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Diffusion

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  • 199 b/w illus.
  • Page extent: 647 pages
  • Size: 247 x 174 mm
  • Weight: 1.42 kg

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 (ISBN-13: 9780521871211)

DIFFUSION
Cambridge University Press
9780521871211 - DIFFUSION - MASS TRANSFER IN FLUID SYSTEMS - By E. L. Cussler
Table of Contents

Contents

List of Symbols
xiii
Preface to Third Edition
xix
Preface to Second Edition
xxi
1         Models for Diffusion
1
1.1       The Two Basic Models
2
1.2       Choosing Between the Two Models
3
1.3       Examples
7
1.4       Conclusions
9
Questions for Discussion
10
PART I    Fundamentals of Diffusion
2         Diffusion in Dilute Solutions
13
2.1       Pioneers in Diffusion
13
2.2       Steady Diffusion Across a Thin Film
17
2.3       Unsteady Diffusion in a Semi-infinite Slab
26
2.4       Three Other Examples
33
2.5       Convection and Dilute Diffusion
41
2.6       A Final Perspective
49
Questions for Discussion
50
Problems
51
Further Reading
55
3         Diffusion in Concentrated Solutions
56
3.1       Diffusion With Convection
56
3.2       Different Forms of the Diffusion Equation
59
3.3       Parallel Diffusion and Convection
67
3.4       Generalized Mass Balances
75
3.5       A Guide to Previous Work
84
3.6       Conclusions
90
Questions for Discussion
90
Problems
91
Further Reading
94
4         Dispersion
95
4.1       Dispersion From a Stack
95
4.2       Dispersion Coefficients
97
4.3       Dispersion in Turbulent Flow
101
4.4       Dispersion in Laminar Flow: Taylor Dispersion
104
4.5       Conclusions
110
Questions for Discussion
110
Problems
111
Further Reading
113
PART II   Diffusion Coefficients
5         Values of Diffusion Coefficients
117
5.1       Diffusion Coefficients in Gases
117
5.2       Diffusion Coefficients in Liquids
126
5.3       Diffusion in Solids
134
5.4       Diffusion in Polymers
135
5.5       Brownian Motion
139
5.6       Measurement of Diffusion Coefficients
142
5.7       A Final Perspective
156
Questions for Discussion
157
Problems
157
Further Reading
159
6         Diffusion of Interacting Species
161
6.1       Strong Electrolytes
161
6.2       Associating Solutes
172
6.3       Solute–Solvent Interactions
183
6.4       Solute–Boundary Interactions
190
6.5       A Final Perspective
205
Questions for Discussion
206
Problems
206
Further Reading
209
7         Multicomponent Diffusion
211
7.1       Flux Equations for Multicomponent Diffusion
211
7.2       Irreversible Thermodynamics
214
7.3       Solving the Multicomponent Flux Equations
218
7.4       Ternary Diffusion Coefficients
224
7.5       Tracer Diffusion
225
7.6       Conclusions
231
Questions for Discussion
232
Problems
232
Further Reading
234
PART III  Mass Transfer
8         Fundamentals of Mass Transfer
237
8.1       A Definition of a Mass Transfer Coefficient
237
8.2       Other Definitions of Mass Transfer Coefficients
243
8.3       Correlations of Mass Transfer Coefficients
249
8.4       Dimensional Analysis: The Route to Correlations
257
8.5       Mass Transfer Across Interfaces
261
8.6       Conclusions
269
Questions for Discussion
270
Problems
270
Further Reading
273
9         Theories of Mass Transfer
274
9.1       The Film Theory
275
9.2       Penetration and Surface-Renewal Theories
277
9.3       Why Theories Fail
281
9.4       Theories for Solid–Fluid Interfaces
284
9.5       Theories for Concentrated Solutions
294
9.6       Conclusions
298
Questions for Discussion
300
Problems
300
Further Reading
303
10        Absorption
304
10.1      The Basic Problem
305
10.2      Absorption Equipment
307
10.3      Absorption of a Dilute Vapor
314
10.4      Absorption of a Concentrated Vapor
321
10.5      Conclusions
326
Questions for Discussion
