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Access to Asylum

Details

  • Page extent: 310 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.59 kg

Library of Congress

  • Dewey number: 342.08/3
  • Dewey version: 22
  • LC Classification: K3268.3 .G36 2011
  • LC Subject headings:
    • Asylum, Right of
    • Political refugees--Legal status, laws, etc
    • Law and Globalization

Library of Congress Record

Hardback

 (ISBN-13: 9781107003477)

Access to Asylum
Cambridge University Press
9781107003477 - Access to Asylum - International Refugee Law and the Globalisation of Migration Control - By Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen
Index

Index

access to institutional asylum protections 209–30

capacity, institutional 222–6, 229

in extraterritorial situations 213–17, 227

global surveillance and data collection 209

isolation of asylum-seekers 212

monitoring and knowledge-gathering problems 216–17, 222–6, 227

‘out of sight, out of mind’ effect of offshored and outsourced controls 211–13, 228, 240–2

privatised migration controls and 217–22, 227

wider effects of loss of 236

accountability 229–30

extraterritorialisation as means of avoiding 147

instrumentalisation of sovereignty norms to avoid 239–40

international refugee and human rights law

applicability of

See under See under international refugee and human rights law

influence on state behaviour 242–4

private actors, state responsibility for

See under See under privatisation of migration control

privatisation and 36, 41–2, 168, 207, 217–22

ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union) 221

ACM (Australasian Correctional Management) 220

African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights 213

Agamben, Giorgio 228

airports and airlines

See ports and airports

Albania 123, 196

Algeria 136

Alston, P. 207

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) 221

American Convention on Human Rights (1969) 87, 102

Amnesty International 216

Articles on State Responsibility, ILC

See under See under International Law Commission

Ashmore Islands 141

asylum 1–10

access to institutional protections

See access to institutional asylum protections

extraterritorial control over

See extraterritorial migration control

globalisation of control over

See globalisation of migration control

mixed flows of irregular immigrants, bona fide refugees caught up with 14

non-territorial extension of responsibility for 26–7, 34

privatisation of control over

See privatisation of migration control

protection safeguards, need for 234–6

state, defining encounter of refugee with 1–3, 231–2

state responsibility for 3–5, 9, 232–6

tightening of restrictions on 14–16

Australasian Correctional Management (ACM) 220

Australia

excision of territory as deregulated area by 36, 116, 119

international waters, migration controls on 120

isolation of asylum-seekers 212

Nauru and Papua New Guinea, third-country arrangements with 33, 34, 76, 77, 116

non-refoulement principle, interpretation of 75–7, 80

‘Pacific Solution’ 36, 75–7, 80, 116, 119, 120, 230

privatised migration controls 161, 220

Belgium 49, 56–7

Bethlehem, Daniel 65, 88

bilateral agreements and extraterritorial jurisdiction 136–40

biopolitics, Foucauldian notion of 228

Blackmun, Harry A. 57, 61, 90

boat refugees 142

Bodin, Jean 40

Boeing surveillance systems for US–Mexican border (SBINet) 2, 36, 161, 166, 187, 191

Boetzelaer, Baron van (Dutch representative to Refugee Convention drafting) 50, 52, 57, 70

Bohr, Niels 247

border control

immigration officers posted at foreign ports, airports, and border areas 1, 8, 103, 126, 127, 130–3

internal border checks within EU, carriers co-opted to perform 37

Minutemen patrolling US–Mexico border 36, 162, 199

non-refoulement principle applicable to

See under See under non-refoulement principle

private installation of surveillance system along US-Mexico border (SBINet) 2, 36, 161, 166, 187, 191

privatisation of 161

Schengen framework for cross-border access by law enforcement agencies in EU 106

British Airways 212

British Library, Cotton Tiberius Map 209–10

Budafel incident 142, 143

buffer zones, jurisdictional responsibilities in 123, 150

Canary Islands 33, 120, 121, 126, 215

capacity, institutional 222–6, 229

Cape Verde 126

Caribbean states, US shiprider agreements with 106

carrier responsibilities

See ports and airports

case law

A. v. United Kingdom (ECHR, 1998) 197

Al-Adsani v. United Kingdom (ECHR, 2001) 202

Amuur v. France (ECHR, 1996) 116, 117, 119

Andreou v. Turkey (ECHR, 2008) 150

Assanidze v. Georgia (ECHR, 2004) 119

Banković and Others v. Belgium and Others (ECHR, 2001) 22, 108, 110, 128, 130, 132, 137, 150, 151, 157, 226, 234

Boumediene et al. v. Bush (USC, 2008) 154

Brothers to the Rescue (Armando Alejandre Jr. and Others v. Cuba) (IACHR, 1999) 122, 124, 125

Chahal v. the UK (ECHR, 1996) 109

Coard et al. v. United States (IACHR, 1999) 110

Corfu Channel (ICJ, 1949) 196

Cyprus v. Turkey (ECHR, 2001) 110, 127, 153, 198

Drozd and Janousek v. France and Spain (ECHR, 1992) 109

Elmi v. Australia (Committee against Torture, 1999) 199

Freda v. Italy (ECHR, 1980) 111

Genocide case (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro) (ICJ, 2007) 23, 175

