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Oil, Water, and Climate

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Details

  • Page extent: 392 pages
  • Size: 253 x 177 mm
  • Weight: 0.98 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 363.7
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: QC981.8.C5 G38 2008
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Climatic changes
    • Natural resources--Environmental aspects
    • Conservation of natural resources

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521882613)




Index



acid rain, 116, 140, 232

adaptation, 310, 314, 322, 323

   strategies, 265

aerosol, 24, 25, 295, 296, 308

agricultural practices, 212, 226

agriculture, 215, 232, 245, 323

   slash-and-burn, 55

agro-business, 124, 160

agro-chemical additives, 197

AIDS, 191

air-sea interface, 27, 172

albedo, 20, 72, 185, 298

algae bloom, 212

alien species, 49

Amazon River, 209

Amu Darya River, 214

Antarctic, 63

Antarctic Bottom Water. See also AABW

anthropogenic

   forcing agent, 294

anthropogenic warming, 288

antibiotics, 46, 212, 225

aquifer, 5, 233

   coastal, 49, 52

   contamination, 243

   deep, 222

   overexploited, 222

   saline, 141

   shallow, 211

   transboundary, 210

   water table, 210

Arctic, 8, 25, 63, 110, 135, 180, 185, 209, 288, 290, 291, 305, 308

   basin, 136

   Climate Impact Assessment report, 136, 300

   ecosystem, 136

   fishing, 137

   ice, 15

   National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 8

   Ocean, 136

   oil, 136

   Oscillation, 305

   rivers, 213

   sea ice, 29, 30

   temperatures, 21

arid regions, 185, 206

arsenic, 191, 223, 225, 229

atmosphere, 14, 35, 59, 70, 169, 199, 209, 224, 288, 292

atmosphere-ocean, 60

atmospheric pressure, 306

automobile

   class, 108

   demand, 89

   emissions, 121

   energy-saving, 333

   fuel economy, 105

   hybrid, 121

automobile (cont.)

   industry, 100

   manufacturers, 107

   ownership, 89

   passenger, 124

   private, 118

   sector, 6, 321

   use, 81

autotrophic respiration, 67

bacteria, 49, 67, 191, 223, 224, 229, 230, 233, 238, 239, 242

   fecal, 241

ballast discharge, 95

Bay of Bengal, 261

biodiversity, 49, 215, 225, 281, 316, 326

biogeochemical process, 61, 72, 300

biological oxygen demand, 212, 237

biological pump, 72, 73, 79

biomass, 77, 98, 141, 160

   burning, 65, 74, 161, 295

   cellulosic, 160, 161, 323

   combustion, 76

   density, 77

   dry plant, 60

   energy production, 203

   fuels, 165, 330

   living, 72

   loss, 212

   plant, 76

   plant energy, 10

   second generation, 160

biophysical process, 61

biosphere, 65, 74, 80, 170, 199, 318, 335

biotic process, 60

blue water, 199

Booster pump, 201

boron, 286

bridge fuel, 138, 164, 317

brine, 282, 285

British Petroleum, 84

building

   code, 321

   commercial, 275, 321

   efficiency, 8

   home, 55

   industrial, 321

   sector, 321

   temperature control, 154

CAFE, 106, 114

calcium carbonate, 66

carbohydrate, 66, 67

carbon

   -12, 73

   -13, 73

   assimilation, 76

   atmospheric burden, 14

   atom, 15, 140

   balance, 55, 77

   burial, 66

   capture, 141, 164

   -constrained, 321

   cycle, 59, 60, 72, 78

   cycle changes, 65

   cycle feedback, 64

   cycling, 62, 70

   dioxide, 296

   dissolved inorganic, 73

   economy, 324

   -equivalent, 53

   exchange, 65

   exchanges, 60, 71

   feedback, 71

   fixation, 67

   fluxes, 70, 78

   -free, 142

   global warming potential, 147

   inorganic, 72

   -intensive sources, 5

   isotope, 73, 74

   -light, 314, 332

   losses, 78

   low-, 96

   monoxide, 115, 141

   movement, 61

   nano-tubes, 155

   neutral, 71, 74

   organic, 61, 71, 73, 218

   pool, 61

   pools, 79

   pump, 72, 73

   reservoir, 59

   residence time, 59

   sequestration, 71, 73, 203, 315

   sink, 70, 74, 75, 181, 203

   sinks, 59

   stocks, 75, 76, 78

   storage, 69, 74

   system, 72

   uptake, 65, 74, 75, 77, 78, 79

carcinogenic, 224, 241, 286

carmaker. See also car manufacturer

Caspian Sea, 85, 132, 208, 252

cattle, 18, 55, 154

   water needs, 196

cattle flatulence, 70

cement production, 16, 55, 65, 78, 218

chemical weathering, 59, 65

China

   child policy, 42

   Sea, 134

chlorofluorocarbons, 18

chlorophyll, 69

chloroplast, 67, 69

circulation

   atmospheric, 30

   deep ocean, 27, 79, 293

   extratropical, 306

   general, 26

   Hadley, 26

   MOC, 79

   ocean, 72, 300

   overturning, 306

   thermohaline, 79, 185, 292. See also meridional overturning (MOC)

   three-dimensional, 27

   variability, 306

   zonal, 307

city

   life, 46

   planners, 118

   sections, 47, 118, 193, 247, 263

climate, 139, 333

   assessment, 98

   carbon cycle model, 79

   catastrophes, 331

   change, 287, 311, 333

   change scenarios, 219

   cycle, 306

   data, 181

   discounting, 327

   dynamics, 302

   effects, 28

   episodes, 19

   equilibrium, 79

   events, 292

   extremes, 71, 211

   forcing, 296

   forecast, 309

   -friendly, 313

   history, 303

   impact, 166, 182, 217, 221, 311

   inertia, 307

   mechanisms, 26

   model, 98, 291, 297, 298, 309

   model predictions, 181

   model projections, 291, 300

   models, 28, 31, 32, 33, 180, 182, 289

   parameters, 185

   perspective, 292

   perturbation, 24

   predictions, 16, 178, 299, 314

   projections, 25

   record, 218, 306, 307

   refugees, 57

   researchers, 300

   response, 25, 79, 98, 168, 297, 302

   science, 296

   security, 310, 331

   sensitivity, 35, 288, 289, 296, 297, 298

climate (cont.)

