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Formative Experiences

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  • 50 b/w illus. 11 tables
  • Page extent: 624 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.98 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 649/.1
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: HQ755.8 .F67 2010
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Parenting--Cross-cultural studies
    • Developmental psychobiology

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9780521895033)

Formative Experiences
Cambridge University Press
9780521895033 - Formative Experiences - The Interaction of Caregiving, Culture, and Developmental Psychobiology - Edited by Carol M. Worthman, Paul M. Plotsky, Daniel S. Schechter and Constance A. Cummings
Index

Index

academic mode of thought 300

acetylation 57–58, 59, 69

action 302–303, 467

action studies vs. behavior studies 465–466

activity-dependent synapse formation 315–316

adaptationist evolutionary priorities 171

adaptive assumption 191–192

adolescence

PTSD Cluster C symptoms 394–396

sensitive period for resilience 398–399

serotonin reuptake inhibitors 401

adolescents

impact of mass media on 348

not best caregivers 177

prevalence of mental illness 331, 344

sense of identity 394–395

social use of language in WS 141, 142, 143

adrenal glands 115

adrenal puberty (adrenarche) 362–364, 367–368

adrenocorticotropin 434

adrenocorticotropin-releasing hormone (ACTH) 60–61, 115, 117, 230

blunted responses 229, 313

effects of infant abuse 250–251

release in stress response 229, 295, 392–393

adult neurogenesis xxvi

Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (ASIQ) 311–312

Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) Study 308–309

affect 473, 482

affiliative drive 150, 152–153, 159–160

See also hypersociability

Africa, rate of child mortality 538

African American children

disparity in reporting of child maltreatment 212–213

onset of maturation and sexual frequency 361–362

ratios of excessive mortality increased 513–514

aggression

child maltreatment 447–448

influence of social environment 400–401

intergenerational transmission 167

monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene 314

not anomalous 387

toward sibling 179, 194–195

agonistic behavior 433, 434–441

Agran, Phyllis 242–244

agricultural societies 195

Agusno, Mahar 379

AIDS epidemic 365–366, 538–539, 540, 542

Ainsworth, Mary 32, 111, 112–113

Aita (Inuit), teasing by older sister 286

Aka foragers 172

alcoholism 314–315

Alisa (Dominican American) 257, 259, 277

Al-Qaeda 468

Altman, Joseph xxvi


Alzheimer's disease, familial 54–55

amae 26, 38

American Anthropologist, cephalic index article 15–16

American cultural bias 30–32

American Ninja (movie) 385

Amitriptyline 380–381, 401

amygdala 477–478

atypical play in monkeys 413–414

autism 413

avoidance learning 89, 93–94, 465

conditioned defeat in Syrian hamsters 447–448, 457–458

cues for emotional content 417–418

damaged, in rats 414, 417

early adversity 272–273

fear 392–393, 457–458

inhibitory pathways 390–391

kindling 318–319

monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene 447–448

nuclei groups 438–439

olfactory learning 88, 90

play-fighting in rats 413, 415–416, 417

and PTSD 394, 457–458

reciprocity 418

“An Overview of Child Well-Being in Rich Countries” (UNICEF) 511–512

anak PKI (child of a PKI member) 388

analysis

person approach 40

variable approach 40

Anbo (Bofa forager)

case study 176–178

differences with Dema (Bofi farmer) 193

Anda, Robert 308–309

androgens 363–364, 367–368

anger 202–203, 467–468

anger displacement 206

animal models 224–225, 443–446

animals and feelings 475–476, 477, 482–483

anisomycin 440–441

Anne (Bofa farmer), caregiver 179

anterior cingulate 322

anterior cingulate cortex 320, 321

anthropometrics 13–14, 19–20

anthropomorphic reasoning

anticipatory flight 434–435

antidepressants and hippocampal neurogenesis 457–458

anti-epileptic drugs 486–487

antisocial personality disorder 351–352

anxiety

aversive experience and development of 93

fractional anisotropy in fornix 317–318

inferior longitudinal fasciculus 318

isolation-reared vs. group-reared rats 421

Joko's feelings of 380

teasing 303–304, 305

anxiety disorders 451–452

AP5 (NMDA receptor antagonist) 439–440

Aqnaqjuaq (Inuit)

