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Fictions of Justice

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FICTIONS OF JUSTICE
Cambridge University Press
9780521889100 - FICTIONS OF JUSTICE - The International Criminal Court and the Challenge of Legal Pluralism in Sub-Saharan Africa - By Kamari Maxine Clarke
Index

INDEX

Abou el Fadl, Khaled 161–163

Abubakar, Yakubu 206

Accountability 23–24, 152

Acholi people 122–123, 125–126

Action Aid–Nigeria 83–84

Actus reus 168

Adultery under Sharia 195–198, 206, 211, 228

Afako, Barney 125

Africa

Christianity in 73

Cold War, effect of end of 45–46, 78–79

corruption in 78–79

development associations in 73

elites, role of 142

environmental issues 74

expectations of modernity in 46–47

external management of violence 114–115

ICC focus on 95–96

imagery of 115

inequality in 7–8

international law, as source of innovations in 76

Islam in 73

land use issues 74

liberalism, limitations of 116

loans to 78–79

militarization of 48

mining in 73–74

oil in 74–75

ratification of Rome Statute in 70–73

resource-based conflicts 45–46

resource extraction in 73–75

“scramble for Africa,” 47–48

sovereignty in postcolonial Africa 142–143

“specters of justice” in 115–116

“tribunalization of violence” in 36–37, 45, 94–96, 116

unequal distribution of power in 142

See underspecific nation

African Charter on Human and People's Rights 178–179

African Union 71–72

Agamben, Giorgio 119–120, 141, 143

Agbopke, Sandrine 218

Aggression, selection for ICC jurisdiction 55–57, 59

Akayesu, Jean-Paul 13–14

Albanians, ethnic cleansing of 9–10

Alhassan, Abdulrahman 197

Ali bin Dunama 188

Ali Ghazi 188

al-Khuruj 162–163, 169

Allah 153–154, 161–162, 166, 214–215, 221


Allen, Tim 20–22

American Bar Association 225

American Convention on Human Rights 178–179

Americas Watch 85

Amin, Rizgar Mohammed 38

Amina

See Lawal, Amina

Amnesty International

amnesty in Uganda and 132, 139–140

CICC, role in 66

implementation of Rome Statute and 86–87

Lawal and Hussaini cases, on 207, 219–220

Nigerian NGOs and 83–84

overview 85

social services, promotion of investment in 74–75

Amnesty in Uganda

See Uganda

Anderson, Janet 130–131

Anderson, Kenneth 64–65

Anglican Church 130

Annan, Kofi 3, 91, 120–121

Anthropology

command responsibility and 105

cultural relativism and 155–156, 233–234

legal anthropology 24, 112–114, 156

legal pluralism and 113–114, 233–234

moral economies and 53–54

religion and 187

universality principle and 233

Apartheid 56–58

“Apparitions.”

See “Specters of justice”

Aristotle 173

Asad, Talal 172–174, 187

Asia Watch 85

Austria, on terrorism as international crime 58–59

“Bare life,” 119–121, 142–143

Bashir, Omar Hassan Ahmad al- 19

Bello Sanyinawal, Muhammad 206

Benaissa, Mohamed 69

Benjamin, Walter 217–218

Berkeley Law Project 113

Berman, Paul 117–119

Bigombe, Betty 130–132

Bilateral immunity agreements 37

Biopolitics

Coalition for the International Criminal Court and 67–68

mass violence and 59–61

necropolitics compared 59–61

NGOs and 61–62

Boas, Frank 155–156

Bockarie, Sam 15–16

Body Shop International 84–85

Bourdieu, Pierre 51–52

Bretton Woods Institutions 78–79

Brilmayer, Lea 117–118

Brima, Alex Tamba 15–16

British Broadcasting Corporation 207

British Council 83–84

Brooks, Daphne 12–13

Burundi, ICC investigations in 95

Bush, George W. 37–38

Cambodia, Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of 4–5

Canada, donations to NGOs 83

Canadian Social Research 218–219

Capitalism

donor capitalism

See (Donor capitalism)

religion and 174–176

rule of law and 25–26

Carnegie Foundation 77, 82–83

CBOs

See Community-based organizations (CBOs)

Čelebići case 107

Central African Republic, ICC investigations in 19, 71–72, 95

Chad, oil in 74–75

Chatterjee, Partha 143–144

Chayes, Abram 140–141

Chayes, Antonia Handler 140–141

Chege, Michael 80

Cherkaoui, Hicham 69–70

Child soldiers

command responsibility and 99–100

crimes against humanity, use of as 90–91

DRC, in 1, 18–19

humanitarianism and 108

imagery of 115

individual responsibility and 92–93

Lubanga and 89–92, 102–105

moral reaction to 108–109

negation of responsibility 91–92

Rome Statute, under 90, 94

Sierra Leone, in 90–91

“specters of justice” and 90–94, 105, 107–108

testimony, problems of 93–94

victim versus perpetrator 92

war crimes, use of as 89–91

Christianity

Africa, in 73

amnesty in Uganda, role in 129–130

basis of international law, as 166

human rights, influence on 173

justice making and 144–145

CICC

See Coalition for the International Criminal Court (CICC)