Gentilhomme and Others v. France (ECHR, 2002) 109

Hirsi and Others v. Italy (ECHR, 2009) xi, 124

H.L.R. v. France (ECHR, 1997) 199

Ilascu and Others v. Moldova and Russia (ECHR, 2004) 118, 119, 125, 151, 153, 190

Ilse Hess v. United Kingdom (ECHR, 1975) 111

Isaak and Others v. Turkey (ECHR, 2006) 122

Issa and Others v. Turkey (ECHR, 2004) 127, 150, 226

Al-Jedda v. United Kingdom (ECHR, 2008) xi

Kindler v. Canada (UNHCR, 1993) 109

Las Palmas (PCIJ, 1928) 13, 21

Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (ICJ, 2004) 110, 118, 203

Lilian Celiberti de Casariego v. Uruguay (UNHCR, 1981) 111

Loizidou v. Turkey (ECHR, 1996) 110, 153

López Burgos v. Uruguay (UNHCR, 1979) 111, 124, 130, 133

Lotus (PCIJ, 1927) 105, 106, 151

Marine I (Committee against Torture, 2007) 129–30

Medvedyev and Others v. France (ECHR, 2008) 130, 155

N. v. Finland (ECHR, 2005) 223

Namibia (South West Africa) (ICJ, 1971) 107, 110

Ng v. Canada (UNHCR, 1993) 109

Nicaragua (ICJ, 1986) 74, 188–91, 201

Öcalan v. Turkey (ECHR, 1993) 111, 124, 130, 133

Osman v. United Kingdom (ECHR, 1998) 196, 197

Ramirez Sánchez v France (ECHR, 1996) 111

Reinette v. France (ECHR, 1989) 111

R. (European Roma Rights Centre and Others) v. Immigration Officer at Prague Airport and Another (UK, 2003, 2004) 93, 103, 131–3, 174

Al-Saadoon and Mufdhi v. United Kingdom (ECHR, 2010) 138

Salas and Others v. United States (IACHR, 1993) 110

Sale v. Haitian Center Council (US Supreme Court, 1993) 55–6, 57, 59, 60, 61, 72, 75, 77–9, 90, 122, 125, 245

Siliadin v. France (ECHR, 2005) 197

Al-Skeini and Others v. United Kingdom (ECHR, 2007) xi, 111, 128, 130, 133, 217

Soering v. United Kingdom (ECHR, 1989) 87, 109, 150, 198, 201, 203

Stocke v. Germany (ECHR, 1991) 111, 186, 187

T. I. v. United Kingdom (2000) 103, 154

Tadić case (ICTY, 1999) 190

Trail Smelter (United States v. Canada) (International Arbitral Tribunal, 1938) 201

Velásquez Rodríguez v. Honduras (IACHR, 1988) 196, 197

W. M. v. Denmark (ECHR, 1992) 134

X. and Y. v. Switzerland (ECHR, 1977) 109

X. v. Federal Republic of Germany (ECHR, 1965) 111

Xhavara and Others v. Italy and Albania (ECHR, 2001) 123, 124, 137, 138

Z. v. United Kingdom (ECHR, 2001) 197

Cassel, D. 152

Cayman Islands 31

Chicago Convention on Civil Aviation (1944) 37, 171, 183

Child, Convention on the Rights of the (1989) 85, 92, 102

Christmas Island 116

Civil and Political Rights, International Covenant on (1966)

See International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

Cold War 14

commercial visa processing companies 36, 163–4

commercialisation of sovereignty 12, 39–42

defined 31–2

extraterritorial migration control as 31–5

jurisdiction shopping 32–5, 41

for non-migration purposes 31, 35

privatisation of government functions 35–8

privatisation of migration control as 31–2, 35–8

Committee against Torture 129–30, 199

confidentiality agreements required by private contractors 220

consulates and embassies

extraterritorial jurisdiction and 133–5

individuals, jurisdiction over 110–11

protected entry procedures at third-party embassies 34

rights of refugees within a state's jurisdiction but outside its territory 103

state, defining encounter of refugee with 1–3

Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1984)

extraterritorial detention of migrants 129–30

monitoring and knowledge-gathering mechanisms 225

non-refoulement principle, interpretation of 86, 90, 91, 92, 95

Optional Protocol to 221, 224

rights of refugees within a state's jurisdiction but outside its territory 102

Convention on Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic (1965) 184

Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue (SAR, 1979) 142, 148

Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) 85, 92, 102

Convention Relating to the International Status of Refugees (1933) 48, 83–4, 90, 91

Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (1951)

adequacy of 3, 232

basis for establishing extraterritorial jurisdiction under 9

de facto right of admission, explicit exclusion of 63–4

due diligence requirements regarding private actors 198, 207

enforcement body, lack of 222

Haitian interdiction programme and 122

illegal entry or presence, refugee exemption from penalties for 61

non-refoulement principle

See non-refoulement principle

ports and airports covered by 118

rights of refugees within a state's jurisdiction but outside its territory 101–4

sovereign rights and international law, confrontation between 11

territorial variability of quality of protection and 28–31

territorially progressive nature of rights under 28, 101–4

violation of, privatisation and extraterritorialisation viewed as 3

corporate veil, piercing 217–22

Corrections Corporation of America 162

cost-efficiency of privatisation 167, 168

Cotton Tiberius Map 209–10

Council of Europe 70, 72, 213, 226

courts, asylum-seekers’ access to 217

Craven, Matthew 25, 153

Cuba 33, 34, 40, 115–16, 122

Cuban Migration Agreement (1995) 115–16

customary international law and non-refoulement principle 88–9, 91

Cyprus 110, 123, 127, 153, 198

Czech Republic 131–3

Davy, Ulrike 57

de facto right of admission, Refugee Convention (1951) explicitly excluding 63–4

de facto versus de jure jurisdiction (effective control test) 46, 107, 110, 118

delegation of migration control

See privatisation of migration control

Denmark 29, 134, 215

deregulation of territory

See excision of territory as deregulated area

detention of migrants

extraterritorial jurisdiction over 129–30

isolation of facilities and detainees 212

privatisation of 161, 221

domestic law

See national or domestic law, sovereignty

Dominican Republic 137, 138

Draft Convention on Territorial Asylum (1977) 69

Dubai Ports World 165

due diligence obligations 195–204, 206

ECHR

See European Court of Human Rights

economic approaches to globalisation of migration control 6

Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, International Covenant on (1966) 90

effective control test (de facto versus de jure jurisdiction) 46, 107, 110, 118

effective realisation of refugee protections 5, 10, 28–31

effectiveness principle of interpretation 96–9

embassies

See consulates and embassies

emigration

See asylum, migration control

enforcement jurisdiction 106

EU

See European Union

EU Fundamental Rights Agency 213

European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950)

due diligence principle 198, 203

non-refoulement principle, interpretation of 72, 82, 87, 91, 92, 95

ports and airports covered by 118

practical applicability of 226

practical limitations of extraterritorial jurisdiction and 153

rights of refugees within a state's jurisdiction but outside its territory 102, 129

visa requirements 134

European Council Carrier Liability Directive (2001) 172

European Court of Human Rights (ECHR)

access of asylum-seekers to 213

on assumption of territorial jurisdiction 119

on bilateral agreements 137

buffer zones, jurisdictional responsibilities in 123

on de facto versus de jure jurisdiction 118

due diligence principle 196, 197–8

on extraterritorial jurisdiction 109, 110, 130

functional approach of 150

on international airport zones 116, 117

international waters, migration controls in 122, 124

on jurisdiction as concept 108

monitoring and knowledge-gathering procedures 223, 225

non-refoulement principle, interpretation of 83, 87, 91

on practical limitations of extraterritorial jurisdiction 155

private actors, state responsibility for 186, 190

third-country arrangements 127

European Union (EU)