chanting 285, 297

motivation 289–290

teasing of granddaughter 284, 285

arched-back nursing 117

arcuate fasciculus 317–318

Ardener, Edwin 466, 467

arithmetic stress 313–314

Asian countries, collectivist mentality 507

Asian economic crisis 386–387

ASIQ (Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire) 311–312

association learning 84

asthma 55

ataques de nervios 258, 259, 260, 267, 277, 278

attachment

in absence of feeding 111–112

autism 125–126

cross-cultural studies 114

externalizing disorders 114

infants' role in 111

insecure 194–195, 254

internalizing disorders 114

mother-infant dyad treatment 279

primary caregiver 180–181

secure 38–39, 194–195

attachment categories 112, 195–196

attachment theory 111, 115, 170–171, 185–186

attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) 470, 478

animal models for 491

cerebellar vermis abnormalities 322–323

evolutionary context 192

frontal cortex 487–488, 493

maternal stress 294–295

official diagnosis criteria 487

psychostimulants 488–490

stress response 313

substance abuse 322–323

audience bias 46–47

audience hookers 140, 141, 144–146, 160

Australia, children of mixed Aboriginal heritage 542

autism (autism spectrum disorders) 123–126, 470, 478

amygdala 413

cerebellar vermis abnormalities 322–323

early neural development 123–124

early symptoms 124

gene methylation patterns 486–487

SISQ (Salk Institute Sociability Questionnaire) 152

social language 143–144, 146

autoimmunity and socioeconomic status 74

autonomic nervous system (ANS) sensitization 313

adverse early experience 313

autonomy 38, 173

aversive experience 89, 92–94

avoidance learning 89, 92

baboons 225

“badness,” feelings of 475

Bailey, D. B. J. 124–125

Bailey, J. M. 365–366

Banga (Bofi forager) 177–178

Baruya people 357–358

basal ganglia nuclei 477–478

basal hypocortisolism 273

basolateral complex of amygdala (BLA) 438–439, 440–441

Bates, J. 108

Bateson, Gregory 23

Bateson, Patrick 96–97

Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) 453

bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) 438–439

behavior interpretation 286–287, 288

behavior studies vs. action studies 465–466

behavioral adaptation vs. evolutionary change 192–193

behavioral inhibition

defined 118

serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene 121

social support 121

See also temperamental shyness

behavioral problem distribution 513

Behavioral Style Questionnaire (BSQ) 124–125

behavioral uninhibition 118

behaviors

costs and benefits 170–171

cultural constraints 170–171

Belize

domestic abuse 340

economics 333–334, 341

education in 338, 341

effect of United States on culture 341–342

Bem, D. 367

Benedict, Ruth 13–14, 356–357

Berlin Wall, fall of 45–46

Berman, A. J. 323

Berry, J. W. 192

bias, types of 46–47

biological stress systems 390–392, 393–394, 396–397

bipolar disorder

cerebellar vermis abnormalities 322–323

hippocampus 319

birth cohorts 73–74, 536–537

Birth to Twenty birth cohort (South Africa) 536–537

birthplace, sigificance of 36

birthweight 537

Björkquist, K. 463–464

Blank, Arthur 352

blood flow alterations 323

Boas, Franz

categories of experience 466–467

and child development 13–21

influence on Caudill Project 22

statistical analysis of work 15

work compared with Caudill's 27

Bofi farmers 172, 178, 180–181

emphasis on food for child 181–182

mortality rates 185

number of children 178

relationship to Bofi foragers 172

resource exchange 181–182

Bofi foragers 173

children to forest 177

cooperative society 185

emphasis on children's emotional and physical welfare 181

mortality rates 180–181, 185

mutual cooperation 181

number of children 178

relationship to Bofi farmers 172


Bogin, Barry 18

Bolsa Familia (Brazil's income transfer program) 541

bombs 384–385

bonnet macaques 444–445

borderline personality disorder 351–352

Bortz, Walter xxv–xxvi

Botongo (Bofa farmer) 178

Botswana 541

Bourgignon, Erika 21–22

Bowlby, John

attachment theory 111

childhood trauma and adult psychopathology 215–216

primary caregiver attachment 180–181

separation 32, 535

Bowlby-Ainsworth model 32

brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) 313–314, 491

brain development xxvii, 97–98

brain maturation

distribution of 488

promotion of 491, 496

brain stem 272

Brazil, income transfer 541

breast cancer BRCA 1 gene 54–55

breastfeeding 181, 551–552

Bremner, J. D. 319

bride-service 175–176

British birth cohort study 73–74

Broca's area 317–318

Bronfenbrenner, Urie 210–211

Bryson, S. E. 124–125

BSQ (Behavioral Style Questionnaire) 124–125

Buffett Early Childhood Fund 523–524

bullying 463–464, 494–495

Buru Island 382

Buss, A. H. 107–108

California 523, 525–526

Campos, J. J. 107–108

Canada 507, 526

Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR) 238–239

cancer, epigenetic drugs 54, 74

Cantor-Graae-E. 464–465

Capps, L. 125–126

caregiver-infant dyad 217, 239, 254, 263–264, 279

caregivers

Bofi farmers 173–174

Bofi foragers 174, 177

community outreach to 168

as culture-bearers 44–45

early learning about 83–89

grandparents 177, 179

puberty 357

responsiveness 124–125

siblings 179, 180, 182

caregiving

embedded in biology 239, 240–241

physical proximity in Bofi farmers 178

physical proximity in Bofi foragers 176–177, 181

role in resilience 531, 539–541

CARE/Maternal Nurturance System 480–481

Carrion, V. G. 319, 321

Caspi, A. 315

catecholamines 313–314, 392–394

cats, electrical stimulation of 476–477

caudate nucleus 322–323

Caudill, William 21–22, 27

Caudill Project 21–29

cause and effect vs. meaning 465

Cebu birth cohort (Philippines) 536–537

cellular plasticity 29–30

central fear system 439

central nucleus of amygdala (Ce) 438–439

cephalic index 14–16

cerebellar vermis 320, 322–323

cerebellar volume 323

cerebellum 70–71, 72, 322–323

cerebral cortex 320–322

cheater detection modules 484

Chess, S. 107, 108, 109, 115

Chief Medical Officer of Greenland 284, 291, 300, 302

child abuse

See child maltreatment

child development 20

child development policy 509–510, 515

child development studies, methodological problems 19–20

child displacements 538

child maltreatment 122–123

aggression 447–448

Belizean school curricula 338

contextual influences 210

costs of 253–254

defined 308, 331

depression 123, 447–448

disparity in reporting of 212–213

intergenerational transmission xxvi–xxvii, 197–198, 210, 256

long-term adverse effects 249

of Nancy (Dominican American) 258–259

neighborhood conditions 210–212

neurobiological changes 315–323

number of events and risk for negative outcome 324

polymorphisms of FKBP5 gene 455

polymorphisms of monoamine oxidase A 252–253

polymorphisms of serotonin transporter 252–253

prevalence 308

psychopathology 24–26, 29–33

PTSD 331, 453–454

research to practice gap 253–254

sensitive periods 311–312

social network support for 213

suicide victims 71–73

time course of 242–244

timing of exposure 310

transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2-RT) 320

verbal abuse 309–310

child mortality

African American children 513–514

Bofi farmers 173

Bofi foragers 174

infectious diseases 180–181

rates of 538

reduction, commitment to 550–551

reduction in 512–513, 551–552, 553–554, 555

United Nations Children's Fund estimates 536

child neglect, nonhuman primates 227

child protective services 184, 200–201, 213, 258

Child Support Grant 541

child well-being 511–512

childhood development, Freudian model 23

childhood diseases 17–18

childhood injuries 242–244

childhood memories 201

childhood nutrition 556

childhood obesity 512–514

childhood physical punishment/abuse (CPA)

See child maltreatment

Childhood Trauma Questionnaire 453, 454

child-parent psychotherapy 254

childrearing 295–296, 298, 302

children

accountability for thriving 549–550

anxious-avoidant 112, 113, 114

anxious-resistant behavior 114

countries with improved conditions 550

differences and likenesses 531–533

disorganized attachment 112, 113

domination among Baruya 357–358

failure to reach potential 536

future of society 550–551

insecurely attached 112, 113, 120, 125–126

not sexually innocent 359

play 179–180, 182

play-fighting vs. serious fighting 424–425

prevalence of mental illness 331

securely attached 112–113, 125–126

children of poor stock 542

children with special health-care needs (CSHCN) 514

Children's Act 511

Chile, reduction in child mortality 555

chimpanzees 419

China, market economy 45–46

Chinese American infant temperament 110

chromatin 57, 64–66

chromatin modification 55, 56, 58, 60

Chromomethylase3 (CMT3) 65

chromosome deletions 137

chronic fatigue syndrome 271, 273

chronic medical problems 512–513

chronic pelvic pain 271

Chubby Maata (Inuit)

good/not good internalization 292

life situation 286

play with mother 287–288, 303

talks about father 285–286

teasing by grandmother 284, 285

teasing of younger sister 286, 303

winter camp 285

winter dwelling 288

cingulate frontal cortex 477–478

cingulum bundle 317–318


cis-acting signals 65

Clark University, Boas at 13–14

classes of action 467

Cleveland, Ohio, neighborhood conditions and child maltreatment 210–212

cobathing, Japanese 23–24, 30

cognitive modules 484

collectivism 152–153, 507

comfort zones 482

Coming of Age in Samoa (Mead), introduction by Boas 18–19

coming of age rituals 361

common law marriage 334

common marmosets 225

Commonwealth countries 507

Commonwealth of Independent States (CSI) 538–539

communication 532, 533–534

community violence 200

competition vs. cooperation in play-fighting 412

computer operating system metaphor for ECD 506, 520

conditioned defeat

and estrus cycle 437–438

GABA receptors 439–440

gender differences 433–434, 437–438

glutamate receptors 439–440

in mice 435

neurobiology 438–441

not convincing model for depression 447

not laboratory artifact 435

post-puberty 444–445

in rats 435

sensitive periods 436–437

social conflict between individuals 456–457

Syrian hamster 434–435

conditioned place aversions (CPAs) 474–475

conditioned place preferences (CPPs) 474–475

conditioning, defining 466–467

connectedness 306

consilience 238–239

Consortium of Health Outcome Research in Transitioning Societies (COHORTS) 536–537

contextual ecological model of development 43–44

Continuum of Care approach 554–555

contraception 178

Convention on the Rights of the Child 512

conversion disorder 259, 270–271

cooperation vs. competition in play-fighting 412

core constituents 37–38, 40–41, 46

corporal punishment 207–208

corpus callosum

reduced size 317

sexual abuse 97–98

structure and function 316–317

cortical and basomedial nuclei of amygdala 438–439

corticosterone 434

avoidance learning 89

critical period for fear response 457

elevated 458–459

in rats 294, 421

corticotropin-releasing factor/hormone (CRF; CRH) 115, 117, 230

blunted responses 229, 313

fear response 392–393, 479

infant abuse 239–240, 250–251

maternal caregiving of infant rats 67–68

stress response 229, 295

cortisol/DHEA ratios 252

cortisols, altered levels 228–229, 250–251, 392–393, 443–444, 458–459

adverse brain development 272, 393–394

agonistic behavior 434

child maltreatment 313–314

chronic fatigue syndrome 273

irritable bowel syndrome 273

maternal stress 294–295

predictive adaptive response 295

psychogenic nonepileptic seizure (PNES) 271

and resilience 252

snowshoe hares 294

cosleeping 23–25, 30

cosmic aspects in the physical 300, 301, 305

Countdown 2005 report 553–554

Countdown 2008 report 553–554

Countdown to 2015 549–550, 553, 554–555, 556

courting patterns 484

crack cocaine xxvii

creatine 321


CREB binding protein (CBP) 60–61, 68, 69

critical period

See sensitive periods

criticism 119, 290–291

cross-cultural studies 22

adolescence 361

attachment 114

conceptual questions 301–302

vs. intra-cultural studies 40–41

methodological questions 301–304

over-emphasis on 36

psychiatric research 354–355

temperament 110

Williams syndrome (WS) 146–149

cross-fostering studies

intergenerational transmission of infant abuse 226–227

major histocompatibility complex (MHC) 86–87

maternal caregiving of infant rats 67–68

maternal rejection and 5-HIAA levels 231–232

reproductive behavior 86

stress response in rats 115–116

Crossley, S. A. 125–126

cross-sectional studies 36, 41–42

“crybaby” 286, 303

crying 176, 239, 242, 245–246, 303

cultural analysis 40–42

cultural change 331–332

cultural transmission 36

intergenerational transmission 44–45

mechanisms of 43–46

rhesus monkeys 91–92

cultures

and context 211

core constituents 37

defined 37–38

locus of 20, 21–22

science of 12

and sexual development 357–361

similarity and difference across 36, 37–40

study of 36

curiosity 478–479

Curtis, T. 297–298

cyclic AMP (cAMP) 60–61, 68, 69

cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) 60–61, 440

cytokines, effects of infant abuse on signalling cascades 232–233, 238

Danish educational system 300–301

Danish Medical Officer 284, 291, 300, 302

De Bellis, M. D. 317, 319, 321, 323

death penalty and brain immaturity xxv–xxvi

decortication 482

defensive behavior, modifications of 91, 93–94

defensive maneuvers 405–407, 410, 411, 415

degus 408–409, 411

dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) 252, 363–364

Dekay (Bofi forager), caregiver 177

Dema (Bofa farmer)