Classification of crimes, political nature of 170

Clinton, Bill 37

Coalition for the International Criminal Court (CICC)

amnesty in Uganda and 132–133

biopolitics and 67–68

compliance, ensuring 72–73

creation 66

liberalism and 66–67

process and techniques 67–68

scope of 66

Sharia, attitude toward 232

Codification of offenses 18

Cold War

Africa, effect of end on 45–46, 78–79

liberalism, effect of end on 46

Colonialism 56–57, 75, 189–191

Comaroff, Jean 112

Comaroff, John 112–113

Comic Relief Charity Project 84–85

Command responsibility

anthropology and 105

child soldiers and 99–100

demonization of leader 108–109

ICTY and 11–12, 107

knowledge requirement 106–107

limitations of 19–25, 112

Lubanga and 98–100, 102–105, 107

Milošević and 11–12

operationalization of 98–99

overview 3

reconciliation contrasted 99–100

Rome Statute, under 98–99, 106–107

root causes of violence and 2–3, 19–25, 108–109

“specters of justice” and 98–100

suffering of victims, relevance of 105

testimony regarding 102–105

Commission of the European Union 84–85

Community-based organizations (CBOs) 64–69

Complementary nature of ICC 35

Compliance with Rome Statue, ensuring 72–73, 133–134

Comte, Auguste 172–173

Conflicting notions of justice 6–7

Congo, Democratic Republic of (DRC)

child soldiers in 1, 18–19

Forces Armées Congolaise 97

Forces Patriotiques pour la Libération du Congo 89–90, 101–102

ICC investigations in 18–19, 71–72, 95

Mouvement pour la Libération du Congo 97

Rassemblement Congolais pour la Démocratie 97

Rome Statute and 97–98, 100

Union des Patriotes Congolais 89–90, 101

violence in 96–98

war crimes in 89–90

Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms 178

Convention on the Rights of the Child 90

Cord Aid 83–84

Corruption in Africa 78–79

Costs of justice 62–63


Cover, Robert 117–118

Creation of ICC 55, 94

Crimes against humanity

child soldiers, use of 90–91

Darfur, in 19

intentionality in 164

selection for ICC jurisdiction 55–57, 59

Sharia and 194–195

Critical transnational legal pluralism 235–240

Croatians, ethnic cleansing of 9–10

Culpability 165–166, 168

Culturalist approach to international law 239–240

Cultural relativism 155–156, 233–234

Daniel, Isioma 157–158, 167, 170–171

Danish Centre for Human Rights 83–84

Darfur

arrest warrants in 19

crimes against humanity in 19

genocide in 19

ICC investigations in 18–19, 36, 71–72, 95

Death penalty 20–22, 213

de Fontenay, Genevieve 218

Delalić case 107

Derrida, Jacques 8–9, 22–23, 94, 111, 147–148, 204

Development associations 73

Dicker, Richard 138–139

Dictatorships, effect on NGO funding 77–78

Dispute processes 113

Diversity in conceptions of justice 121

Doctors without Borders 74–75

Domestication of international law 51–52, 117–118

Donor capitalism

bilateral governmental donors 83

coalitions and 86–87

governance, role in 86

human rights agenda and 85–86

overview 81–82

private foundations 82–83

Donor dancing 81

DRC

See Congo, Democratic Republic of (DRC)