Asylum Procedures Directive 119

commercial visa processing companies 163

common asylum and immigration policy 2

Frontex 121, 126, 137, 138, 215, 217, 239

functional approach to jurisdiction in 151, 152

HERA operations 33

internal border checks, carriers co-opted to perform 37

international waters

migration controls exercised on 120–1

third-country territorial waters, efforts to move migration controls into 8

labour immigration regimes in 14

non-refoulement principle, interpretation of 74, 79–80

privatisation issues 165, 171, 183

Schengen Convention 106, 171, 183

third-country arrangements 1, 2, 34, 126, 129

visa requirements 133

See under See under specific member countries

excision of territory as deregulated area 115–20

application of concept of jurisdiction to 145

Australia's ‘Pacific Solution’ 36, 116, 119

international maritime law, territorial waters in 117

jurisdiction bifurcation 120

jurisdiction shopping 32–5, 41, 120

ports and airports 116, 117

purpose of 147

US wet-foot, dry-foot policy for Cuban asylum-seekers 115–16

extraterritorial migration control 1–3, 100–57

access to institutional asylum protections and 213–17, 227

accountability, as means of avoiding 147

bilateral agreements and 136–40

as commercialisation of sovereignty 31–5

consulates and embassies 133–5

de facto versus de jure jurisdiction (effective control test) 46, 107, 110, 118

defined 15

different frameworks for understanding 6–8

domestic court investigation of 217

double standard of jurisprudence regarding 145–9

economic and political explanations of trend toward 6

enforcement jurisdiction 106

in excised territory

See excision of territory as deregulated area

functional approach to 101, 149–57

human smuggling and trafficking 136

individuals, jurisdiction over 110–11, 127–30, 146, 152

international refugee and human rights law

applicability of 3–5, 9, 232–6

basis of extraterritorial jurisdiction in general human rights law 107–12

basis of extraterritorial jurisdiction in public international law 104–7

effective realisation of 5

facilitation and management of migration control by 20

in international waters

See international waters, migration controls in

intersection of law and politics, operating in 8, 37, 39–41

jurisdiction, migration control viewed as matter of 100–1

jurisdiction shopping 32–5, 147, 149

larger trend towards offshoring, as part of 17

legal vacuum, efforts to avoid 145–9

legality issues 234

methodological approach to 112–14

multiple non-exclusive jurisdictions 155–7

non-refoulement principle, reach of 17, 232, 238

See under See under non-refoulement principle

‘out of sight, out of mind’ effect of 211–13, 228, 240–2

ports and airports

See ports and airports

practical limitations of 152–5

prescriptive jurisdiction 105

privatisation of 163, 192–5, 200–2, 206

rescues at sea 140–5, 148

rights of refugees within a state's jurisdiction but outside its territory 101–4

state responsibility for 3–5, 232–6

third-country arrangements

See third-country arrangements

violation of Refugee Convention, viewed as 3

visa requirements 133–5

wider effects of 236

Florida Keys 115, 141

Foucault, Michel 228

France

carrier sanctions 172

due diligence principle 197

excision of international airport zone as deregulated area by 116, 117

international waters, migration controls on 120, 130, 155

juxtaposed controls scheme, Anglo-French 126, 127, 163, 182, 193

New Hebrides, Anglo-French condominium over 152

refouler as legal term in 56–7

Refugee Convention (1951), drafting of 48

French Huguenots, as refugees 12

Friedmann, Wolfgang 37

Frontex 121, 126, 137, 138, 215, 217, 239

functional approach to jurisdiction 101, 149–57

Genocide Convention (UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 1948) 66, 90

Geo Group 162

geographical scope

jurisdiction

See jurisdiction

of non-refoulement principle

See non-refoulement principle

sovereignty

See sovereignty

territory

See territory

German Democratic Republic 134

Germany, Federal Republic of 79, 99, 172

Ghana 35, 41

global surveillance and data collection 209

globalisation of migration control 10, 11–43

commercialisation of sovereignty, via

See commercialisation of sovereignty

different frameworks for understanding 6–8

international refugee and human rights law

as means of escaping constraints of 7–8, 11–12

problems related to 20–4

as reason for expanding reach of 19

jurisdiction shopping 32–5

non-territorial extension of refugee responsibilities 26–7, 34

‘retreat of the state’, as sign of 17–20

sovereignty rights and

See sovereignty

territoriality, principle of 21–2, 24–31, 39–41

good faith principle of interpretation 97

Goodwin-Gill, Guy 11, 13, 75, 94, 131

government

See state

Grahl-Madsen, Atle 51, 57, 58, 62–3, 228

Greece 120, 211

Group 4 Securicor 161, 162, 220

Guantánamo Bay, US lease of 33, 34, 40

Guantánamo detainees, habeas corpus rights of 154, 217, 230

habeas corpus rights of Guantánamo detainees 154, 217, 230

Haitian interdiction programme

access of asylum-seekers to refugee referral mechanism 216

individuals, jurisdictional control over 129

international waters, migration controls on 120, 122

non-refoulement principle, interpretation of 45, 78

Haliburton 162

Hathaway, James 81

Henkin, Louis 48, 60

HERA operations 33, 121, 137, 138

high seas

See international waters, migration controls in

Honduras 196, 197

Huguenots, as refugees from France 12

Human Rights Committee, UN (UNHRC)

access of asylum seekers to 213–17

co-operative arrangements sought by 235

global burden of refugee protection, extension of 27

non-refoulement principle

as customary international law 88–9

interpretation of 47, 69, 70–2, 75, 91, 95, 238

on primacy of territorial jurisdiction 156

on privatisation of migration controls 170, 174

on SAR situations 145

human rights law, international

See international refugee and human rights law

human smuggling and trafficking 136

ICJ

See International Court of Justice

ICTY (International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia) 190

ILC

See International Law Commission

illegal entry or presence, refugee exemption from penalties for 61

immigration

See asylum, migration control

immigration officers posted at foreign ports, airports, and border areas 1, 8, 103, 126, 127, 130–3

individuals, jurisdiction over 110–11, 127–30, 146, 152

institutional asylum mechanisms, access to

See access to institutional asylum protections

instrumentalisation of sovereignty norms to avoid protection obligations 239–40

Inter-American Court/Commission on Human Rights

access of asylum-seekers to 213

due diligence principle 196, 197

international waters, migration controls in 122, 124, 152

non-refoulement principle, interpretation of 72, 95

International Arbitral Tribunal 201

International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS; 1974) 141, 142, 148

