir John 32

Self, the 20, 68, 100–01, 102, 188

Self-control 137–38, 144, 189, 201

Sen, Amartya 75

Sermon on the Mount, the 118, 181

Sexuality 137, 140, 141, 142, 144, 151

   in India 140

   in the West 140–41

   control of 144, 150, 152, 156

   sublimation of 149, 150, 151

Shah, K. J. 12–13

Shanti Sena 127, 131

Sharia, the 46, 50

Sharma, Arvind 11, 13

Sharp, Gene 56, 62

Shastras, The 17, 65, 90, 92, 144

Shastris 36, 59, 106

Shukadeva 153

Sikhs, the 43

Sinclair, Upton 157, 158

Sita, wife of Rama 15, 149, 167

Siva 103, 146, 152

Skinner, Quentin 46

Sobhani, Maulana 170

Song Celestial, The 181

Soul-force 68, 74, 94, 96, 119, 121, 196

Spirituality 82, 162, 191, 197

   and art 162, 166

Sramanic movement, the 7, 29, 184

State, the 29, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 64, 95, 98, 114, 119, 132, 198

   and civil society 62, 63

   and national interest 52

   and self-defense 58–59, 60

   limited and constitutional 52, 55, 60, 114, 201

   responsibilities of 57, 58, 60, 61, 95, 129

   see also secularism

Sthitha-prajna 113, 187–88, 189–90, 192, 198

   and moksha 188

Strauss, Leo 94

Su-rajya 63

Svadharma 92, 153, 185, 192

Swadeshi 68, 72

Swaminarayan 8

Swaraj 36, 54, 57, 61, 75, 76, 164, 172, 199

   and self-defense 58, 59

   constitutional 57

   four modes of 197–98

   organic 57

   political 18, 54, 66, 197

   purna swaraj 53

   spiritual 18

   true swaraj 66

Swift, Jonathan 157, 158


Tagore, Rabindranath 39, 171–73

   “The Call To Truth” 172

tat tvam asi 102

Technology 80, 81–82

Terchek, Ronald 200

Terrorism 200

Thomas Aquinas, St. 4, 71, 115–16, 165

Thoreau, Henry 62

Tilak, Bal Gangadhar 25–26, 182, 183

Tolstoy, Leo 63, 80, 118–19, 161, 163, 165

   The Kingdom of God is Within You 63, 118–19

   Letter to a Hindu 119

   What is Art? 18, 159, 160–61

Tolstoy farm 80, 118

Transmigration 110

Truth ix, 20–21, 64, 76, 78, 80, 92, 100, 101, 104, 109, 138, 164, 195, 196, 199

   absolute 104, 105, 164, 165, 177–78

   as God 101, 104, 195–96, 203–04

   definitions of 195

   quest for 20, 101, 205

   relative 196

Tukaram 78

Tulsidas 167


Umma, the 46

United Nations Human Rights Commission, the 96

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the 96

Upanishads, the 69, 71, 72, 167, 195


Vallabha 8, 182, 184

van Buitenen, J. A. B. 7, 8

Vande Mataram 127

Varna 85, 87, 88, 90, 91, 98

Varnashrama 90, 91, 94

Vasanas 145–46, 147, 150, 152

Vatican, the 110, 158–59

Vatsyayna 6, 7, 8

Vedanta 10

Vedas, The 12, 90, 103

Vikar 145–46, 147, 149, 154

Virya 150

   and sexual energy 150

Vishay 145–46, 147, 148, 149

Vishnu 63, 103, 167, 187, 196

Vivekananda, Swami 184–85

   Raja Yoga 150

Vykom 94


Wahadat-e-din 50

War 57, 59–60, 130, 132

   laws of 131

Weber, Thomas 200

Weil, Simone 97

Wells, H. G. 96

Western civilization x, 13, 75–76, 114, 116, 140–42

Wilde, Oscar 157–58

Wilmer, Clyde 73

Wolpert, Stanley 53, 200

Woodroffe, Sir John 141

   Shakti and Shakta 141, 150

Work ethic 80

Women 16, 55, 141, 143, 154, 155, 182

   and the definition of purushartha 14, 21, 22

   and moksha 16

   gender gap x, 62

   at Sabarmati Ashram 139, 140, 143

Yeravda Prison, the 182


Yoga Sutra, The 69, 71, 118, 121, 145, 150

Yogavasishta 15–17, 23, 24


Zaehner, R. C. 76

Zimmer, Heinrich 6

Zulu Rebellion, the 59, 129, 148


© Cambridge University Press


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