   shift, 30

   stability, 205

   stabilization, 267, 315

   state, 298

   system, 25, 288

   trend, 309

   uncertainties, 322

   variability, 60, 305, 309

   variations, 19, 204

cloud, 24, 140, 169

   altitude, 182

   base, 173

   cirrus, 173

   convective, 181

   cover, 182

   definition, 182

   distribution, 25, 178

   droplets, 25, 295

   effects, 177, 178, 296

   high, 178

   high-level, 178

   layers, 173

   liquid water, 173

   low, 178

   low-level, 295

   models, 182

   nonprecipitating, 173

   predictions, 181

   properties, 295

   stratiform, 178

   systems, 182

   type, 25, 182

cloudiness, 25, 173, 178

coal, 16, 98, 299, 311, 315

   clean, 138, 141, 323

   clean technologies, 141

   clean technology, 142, 164, 317

   deposit, 66

   substitute, 318

coastal

   development, 49

   hazard, 49

   subsidence, 49

co-generation, 284. See combined cycle 284

coke, 16, 93

Colorado River, 214, 250

combined cycle, 99, 141, 146

conflict, 249, 331

   cause, 253

   external, 9

   global, 123

   international, 252

   intranational, 2

   of interest, 204

   regional, 246

   risk of, 319

   source, 132, 249

   water-related, 246, 249, 251, 252

Congo River, 209

connectivity, 51, 55

conservation, 97, 267, 310, 320

   awareness, 81

   infrastructure, 271

contamination, 225, 263

   drinking water, 242

   groundwater, 232, 244

   heavy metal, 198

   industrial, 222

   metals, 229

   salt, 235

   types, 222

   water, 223, 229. See pollution

control rods, 149

convection

   atmospheric, 291

   deep, 177

   high-latitude, 27

   Labrador Sea, 293

coral reef, 212

cost-benefit analysis, 328

crop per drop, 271, 273

dam, 159

   building, 215

   construction, 215, 261

   diversion, 249

   height, 213

   operation, 218, 219

   projects, 261

   reservoirs, 216

   safety, 220

   structure, 220

Danube River, 249

DDT, 224, 242

Dead Sea, 208

decomposition, 55, 67, 70, 71, 73, 75, 79, 187, 285

   anaerobic, 71, 75

   chemical, 66

   organic matter, 79

deforestation, 16, 17, 25, 55, 74, 75, 77, 78, 180, 212, 216, 218, 295, 315

demographic

   changes, 51

   development, 299

   dynamics, 56

   dynamism, 45

   growth, 44, 56

   history, 45

   perspectives, 4

   pressures, 57

   projections, 40, 45, 57

   statistics, 45

   transition model, 44

   trends, 57

desalination, 11, 12, 270, 282, 283, 284, 323

   costs, 286, 287

   plant, 284

deuterium/hydrogen

   isotope ratio, 289

development

   economic, 5

   industrial, 7

   socioeconomic, 1, 7, 187

diesel, 15, 101, 104, 113

discounting, 328

dissolution, 66

distillate, 282

drought, 7, 30, 52, 57, 71, 75, 180, 183, 188, 198, 276, 288, 302

Earth system, 56

Earth-Sun system, 290

economic development, 4, 43

economics, 84, 123

ecosystem, 1, 95, 324, 328

   aquatic, 198, 211, 225

   coastal, 49

   conservation, 75

   diversity, 177

   fresh water, 198

   function, 214

   global, 36, 326

   health, 265, 319

   maintenance, 176

   natural, 316

   needs, 204, 263

   resilience, 198, 323

   riverine, 268

   services, 187, 199, 204, 206

   terrestrial, 63, 65, 71, 199

   unaltered, 230

education, 42, 57, 159, 258, 329, 330

   female, 42

   women, 58

effluent, 157, 214, 237

El Niño, 60, 292

   events, 7, 30, 65, 305

   –induced drought, 77

   regimes, 302

   year, 30

El Niño-Southern Oscillation, 291, 303. See also ENSO

electric power, 98, 125, 139, 147, 154

   generation, 143

   production, 140, 153

emission regulation, 114, 115

emission scenario, 31, 98, 314

emission trading, 116

empowerment, 329

   economic, 329

   women, 42, 268, 313, 329

energy

   efficiency, 51, 126, 320

   increasing demand, 335

energy alternative, 12, 96, 97, 318

   renewable, 138

energy consumption, 31, 51, 321

   global, 315

energy dependence, 96, 145

Energy Information Agency, 127

energy intensity, 51, 160

energy policy, 93, 164

energy portfolio, 10

energy systems, 8

ENSO, 303

   cycle, 306

   episodes, 30

   index, 303

   response, 305

environmental hazard, 49

environmental security, 4, 5

epidemic, 43

   HIV/AIDS, 43

   waterborne, 191

ethanol, 160, 203, 315

   budget, 162

   combustion, 161

   corn, 161

   energy budget, 161

   industry, 166

   production, 94, 160, 166

   use, 160

Euphrates River, 250

eutrophication, 119, 212, 224, 226, 230, 243

evaporation, 9, 24, 27, 33, 67, 168, 170, 183, 291, 295, 308, 316

evapotranspiration, 170, 172, 174, 183

externalities, 110

   environmental, 114, 120, 284

extremes, 71, 290

family planning, 42, 46, 58

farmers market, 333

feedback, 24, 32, 63, 288, 297, 309

   cloud, 25

   mechanism, 180

   negative, 24, 181, 293

   positive, 24, 78, 79, 177

   processes, 26, 35

   snow-albedo, 24, 180

   water vapor, 24

fertility, 39, 40, 43, 44, 45, 313

   rate, 42, 45, 57, 312

   reduction, 42

fertilizer, 76, 124, 139, 143, 159, 161, 211, 222, 224, 226, 230, 231, 232, 237, 239, 275