case study 178–180

differences with Anbo (Bofi forager) 193

dendritic branching 315–316

Denenberg, V. H. 317

Department for Children, Schools and Families (U.K.) 511

depression

adult trauma 453

associated with SEEKING system 478–479

cerebellar vermis abnormalities 322–323

child maltreatment 123, 447–448

dysfunction of neurobiological stress systems 390–391

evolutionary models 447

increased likelihood of 471–472

inferior longitudinal fasciculus 318

inner-city at-risk subjects 452

learned helplessness as model for 224

major depression (MDD) 71–73

perceived financial sufficiency 310

physical play 496

risk factors 446–447, 457

sensitive periods 311–312

serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene 122–123, 314–315

sexual abuse 311–312

social defeat 447

social support 456

and submissive behaviors 447

development

boundary between normal and abnormal 22

transactionist views 45

developmental biology 20

developmental delay 543–544


developmental disabilities services 523

Developmental Health and the Wealth of Nations (Keating and Hertzman) 239

developmental milestones 44, 312–313

developmental models

contextual ecological model 43–44

ecological-transactional model 210–211

developmental niche 211

developmental problems 512–513

developmental psychopathology, defined 248

developmental selection 189–190

developmental studies 46, 400

developmental traumatology 390, 391–392, 393–394

DeVos, George A. 21–22

dexamethasone suppression test 454–455

DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) 252, 363–364

diabetes xxvii, 54–55, 74

diachronic change 45–46

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 352, 388

Diamond, Lisa 367

difficult temperament 39, 109–110, 124–125

diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) 317–318

discontinuity 42

disorders of adaptation 273–274

Dissanayake, C. 125–126

dissociation 198–199, 216–217, 317–318

inferior longitudinal fasciculus 318

intergenerational transmission 256

pseudoseizures 271

dissociative identity disorder (DID)

hippocampus 319

distal forces 43

DNA demethylase MBD2 68, 69

DNA demethylation 63–66, 69

DNA methylation xxviii, 55, 56, 61–62, 486

de novo methylation 65

dynamic balance 66

effect on maternal behavior in offspring 216

equilibrium of reactions 67

initiation of transcription by RNApolII 65–66

targeting of 64–66

DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 62–63, 65

DNA repair endonuclease XPG 63–64

doctor-patient relationship 217

domestic violence

Belize 340

intergenerational transmission 256

Joko's family 391–392

Maria's family 335–336

dominance 418–420, 434–435, 463–464, 481–482

dopamine 240, 313–314, 479, 488

dopamine receptor antagonist 401

double standards 370

Down syndrome 141, 142, 143, 144–146, 151, 152

drug abuse 489

drug craving 489

Ducci, F. 314

Duckworth, Eleanor 292

Dutch Hunger Winter xxvii

dyads 239, 254

importance of life events 217

treatment for 257, 279

early adversity 32–33

amygdala 272–273

environmental programming 272

glucocorticoid receptor promoter 71–73

hippocampus 71–73, 272

potential for intervention 68–69

psychogenic nonepileptic seizure (PNES) 272

transmission of 274

vulnerable phenotype 273–274

Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems (ECCS) Initiative 526

early childhood development (ECD)

computer operating system metaphor for ECD 506, 520

cross-sector programs 524–525

financial constraints on cross-sector programs 520–522

focus on services for at-risk children 520

innovation 527

innovative funding and accountability 526, 527

Life Course Health Development framework 505–506

policy problem 506

service hubs 523–524

systems problem 520

early childhood experiences

Bofi farmers 173–174

Bofi foragers 174–175


early childhood services

demand greater than availability 522–523

fragmentation of service delivery 520–522

future of 526–527

narrow programmatic criteria 523

Early Development Instrument (EDI) 526–527

Early Head Start 524–525, 526–527

Early Intervention programs 526–527

early-life conditions

epigenome 66–74

long-term consequences 535

multigenerational consequences xxvi–xxvii

neonatal handling xxvi

earnings 536–537

ecocentric values 299–300, 301, 303–304, 305–306

ecocultural niche 211

ecological contextual model of development 43–44

Educare 523–524

EEA (environment of evolutionary adaptation) 170–171

EEG abnormalities 318–319, 323

EEG coherence 320–321

Efe foragers 172

elastin 136

electroencephalography (EEG)

normal for Libby 257–258

elevated plus-maze 421

Elizabethan Poor Laws 506–507, 508–509, 528

emergency room 257, 258–259, 277

emotional content 417–418

emotional networks 473–474

emotional security vs. material security 182–183

emotional systems 471

animal models for 472

cross-species systems 472–473

seven basic types 477–482, 484

emotions

defined 473

neurophonomenologically defined 475

empowerment 385, 387

beta-endorphin 434

environment

inherited environment 188–189

interaction with temperament 110

environment of evolutionary adaptation (EEA) 170–171

epigenetic drugs 54, 74

epigenetics

defined 53–54, 486

mechanisms of 56, 57–66

reversibility 54, 68–70, 74

socioeconomic status 73–74

targeting of regulation 60–61

epigenome 53–54, 66–67, 68, 74

epilepsy 277

epinephrine 60–61

equivalence 37, 38

Erickson, Erick 360

erogenous zone development 359

estrogen 480–481

ethnicity

schizophrenia 465

violence 315

euchromatin 57

evaluative language 140

adolescents with WS 141

children with WS 141, 145

culturally variable 148

suffixes in Italian 147–148

usage in French children 148

usage in Italian children 148

Every Child Matters 511

evolutionary change vs. behavioral adaptation 192–193

evolutionary developmental biology 188–190

exosystems 43–44

Experience-based Brain and Biological Development (EBBD) program 238–239

experience-dependent processes 123–124, 532

experience-expectant processes 123–124, 532

externalizing disorders 114, 122

extraversion 108, 110

fair play 491–492

false memory syndrome 351

Family and Medical Leave Act (1993) 510

family environment

stable vs. unstable 451, 453, 457

family planning, promotion of 555–556

family resource centers (FRCs) 524–525


family therapy 337, 353–354

fear

amygdala 392–393

anger 202–203

aversive experience and development of 93

responses 456–457, 459

social defeat 467–468

trauma perceived as 392–393

fear conditioning

DNA methylation 61

in Syrian hamsters 445–446

FEAR/Anxiety System 479

feelings

chemistries 477

dimensional properties 473

importance of, in animals 482–483

outside imposition 289

self exploration 289

subtle feelings

validation of 338

words for 336

Felitti, Vincent 308–309

females

age of sexual attraction 366–367, 369

onset and duration of gonadal puberty 362

Fergusson, S. A. 309

fibromyalgia 271

Field, Tiffany 187

50:50 rule 405–407, 411–412, 418–420

fight-or-flight 202–203, 392–393

filial imprinting 82–83, 96–97

financial stress 324

First 5 Commissions (California) 525–526

FKBP5 453–455

Fluoxetine 380–381, 394, 401

focal adhesions 143–144, 146

focal child sampling technique 175

folic acid deficiency 66–67

food robbing and dodging paradigm 423

forced swimming paradigm 224

form-meaning relations 38–40

Foucault, M. 359

Fox, N. A. 120–121

fractional anisotropy 317–318

Fraiberg, Selma 44

France 147, 148

free-floating anxiety 479

Freud, Anna 360

Freud, Sigmund 215–216, 359

Freudian model of childhood development 23

Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer) 140, 141, 143, 148, 149

From Neurons to Neighborhoods (Shonkoff and Phillips) 11–13, 211

frontal cortex

in ADHD 487–488, 493

communication with limbic system 340–341

development xxv–xxvi

inhibitory-executive functions 495–496

maturation of 496

frontal gyrus 322

frustration 479

“full-human being” 282, 301

functional somatic syndromes 271, 274, 275

fusiform gyrus 317–318, 322

G protein-coupled cell-surface receptors 60–61

G-30-S (Gerakan 30 September) 381–382, 387

GADD45A 63–64

Gagnon, J. 360–361

Galen on temperament 107

gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors 439–440

geisteswissenschaft 19

gender 555–556

gender differences 324

gender equity 173, 174–175, 339

gender roles 370

gender segregation 368–369

gene expression 55, 250, 314, 486

gene silencing xxvii, 61–62

gene x environment interaction (GxE)