Drug trafficking 56–59

Elements of Crimes 56

Elites

Africa, role in 142

cosmopolitan elite, rise of 63–64

decentralization, role in rise of 64–65

legal elites, rise of 65

role of 18

Encounter model 31

Environmental damage 56–57

Environmental issues 74

“Epistemic community,” 87–88

Ethnic cleansing 9–10

European Convention on Human Rights 178

European Union 84–85

Exclusion of crimes from ICC jurisdiction 57–59

Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia 4–5

Faier, Lieba 31, 48–49

Faith versus religion 189, 198–199

Fatwa 157

Fédération Internationale des Droites de l'Homme 207

Fees for ICC 62

Feminism

Lawal and Hussaini cases, reaction to 218–224

Sharia, attitude toward 208–211, 213–214, 232

Feminist Majority Foundation 218–219

Ferguson, James 46–47, 87

Fictions

rule of law 34–36

“specters of justice,” 20–22

Fiqh school of jurisprudence 196–197, 201

Flamme, Jean 1–3

Fofana, Moinina 15–16

Ford Foundation 76–77, 82–85

Fornication under Sharia 195–198, 228


Foucault, Michel 13, 49–50, 59–61, 68, 217–218

Founding moments 54

France

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen 176

French Revolution 176

“Friction,” 31

Funding pools 68–69

Gates Foundation 82–83

Gbao, Augustine 15–16

Geertz, Clifford 155–156

Gender rights 208–211, 213–216

General intent 165

Geneva Conventions 55–56, 100, 138

Genocide

Darfur, in 19

intentionality in 164

Rwanda, in 13–14

selection for ICC jurisdiction 55–57, 59

Genocide Convention 164–165

Ghana, loans to 79

Ghauri, Judge 182

“Ghosts.”

See “Specters of justice”

Globalization

cosmopolitan elite, and rise of 63–64

decentralization and 64–65

Goodale, Mark 18, 31

Grotius, Hugo 174–175

Haas, Peter 87–88

Hague Charter 152–153

Hannerz, Ulf 63–64

Hegemony

humanitarianism, of 110–111

human rights paradigm, of 209–210

individual responsibility principle, of 152

NGOs, of 145

rule of law, of 145

secularism, of 166–167

Helsinki Watch 85

Hirsch, Susan 20–22

Hobbes, Thomas 174–175

Humanitarianism

child soldiers and 108

hegemony of 110–111

justice making and 111

moral economies and 112, 145–146

ontology of 109–112

primacy of 110

rise of 49

use of force in furtherance of 180

Human rights

Christianity, influence of 173

critical approach to, need for 235–236

encounter model 31

hegemony of 209–210

importance of 8–9

individual rights, characterized as 174–178

limitations to models of 33–34

micropractices and 237–238

models of 30–32

NGOs, human rights agenda and 85–86

norm internalization model 30–31

punishment and 221–222

sharia, human rights advocates and 198

truth regime, as 170

vernacularization model 31, 51, 118, 236–237

Western conceptions of 178

Human rights economy 46

Human Rights First 66, 74–75, 83–85, 207

Human Rights Watch 66, 85–87, 138–140, 207

Human Rights Watch–Switzerland 83–84

Hussaini, Safiya

death sentence against 213

defense of 224

feminism and 222–224

global reaction to trial of 218

Sharia and 214–215

trial of 206–209

Hussein, Saddam 38

Hutus, genocide by 13–14

Hybrid forms of justice 142


Hyper-absence of state 142

Hyper-presence of state 142

Ibrahim, Ahmadu 197–203

Ibrahim, Hauwa 198, 224–232

ICC

See underspecific topic

ICTR

See International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)

ICTY

See International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY)

IMF

See International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Immunity

bilateral immunity agreements 37

Morocco, in 69–70

Implementing legislation 71

Incommensurability

amnesty and 119, 131, 135

command responsibility and 19–25

overview 236–237

politics of 32

Sharia and 151, 153, 183, 208–209, 228

truth regimes and 26–27

India, on terrorism as international crime 58–59

Individual responsibility

child soldiers and 92–93

command responsibility

See (Command responsibility)

hegemony of 152

ICTR establishing 14–15

moral economies and 49

root causes of violence and 54–55, 108–109

SCSL establishing 16–17

Individual rights

human rights characterized as 174–178

truth regime, as 174–175

Institute for War and Peace Reporting 130–131

Institutionalization of justice 111–112

Intentionality

crimes against humanity, in 164

general intent 165

genocide, in 164

international law, in 164–165

Islam and 162–163

political acts and 167–168

Rome Statute, under 164–165

sharia and 163–164

specific intent 165

war crimes, in 164

Western jurisprudence, in 164

Inter-American Development Bank 25–26

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 79

International Bar Association 66

International Centre for Rights and Democratic Development 84–85

International Convention on Labor 25–26

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 50–51

International Criminal Court (ICC)

See underspecific topic

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)