   industrial, 325

   inorganic, 243

   leaching, 223, 272

   nitrate, 226

   phosphate, 226

   soluble, 212

   use, 316

fire, 60, 65, 67, 71, 77, 78

   forest, 71

flood, 7, 33, 188, 193, 198, 203, 211, 276

   contamination, 189

   data, 219

   prevention, 212

   urban, 236

flooding, 34, 49, 57, 94, 183, 215

floodplain, 205, 212, 213

fluoride, 191, 225

forcing, 289

   anthropogenic, 26, 32, 294, 296

   climate, 296

   condition, 299

   external, 294

   extraterrestrial, 303

   human-induced. See anthropogenic

   mechanism, 296

   natural, 33, 295

   radiative, 296

forecast, 83

fossil aquifers, 210

fossil fuel, 14, 60, 333

fresh water, 178, 293

   aquifer, 235

   availability, 52, 168

   balance, 308

   budget, 293

   ecosystem, 319

   flux, 293

   global, 187

   reservoirs, 202

   resources, 36

   storage, 205

   supplies contamination, 7

   use, 283

   withdrawal, 196

fuel credit, 116

Ganges-Brahmaputra, 252

Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna, 261

Ganges River, 206, 214

gas

   deposit, 66

GDP, 51, 324, 327

geological processes, 61

geopolitics, 123

geothermal

   electricity, 164

   energy, 162, 318

   heat, 163

   power plants, 163

   sites, 163

glacial

   ages, 19

glaciation, 62

   events, 303

   periods, 19

glaciers, 7, 15, 29, 35, 79, 177, 202, 208, 219, 288, 292, 294, 309

   Greenland, 290

global warming, 33, 49, 288, 291

   projections, 261

Great Salt Lake, 208

greenhouse effect, 23, 26, 289

greenhouse gas, 24, 288, 294

   emission, 6

Green Revolution, 215

green water, 199, 273, 274

gross primary production, 67

groundwater, 66, 169, 205, 319

   channels, 208

   crisis, 275

   discharge, 170, 174

   exploitation, 316

   extraction, 313

   overpumping, 212

   quality, 211

   regime, 210

   removal, 186

   saline, 282

   saturation, 200

   sources, 276

   supplies, 211

   table, 214

   wells, 201

   withdrawal, 211

habitat, 49, 95, 209, 323

   impact, 286

   wild life, 136

Hadley Cell, 173

heat wave, 57, 203, 290, 302

horizontal drilling, 93

Hubbert, 82, 83, 91, 92, 94

Hudson Bay plains, 209

hurricanes, 7, 49, 57, 129, 135, 219, 288, 291, 302

   number, 291

hybrid

   car, 147

   vehicle, 321

hydraulic head, 213

hydrocarbon, 5, 15, 59, 60, 96, 312, 313, 318

hydroelectric power, 14, 33, 160, 213, 214, 215, 216, 218

hydrogen, 15, 19, 141, 144, 148, 203

   atom, 156, 170

   -based fuel, 122

   economy, 98, 144, 330

   fuel cell, 155, 159

   ions, 156

   power, 323

hydrological

   conditions, 34

   cycle, 183, 293, 302, 316, 319

   engineering, 221

   impacts, 188

   monitoring, 279

   network, 230

   processes, 300

   regime, 7, 34, 221

   unit, 250

hydrological budget, 170

hydrological event

   extreme, 219

hydrolysis, 66, 161, 330

hydrothermal vents, 69, 70

ice, 24, 29, 169, 172, 299

   age, 303

   Antarctic, 289

   Arctic, 288

   cap, 7, 135, 294

   core, 19, 61, 180, 288, 290, 293, 308

   cover, 180

   crystals, 178

   flow, 294

   fossil, 19

   glacial, 177

   Greenland, 136

   isotope anomaly, 20

   keel, 30

   melt, 174

   melting, 206

   movement, 136

   multiyear, 136

   particle, 25, 173

   polar, 137, 288

   sea, 136, 180, 290, 292, 307

   sheet, 30, 35, 59, 63, 98, 177, 202, 293, 294, 298, 300, 309

   sublimation, 170

   volume, 60

Ice Age, 28, 298, 307

ice sheet

   Greenland, 290

ice/snow, 32

icehouse

   era, 59

incentive, 320

   economic, 115, 324

   financial, 275

   fuel economy, 115, 116

   government, 131

   investment, 273

   policy, 324

   program, 121

   regulatory, 321

   technical, 115

Indus River, 214

industrial age, 16

Industrial Revolution, 60

industrialization, 36, 45, 192

industrialized nations, 55

industry, 319, 323

   airline, 113

   executives, 83

   food, 124

   manufacturing, 93

   oil, 84

   processing, 231

   security, 134

   service, 112

   water, 272

infectious diseases, 44

integrated management, 188, 194

integrated water resource management. See also IWRM

interglacial period, 63, 290, 298

Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change. See also IPCC

IPCC scenarios, 98

Iraq, 133, 317

irrigation, 187, 189, 194, 204, 316

   agriculture, 8, 186

   canals, 273

   costs, 201, 204

   crops, 124

   demand, 52

   development, 196

   drip, 274, 277

   energy need, 187

   gravity, 272

   growth, 197

   household, 277

   investments, 198

   kits, 277

   potential, 196

   practices, 200

   schemes, 200

   systems, 286, 312, 321

   waste, 9

   water, 200, 204, 322

   well, 5

   workers, 198

isotopic analyses, 14, 303

jet stream, 31

kerosene, 101, 104, 114

Lake Baikal, 208

landfills, 18, 55, 294

land-use

   activities, 75