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1965) 90

International Court of Justice (ICJ)

on assumption of territorial jurisdiction 118

on de facto jurisdiction 107

on due diligence principle 196, 203

Genocide Convention, advisory opinion on reservations to 66

non-refoulement principle, interpretation of 83, 85

on private conduct authorised, directed, or controlled by state 188–91

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966)

immigration officers posted to foreign territories 132

monitoring and knowledge gathering mechanisms 225

non-refoulement principle, interpretation of 82, 84–5, 91, 92, 95

practical limitations of extraterritorial jurisdiction and 153

right to leave home country under 103, 174

rights of refugees within a state's jurisdiction but outside its territory 102

International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1966) 90

International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 190

international institutional asylum mechanisms, access to

See access to institutional asylum protections

International Law Commission (ILC)

Articles on State Responsibility 9

extraterritorial jurisdiction 140

human rights and 179

privatisation 158, 177, 179–85, 186–9, 191, 204, 205, 206, 208

on enforcement jurisdiction 106

international maritime law

Convention on Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic (1965) 184

SAR Convention (1979) 142, 148

SAR regime 140–5, 148

SOLAS Convention (1974) 141, 142, 148

territorial waters under 117

UNCLOS (1994) 141

International Maritime Organisation, Maritime Safety Committee 142, 144

international refugee and human rights law

applicability of 232–6

challenges to 237–9

in extraterritorial situations 3, 9

limitations and gaps in 237–42

in private control situations 4, 9

effective realisation of 5, 10

extraterritorial migration control under

See under See under extraterritorial migration control

facilitation and management of migration control by 20

globalisation of migration control

See under See under globalisation of migration control

human versus state values, human rights as expressive of 24

influence on state behaviour 242–4

intersection of law and politics, privatisation and extraterritorialisation operating at 8, 37, 39–41

methodological approach to 112–14

non-refoulement principle in instruments other than 1951 Refugee Convention

See under See under non-refoulement principle

non-territorial extension of refugee responsibilities 26–7

privatisation and

See under See under privatisation of migration control

refugees within jurisdiction but outside territory 101–4

relationship between refugee and human rights regimes 25–6

sollen and sein (normative ideal and positive legal force), tension between 244–5

sovereign rights, confrontation with 11, 245–8

state responsibility for 3–5

territoriality, principle of 21–2, 24–31, 39–41

universalist claims of, tensions between sovereign/territorial jurisdiction and 111

international search and rescue (SAR) regime 140–5, 148

international waters, migration controls in 120–5

application of concept of jurisdiction to 145

bilateral agreements 136–40

EU efforts to move migration controls into third-country territorial waters from 8

functional approach to 124–5, 152

human smuggling and trafficking 136

jurisdiction shopping 32

purpose of 148

rescues at sea 140–5, 148

state, defining encounter of refugee with 1

third-country territorial waters cases distinguished 114

interpretation of non-refoulement principle

See non-refoulement principle

interstate co-operation, private intermediaries of 166, 192

invisibility of offshored and outsourced controls 211–13, 228, 240–2

Iraq 127, 138

Ireland 172

Israel 2, 36, 48, 161, 187

Italy

Albania, Otranto tragedy and third-country arrangement with 123, 137

carrier sanctions 172

international waters, migration controls on 120, 123

isolation of asylum-seekers 212, 213

Lampedusa 121, 141, 212, 213

Libya, third-country arrangement with 33, 120, 139

jurisdiction

assumption of territorial jurisdiction 118

de facto versus de jure 107, 110, 118

defined 104

enforcement 106

as exclusive 151

extraterritorial

See extraterritorial migration control

functional approach to 101, 149–57

methodological approach to 112–14

migration control activities viewed as product of 100–1

multiple and non-exclusive 155–7

non-refoulement principle and

See under See under non-refoulement principle

prescriptive 105

private actors, extraterritorial acts of 192–5

rights of refugees within jurisdiction but outside territory 101–4

territorial, primacy of 156

territoriality, relationship to 22, 104

as total 151–2

jurisdiction bifurcation 120

jurisdiction shopping 32–5, 41, 120, 147, 149

juxtaposed controls scheme, Anglo-French 126, 127, 163, 182, 193

Kant, Immanuel 24

Kármán line 21

KLM 172

knowledge gathering and monitoring by public/international institutions 216–17, 222–6, 227

Koh, Harold 122

Krasner, Stephen D. 39

labour market

Denmark, work rights of refugees in 29

EU, changing immigration regimes in 14

Lampedusa 121, 141, 212, 213

Larsen, Knud 51

Lauterpacht, Elihu 65, 88

Lauterpacht, Hersch 66, 96, 97

law of the sea

See international maritime law

Lawson, Rick 203

Liberia 31

Libya

international waters, interception of migrants in 120, 121

SAR protocols 142, 145

smuggled migrants, return of 136

third-country arrangements 1, 33, 35, 120, 139

Malta 121, 142, 144, 145

maritime migration controls

in international waters

See international maritime law, international waters, migration controls in

in territorial waters

See territorial waters

Maritime Safety Committee, International Maritime Organisation 142, 144

Mauritanian waters 33, 35, 126, 137, 138, 217

McAdam, J. 11

Meron, Theodor 89, 245

Mexico, US border with

Minutemen patrolling 36, 162, 199

private installation of surveillance system along (SBINet) 2, 36, 161, 166, 187, 191

migration control

complete control, impossibility of 18

detention

See detention of migrants

extraterritorial

See extraterritorial migration control

functional approach to 101

jurisdictional approach to 100–1

See under See under jurisdiction

privatisation of

See privatisation of migration control

right to leave country of origin 103, 147, 174

territorial approach to

See territory

Minderhoud, Paul 168, 189

Minutemen 36, 162, 199

Modiin Ezrahi 161

Moldova 118

monitoring and knowledge gathering by public/international institutions 216–17, 222–6, 227