326
Problems
327
Further Reading
331
11        Mass Transfer in Biology and Medicine
332
11.1      Mass Transfer Coefficients
333
11.2      Artificial Lungs and Artificial Kidneys
339
11.3      Pharmocokinetics
347
11.4      Conclusions
350
Questions for Discussion
351
Problems
351
Further Reading
352
12        Differential Distillation
353
12.1      Overview of Distillation
353
12.2      Very Pure Products
356
12.3      The Column’s Feed and its Location
362
12.4      Concentrated Differential Distillation
366
12.5      Conclusions
371
Questions for Discussion
371
Problems
372
Further Reading
374
13        Staged Distillation
375
13.1      Staged Distillation Equipment
376
13.2      Staged Distillation of Nearly Pure Products
379
13.3      Concentrated Staged Distillation
385
13.4      Stage Efficiencies
393
13.5      Conclusions
400
Questions for Discussion
400
Problems
401
Further Reading
403
14        Extraction
404
14.1      The Basic Problem
404
14.2      Extraction Equipment
407
14.3      Differential Extraction
409
14.4      Staged Extraction
413
14.5      Leaching
416
14.6      Conclusions
420
Questions for Discussion
420
Problems
421
Further Reading
423
15        Adsorption
424
15.1      Where Adsorption is Important
425
15.2      Adsorbents and Adsorption Isotherms
427
15.3      Breakthrough Curves
431
15.4      Mass Transfer Effects
439
15.5      Other Characteristics of Adsorption
443
15.6      Conclusions
450
Questions for Discussion
450
Problems
450
Further Reading
452
PART IV   Diffusion Coupled With Other Processes
16        General Questions and Heterogeneous Chemical Reactions
455
16.1      Is the Reaction Heterogeneous or Homogeneous?
456
16.2      What is a Diffusion-Controlled Reaction?
457
16.3      Diffusion and First-Order Heterogeneous Reactions
459
16.4      Finding the Mechanism of Irreversible Heterogeneous Reactions
465
16.5      Heterogeneous Reactions of Unusual Stoichiometries
469
16.6      Conclusions
473
Questions for Discussion
473
Problems
474
Further Reading
477
17        Homogeneous Chemical Reactions
478
17.1      Mass Transfer with First-Order Chemical Reactions
479
17.2      Mass Transfer with Second-Order Chemical Reactions
488
17.3      Industrial Gas Treating
492
17.4      Diffusion-Controlled Fast Reactions
500
17.5      Dispersion-Controlled Fast Reactions
504
17.6      Conclusions
507
Questions for Discussion
508
Problems
508
Further Reading
512
18        Membranes
513
18.1      Physical Factors in Membranes
514
18.2      Gas Separations
520
18.3      Reverse Osmosis and Ultrafiltration
526
18.4      Pervaporation
534
18.5      Facilitated Diffusion
539
18.6      Conclusions
545
Questions for Discussion
545
Problems
546
Further Reading
548
19        Controlled Release and Related Phenomena
549
19.1      Controlled Release by Solute Diffusion
551
19.2      Controlled Release by Solvent Diffusion
555
19.3      Barriers
558
19.4      Diffusion and Phase Equilibrium
562
19.5      Conclusions
565
Questions for Discussion
565
Problems
566
Further Reading
566
20        Heat Transfer
568
20.1      Fundamentals of Heat Conduction
568
20.2      General Energy Balances
575
20.3      Heat Transfer Coefficients
579
20.4      Rate Constants for Heat Transfer
585
20.5      Conclusions
591
Questions for Discussion
591
Problems
591
Further Reading
593
21        Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer
594
21.1      Mathematical Analogies Among Mass, Heat, and Momentum Transfer
594
21.2      Physical Equalities Among Mass, Heat, and Momentum Transfer
600
21.3      Drying
604
21.4      Design of Cooling Towers
609
21.5      Thermal Diffusion and Effusion
615
21.6      Conclusions
621
Questions for Discussion
621
Problems
622
Further Reading
624
Index
626



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