   change, 6, 17, 25, 74, 75, 168, 212, 295

   decisions, 117

lawn irrigation, 322

leadership, 310, 317, 331

   global, 332

   initiatives, 333

levee, 49, 214

life expectancy, 43, 50

light truck, 89, 104, 106

liquefied natural gas. See also LNG

liquid fuel, 97, 99

   production, 94

livestock, 196, 224, 226

   ailments prevention, 230

   farms, 229

LNG, 144, 145

   infrastructure, 143

   investments, 146

   pipelines, 145

Mackenzie River, 209

magma, 162, 163

malaria, 191, 224, 241

marine snow, 73

market, 110, 123, 128, 278, 279, 311

   -based mechanisms, 271

   conditions, 128

   demands, 86

   economies, 96

   energy, 10, 139

   financial, 97

   forces, 262, 311

   gas, 144, 317

   oil, 111

   penetration, 112

   price, 128, 278

   share, 10

   stock, 130

   tradable, 324

   value-added, 277

   water, 12, 251, 279

mass transit system, 47, 118

mass transportation

   improvements, 333

Mekong River, 249

mercury, 16

meridional overturning circulation, 27, 28, 288, 308

methane, 16, 55, 79, 94, 105, 119, 143, 217, 294

   atmospheric, 55

   concentration, 18

   dissolved, 217

   emission, 18, 55, 95, 217

   growth rate, 294

   leakage, 147

   liquefaction, 143

   production, 217

methanogen, 71. See methane

methanotroph. See methane

micro-irrigation, 277

Middle East, 84, 92, 95, 132

migration, 40, 50, 56, 322

   ability, 323

   environmentally related, 57

   internal, 44

   international, 44, 56

   movements, 56

   net, 44, 45

   rate, 46

   replacement, 50

   urban, 51

mileage

   gasoline, 115

Mississippi River, 214

mitigation, 96, 314

   option, 97

   program, 99, 204

moisture, 27

   atmospheric, 25

   convergence, 174, 182

   exchange, 72

   low-level, 181

   retention, 273

   soil, 172, 175, 176, 178

monsoon, 173, 183, 306

   rain capture, 274

Montreal Protocol, 18

morbidity, 43, 241

mortality, 39, 40, 43, 57, 125, 241, 313

nanofiltration, 282

nanotechnology, 138

natural gas, 15, 51, 145, 317, 335

net primary production, 67. See also NPP

neurotoxicity, 242

neurotoxin, 225, 242

Nile River, 209, 249

Nile Valley, 206

nitrogen, 23, 71, 76, 230, 239, 243

   availability, 76

   concentration, 237

   content, 161

   oxide, 16, 140, 157

   productivity, 76

nitrous oxide, 18, 294

North Atlantic Deep Water. See also NADW

North Atlantic Oscillation, 305. See also NAO

Northern Annular Mode. See also NAM

nuclear, 11, 148, 318

   accidents, 150

   engineers, 150

   fission, 147, 151

   fragments, 148

   fuel, 330

   fusion, 149, 167, 323

   meltdown, 148

   power, 11, 147, 149, 312, 317, 318

   power plant, 138, 148, 166, 313

   radiation, 149

   reaction, 148, 149

   reactors, 51, 148, 149, 150, 318

   storage, 166

   waste, 150, 151, 318, 328

   weapon, 148

nutrient, 49, 75, 226, 243

   burden, 240

   deposition, 75, 76

   runoff, 212

   transport, 216

ocean

   acidification, 73

   acidity, 73

   carbon sink, 72, 73

   currents, 26

   deep, 65

   dissolution, 16

   freshening, 79

   heat content, 29, 33, 288, 309

   heat transport, 26

   mixed-layer, 65

   movements, 27

   North Atlantic, 72

   response time, 79

   salinity, 174

   sediments, 66, 303

   temperature, 24

   tropical, 291

   upper, 309

   uptake, 74

   volume expansion, 202

Ocean

   Arctic, 180

   Indian, 28

   Pacific, 28

Ogallala aquifer, 189

OH radical, 18

oil

   access, 133

   alternative, 147, 313

   analyst, 86

   Arab embargo, 104

   assets, 133

   attacks on infrastructure, 133

   barrel, 130

   -based economy, 145

   Brent, 128

   business, 131

   chemical components, 95

   companies, 9, 131

   company, 84, 86

   consumption growth, 102

   conventional, 84, 98

   conventional reserves, 88

   cost, 111

   crisis, 83

   crude, 15, 113, 127

   crude price, 128

   decline, 96

   demand, 81, 83

   demand projections, 90

   dependency, 51, 83, 123, 164

   deposit, 7, 66

   discovery, 82, 87

   Dubai, 128

   easy, 94

   economy, 130

   exploration, 136

   extraction, 6, 83, 92, 93, 313, 330

   extraction costs, 136

   field, 8, 83, 134, 135

   field exploitation, 93

   for transportation, 114

   future, 84

   geopolitics, 104, 331

   heating, 128

   heavy, 85, 88

   imported, 97

   infrastructure, 12

   international market, 127

   light, 15

   mercury content, 16

   money, 125

   motor, 231

   new, 8

   OPEC, 128

   peak, 81, 82, 83, 84, 86, 92, 95, 97, 99, 313

   peak consequence, 131

   peak consumption, 88

   peak crisis, 137

   peak timing, 96

   pipeline, 9, 132, 133

   policy, 311

   price, 1, 85, 86, 96, 97

   price collapse, 102

   price increase, 201

   price spike, 126

   price vulnerability, 125

oil (cont.)