Montreux document 203

Morgenthau, Hans 39

Morocco 1, 129

multiple non-exclusive jurisdictions 155–7

Myanmar 211

national or domestic law

courts, asylum-seekers’ access to 217

defined 182

public and private, distinction between 22–3, 39

territoriality, principle of 21–2

See under See under sovereignty

Nauru 33, 34, 76, 77, 116

NAUTILUS operations 121

Netherlands

carrier sanctions 172

private conduct authorised, directed or controlled by state 189

Refugee Convention (1951), drafting of 50, 52, 57, 70

New Hebrides, Anglo-French condominium over 152

Newtonian physics and quantum mechanics 247

NGOs (non-governmental organisations), access of asylum seekers to 213–17

Nicholson, Frances 164

Noll, Gregor 68, 85, 134, 228

non-binding resolutions (soft law) on non-refoulement principle 68–72, 80

non-governmental organisations (NGOs), access of asylum seekers to 213–17

non-refoulement principle 9, 44–99

applicability to extraterritorial or private actions 17, 232, 238

‘blank cheque’ for migrants, viewed as 15

border situations, interpreted as applicable to 45

American Convention on Human Rights (1969) 87

defining border or frontier for purposes of 93–4

OAU Convention on Refugees (1969) 86

refouler as term in French and Belgian law 56–7

in Refugee Convention of 1933 83–4, 91

in soft law 69–70, 80

in state practice 74–5, 80

telos or purpose of Convention and 59–61

challenges to applicability of 238

conclusions regarding 94–6

country of origin of asylum-seeker, applicability within 46, 58, 93

de facto right of admission, explicit exclusion of 63–4

defined 14

different interpretations of 45–7, 93–4

drafting history of Refugee Convention (1951) on 47–53, 95

ad hoc committee 47–50, 60, 64

Conference of Plenipotentiaries 48, 50–1

conflicting interpretations of Conference and committee 51–3

refouler, special use of 56

effectiveness principle of interpretation 96–9

good faith principle of interpretation 97

in international law and human rights instruments 68, 81–93

conclusions regarding 91–3, 95

Convention against Torture (1984) 86, 90, 91, 92, 95

Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) 85, 92

customary international law 88–9, 91

European Convention on Human Rights (1950) 72, 82, 87, 91, 92, 95

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) 82, 84–5, 91, 92, 95

jurisdiction as standard scope of application 89–91

OAU Convention on Refugees (1969) 86, 92

Refugee Convention of 1933 48, 83–4, 90, 91

significance for interpretation of 1951 Refugee Convention 82–3

jurisdiction of acting state, interpreted as applicable to 46

in American Convention on Human Rights (1969) 87

in Convention against Torture (1984) 86

in Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) 85

effectiveness principle supporting 98

in European Convention on Human Rights (1950) 87

in International Convention on Civil and Political Rights (1966) 84–5

international legal norms supporting 91–3, 95

in soft law 70–2

standard scope of application in international law 89–91

language of 1951 Refugee Convention Article 33 on 53–9

Article 33(2) 55–6

conclusions regarding 58–9, 67–8, 95

explicit territorial conditions, lack of 54–5

full text of 44

‘in any matter whatsoever’ 53–4

refouler as term in French and Belgian law 56–7

‘to the frontiers of territories’ 57–8

practical applicability of 100–1

presumptive nature of 27

privatisation of migration control and 17, 174

soft law (non-binding resolutions) on 68–72, 80

sovereignty

interpretation of principle and 64, 65–7

principle as constraint on 14

state practice regarding 68, 72–81, 95–6

telos or purpose of Refugee Convention (1951) regarding 59–67

conclusions regarding 68

general presumptions underlying 65–7

wider interpretation, arguments against 62–5

wider interpretation, arguments in favour of 59–61

territoriality principle and 27–8, 41

territory of acting state, interpreted as applicable solely within 45

Conference of Plenipotentiaries sessions suggesting 51

language of Article 33(2) suggesting 55–6

in state practice 74–5, 77–9, 80

telos or purpose of Convention and 62–5

to where refugee may be returned, interpreted as only applicable to 46

ad hoc committee sessions suggesting 51

‘in any matter whatsoever’ language 53–4

‘to the frontiers of territories’ language 57–8

non-state entities, migration control entrusted to

See privatisation of migration control

non-territorial extension of refugee responsibilities 26–7, 34

OAU Convention governing Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa (1969)