Akayesu, indictment of 13–14

budgets 62

creation of 13–14

criticism of 15

humanitarianism and 49

individual responsibility, establishing 14–15

overview 4–5

International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY)

budgets 62

command responsibility and 11–12, 107

creation of 10

extraterritorial law and 11

humanitarianism and 49

legitimacy of 10–11

Milošević, indictment of 9

overview 4–5

sovereignty and 10–11

International criminal tribunals

forerunner of ICC, as 4–5

rise of 152–153


International Development Research Centre 84–85

International law

Africa as source of innovations in 76

Christianity as basis of 166

culturalist approach to 239–240

domestication of 51–52, 117–118

duty to prosecute international crimes 138

evolution of rights under 151–152

inequalities between nations and 75–76

intentionality in 164–165

Islam, influence of 170–171

liberalism, influence of 170–171

limitations of 147–148

operationalization of 6–7, 98–99, 113–114

primacy of 34–35, 132–133

sharia contrasted 166

sovereignty, relationship to 176–177

trend toward 75–76

victims in 143

World War II, effect of 177

International Law Commission 55–57, 164

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Nigeria and 184

rule of law and 25–26

Structural Adjustment Programs 78

Investigations by ICC 18–19, 71–72, 95

Iran

ICC accusations against 26–27

qesas in 27

revolution in 159–160

Rome Statute and 26–27

Sharia in 26–27

Iraqi Special Tribunal 4–5, 38

Islam

Africa, in 73

al-Khuruj 162–163, 169

fatwa 157

fiqh school of jurisprudence 196–197, 201

Five Pillars 154

intentionality and 162–163

international law, influence on 170–171

jihad 157

legal pluralism and 156–157

martyrdom in 27–29

oppression, response to 161–162

overview 153–154

political dissent and 161

qesas 27

secularism, as response to 38–39, 159–160

Sharia

See (Sharia)

taking of life and 27–29

violence and

appropriateness of violence in 157–158, 166–167

motivation for violence, importance of 162–163

political nature of violence in 159

Ivory Coast, ICC investigations in 95

Jihad 157

John (England) 174–175

Jurisdiction of ICC 94–95

Jurisprudence, development of 3

Justice making

Christianity and 144–145

humanitarianism and 111

legal pluralism and 118–119

political nature of 24–25

problems in 238–239

sharia and 203–204

victims, role of 109, 121–122

“Justice talk,” 76–77, 177–178

Kabila, Joseph 97, 100

Kabila, Laurent-Désiré 96–97

Kallon, Morris 15–16

Kamara, Ibrahim Bazzy 15–16

Kanu, Santigie Borbor 15–16

Keck, Margaret 30–31

Khomeini, Ayatollah 159–160

Kisembo, Floribert 102

Knowledge regimes 49, 68

Koh, Harold 30–32, 117–118

Kondewa, Allieu 15–16

Kony, Joseph 35–36, 123–125, 137


Koran

See Qur'an

Korea, on terrorism as international crime 58–59

Koroma, Johnny Paul 15–16

Kosovo, ethnic cleansing in 9–10

Land use issues 74

Lasswell, Harold 117

Lawal, Amina

death sentence against 213

defense of 224–225

feminism and 222–224

global reaction to trial of 218

overview 33

Sharia and 214–215

trial of 207–209, 211–213

“Law and globalization,” 117–118

Lawyers Committee for Human Rights

See Human Rights First

Lawyers without Borders 225

League of Nations 177

Lebanon, on terrorism as international crime 58–59

Legal anthropology 24, 112–114, 156

Legal elites, rise of 65

Legal pluralism

anthropology and 113–114, 233–234

balancing of competing systems 171

critical approach to, need for 235–236, 238–239

critical transnational legal pluralism 235–240

Islam and 156–157

justice making and 118–119

legal anthropology and 24, 156

religion, influence of 175

Sharia and 187–188

Legitimacy of ICC 54

Leopold II (Belgium) 96

Liberalism

Africa, limitations in 116

CICC and 66–67

Cold War, effect of end of 46

failures of 5–6

individual agency and 49–50

international law, influence on 170–171

limitations of 237, 240

micropractices and 5

NGOs and 66–67

Sharia, influence on 215

United Nations, influence on 177

Libya, on terrorism as international crime 58–59

Loans

Africa generally 78–79

Ghana, to 79

Sudan, to 79

Locke, John 173–175

Lomo, Zachary 139–140

Lord's Resistance Army

See Uganda

Lubanga Dyilo, Thomas

arrest and extradition of 100–101

child soldiers and 89–92, 102–105

command responsibility and 98–100, 102–105, 107

defense of 1–3

demonization of 104–105

rule of law in trial of 104–105

“spectacularization of justice” and 236–237

trial of 18–19, 33

war crimes and 89–90

Lugard, Frederick 189–191

Lukwiya, Raska 35–36, 137

Lusaka Accord 97

MacArthur Foundation 77, 82–85

Maedar-Gould, Sindi 223–224

Magna Carta 174–175

Mahmood, Saba 185–186

Mai Idris Alooma 188

Malaysia, on terrorism as international crime 58–59

Mamdani, Mahmood 191

Managerial model 140–141

Mao, Norbert 121–122

Martyrdom 27–29

Marxism 172–173

Mass violence

biopolitics and 59–61

focus on 54–55

offenses of 59


Mato oput 21–22, 35–36, 126–130

Mbembe, Achille 59–61

McDougal, Myers 117–118

McGowan, Randall 217–218

Mens rea 168

Mercenaries 56–57

Merry, Sally 31–32, 51, 236–237

Michael, Sarah 80

Micropractices

biopolitics and 59–62

See also (Biopolitics)