   producer, 131

   producing countries, 9

   product, 81

   production, 8, 81, 82, 83

   production decline, 96

   production prediction, 90

   protection, 134

   proven reserves, 85

   recoverable, 84, 92

   refining, 93

   -related target, 134

   reliance, 100

   remaining resources, 99

   replacement, 98, 138

   reported reserves, 88

   reserve, 9, 83, 85, 86

   reserve reporting, 87

   reserves, 8, 9

   reservoirs, 83

   residue, 95

   resource, 9, 133

   revenue, 131

   -rich country, 283

   rig, 134

   sand, 8, 91, 98, 111, 164, 312, 330

   saving, 121

   security, 137

   security cost, 133

   shale, 85, 164

   share in transporation, 103

   shipping route, 137

   shock, 83

   shortage, 96, 128

   specialist, 83

   spill, 95, 136

   storage, 94

   substitute, 318

   supply, 8, 81

   supply disruption, 111

   tanker, 95

   transport, 94, 128

   transportation use, 100

   unconventional. See also tar sands. See also heavy oil

   undiscovered, 85

   unsustainable use, 4

   varieties, 128

   volume extracted, 130

   wealth, 131, 132

   well, 144, 330

   West Texas intermediate, 128

OPEC, 83, 88, 110, 144

   countries, 87, 130

   members, 92

   producer, 91

organic matter

   decomposition, 217

organic sediment

   decomposition, 208

overexploitation

   water, 36, 57, 246, 287

overfishing, 49

overpumping, 202

   coastal aquifer, 49

oxygen, 15, 23, 66, 157

   concentration, 74

   content, 214, 285

   deficit, 217

   demand, 237

   depletion, 231

   dissolved, 208, 240

ozone, 115, 119

   concentration, 18

   depletion, 31, 306

   tropospheric, 18, 140

Pacific Island nations, 7

paleoclimate

   indicator, 19

   record, 303

Pantanal swamps, 209

pathogen, 191, 223, 229, 231, 242, 243, 276

PCB, 224, 242

peat, 75

   deposit, 77

   land, 79

   moss, 209

percolation, 272, 273

permafrost, 79, 136, 209

Persian Gulf, 134

persistent organic pollutant. See also POP

pesticide, 124, 211, 212, 224, 230, 231, 237, 275, 326

   residue, 222

petrochemical, 93, 159

petroleum, 61, 81, 139

   depletion, 84

   installation, 134

   product, 275

   refining, 93

photosynthesis, 6, 61, 65, 66, 67, 71, 74, 75, 160, 161

phytoplankton, 67, 69

pipeline, 93, 134, 318

planetary waves, 26

plate tectonics, 66

political lobbies, 141

pollutant

   metallic, 225

pollution, 51, 295

   agro-chemical additive, 197

   air, 57

   chemical, 150

   control, 194

   nonpoint source, 237, 275

   oil, 95

   radioactive, 151

   water, 5, 52, 95, 324

pool, 322

population, 31, 45, 51, 247, 299, 312, 320

   aging, 43, 50

   change, 40, 42

   coastal growth, 49

   concentration, 47

   developed countries, 39

   disparities, 44

   displacement, 49

   distribution, 40

   emigration, 45

   explosion, 5

   future, 40

   global, 36

   growth, 37, 312, 325, 326

   growth pressure, 331

   growth projection, 43

   projected, 36

   projections, 39

   pyramid, 45

   rural, 46

   size, 42, 44, 45, 326

   stabilization, 12, 45

   structure, 45

   urban, 44, 46

   world, 36

   young, 39

power plant

   binary, 163

   coal, 315

   dry stream, 163

   flash, 163

   geothermal, 163

   hydro, 165, 330

   solar, 154

   thermal, 201

precautionary principle, 328

precipitation, 30, 33, 34, 168, 178. See also rainfall

   acid, 295

   Asain monsoon, 307

   changing pattern, 52

   distribution, 173

   event, 302

   extreme, 183

   extreme event, 243

   frequency change, 222

   high latitude, 183

   mid-latitudes, 293

   pattern, 5, 30, 182, 188

   prediction, 302

   Sahel, 307

   seasonal variation, 306

precipitation (cont.)