non-refoulement principle, interpretation of 86, 92

O’Boyle, Richard 114

offshore migration control

See extraterritorial migration control

Operation Hera 33, 121, 137, 138

Operation Nautilus 121

Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture 221, 224

Organized Crime, Transnational, UN Convention against (2000) 136

Otranto tragedy 123

‘out of sight, out of mind’ effect of offshored and outsourced controls 211–13, 228, 240–2

outsourcing of migration control

See privatisation of migration control

‘Pacific Solution’ 36, 75–7, 80, 116, 119, 120, 230

Papua New Guinea 33, 34, 76, 77, 116

Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ) 105, 106

piercing the corporate veil 217–22

politics

globalisation of migration control, political approaches to 6

intersection of law and politics, privatisation and extraterritorialisation operating at 8, 37, 39–41

ports and airports

Chicago Convention on Civil Aviation (1944) 37, 183

complete privatisation of 161

effectiveness of requiring controls by 7

excision of territory as deregulated area 116

immigration officers posted at foreign airports 1, 8, 103, 126, 127, 130–3

jurisdiction shopping 32

privatisation and

See under See under privatisation of migration control

rejected passengers, responsibility for 164

sanctions for improper document checks 1, 36, 37, 160, 169–74, 183–5, 189–90, 212

security information requirements 164

state, defining encounter of refugee with 1

prescriptive jurisdiction 105

privatisation of migration control 1–2, 158–208

access to asylum protections and 217–22, 227

accountability and 36, 41–2, 168, 207, 217–22

border control 161

as commercialisation of sovereignty 31–2, 35–8

contractors, use of 36, 160–7

as cost-efficiency issue 167, 168

defined 16, 159

detention facilities 161, 221

development of 160–7

different frameworks for understanding 6–8

extraterritorial 163, 192–5, 200–2, 206

ineffectiveness of government controls, as response to 7

international refugee and human rights law

applicability of 4, 9, 232–6

conflicts with 169–75

due diligence obligations under 195–204

effective realisation of 5

facilitation and management of migration control by 20

non-state actors, human rights obligations of 177

public and private, distinction between 22–3, 39

state responsibility under 175–9

intersection of law and politics, operating in 8, 37, 39–41

interstate co-operation, private intermediaries of 166, 192

larger trend towards privatisation, as part of 7, 17

legality issues 234

multi-layered nature of 165, 191

non-contracted private actors 36, 162, 199

non-refoulement principle, applicability of 17, 174, 232, 238

‘out of sight, out of mind’ effect of 211–13, 228, 240–2

piercing the corporate veil 217–22

ports and airports

carrier sanctions for improper document checks 1, 36, 37, 160, 169–74, 183–5, 189–90, 212

complete privatisation of 161

public and private, distinction between 166–7

rejected passengers, responsibility for 164

security concerns and 164, 165

public and private, distinction between 22–3, 39, 166–7, 175–9, 206

purpose of 167–9, 207

security concerns 164–6

sovereignty conflicts, avoiding 169

state responsibility for 3–5, 9

attribution of governmental authority to private actors 179–85

conclusions regarding 205–8

due diligence obligations 195–204, 206

extraterritorial private actions 192–5, 200–2, 206

under international refugee and human rights law 175–9

private conduct authorised, directed, or controlled by state 185–92

public and private, distinction between 175–9, 206

retention of 232–6

in UK and US

See under See under United Kingdom; United States

violation of Refugee Convention, viewed as 3

visa processing companies, commercial 36, 163–4

wider effects of 236

protected entry procedures 34

‘protection in the region’ 26–7, 34

protection safeguards for asylum-seekers, need for 234–6

Protocol against Human Smuggling on Land, Sea and Air 136

Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants 136

public and private, distinction between 22–3, 39, 166–7, 175–9, 206

public institutional asylum mechanisms, access to

See access to institutional asylum protections

quality of refugee protections 5, 10, 28–31

quantum mechanics and Newtonian physics 247

Racial Discrimination, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of (1965) 90

refoulement

See non-refoulement principle

Refugee Convention (1933) 48, 83–4, 90, 91

Refugee Convention (1951)

See Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees

refugees

asylum for

See asylum

effective realisation of protections for 5, 10, 28–31

extraterritorial control over

See extraterritorial migration control

illegal entry or presence, exemption from penalties for 61

international and human rights law protecting

See international refugee and human rights law

privatisation of control over

See privatisation of migration control

protection safeguards, need for 234–6

rights within a state's jurisdiction but outside its territory 101–4

sovereignty, as markers of 12–17, 38

religion, freedom of 29

rescues at sea 140–5, 148

right to leave country of origin 103, 147, 174

Robinson, Nehemiah 45, 57, 58

Rohingya asylum-seekers 211

Roma 131–3

Russia

de facto versus de jure jurisdiction 118

international transit zone, Moscow airport 117, 164

Ukraine-Russia border 130, 166, 192

safe countries of origin 15

safe third countries 15, 29, 30, 34, 35, 36, 102

SAR (search and rescue) regime, international 140–5, 148

SBINet (private surveillance system on US–Mexican border) 2, 36, 161, 166, 187, 191