functional somatic syndromes 273–274

longitudinal studies 127

maladaptation and resilience 252

risk for PTSD 453–455

sexual abuse and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene 252–253

General Anthropology (Boas) 18–19

generalizability 297–298, 304

genetics

chronic diseases 55

sociability 159

Williams syndrome 136, 137, 157–159

genitals 286

genome, programming by epigenome 55


genres, narrative analysis across 144–146

Germany, Strange Situation 114

“ghosts in the nursery” 44

Gini Index 515–516

Giyarti (Javanese woman) 383, 386, 387

Gluckman, P. 294

glucocorticoid receptors 115, 116

blunted negative feedback 458–459

cerebellar vermis 322–323

dexamethasone suppression test 454–455

epigenetic programming 69–70, 241

gene methylation 73

gene promoters 65–66

HPA-axis function 230

maternal caregiving of infant rats 67–68

methylation 295

stress response 294

glucocorticoid toxicity 457–458

glucocorticoids 229

glutamate receptors 88–89, 439–440, 479

goal-directed behavior

goats, cross-fostering studies 86

Godelier, Maurice 357–358

Goldsmith, H. H. 107–108

gonadal puberty (gonadarche)

activation of sexual circuits 480

age of onset 361, 362

duration of 362

hormones 363–364

not linked to age of sexual attraction 362–363, 367

psychosexual transition 358

“goodness,” feelings of 303, 475

“goodness of fit” model 115

Goodwin, Charles 465–466

gossip 334, 339

GR exon 17 promoter 68, 69–70

GR exon 1f promoter 71–73

grandparental care 177–178, 179

Gravlee, C. 15

gray matter 320

gray matter volume 321–322

sensitive period 322

Great Society reforms 515–516

Great Start Collaboratives 525–526

Greenland, Chief Medical Officer 284, 291, 300, 302

growth hormone 187

Guatemala birth cohort 536–537

Guatemalan children, protein supplementation 537

guinea pigs 87

Gusii people 180, 534–535

Hacking, Ian 467

Hall, G. Stanley 13–14, 28

Hallowell, A. Irving 21–22

Haloperidol 380–381, 401

hamsters 398–399, 436

Hanson, M. 294

Harlow, Harry 111–112, 323, 494, 496, 535

Hatzor, T. 263–264

HDI (Human Development Index) 532, 538–539

Head Start 514, 524–525, 526–527

health development trajectory model 517, 518, 524–525

Heath, R. G. 323

height measurements 16, 536–537

hemispheric asymmetry 320–321

hemispheric integration 316–317

Herdt, Gilbert 364, 367

Hertzman, C. 239

Hess, Walter 476–477

heterochromatin 57

heterosexuals, age of sexual attraction 365–366

hippocampal atrophy 457–458

hippocampus 317–318

adult neurogenesis xxvi

avoidance learning 93–94

conditioned defeat 441

early adversity 272

glucocorticoid receptor gene promoters 65–66

glucocorticoid receptors 67–68, 241

PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder) 457–458

rRNA methylation 70–71, 72

sensitive period 322

sexual abuse 97–98

stress response 115, 116

stress-related alterations 318–320

word pair retrieval task 322

histone acetylation 59, 68, 69

histone acetyltransferases 58–59, 65

histone code 57–58

histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A 64–65, 69–70


histone deacetylases 58–59, 65

histone demethylases 59–60

histone hyperacetylation 64–65

histone methylation 59

histone methyltransferases 59–60, 65

histone phosphorylation 59

histone-modifying enzymes 58–59, 60–61, 65

histones 55, 58

HIV and orphanages 542

home observations 195–196

home visitors 278–279

homosexuals, age of sexual attraction 365–366, 367

Hope Street Family Center 523–524

Hopkins Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) 311–312

hormones

androgens 363–364, 367–368

continuum of development 364

estrogen 480–481

hidden maternal regulators 187

Horney, Karen 23

“Hot Gravy” MSSB story stem 265–267, 268

“how men are” 336, 337

Hubel, David 95–96

Hullian behavior theory 28

human babies

affective creatures 480

olfactory learning 84–85, 88

skin contact 84–85

human capital investment strategy 511

Human Development Index (HDI) 532, 538–539

human evolutionary psychology 484–485

human nature, replication of uniformity model 359–360

Human Rights Watch, children in orphanages 542

humans and play-fighting 424–426

humiliation 467–468

hunter and gatherer families 195

5-hydroxyinoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) 231–232

hyperactivity

See attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD)

hypercortisolemia 313

hypermethylation 55–57, 61, 68

hypersociability

genetic predisposition 151–152, 159

unrelated to cognitive impairment 151, 152

Williams syndrome 139, 150, 151–152

hyperstartle reflex 258, 261

hypervigilance 219

hypomethylation 55–57, 61, 68

hypothalamus 477–478

hypothalmic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis

adverse early experience 228–229, 313, 447–448

conditioned defeat 445–446, 447–448, 458–459

effects of infant abuse 238, 239–240, 250–251

FKBP5 453–454

schematic 230

stress response 67–68, 115, 229, 233

hysterical attacks 260

ibogaine 322–323

IDEA 510, 522–523

immigrant children, physical growth 13–14

immigration, relation to environmental factors 20

immigration restriction legislation 15–16

immune function 232–233, 239–240

imprinting 82–83, 96–98, 111–112

impulsivity 470–471, 491

income inequality 512, 515–516

income transfer 512, 541–542

incongruence of affect 261

independence 195, 227, 507–508

India, orphans produced by famine and war 542

individual stability 41–42

individual-difference theories, sexuality 360

individualism 30–32, 152–153, 507–508

indolamine-2, 3-dioxygenase 232–233

Indonesia, economic crisis 386–387

Indonesian Communist Party (Partai Komunis) 381–383, 386–387, 391–392

infant abuse

characteristic features in nonhuman primates 225–228

early infant crying 239

effects on immune function 232–233

effects on neuroanatomy and function 233–234

effects on serotonergic system 231–232

effects on stress neuroendocrine systems 228–229

humans vs. nonhuman primates 233, 245–246

infant contribution to 245

lack of infant contribution to 226

maternal behavior 225–226

multiple pathways implicated 239–240

physiological consequences in rhesus macaques 228–233

prevalence in nonhuman primates 225, 226, 228

primate research applicability to humans 234, 238

time course of 238, 242–245

See also child maltreatment

infant crying 239

infant distress signals 170–171

infanticide 216, 219

infantile amnesia 92

infant-mother intervention 259, 264, 277, 278

infants

attribution of mental states to 534–535

intentionality 534–535

part of a relationship 533

role in attachment 111

infectious diseases 167–168

inferior longitudinal fasciculus 318

inferior parietal cortex 322

inferior temporal gyrus 322

injustice 379, 390–391

inner-city mothers 256–257

inner-city violence 452

insecurity 303–304

insomnia 258, 261

instability 42

“Instability of Human Types” (Boas) 16–17

institutionalization of children 443–444, 542–543

insulin-like growth factor (ILGF) 491

integrity of child 38–39

intelligence quotients

arcuate fasciculus 317–318

effect of stunting and poverty 536

intentionality in infants 534–535

interactionist models 115–118

interdependence 26

intergenerational conflict 345

intergenerational transfer of poverty 531, 555–556

intergenerational transmission 44–45, 188–189, 215

of aggression 167

child abuse 256

clinical context 217

dissociation 256

domestic violence 256

functional somatic syndromes 274

of infant abuse 226–227

maternal behavior 274

psychological mechanisms unknown 256

of PTSD 256–257

symptoms 270–271

of violent trauma 256–257, 278

of violent trauma, interruption of 267–268

internal subjective experiences 474–475

internalizing disorders 114, 122

interpersonal boundaries 23

intra-cultural studies vs. cross-cultural studies 40–41

intrapsychic equilibrium 23–24

intrinsic fastigial nucleus 323

intronic kappa chain enhancer 65

intuitive parenting 532–533

Inuit

changes with time 305

mode of thought 300

resilience 297–298

Inuit morality play 425

inuusittiaqarniq 297–298

Irish American infant temperament 110

irritable bowel syndrome 271, 273

Italy 147–148

Jacklin, C. 361–362

Jackowski, A. P. 317

Janoff-Bulman, R. 354

Jantz, R. 15

Japan 114, 152–153

Japanese macaques 225

Japanese parenting style 23–24, 30

Japanese American comparative studies

Caudill Project 21

Williams syndrome (WS) 153–154

Williams syndrome (WS) qualitative analysis 157, 159–160

Williams syndrome (WS) quantitative analysis 155–156, 159–160

Jensen, P. S. 192

Joko (Javanese boy)

chronic stressors 391–392

empowerment 387

feelings of anxiety 380

film of family 386

martial arts 385

orphanage 379, 380, 381, 396, 399–400

PTSD symptoms 390, 391

revenge fantasies 383–384, 388

social support 396

suicidal thoughts 380

Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, analysis of Caudill project 26

justice 385, 395–396

Kagan, J.