   shift, 30

   snow, 33

   tropical, 173

precision agriculture, 277, 322

primary productivity, 176

proton exchange membrane. See also PEM

public health, 10, 52, 191, 229, 329

pyrolysis, 66

radiant energy, 22, 23

radiation

   balance, 22, 288

   budget, 24, 25, 26, 29, 309

   emission, 23

   fluxes, 24, 295

   infrared, 23, 35. See also longwave

   ionizing, 150

   leak, 166, 318

   longwave, 24, 25, 177, 178, 182

   shortwave. See solar

   solar, 19, 23, 24, 154, 178, 180, 185, 290, 291, 295, 303

   sun, 294

radiative forcing, 296

radioactive waste, 148, 151

rainfall, 34, 66, 77

   patterns change, 7

rainfall runoff

   management, 194

rainwater harvesting, 8, 271, 274, 275, 276, 287, 322

reef

   habitat, 212

refineries, 10, 93, 94, 110, 129, 134

renewable energy, 51, 203

replacement level, 39, 42, 312

replenishment, 9

reproductive age, 42

reproductive health services, 57

reservoir, 26, 59, 65, 86, 216, 217, 250

   geological, 64

   oil, 83

resources, 323

   allocation, 2

   biological, 36

   competition, 1

   consumption, 37

   depleted, 311

   depletion, 327

   dispute, 250

   Earth, 36, 57, 335

   economic, 49

   exploitation, 327

   financial, 11

   fishery, 261

   fishing, 47

   investment, 320

   mineral, 49

   natural, 36, 299

   renewable, 96, 327

   scarcity, 311

   shared, 331

   water, 33, 35, 36, 47, 202, 232, 273, 320, 324

respiration, 61, 66, 67

   bacterial, 73

   heterotrophic, 77

reverse osmosis, 282

Rhine River, 214

rice paddies, 70

rights

   access, 251

   common, 246

   customary, 246

   formal, 258

   gender, 258

   historic, 250

   human, 326

   international water, 250

   junior, 278

   land, 248

   permanent water, 279

   property, 279

   pueblo, 247

   riparian, 247, 250

   seniority, 278

   usage, 9

   use, 279

   water, 257, 286

   water allocation, 257

   water regime, 267

   water transfer, 247

river, 33, 160, 169, 170, 191, 205, 319

   agreement, 250

   basin, 52, 205

   basin management, 253

   biodiversity, 212

   contamination. See also pollution

   dammed, 213

   damming, 163

   delta, 216

   development, 253

   diversion, 215

   drainage, 230

   drying, 188, 316

   estuaries, 243

   flood, 220

   floodplain, 211, 214

   flow, 33, 159, 214

   flow alteration, 214

   flow capture and storage, 215

   flow timing, 221

   fluctuations, 213, 220

   function, 211

   inflow timing, 219

   international, 268

   international boundaries, 252

   level, 15

   major, 165

   mouth, 226

   navigation, 213

   network, 206

   pH, 240

   poisoned, 193

   runoff, 168, 174, 206, 219

   salinity, 202

   sharing, 246

   stages, 33, 214

   stream flow, 206

   surge, 34

   system, 211

   upstream, 216

   water, 9

   water extraction, 168

   water quality, 34

road, 106

   planning, 118

   salt, 232

   system, 117

rock, 59, 65, 66

   analysis, 19

   igneous, 16, 147

   sedimentary, 61

   silicate, 78

   volcanic, 225

runoff, 34

   agricultural fields, 226

   annual, 220

   construction site, 49

   contamination, 230

   from melting snow, 205

   seasonal variability, 206

   surface, 175

salinity, 27, 229, 277

salinization, 196, 226, 229, 243, 264, 325

saltwater, 235

   intrusion, 35, 194, 202, 222, 235

sanitation, 52, 187, 310, 316, 329

   infrastructure, 192

   provision, 238

   public school, 192

satellite observations, 25, 290, 291, 293

scenario, 299, 309

sea level, 7, 29, 35, 49, 136, 202, 223, 288, 289, 293, 300, 309

security

   energy, 99, 135, 310, 314, 330

   food, 281

   internal, 132

   oil, 133

   social, 42, 57

   water, 274, 310, 311, 321, 330

sediment, 19, 59, 65

   input, 221

   land, 66

   load, 212

   marine, 61, 66

   pollution, 226

   recycling, 66

   transport, 216, 221

sedimentation, 159, 221, 252

selenium, 229

semiarid, 33, 52, 276, 282, 287, 316

sequestration, 315, 317

sewage, 49, 224

   animal, 238

   infrastructure, 243

   management, 232

silting, 215

smog, 18

snow, 29, 169, 180, 290, 299

   accumulation, 220

   cover, 219

   fall, 220

   melt, 220

   melting, 293

   mountain, 33

   permanent, 177

   seasonal, 175

snowmelt

   patterns change, 7

soil, 33, 34, 59, 64, 65, 66, 168

   biota, 200

   -bound phosphates, 226

   carbon, 76, 79

   condition, 75

   contaminated, 241

   degradation, 75, 196, 229

   drainage, 229

   erosion, 216, 221

   frozen, 135

   infiltration, 175

   loss, 226

   moisture, 186

   nutrients, 78

   particles, 226

   salinization, 277

   salt accumulation, 196

   saturation, 196

   storage, 180

   stripped-mined, 325

   texture, 229

   top, 70, 75

   toxic, 223

   types, 34

   water, 170

   waterlogging, 277

solar

   activity cycle, 295

   collector, 165, 333

   concentrator, 154

   farms, 155

   panel, 138

   passive, 154

   photovoltaic, 165

   system, 59, 61, 168

   tile, 321

Solar

   variability, 295

solar energy, 23, 66, 318, 323

Southern Annular Mode, 31. See also SAM

Stefan-Boltzmann law, 23

stomata, 67

storm, 49

   sewer, 275

   surge, 7

   track, 31

   water, 275

   water pollutants, 275

stratosphere, 18, 119, 290, 295

   cooling, 309

streamflow, 220

sub-Saharan belt, 11

subsidence, 193, 194, 210

sulfur, 15

surface roughness, 72

sustainability, 258

Syr Darya River, 214

tanker, 93, 114, 129, 134, 145

   route, 135

tax

   break, 117, 324

   component of gasoline price, 109

   emission, 324