donor capitalism 81–87

See also (Donor capitalism)

human rights paradigm and 237–238

importance of 148

legitimization of 238

liberalism and 5

necropolitics and 59–61

overview 13

partnering for public services 76–78

reconfiguration of state practices 75–76

Militarization of Africa 48

Military tribunals 38

Milošević, Slobodan

command responsibility and 11–12

extraterritorial law and 11

indictment of 4–5, 9

legitimacy of ICTY and defense of 10–11

sovereignty and defense of 10–11

Mining in Africa 73–74

Misereor–EZE 83–84

Miss World pageant 157

Mohammad, Yahaya 207, 211–212

MONUC 97

Moral economies

anthropology and 53–54

generally 52–53

humanitarianism and 112, 145–146

individual responsibility, of 49

praxeology and 49–51

rule of law and 48–49

victims and 105–109

Moreno-Ocampo, Luis 36, 100, 124

Moroccan Coalition 66, 69

Morocco

immunity in 69–70

Rome Statute and 69–70

Muhammad 153–154, 166, 214–215

Mulenda, Franck 101

Museveni, Yoweri 35–36, 122–125, 135

“Mystical foundations” of international justice 8–9, 111

Nader, Laura 113

Nationalism 75

National Lotteries Charity Board 84–85

National Organization for Women 218–219

Natural law 190

Natural rights 173

Necropolitics 59–61

Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University 77

Netherlands, on terrorism as international crime 58–59

New Haven School of International Law 117–119

New Partnership for Africa's Development 77

“New sovereignty,” 140–141

NGOs

See Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)

Nigeria

BAOBAR for Women's Human Rights 206–207, 223–224

British colonialism in 189–191

burden of proof in 228

Centre for Democracy and Development 84–85

Civil Liberties Organization 83–84

Constitution 215–216, 226, 228–229

Constitutional Conference of 1950 191–192

Constitutional Conference of 1957 192–193

Criminal Code 191–193

Criminal Procedure Code 193–194

Customary Courts 189–190, 226–227

“decentralized despotism” in 191

defenses in 224–229

demographics of 158–159

due process in 229–230

economy of 184

gender rights in 208–211, 213–214

IMF and 184

independence of 191–192

legal system in 184–185, 226–228

location 183–184

Magistrate Courts 226–227

Native Courts 189–192

oil in 183–184

overview 180–181, 204–205

Penal Code 193–194

population 183–184

religion versus faith in 189, 198–199

revamping of courts in 191–192

sectarian violence in 157–158, 167–168

Sharia in

adultery under 195–198, 206, 211, 228

complexity of 185–186

Constitution, conflict with 226, 229

Courts of Appeal 193–194, 226–227

economic gain as motivation for sin 199–200

fornication under 195–198, 228

global reaction to 208, 218

historical background 188–189

human rights advocates and 198

introduction of 193–194

Lawal and Hussaini cases and 214–215

legal pluralism and 187–188

overview 27, 186–187

penal codes 158–159

political Sharia 160, 166, 183, 185–186, 198–199

reform, efforts at 229–232

submission, importance of 201–203

temptation as motivation for sin 199–201

theft, amputation for 182–183

zina 195–198, 206–207, 211, 228

state religion, prohibition against 215–216, 226

stoning in 213

Sunni revivalism in 194–195

Women's Aid Collective 206–207

Women's Rights Advancement and Protection Alternative 207

World Bank and 184

Nigerian Coalition 66, 72, 221

9/11 36–37

Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)

ascendancy of 79–80

attorneys, partnership with 225

biopolitics and 61–62

coalitions and 86–87

conditional funding from 81

cosmopolitan elite, rise of 63–64

costs of justice and 63

decentralization, role in rise of 64–65

dictatorships, effect on funding 77–78

donor capitalism

See (Donor capitalism)