behavioral inhibition 118, 119

temperament 107–108, 118–119

kalaallit 300–301

kangaroo care 534, 551–552

kappa immunoglobulin gene demethylation 65

Kasari, C. 124–125

Kaufman, J. 123, 314–315

Keating, D. P. 239

Keti (Bofa forager) 175–176

kin recognition 86

kin selection 484

kindling 272–273

King, Truby 296

Kinsey, Alfred 360–362

Kirmayer, L. J. 465

Kleinman, Arthur 349, 354–355

Kopay (Bofa forager) 175–176

Korbin, J. 331

Kraemer, Sebastian 295–296

kynurenine 232–233

Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience 154

Labov, William 140

laissez-faire parenting style 227

language

grammatical structure 144, 146

high-gesture 147–148

index of sociability 140

socioeconomic status 535

Williams syndrome 138–142, 143, 144, 150

language, evaluative 140

across populations 146

adolescents with WS 141

children with WS 141, 145

culturally variable 148

suffixes in Italian 147–148

usage in French children 148

usage in Italian children 148

language impairment 143–144, 146

language instincts 484

Lanterman Act of 1971 523

laterality 316–317

laughter during play 481–482, 492–493, 494, 495

learned helplessness 224

learning processes 186

left body of fornix 317–318

left superior temporal gyrus 317–318

Lese farmers 172

Lesotho 541

Letisha

anger response 202–203

childbirth 206–207

childhood background 198–199

fear of hospitals 202–203

history of violence 199

marijuana use 199, 203–204

motivation for change 201–202

reaction to baby's cries 207

summary of psychotherapy 208

treatment of baby 206–208

LeVine, Robert A. 180, 356–357, 534–535

Levine, Seymour “Gig” xxv, xxvi

Lewis, Dorothy O. 314

Libby (Dominican American)

description by mother 259–262

follow-up study 264–265

medication regimen 257

perspectives on caregiving 264, 265–267, 268

reciprocal play 264

seizures 257

story-completion task 265–267, 268

symptoms of trauma 261

videotaped visits 259, 261

libido 478–479

Life Course Health Development model (LCHD) 505–506

advantages of 518–519

health as developmental process 517

integrative framework 517–518

school readiness trajectories 519

life-course chronic disease epidemiology 516–517

lifespan perspective 42

Lifton, Robert J. 352

Liila (Inuit)

correction of daughter 292

family visit 284–285

motivation 290

play with daughter 287–288

witness to teasing of daughter 284

limbic irritability 317–319

blood flow alterations 323

inferior longitudinal fasciculus 318

limbic system 340–341

Limbic System Checklist-33 (LSCL-33) 318–319

beta-lipotrophin 434

locus ceruleus 90, 392–393, 394

loneliness 335, 344–345

longitudinal studies

adolescent girls in Belize 333–334

Caudill Project 21

child maltreatment impact on mental health 309

vs. cross-sectional studies 36, 41–42

gene-environment interaction 127

Indonesian families 378

naturalistic studies 443–444

needed for Inuit childrearing 303–304

poverty and children's poor linear growth 536

protein supplementation in early life 537

sexual identity and behavior over time 367

time course of biobehavioral alterations 224–225

value of for Joko 387

lordosis 437–438

Lorenz, Konrad 82–83, 97–98, 111–112

low birth weight 70

Luhrmann, T. 464–465

LUST/Sexual Systems 480

Lutheran church 300–301

macaques

bonnet macaques 444–445

infant abandonment 227

infant abuse prevalence 225, 226, 228

Japanese macaques 225

physiological consequences of infant abuse 228–233

Tonkean macaques and play-fighting 404

“why” of play 404–405

MacArthur Story Stem Battery (MSSB) narrative 265–267, 268

Maccoby, E. E. 361–362

macrosystems 43–44, 46

Mahler, Margaret 30

maintenance DNA methyltransferase 61

major depression (MDD) 71–73

major histocompatibility complex (MHC) 86–87

“Make Every Mother and Child Count” (WHO report) 554–555

male vs. female roles 195–196

males

age of sexual attraction 366–367, 369

monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene 122–123

onset and duration of gonadal puberty 362

Malinowski, B. 360, 361

malnutrition 17–18, 167–168

mammals

behavioral analysis of feelings 476

electrical and chemical self-stimulation 475–477, 479, 482

feeling creatures 472–473, 475–477

homologous subcortical systems

mammillary bodies 317–318

Maria (Belizean)

attitude toward men 336–337, 338–339

case overview 332–333

education 339, 341

family background 334–335

family therapy 337, 353–354

feelings 335–336, 352–353

Oprah moment 337–338

pain before Oprah moment 352

poetry of 331, 335, 336

PTSD 337, 346–347, 353

results not generalizable 347–348

sexual abuse 335–336, 342

witness to mother's abuse 336, 340

marijuana use 199, 203–204

marriage 334

mass media 347, 348–349


masturbation 369

material hardship 543–544

material security vs. emotional security 182–183

maternal care 65–66, 67–68, 238

maternal depression 113, 120

maternal health 554–556

maternal isolation stress 319–320

maternal licking and grooming 69, 117

maternal rejection 227, 231–232

maternal responsiveness 109–110, 119

maternal separation 112–113, 116, 323

maternal stress 216–217, 294–295

maternal-infant bond 551–552

matrilineal predisposition to infant abuse 226–227

matrilocal living 175–176

Mayan peoples 18

Mayer, Mercer

Frog, where are you? (picture book) 140, 141, 143, 148, 149

McClintock, M. 364, 367

McNicoll, P. 297–298

Mead, Margaret 11

cross-cultural study of adolescence 361

development as shared project 356–357

neo-Freudian views of childhood 23

secrecy in sexual encounters across cultures 358

sexuality as product of social environment 360

student of Boas 13–14

Meaney, Michael 115–116, 187–188, 241, 294

meaning 40–41, 302–303, 465

measles 552–553

measurement equivalence 38

medial frontal cortex 477–478

medial nucleus of amygdala (Me) 438–439, 440–441

medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) 322, 394, 395, 457–458, 459

medicalization 345–346, 346–347, 349

Memorial Foundation for Lost Children 495–496

memory and DNA methylation 61

menarche 358, 361

Mendelian-inherited familial diseases 54–55

mental health 53–54, 331, 344, 512–513

mental patients 24, 25–26

mesolimbic dopamine system 464–465, 468

mesosystems 43–44

metabolic syndrome xxvii

methionine 69–70, 486–487

methodological diversity 12

methylated-DNA-binding proteins 61–62, 65, 68, 69

methylation

of DNA 61–62, 216

of histones 57–58, 59–60

of receptors 116, 295

methylphendiate 322–323, 488, 489

Mexico 541, 555

Michigan Early Childhood Investment Corporation (ECIC) 525–526

micronutrient deficiencies 17–18

microRNAs 57

microsystems 43

midbrain raphe 317–318

middle of your universe 299

migrant workers 538

migration 14–15, 17–18

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 550–551, 553

Money, John 358–359

monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene 122–123, 252–253, 314, 315, 447–448

monoamine oxidase A promoter region (MAOA-LPR) 314–315

monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) gene 315

moral attitudes, adult 357–358, 359

moral framework 388–389, 463–464

Moss, E. 114

mother-infant dyad 217, 239, 254, 263–264, 279

motor cortex 322, 422–423

mouse visual cortex 485

Mozambique orphanages 542–543

MPQ (Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire) 154

mRNA degradation 57

multicultural identity 334–335, 345–346

Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) 154

multi-domain and multi-system knowledge, need for 249–250

multifinality 251

Mundy, P. 125–126

muscimol 439–441


mutual dependence (amae) 26, 38

myelination 316

cerebral cortex 320–321

Myers, Robert 536

N-acetylaspartate 321

Namibia 541

Nancy (Dominican American mother)

case study 257–258

commentary on father 263

conversion disorder 259

description of Libby (daughter) 259–262

fear of children being taken 258

follow-up study 264–265

interventions 277

on Libby's and her own distress 262–263

maternal history of ataques 259

physical and sexual abuse 258–259

pillows 258–259

pseudoseizures 263–264

Psychiatric Emergency Room 258–259

PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder) 259, 261

reported to Child Protective Services 258

separation from daughter 262–263

symptoms 258

treatment 264

videofeedback 261–262

videotaped visits 259, 261

narrative analysis across genres 144–146

narrative structure 139–140

NAS Committee on the Science of Early Childhood Development 32–33

National Center for Shaken Baby Syndrome 242–244

Period of PURPLE Crying 245–246

National Educational Goals Panel 520

National Research Council 210–211

nature vs. nurture 74, 149, 150, 153, 154–157

negative affectivity 108, 110, 124–125

neglect 32

corpus callosum 317

disorganized attachment 113

Maria (Belizean) 335–336

neocortex 478, 484–485

neo-Freudian views of childhood 23

neonatal deaths 510, 553–555

neonatal handling xxvi

nerve growth factor-inducible protein A (NGFI-A) transcription factor 65–66, 68, 69, 71–73