   fuel, 114, 116

   gasoline, 113

   government-imposed, 111

   oil, 107

   revenues, 97

   sale, 275

technology

   bio-, 277

   CCS, 142

   energy-producing, 164

   engine, 119

   factor, 53

   fuel, 119

   GMO, 277

   high, 335

   RO, 284

   transfer, 99

   treatment, 320

temperature, 15, 20, 24, 158, 217

   absolute, 23

   Antarctic, 306

   Arctic, 290

   black body, 23

   canopy, 180

   day and night, 290

   daytime, 178

   diurnal range, 290

   equilibrium, 24, 296

   extreme, 289

   global, 21

   global mean, 19, 290, 303, 314

   history, 21

   long-term records, 289

   long-term time series, 297

   Northern Hemisphere, 308

   observation, 20

   recent, 289

   record, 20, 289, 303

   regional change, 300

   regional differences, 21

   sea surface, 291, 293

   simulations, 33

   surface, 288, 289

   tropospheric, 296

   upper atmosphere, 177

   wintertime, 305

   worldwide. See also global temperature

termite hindgut, 70

Three Gorges Dam, 215, 216

   silt build up, 216

Tigris River, 206

tourism, 49

   management, 49

tradable permit, 324

traffic

   air, 113, 119

   congestion, 47, 51, 117, 118, 122

   passenger, 119

transboundary water

   management, 249

   resources, 253, 319

   shared, 251

   transfer, 249

transition fuel, 147

transnational water, 249

transpiration, 67, 170

   vegetation, 199

transportation, 81, 323

   activities, 16

   alternatives, 118

   behavior, 321

   consumption, 100

   demand, 101

   efficiency, 122

   emissions, 105, 117, 120

   energy for, 44

   energy mix, 122

   fuel, 98, 111, 132

   goods, 55

   industry, 51

transportation (cont.)

   infrastructure, 94, 121

   long-distance, 124

   marine, 119, 121

   mass, 118

   oil consumption, 114

   regulations, 117

   river, 216

   services, 113

   systems, 2

   trips, 118

transportation sector, 12, 89, 97, 100, 104, 113, 121

travel behavior, 120

tree rings, 20

tropical cyclones, 49

tropical forest, 67, 77, 78, 166, 174

turbulence

   aerodynamic, 172

typhoon, 292, 302

uranium, 147, 148

   -235, 148

   -238, 148

   bundle, 149

   enrichment, 148

   fuel, 151

   isotope, 148

   nucleus, 148

   ore, 147

   supplies, 149

   weapon-grade, 148

urban

   area, 44, 51, 52, 192

   center, 51, 118

   claim, 257

   development, 57, 222, 235, 238

   dweller, 194, 232, 235, 238

   dwelling, 192

   planning, 47

   population, 194

   slums, 192, 255, 262

   sprawl, 222

   users, 9

   water demand, 253, 319

   water distribution, 244

   water manager, 193, 194

   water pollution, 237

   water system, 319

   water use, 187, 321

urban groundwater

   overexploitation, 194

urbanization, 45, 46, 186, 295

vegetation, 34, 59, 60, 65, 77, 170, 178, 183

   cover, 25, 77, 175

   early onset, 15

   flooded, 218

   net primary production, 65

   suppression, 210

   terrestrial, 64, 67, 74

   tropical, 71

virtual water, 280, 281

   exchange, 281

   flow, 281

   subsidies, 281

   trade, 281

   trading, 287

vitrification, 151

volcano, 17, 66, 162, 163, 164

waste, 316

   chemical, 142

   disposal, 151, 211

   hazardous, 231

   heap, 163

   human, 233

   incinerator, 225

   management, 194

   product, 151, 156, 285

   production, 229

   radioactive, 151

   solid, 144

   storage, 166, 318

   water, 194

wastewater, 9, 198, 200

   collection, 201, 333

   composition, 239

   domestic, 5

   industrial, 230

   management, 265

   recycling, 198

   treated, 282

   treatment, 201, 239, 320, 323

   treatment plant, 237, 285

water, 5, 26, 63, 119, 189, 194, 199, 203, 209, 223, 224, 247, 249, 256, 257, 263, 268, 270, 273, 278, 280, 287, 320, 327

   access to, 36

   acidity. See also water pH

   affordable, 266

   aging, 243

   allocatioin adjustment, 251

   allocation, 198, 249, 325

   allocation strategy, 253

   aquifer recharge, 244

   associations, 268

   availability challenge, 5

   availability, 189, 308

   availability limitation, 7

   balance analysis, 265

   bank, 278

   basins sharing, 250

   benefit, 246

   bodies, 168, 170

   body pollution, 223

   -borne disease, 52

   bottled, 271

   brackish, 35, 282, 283

   budget, 170, 173, 185

   capture, 276

   chlorinated, 239

   cities supply, 202

   claim, 191, 249

   clean drinking, 43, 52, 187

   coastal, 49

   competing claims, 268

   competition, 257, 286

   condensation, 178

   conservation, 76

   consumption, 194

   consumption pattern, 44

   cooling, 203

   cost, 256

   cost of desalinated, 284

   cost of produced, 283, 286

   cost of surface, 200

   costing, 264

   crisis, 9, 187, 189, 204, 270, 310

   cycle, 291, 295

   daily loss, 175

   deficit, 5

   delivery, 154

   delivery system, 222, 273

   demand, 9, 286

   density, 27, 308

   deposits, 7

   desalinated, 284

   discharge, 210

   disease, 52

   disinfection, 240

   dispute, 253

   dissolution, 73

   distribution, 286

   distribution infrastructure, 11

   diversion, 159, 276

   doctrines, 250

   drinkable, 57

   dynamic reallocation, 267

   economic value, 280

   ecosystem consumption, 198

   efficiency, 287, 320

   efficiency enhancement, 276

   entitlements, 248, 278, 286

   entrainment, 285

   equity, 248

   exploitation, 260

   extraction, 5, 6, 9

   extraction cost, 201

   extreme flow, 219

   feed, 282

   fetching, 257

   filtration, 271

   fluctuations, 220

   fluxes, 169, 180

   fresh accumulation, 174

water (cont.)