donor dancing and 81

funding pools 68–69

governance, role in 86

hegemony of 145

human rights agenda and 85–86

legal elites, rise of 65

liberalism and 66–67

overview 88

process and techniques 67–68

prosecutorial reliance on 2

“reverse agenda” and 81

rule of law and 49

Sharia, attitude toward 232

South-based NGOs 83

Uganda, in 133–135

United Nations promotion of 80

weakness of postcolonial governments, effect of 80–81

World Bank and 80

Noninternational crimes 89–90

Norman, Samuel Hinga 15–16

Norm-generating communities 117

Norm internalization model 30–31

Norway, donations to NGOs 83


Ntaganda, Bosco 102

Nuremberg Principles 152–153

Nuremberg Tribunal 55–56, 100

Obasanjo, Olusegun 184

Obote, Milton 122–123

Odama, John Baptist 130–131

Odhiambo, Okot 35–36, 137

Office of the Prosecutor (OTP) 66, 95, 100, 136–138

Official development assistance 80–81

Oil

Chad, in 74–75

Nigeria, in 183–184

Okello, Tito 122–123

Ongwen, Dominic 35–36, 137

Open Society Institute 82

Operationalization of international law 6–7, 98–99, 113–114

Organization of African Unity 77

Organization of American States 178–179

OTP

See Office of the Prosecutor (OTP)

Otti, Vincent 35–36, 137

Otto, James 139–140

Overview 39–41

Pakistan, on terrorism as international crime 58–59

Pandolfi, Mariella 235–236

Partnering for public services 76–78

Partnership to Strengthen African Universities 77

Perpetrators

child soldiers as 92

reintegration of 122

sovereignty and 143–144

Perry, Michael 172

Persecution 194–195

Pluralism

See Legal pluralism

Political economies

human rights, of 8–9, 46

rule of law, of 48–49, 63

Political Sharia 160, 166, 183, 185–186, 198–199

Povenelli, Elizabeth 51–52

Poverty 92–93

Praxeology 49–52, 186–187

Preparatory Commissions 18, 56

Prison Watch International 83–84

Productive relation 48–49, 180–181

“Project of markets,” 63

Punishment

human rights advocates and 221–222

modern state and 221

religion and 175–176, 221–222

secular genealogies of 217–218

secularism and 221–222

stoning as 213

Qatar, on terrorism as international crime 58–59

Qur'an 153–154, 201–202, 211–212, 214–215, 221

Ratification of Rome Statute

Africa, in 70–73

donor funding and 73

generally 70–71

implementing legislation 71

self-executing treaties 71

Rawlings, Jerry 79

Reconciliation in Uganda 130–131

Reconfiguration of state practices 75–76

Refugee Law Project 139–140

Rehabilitative justice 144–145, 216–217

Reisman, Michael 117

Religion

anthropology and 187

capitalism and 174–176

Christianity

See (Christianity)

faith versus 189, 198–199

intersection with politics 151

Islam

See (Islam)

legal pluralism, influence on 175

martyrdom 27–29

modern state, in 187

new social forms and 30

Nigeria, religion versus faith in 189, 198–199

political power and 27–29

punishment and 175–176, 221–222

secularism and 27, 172, 175–176

taking of life and 27–29

truth regime, as 26–27

uneven sociopolitical development and 29–30

Reparations 62–63, 106

Resource extraction in Africa 73–75

Restorative justice 144–145, 216–217

Retributive justice 144–145, 216–217

“Reverse agenda,” 81

Riles, Annelise 31

Roberts, Simon 113

Rockefeller Foundation 77, 82–83

Rome Statute

Article 7 194–195

Article 28 165–166

Article 53 120–121, 136–137

child soldiers under 90, 94

command responsibility under 98–99, 106–107

compliance, ensuring 72–73, 133–134

culpability under 165–166, 168

DRC and 97–98, 100

duty to prosecute international crimes under 138

intentionality under 164–165

Iran and 26–27

jurisdiction under 94–95

Morocco and 69–70

Preamble 138

ratification

See (Ratification of Rome Statute)

reparations under 106

secularism in 7, 171–172

Senegal and 71–72

Sharia, conflict with 194–195

South Africa and 72

sovereignty and 94–95, 153

Sudan and 36

Uganda and 124–125, 133–134

United States and 37

victims' rights under 105–106, 136–137

Root causes of violence

command responsibility and 2–3, 19–25, 108–109

individual responsibility and 54–55, 108–109

intervention to prevent 54

limited ability of ICC to address 110–111

poverty as 92–93

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 172–173

Royal Niger Company 189

Rule of law

capitalism and 25–26

conceptual sphere, as 24

conflicting notions of justice 6–7

critical approach to, need for 235–236

encounter model 31

fiction of 34–36

hegemony of 145

ICC commitment to 17–18

importance of 8–9

limitations to models of 33–34

Lubanga trial, in 104–105

models of 30–32

moral economies and 48–49

need for new formulation 6

new agenda, development of 51

NGOs and 49

nonadherence to 240

norm internalization model 30–31

overview 23–24

political economy of 63

secularism and 25

social process, as 24

truth regime, as 87

vernacularization model 31, 51, 118, 236–237

World Bank and 25–26

Rules of Procedure and Evidence 56, 106

Russia, on terrorism as international crime 58–59

Rwanda

genocide in 13–14

ICTR

See (International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR))