Netherlands, child well-being 511–512

neurogenesis xxvi, 457–458

neuropeptide Y 479

neuropeptidergic codes 472–473

neurotransmitters and sensitive periods 95–96

neurotrophic factor gene 123

neurotrophic factors 319–320

New Deal, economic disparities 515

New Delhi birth cohort 536–537

New Guinea peoples 360

New York, cephalic index changes in immigrants 14–15

New York Longitudinal Survey 107

NF-kappaB 65

Ngandu farmers 172

Ninjutsu 385, 395–396

nipple attachment 85–86

N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors 439–440

No Child Left Behind 471

non-contributory pension scheme 541

non-Western children, need for intervention 535

norepinephrine (NE)

association learning 88

association with rejection 240

child maltreatment 313–314

emotional systems 477–478

odor preference learning 89, 90

norms of interpersonal conduct (fallacies) 31–32

Norway 369–370, 507

nucleosomes 57–58

nucleus accumbens 322–323, 438–439, 441, 477–478

Nunavik 304

Nunavut Territory 297–298

Nurse Family Partnership home-based visiting program 524–525

nurturant love 287–288, 294

Nusakambangan 382

nutrients, transmission of childhood diseases 17–18

nutrition during childhood 66–67, 556

nutrition research 17–18

NYLS (New York Longitudinal Survey) 107


obedience 195

Oberschneider, M. 365–366

obesity xxvii, 55, 74

observation, limits of 302–303

occipital cortex 318

odorant association 186

Oedipus complex 359

Ojibwa 21–22

olfactory learning 84, 85–89, 90

onchocerciasis 552–553

ontogeny, knowledge of necessary 28

opioids, endogenous 479, 480–481

Oportunidades (Mexico) 541–542

opportunity to learn, role in resilience 531, 539–543

Oprah 334, 337, 346, 347, 354–355

Oprah effect 337–338, 339

oral stories 301

orbital frontal cortex (OFC) 419–420, 423

orbitofrontal cortex 322

organized sports

orphanages 542–543

impact of 535

Joko (Javanese boy) 379, 380, 381, 396, 399–400

out-breeding 86–87

overprotectiveness 119

oxytocin 313–314, 480–481

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 232–233, 239–240

Paidjo (Javanese boy) 379–380, 385, 391–392

panic attacks 481

PANIC/Separation Distress System 481

parahippocampal gyrus 320

paraventricular nucleus (PVN) 229, 230, 295

parental education 310

parental leave policy 510

parental questionnaires 153–154

parental verbal abuse (PVA) 309–310, 317–318, 320

parenting style

adaptive for situation 295

associated with poverty 515–516

behavioral inhibition reinforcement 119

children's interpretation of 39–40

continuum in primates 227, 240–242

effect on attachment 112–113

eighteenth century 295–296

stress response in rats 115–116

transmission of violent and traumatic parenting 278

Truby King method 296

Parkinson's Disease 488

Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI; Indonesian Communist Party) 381–383, 386–387, 391–392

Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 554–555

pathological behavior, culturally variable 22–23

pathology 29–30, 55–57

patrilineal organization 172, 357–358

Patterns of Culture (Benedict) 18–19, 356–357

Pavelka, Martin 360–361

pediatric medical homes (PED MHs) 524–525

Pedlow, R. 109

Pelotas birth cohort (Brazil) 536–537

pencak silat 385

perceived financial sufficiency 310

periaqueductal gray 477–478

Perinatal Child-Parent Psychotherapy 197–198, 215

Period of PURPLE Crying (National Center for Shaken Baby Syndrome) 245–246

persistent vs. permanent xxvii–xxviii

person, defined as generic term 40

personhood 302, 306

Phenobarbital 257

Phillips, D. 11–13

phosphorylation 57–58, 59

physical abuse

Belizean school curricula 338

psychogenic nonepileptic seizure (PNES) 271

physical growth 13–14, 18, 27

physical play

in ADHD 487–488, 492

adults vs. peers 496

antidepressant effects 496

to head off ADHD 495–496

not different between boys and girls 492–493

physical proximity 176–177, 178, 181

physical-social play 491

Pickett, K. E. 512

pigtail macaques 225


pituitary

release of growth hormone 187

secretion of ACTH 230

plasticity xxv–xxvi

developmental plasticity 188

early development 96

environmental events 96

limits of 17

mechanisms underlying xxvii

normal variation vs. pathology 29–30

olfactory learning 88–89

psychotherapy 219, 220–221

sensitive period 83

systems of parenting interactions 188

Plato, on children's play 493–494

play

in ADHD 490, 493

adult sexual play in primates 413

adult/parental supervision 494–495

Bofi 176, 179–180, 182

cognitive and social skills

early learning social policies 493–496

juvenile social play in primates 413

play feedback 423

play sanctuaries 471–472, 494–495

“play to win” strategy 411–412

play-fighting

aggressive sequences 407–408

ambiguity of 425–426

characteristics of 405, 406–407

competition vs. cooperation 412

decorticated rats 413, 425

degus 410, 411

humans 424–426

juvenile vs. adult play 424

monkeys' use of visual cues 417–418

as punishment 425–426

rats 414–417, 418–422, 424

reciprocity 405–413

sociosexual sequences 407–408

species differences 405

Syrian hamster 436–437

Tonkean macaques 404

unpredictability 421–422, 423

PLAY/Rough-and-Rumble, Physical Social-Engagement System system 472, 481–482

Plomin, R. 107–108

plots of everyday life 287

poisons 384–385

polio 552–553

politics and state-sanctioned violence 387

Polycomb complex PRC2 65

polymorphisms and child maltreatment 455

population studies 20

positron emission tomography (PET) 322

post-9/11 global politics 468

posterior cingulate 322

post-industrial economy 508, 528

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

adult trauma 453

Belize 340

cerebellar volume 323

cerebral volume 321

child maltreatment 313–314, 453–454, 455

cluster C symptoms 391, 394–397

corpus callosum 317

diagnoses predating 351–352

diagnosis 345–346, 352

gene x environment interaction 453–455

genetic heretability 453–454

hippocampus 319

HPA-axis function 458–459

inner-city at-risk subjects 451, 452

intergenerational transmission 256–257

intracranial volume 321

Joko's symptoms 390

kindling 272–273

Letisha's symptoms 199

linked to cultural change 331

Maria's symptoms 337, 346–347

medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) 395

mother and daughter case study 270–271

Nancy 258, 259, 261

neuronal loss 321

psychogenic nonepileptic seizures 271

PTSD vs. PTSD-like symptoms 394

risk and resilience 220

risk factors 219–220

serotonin transporter (5-HTT) polymorphism 218

social conflict between individuals 456–457

stress systems 390–391

symptoms associated with ataques 277

trauma exposure during childhood 454, 457

universality questioned 332


poverty 167–168

child indicators 538

effect on measured intelligence quotients 536

Great Society reforms 515

intergenerational impact 531, 555–556

risk factor for psychopathology 310

social injustice 507

U.S. statistics 515

prairie dogs and predator recognition 92

predictive adaptive response 295

prefrontal cortex

early adversity 272

gray matter volume 321

impaired by stress chemicals 392–393

inhibitory pathways 390–391

protracted development 321

sexual abuse 97–98

pregnancy 197–198, 451–452

premature human infants and touch 187

prenatal endocrine exposure xxvii

Prescott, J. W. 323

pre-wired interactions 549, 552

primary caregivers 174, 550, 554–556

primary-process affective experiences 472, 473–474

primates and play 413

pro-cosmic qualities 300–301, 303–304

proestrous phase 437–438

progesterone 480–481

Progresa

See underOportunidades (Mexico's income transfer program)

projective personality tests 21–22

prolactin 480–481

promoter elements xxvii

propositions in narrative 140

pro-social qualities 300–301, 303–304

protectiveness 240, 303

protein phosphorylation, p38 MAPK 232

protein supplementation 537

protein synthesis inhibitors 440–441

proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy 321

proverbs 147, 152–153

proximal forces 43

proximity-seeking behavior 85–86, 112–113, 125–126

pseudoseizures 263–264, 271

psychiatric diagnoses vs. symptom patterns 27–28

psychiatric disease and epigenetic drugs 54, 74

psychiatry 30–31

psychobiologists and development research xxvi

psychocultural development, Boas' distance from 18–19, 20–21

psychocultural research, lack of progress in 26–27

psychoeducational parenting interventions 254

psychogenic nonepileptic seizure (PNES) 271–272

psycho-linguistics 533–534

psychological vulnerabilities 22–23

psychopathology

adaptive processes 446–447

animal models for 224–225

childhood trauma and adult psychopathology 215–216, 218, 221

resilience factors 219–220

sensitive period 97–98

sensitive periods 311–312

and social defeat 446–448

and stress 218–219

transgenerational transmission 217

psychostimulants

ADHD 487, 488–490

drug abuse 488–489, 492

long-term consequences 488

play-reducing agents in animals 470–471, 487, 490

predictions about play in humans 492

sensitized to hedonic rewards 489–490

“Why the Boys Must Take Ritalin,” 540136

psychotic delusions, associated with SEEKING system 478–479

PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder)

See posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

PTSD symptom scale (PSS) 453, 454

modified symptom scale (mPSS) 454

puberty 357, 362–363, 367–368

public preschool 510

public transportation 510–511

punishment 172, 173, 291

pygmies

See Bofi foragers

pyramidal cells 318

Qallunaat (non-Inuit) 300–301

Q-sort 195–196

qualitative interviews 175


quantitative behavioral observations 175

quinolinic acid 232–233

rabbits 84–85, 87–88

racial subdivisions 14–16

racial typologies 28

RAGE/Anger System 479

rats

adolescence as sensitive period for resilience 398–399

benefits of early social play on later impulsivity 491

bond between infant rat and mother 186

continuum of early caregiving 241

damaged amygdala 414

defensive maneuvers 415

foot shocks and fear response 92–93

growth hormone and tactile stimulation 187

isolation-reared vs. group-reared 421, 423

maternal effects 86, 216

neonatal handling xxvi

play-fighting 412, 414–417, 418–424

play-fighting in decorticated rats 413

sensitive period for olfactory learning 87

separation responses 186–187

social defeat 398–399

stress response in 67–68, 115–116, 117

Reach Out and Read (ROR) 514, 524–525

reappraisal of negative meanings 278

recapitulationism 28

recess, desirability of

reciprocal play 264

reciprocity 405–418

referential data in narrative analysis 144–146

Regional Centers (developmental disabilities services) 523

reinforcement 482

rejection 240–241

relationship models and intervention opportunities 279

religion 300–301, 388, 391

replication of uniformity model 359–360

repressive hypothesis 359

repressors 58–59

reproductive rates of Bofi 185

The Republic (Plato) 493–494

resident-intruder model 433

resilience

for acts of war 296

adolescence sensitive period for 398–399

among Inuit 297–298

controllable vs. uncontrollable stress 398–399

defined 251

early psychiatric treatment 391

factors 251–253, 531, 539–543, 544–545

Maria (Belizean) 344

multi-level investigations 251–252

need to review 184

parenting and child care 295–296

psychopathology 219–220

religion 391

seeking medical help 277

social support 391, 396, 451

tenacity 267–268

responsibility 195

retinoblastoma gene 54–55

Rett syndrome 486–487

revenge fantasies 383–384, 388, 394–396

rhesus macaques

attachment in 111–112

cultural transmission 91–92

distress peak 244–245

infant abuse 225, 228–233

learning from conspecifics 91–92

maternal deprivation 494, 496

peer rearing and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene 444

play-fighting 412

“why” of play 404–405

rhesus monkeys

See rhesus macaques

rhetoric of distress 345–346

Richter, Linda 549

rites of passage 364–365

RNA Pol1 70–71

RNA polII 65–66

Robertson, James 535

role models, positive 201–202, 205–206, 213

Rothbart, Mary 107–108

rough-and-tumble play 404–405, 481–482

See also play-fighting

rRNA gene methylation 70–71, 72

Rubin, K. H. 119–120

rules of interaction, learning 286–287, 288

rural-urban migration 14–15

Russian Federation, Human Development Index (HDI) 538–539


S-adenosyl-L-methionine 62–63, 66–67

sadness 481

safety 385

Salk Institute Sociability Questionnaire (SISQ)

analysis parameters 154–155

cross-cultural studies 153–154

qualitative data analysis 157, 158

quantitative data analysis 155–156

social approach behavior analysis 155

Williams syndrome 151, 152

Sambia case study 364–365

Sambia people 357–358, 364–365, 368

same form–same meaning relations 38–39

sample bias 46–47

San Andrés, Belize 332, 333–334

San Francisco 278

Sanchez, M. M. 317

Santo Domingo 278

Sapir, Edward 23

saunik 304

Saurette, P. 468

Scandinavian countries 507, 511–512

Schanberg, Saul 187

Scheff, T. 468

Schiffer, F. 316–317

schizophrenia

cerebellar vermis abnormalities 322–323

developing vs. developed countries 464–465

diagnosis predating PTSD 351–352

DNA methyltransferase levels 62–63

ethnographic background 465

India 464

onset xxv–xxvi

sleep patterns 24

social defeat 464–465

social risk factors 468

traits in mice 486–487

United States 464

school readiness 519, 520, 524–525

Schooler, Carmi 26

schooling 536–537, 542

SCL-90 (Hopkins Symptom Checklist-90) 311–312

secondary sex changes 361, 362

second-chance systems 508–509

SEEKING/Desire System 478–479

seizure-like psychomotor phenomenon 270–271

self-esteem 297–298

self-referencing 261

self-regulation 268, 303

self-reliance 31–32, 195, 507

self-representation, neural networks 473–474

self-will in children 295–296

self-worth 119–120

Selten, J.-P. 464–465

Senbola (Bofa farmer) 178

Senegal 541

sense of identity 394–396

sense of self 38–39, 303

culture-specific 22–23, 24–25, 152–153

emotional systems 471

sensitive periods 82–83, 323–324, 457

activity-dependent synapse formation 315–316

aversive experience 92–93, 186

behavioral and biological effects 443

depression 311–312

differential across brain 322

function of 96–97

learning about caregivers 87–88

neural processes contributing to 95–96

olfactory learning 87–89

psychopathology 97–98, 311–312

traumatic bond formation 186

separation 32, 186–187, 480–481, 543–544

septal nuclei 317–318

serious fighting in degus 408–411

serotonergic system 231–232, 238, 251

serotonin (5-HT)

association with rejection 240

brain circuitry in early development 94

in deprived infants 231–232

effects of infant abuse 239–240

emotional systems 477–478

PTSD symptoms 394

transition of aggression into violence 400–401

serotonin receptors 68, 69, 94, 187

serotonin reuptake inhibitor 401

serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene 120–121

activated by inflammatory response 232

behavioral inhibition 121

childhood depression 123

depression 122–123, 314–315

effect of increased expression 232–233

environmental influence on 218

polymorphisms and child maltreatment 252–253

rhesus monkeys 233, 444

SERT (serotonin transporter)

See serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene

service linkage pathway 525

sex-gender package 357

sexual abuse

Belizean school curricula 338

and brain development 97–98

depression 311–312

false allegations of 351

Giyarti (Javanese woman) 383

Inuit 297–298

Maria (Belizean) 335–336, 342

Nancy (Dominican American) 258–259

neuroendocrine alterations 250–251

psychogenic nonepileptic seizure (PNES) 271

SAT scores 312–313

sequelae 310–311

suicidality 311–312

T2 signal strength 323

transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2-RT) 320

sexual attraction 362–363, 365–368, 369

sexual development 357–360, 361

sexual imprinting 82–83, 96–97

sexual maturity 361–362

sexual naivete, assumption of 358–359

sexual orientation 364

sexual revolution of 1960s 365–366

sexuality 360–361, 370

shaken baby syndrome 239, 242–244, 245–246

sheep, cross-fostering studies 86

Shonkoff, J. 11–13

shyness, temperamental 118–119, 121, 122

sibling care 179, 180, 182

Sigman, M. 124–126

signal transduction pathways 60–61, 68, 69

signaling cascades 68

sila 299–300

silarsuaq 300

silavit 299–300

Simon, W. 360–361

single mother, opportunities for help 279–280

single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) 454–455

SISQ (Salk Institute Sociability Questionnaire)

See Salk Institute Sociability Questionnaire (SISQ)