   future availability, 246

   gap with sanitation, 259

   geothermal, 163

   global crisis, 259

   global demand, 51

   global scarcity, 287

   governance, 194, 238, 247, 263, 323

   harnessing, 260

   harvesting, 277

   hazardous, 136

   heat capacity, 209

   -holding capacity, 24

   household use, 200

   human right to, 266

   impoundment, 186

   improved, 263

   improved source, 255

   increasing demands, 335

   industrial demand, 253

   industries, 260

   industry use, 230

   infrastructure, 9, 10, 52, 262, 331

   initiative, 245, 260

   injection, 94

   inorganic pollutant, 224

   insecurity, 266

   insoluble, 224

   intensive, 81

   intensive crops, 196, 281

   international management, 250

   international law regimes, 267

   lake, 33, 169

   land budget, 185

   law, 252

   level, 214

   liquid, 172

   liquid content, 182

   loss, 180

   management, 187, 188, 229, 261, 308

   management agreement, 263

   management challenge, 246

   management decisions, 258

   management system, 204, 238

   management technology, 277

   market, 278

   market value, 278

   masses, 27, 28, 72

   migratory bird, 238

   molecule, 25

   monopolies, 248

   national laws, 198

   networks inefficiency, 321

   networks security, 331

   new claims, 251

   new supplies, 271

   options, 278

   organic pollutant, 223

   outlet temperature, 203

   overexploitation, 188

   peacefull sharing, 246

   per capita consumption, 51. See per capita use

   periodic shortages, 193

   planet, 168

   policy, 252, 311

   pollutant loading, 231

   polluted supplies, 238

   potable. See also drinking water

   precipitable, 183

   precipitated, 176

   price, 263, 322

   pricing, 325

   private companies, 262

   private provision, 269

   privatization, 260, 262

   production, 157

   productivity, 271

   project, 215

   provision, 194

   public utility, 287

   pumping, 176, 201

   pure, 282

   purification device, 242

   purifying, 211

   purity, 238

   quality, 14, 33, 52, 189, 198, 202, 204, 212, 223, 225, 230, 238, 244, 249, 276

   recovery, 273

   regimes, 248, 253

   -related chores, 257

   -related development, 259

   -related hazard, 202

   -related investment, 255

   release, 214

   release to atmosphere, 180

   removal, 211

   reservoir, 205

   residence time, 170

   resource management, 319

   resource uncertainties, 268

   resources, 310

   restrictions, 203

   reuse, 201, 287

   rights, 278

   rights definition, 249

   rights regime, 267

   river, 202

   river extraction, 186

   salt, 174

   savings, 9, 322

   scarcity, 37, 52, 187

   scarcity solutions, 282

   security program, 311

   seepage, 273

   services, 259

   sewage, 230

   shared bodies, 252

   sharing, 249, 261

   -sharing treaty, 246

   shortage, 5

   soluble, 226

   source, 33, 286

   stages, 33

   stakeholders, 259

   states, 168

   storage, 170, 175, 177, 188, 216, 280

   stress, 11, 189, 204

   supplies, 33, 226

   supplies adequacy, 273

   supplies contamination, 222

   supply, 187, 188, 204

   supply insecurity, 193

   supply options, 320

   supply protection, 193

   supply system, 10

   supply uncertainty, 280

   surface, 27

   surface contamination, 229

   system operation, 262

   table, 35, 202

   table depth, 201

   table drawdown, 235

   table level, 212

   terrestrial budget, 186

   testing, 276

   trading, 279, 280

   transfer, 247, 279

   transpiration, 175

   transport, 170

   treated, 240. See also product water

   treatment, 201, 231, 275

   treatment centers, 272

   treatment system, 8

   treatment technology, 238, 244

   turbine, 159

   types, 252

   unsustainable use, 4

   uptake, 67, 70

   urban distribution, 320

   usage by agriculture, 196

   use, 50

   use efficiency, 52, 76

   user association, 258

   users, 262

   valuation, 264

   vapor, 23, 35, 66, 119, 169, 178, 291

   vapor distribution, 181

   vapor feedback, 182

   vapor saturation, 181

   vapor transport, 183

   virtual, 282

   virtual flow, 280

   volumetric allocation, 253

water (cont.)

   ways, 99

   wheel, 160

   withdrawal, 5, 187, 194, 245

water collection

   costs, 275

waterlogging, 196, 226, 273, 277, 325

water loss

   cause, 273

water management

   NGO role, 259

watershed, 181, 237, 247, 280

water withdrawal

   industrial, 230

weather disturbances, 26

weathering, 19, 66, 78, 181, 186, 225

wetlands, 70, 75, 79, 169, 170, 198, 202, 205

White Lake, 209

wind, 152

   turbines, 153, 333

wind energy, 152, 154

wind power, 318

wind speed, 292

World Bank, 259, 260

   reports, 132

World Commission on Dams, 219, 260

World Water Council, 260

World Water Forum, 259

Yangtze, 215

Yangtze River, 216

Yellow River, 206, 214

Yukon River, 213

zooplankton, 69


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