Rwandan Patriotic Army 96–97

Safiya

See Hussaini, Safiya

Sani, Ahmed 194

Sankoh, Foday 15–16


Savo, Manase 102

“Scientific” investigations 66

Schmitt, Carl 143

Scott, James 53–54

“Scramble for Africa,” 47–48

SCSL

See Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL)

Secularism

defined 172–173

hegemony of 166–167

historical background 172–180

Islam as response to 38–39, 159–160

political order and 173–174

presumptions of 25

punishment and 221–222

religion and 27, 172, 175–176

Rome Statute, in 7, 171–172

rule of law and 25

sovereignty, relationship to 171

violence, secular versus nonsecular 168–172

Security Council

Resolution 780 10

Resolution 808 10

Resolution 827 10

Resolution 1593 36

tribunals of 4–5

use of force, authorizing 179–180

Selection of crimes for ICC jurisdiction 55–59

Self-executing treaties 71

Senegal, Rome Statute and 71–72

Sentencing

See Punishment

Sesay, Issa Hassan 15–16

Sharia

adultery under 195–198, 206, 211, 228

CICC, attitude of 232

crimes against humanity and 194–195

cultural logic of 214–215

economic gain as motivation for sin 199–200

feminist attitude toward 208–211, 213–214, 232

fornication under 195–198, 228

gender rights under 215–216

historical background 188–189

incommensurability and 151, 153, 183, 208–209, 228

international law contrasted 166

Iran, in 26–27

justice making and 203–204

Lawal and Hussaini cases and 214–215

legal pluralism and 187–188

liberal influences on 215

motivation for violence, importance of 163–164

NGOs and 232

Nigeria, in

See (Nigeria)

persecution and 194–195

political sharia 160, 166, 183, 185–186, 198–199

qadis 188, 191

reactionary movement, viewed as 160–161

reform, efforts at 229–232

Rome Statute, conflict with 194–195

submission, importance of 201–203

temptation as motivation for sin 199–201

violence and 169–170

zina 195–198, 206–207, 211, 228

“Shariaization,” 182–188

Sierra Leone

Armed Forces Revolutionary Council 15, 90–91

child soldiers in 90–91

Revolutionary United Front 15, 90–91

SCSL

See (Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL))

violence in 15

Sikkink, Kathryn 30–31

“Simulacrum of governance,” 112

Social contract 50–51, 174–175

Soros, George 82

Soros Foundation 82

South Africa, Rome Statute and 72

Southern African Development Community 73–74

Sovereignty

challenges to 140–148

ICTY and 10–11

international law, relationship to 176–177

limitations of 140–148

Milošević, and defense of 10–11

need for new conception of 146

“new sovereignty,” 140–141

perpetrators and 143–144

postcolonial Africa, in 142–143

Rome Statute and 94–95, 153

secularism, relationship to 171

transformation of 10–11, 92–93

Uganda and 132–133

victims and 137, 143–144, 146–147

Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL)

creation of 15

individual responsibility, establishing 16–17

other indictments by 15–16

overview 4–5

Taylor, indictment of 15–16

Specific intent 165

“Spectacularization of justice,” 6, 12–13, 39, 236–237

“Specters of justice”

Africa, in 115–116

child soldiers and 90–94, 105, 107–108

command responsibility and 98–100

fiction of 20–22

victims and 22–23, 110

“State of exception,” 141–142

Stoler, Ann 13

Stoning 213

Strategic translation 236–237

Strategic vernacularization 232–233

Structural Adjustment Programs 36–37, 78–79, 179–180

Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo 142

Sudan

Darfur

See (Darfur)

loans to 79

Rome Statute and 36

Sun City Agreement 97

Sweden

NGOs, donations to 83

terrorism as international crime, on 58–59

Swedish International Development Agency 84–85

Taylor, Charles 15–16, 90–91

“Technocratic instrumentalities,” 18, 48–49

Ten Commandments 123–124, 130

Terrorism 56–59, 169

Thrice Round Pagan Community 218–219

Tokyo Tribunal 100

Torture Convention 138

Transformation of sovereignty 10–11, 92–93

“Tribunalization of violence” in Africa 36–37, 45, 94–96, 116

Trubek, David 63

Truth and reconciliation commissions 99–100

Truth regimes

competition among 34, 180

human rights as 170

individual rights as 174–175

overview 13

religion as 26–27

rule of law as 87

“technocratic instrumentalities” and 48–49

vernacularization and 148

Tsing, Anna 31–32, 70, 131

Tutsis, genocide against 13–14

UDHR

See Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)