Six Cultures Study of Socialization 28–29

skeletal dimensions, effect of migration on 14–15

sleep patterns 23–24

slow wave activity in ADHD 487–488

snowshoe hares 294

social approach behavior analysis 155

social brains 485–486, 492

social closeness 154

social defeat

affective correlates of 467–468

behavioral response to 434–435

depression 447

fish 463–464

hormonal responses 468

importance of label 467

model of interpersonal violence 456–457, 459

not supported in literature 444–445

and psychopathology 446–448

rats 398–399

relevance to sociocultural anthropology 464

schizophrenia 464–465

social dislocation 543–544

social drive 150–151

social injustice 507

social joy 481–482

social networks 17, 213

social norms 305

social potency 154

social protection agenda, income transfer 541–542

social status 440–441

social stress 399–400, 432, 433–434

social subordinance 444–445

social support

behavioral inhibition 121

depression 123, 456

importance of 399–400

Joko (Javanese boy) 396

relation to maltreatment 122–123

resilience 391, 396

and social stress 399–400

social support behaviors scale (SBSS) 456


social use of language

adolescents with WS 141, 142, 143, 147–148

children with WS 141–142, 147–148

comparison of neurodevelopmental disorders 143–144, 146

in France 148

in Italy 147–148

Williams syndrome 139–142

social withdrawal 119–120

society, place in 491

socioeconomic status

constant in Caudill Project 22

epigenetics 73–74

health and social policy 74–75

physical health and epigenetics 53–54, 70, 74

psychopathology 310

socioemotional development 115–118

somatic symptoms, manifestation of 270–272

somatization 317–318

inferior longitudinal fasciculus 318

soothing 176, 179–180

sooty mangabeys 225

South Africa, income transfer 541

Soviet Union 538–539, 542

spankings 207–208

Sparks, C. 15

specificity principle 47

Speech-Act Theory 533–534

Speltz, M. L. 114

Spence, S. H. 310

spermadarche 361

Spiro, Melford E. 21–22

Spitz, Rene 535

stability 42

state intervention in childrearing 302, 305

Stein, M. B. 319

Sternberg, K. J. 311–312

stiff upper lip 296

story books and emotional expressivity 147

storytellers 143–146

Strange Situation 112–113, 114

stress 216–217, 218–219, 398–399, 457–458

stress neuroendocrine systems 228–229

stress paradigm 515–516

stress response 393

adaptive vs. maladaptive 401–402

catecholamines 392–393

chronic trauma 393

delayed effect in hippocampus 319–320

early adversity 53–54, 272

epigenetic mechanism 187–188

epigenome 53–54

functional somatic syndromes 274

homologies between hamsters and humans 463

neurobiological reaction 115

in rats 115–116, 187–188, 294

sensitization 273

in Syrian hamsters 434

stressors 391–392, 398–400, 432

stress-related disorders 272, 432–433

structural equivalence 38

stunting 536, 537

submissive behaviors and depression 447

subordinates 418–420, 434–435, 463–464

substance abuse

attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) 322–323

response to stress 203–204

trauma exposure during childhood 451–452

Substance P 479

Suharto, General 378, 381–382, 386–387

suicidality

attempts 451–452

sexual abuse 311–312

thoughts 380

suicide, Inuit 297–298

suicide victims 70–72, 73

Sukiman (Javanese man) 391–392

arrested as communist 382

film of family 386

love life 381, 382, 383

Sullivan, Harry Stack 23

Sullivan, Regina 89, 186, 457

Suomi, Steve 496

Supartini, Ninik 379

Superego 359

Suppressor-mutator (Spm) transposon demethylation 65

Supreme Court xxv–xxvi

Sure Start 511, 523

surrogate mother 323

susceptibility genes 218

suspiciousness, learning 287

Swartz, Leslie 46–47

Sweden 114, 510

symbiotic parent-child relationships 24–25, 30


synaptogenesis 315–316

syntax 139–140, 148

Syrian hamster

agonistic behavior 433, 434–441

conditioned defeat and HPA function 447–448

motives for using 435, 463

response to dominant opponent 434

viability of social defeat model 445–446

systemic inflammation 451–452

T2 signal strength

sexual abuse 323

Tajikstan, Human Development Index (HDI) 538–539

talk shows 334

Tanzania, reduction in child mortality 555

targeting of epigenetic regulation 60–61

teasing

Bofi farmers 180, 194–195

of children 304

Chubby Maata (Inuit) 284, 285, 286

cognitive capacities 301

coping with 303

long-term effects 303

not conscious part of childrearing 304

shaping identity 304–305

social norms 305

temperament

autism 124–125

behavior presentation 109

constellations of 107

cross-cultural studies 110

defined 106, 107–108, 110

developmental outcomes 109–110

difficult 39, 109–110, 124–125

environmental influence on 110

historical precedent 107–108

maternal responsiveness 109–110

measurement 109

stability 108–109

temperamental shyness 118–119, 121, 122

temporal cortex 318

Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) 509

Tester, F. J. 297–298

Texas, incarcerated men 471–472

thalamus 477–478

The Laws (Plato) 494

third ventricle 230

Thomas, A. 107, 108, 109, 115

thought, modes of 300

tickling 424–426, 475–476, 481–482, 492–493

timidity 444–445

Tomlinson, Mark 46–47

Tonkean macaques and play-fighting 404

Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) 317–318

trans-acting factors 64–65

trans-acting repressors 65

transactions 43, 45, 213–214

transcription factors xxvii, 65

transcription initiation site 60

transcription transactivators 65–66

transcriptional activator TnpA protein 65

transference 215–216, 217

transgenerational role models 345

translation blocking 57

transnational media 332–333, 334, 342–343, 347

transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2-RT) 320

trauma

events vs. interpretation 332–333, 339–340

moral and political implications 388–389

neurological effects 393, 465

perceived as fear 392–393

trauma exposure during childhood

depression 453, 454, 457

PTSD 453, 454, 457

stress-related disorders 451–452

traumatic events inventory (TEI) 454

trichostatin A 64–65, 69–70

tricyclic antidepressant 401

Trobriand islanders 360

true measurement equivalence 38

tryptophan metabolization 232–233

tsukisoi 24

tumor suppressor genes 55–57, 61–62

twin studies 118–119, 312–313

type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) 54–55, 74

Type I error (norm of interpersonal conduct) 31–32

Type II error (norm of interpersonal conduct) 32

U. S. Maternal and Child Health Bureau 526

ubiquitination 57–58


Ukraine, Human Development Index (HDI) 538–539

ultrasonic vocalizations 90–91

unborn baby, opinions about

“unclean environment” stigma 382–383

undernutrition and birthweight 537

unification of opposing concepts 300

unintended first pregnancy 451–452

United Kingdom 511–512

United Nations Children's Fund estimates of child mortality 536

United States

American values 507–508

child policy 506–509, 520–523, 528

child well-being 511–512

effect on Belizean culture 341–342

poverty as product of social injustice 507

universal values 296–297

universalist assumption 191–192

unpredictability 398–399, 422

urbanization 45–46

U.S. Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act 308

U.S. Immigration Commission 15–16

vaccination programs, success of 552–553

Valium 257

van Ijzendoorn, M. 125–126

variable, defined as generic term 40

variance perspective 37

vasopressin 230, 313–314, 480

ventral tegmental area 322–323, 477–478

verbal abuse 309–310, 317–318

Verbal Abuse Scale (VAS) 309–310

verbal IQ 317–318

verbal self-reflection 267, 277, 278

Victor (Tonkean macaque) 404

violence

ethnicity and 315

formative 167

influence of social environment 400–401

Inuit 297–298

Letisha's history of 199

monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene 315

violence cycles

disruption of 168, 200–201

importance of 468

in Indonesia 387

trauma-related psychopathology 451–452

violent trauma, intergenerational transmission 256–257, 278

viral vector-mediated gene transfer 440

Virchow, Rudolf 14, 29–30

visual association cortex 322

Vogel, Ezra 26

Voric (Tonkean macaque) 404

voxel based relaxometry 320

voxel-based morphometry 321–322

Waters, E. 195–196

Weder, N. 314

wedlock 334–335

weight-for-age, prediction of schooling 536–537

Weisel, Torsten 95–96

Weisner, T. 31

Wernicke's area 317–318

Western bias in research 531, 534, 551–553

Whina (Bofa forager) 175–176

white blood cells 73–75

white children 212–213

white matter tract 316–318

parental verbal abuse (PVA) 317–318

Whiting, Beatrice 11, 28–29

Whiting, John 11, 28–29

Wilkinson, R. G. 512

Williams syndrome (WS)

cause of 136, 137, 157–159

characteristic features 136–139

cross-cultural studies 146–149

hypersociability 139, 151–152

Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience 154

language abilities 138–142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 149, 150

narrative analysis across genres 144–146

nature vs. nurture 149, 150, 154–157

patients 138

quantitative data analysis 155–156

social drive 150–151, 152

symptoms of 136

visuospatial construction 138–139

Williamson's aunt's questioning 299, 300

windows of vulnerability

See sensitive periods


Winfrey, Oprah 334, 353

Winnicott, Donald 533

witnessing domestic violence (WDV) 312–313, 318

word pair retrieval task 322

World Health Organization (WHO) schizophrenia studies 464

WS (Williams syndrome)

See Williams syndrome (WS)

Wundt, Wilhelm 473




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