Uganda

Acholi people 122–123, 125–126

Amnesty Act of 2000 124–126, 132–135

Amnesty Commission 125–126

amnesty in

Christianity, role of 129–130

CICC and 132–133

criticisms of traditional justice 131–132

early legislation 125

ICC approach, conflict with 35–36, 119–121, 131

overview 125

choices facing 135

Committee on Legal and Parliamentary Affairs 134

compliance with Rome Statute, ensuring 133–134

conflicting views on justice in 134–135

Holy Spirit Movement 123–124

Human Rights Focus 139–140

ICC investigations in 18–19, 71–72, 95

judicial intervention, problems with 119–121

Lord's Resistance Army

arrest warrants for 18–19

mato oput and 127–130

peace talks with 35–36, 132, 139–140

retribution against 128

violence committed by 123–125

mato oput 21–22, 35–36, 126–130

National Liberation Army 122–123

National Resistance Movement 122–123, 125

NGOs in 133–135

overview 119

People's Democratic Movement/Army 123–125

People's Front/Army 125

primacy of international law and 132–133

reconciliation in 130–131

restorative justice in 144–145

Rome Statute and 124–125, 133–134

sovereignty and 132–133

victims in

“bare life,” as 119–121

justice making, role in 121–122

overview 20

violence in 123–125

Ugandan Coalition 66, 72

Umar Masarmba 188

United Kingdom, colonialism in Nigeria 189–191

United Nations

attorneys, partnership with 225

Charter 179–180

Commission on Human Rights 138

liberalism, influence of 177

NGOs, promotion of 80

Security Council

See (Security Council)

use of force, authorizing 179–180

United States

AFRICOM 47–48

American Service-members' Protection Act 37–38

bilateral immunity agreements 37

Bill of Rights 176

military tribunals 38

Nethercutt Amendment 37–38

NGOs, donations to 83

Rome Statute and 37

terrorism as international crime, on 58–59

U.S. AID 83–84

“War on Terror,” 36–37

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 50–51, 177–180, 230

Universality principle 169, 230–234

Universal Ratification Campaign 66–67

Usman, Fatima 197–201, 203

Uthman dan Fodio 188

Vernacularization model 31, 51, 118, 236–237

Victims

agency of 237

“bare life,” as 119–121, 142–143

child soldiers as 92

“crafting” of 110

defense of 13

exclusion of 145–146

gender and 208–211, 213–214

imagery of 109–110, 115

interests of state and 136–137

international law, in 143

justice making, role in 109, 121–122

moral economies and 105–109

participation in proceedings 106

poverty, of 92–93

Rome Statute, rights under 105–106, 136–137

sovereignty and 137, 143–144, 146–147

“specters of justice” and 20–22, 110

suffering of 20–22

symbolic power of 143

Uganda, in

“bare life,” as 119–121

justice making, role in 121–122

overview 20

violence, of 140–148

Victims' Rights Working Group 131–132

Victims Trust Fund 62–63, 72, 106

Violence

biopolitics and 59–61

DRC, in 96–98

focus on 54–55

Islam and

appropriateness of violence in 157–158, 166–167

motivation for violence, importance of 162–163

political nature of violence in 159

Lord's Resistance Army, committed by 123–125

nation-states, power of 169–170

Nigeria, sectarian violence in 157–158, 167–168

offenses of mass violence 59

root causes of

See (Root causes of violence)

Rwanda, in 13–14

secular versus nonsecular violence 168–172

sharia and 169–170

Sierra Leone, in 15

Sudan, in 19

Uganda, in 123–125

universality principle and 169, 230–234

victims of 20–22

Yugoslavia, in 9–10

Volkswagen Foundation 77

Volkswagen of South Africa 77

Walleyn, Luc 101

War crimes

child soldiers, use of 89–91

DRC, in 89–90

intentionality in 164

Lubanga and 89–90

selection for ICC jurisdiction 55–57, 59

“War on Terror,” 36–37

Weber, Max 174–176

Westminster Foundation for Democracy 84–85

Withopf, Ekkehard 101–102

Women's rights 208–211, 213–216

Working Capital Fund 62

World Bank

attorneys, partnership with 225

NGOs and 80

Nigeria and 184

oil and 74–75

rule of law and 25–26

Structural Adjustment Programs 36–37, 78

World Economic Forum 25–26

World Trade Organization 25–26

World War II 177

Yawuri, Aliyu Musa 211–212, 224–225

Yugoslavia

ethnic cleansing in 9–10

ICTY

See (International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY))

Zaire

See Congo, Democratic Republic of (DRC)

Zambian Coalition 72

Zeleza, Paul 27–29

Zina 195–198, 206–207, 211, 228




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