Schengen Convention 106, 171, 183

Schily, Otto 99

Schmitt, Carl 228

Scholten, Sophie 168, 189

search and rescue (SAR) regime, international 140–5, 148

security concerns and privatisation of migration control 164–6

Senegalese waters 33, 35, 37, 106, 126, 137, 138, 217, 239

shiprider agreements 106, 136–40

smuggling and trafficking in human beings 136

soft law (non-binding resolutions) on non-refoulement principle 68–72, 80

SOLAS (International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea; 1974) 141, 142, 148

sollen and sein (normative ideal and positive legal force) in international refugee and human rights law, tension between 244–5

sovereignty 38–43

commercialisation of

See commercialisation of sovereignty

decline or end of 17–20

facilitation and management of private and extraterritorial migration control by national law 20

instrumentalisation of norms to avoid protection obligations 239–40

international law and, confrontation between 11, 245–8

non-refoulement principle

as constraint on 14

interpretation of 64, 65–7

privatisation as means of avoiding conflicts of 169

refugees as markers of 12–17, 38

territoriality, principle of 21–2

universalist claims of international refugee and human rights law, tension with 111

Spain

bilateral agreements 106, 126, 137, 138

Canary Islands, irregular immigration to 33, 120, 121, 126, 215, 239

globalisation of migration control by 33, 37, 41

instrumentalisation of sovereignty norms to avoid protection obligations 239

international waters, migration controls on 120

state

attribution of governmental authority to private actors 179–85

defining encounter of refugee with 1–3, 231–2

extraterritorial actions, responsibility for 3–5, 232–6

international legal constraints, escaping 7–8

non-refoulement principle, state practice regarding 68, 72–81, 95–6

private actions, responsibility for

See under See under privatisation of migration controls

retention of responsibility in offshoring and outsourcing situations 232–6

Sweden 79

Switzerland 50, 52, 53, 57, 70, 109

Tampa incident 75–7, 230

Tampere EU summit (1999) 2

Territorial Asylum, Draft Convention on (1977) 69

Territorial Asylum, UN Declaration on (1967) 69

territorial waters

bilateral agreements 136–40

dumping of irregular immigrants in 211

under international maritime law 117

international waters cases distinguished 114

rescues at sea 140–5, 148

shiprider agreements 106, 136–40

third-country territorial waters, migration controls operating in 8, 33, 35, 37, 103, 106, 125–36

US wet-foot, dry-foot policy for Cuban asylum-seekers 115–16

territory

assumption of territorial jurisdiction 118

excision of

See excision of territory as deregulated area

jurisdiction, relationship to 22, 104

migration control outside

See extraterritorial migration control

non-refoulement principle and

See under See under non-refoulement principle

primacy of jurisdiction based on 156

principle of territoriality 21–2, 24–31, 39–41

Refugee Convention (1951), territorially progressive nature of rights under 28, 101–4

rights of refugees within a state's jurisdiction but outside 101–4

SAR regime as exception to principle of 141

universalist claims of international refugee and human rights law, tension with 111

Thailand 211

third-country arrangements 125–36

application of concept of jurisdiction to 146–7

EU, co-operation with migration controls of 1, 2, 34

geographic area, jurisdiction over 127, 146

immigration officers posted at foreign airports 1, 8, 103, 126, 127, 130–3

individuals, jurisdiction over 127–30, 146

jurisdiction shopping 32–4

as means of migration/refugee control 16

non-refoulement principle, interpretation of 79–80

protected entry procedures 34

‘protection in the region’ 26–7, 34

rights of refugees within a state's jurisdiction but outside its territory 103

safe third countries 15, 29, 30, 34, 35, 36, 102

territorial waters of third countries, migration controls in 8, 33, 35, 37, 103, 106, 125–36

Thomas Aquinas v

Tiberius Map 209–10

torture

See Committee against Torture, Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment or Punishment

Touquet Treaty 127

trafficking in and smuggling human beings 136

Transnational Organized Crime, UN Convention against (2000) 136

Transnistria 118

Transport Security Administration (TSA) 165

travaux préparatoires, limitations of 47, 51, 57, 95

treaties

bilateral agreements and extraterritorial jurisdiction 136–40

extraterritorial jurisdiction based on 106, 109

See under See under Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties; specific treaties

TSA (Transport Security Administration) 165

Turkey 123, 127, 150, 211, 226

Uganda 29

Ukraine–Russia border 130, 166, 192

UN buffer zones, jurisdictional responsibilities in 123, 150

UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (2000) 136

UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS; 1994) 141

UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948) 66, 90

UN Declaration on Territorial Asylum (1967) 69

UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) 14

UNHCR

See Human Rights Committee, UN

United Arab Emirates 165

United Kingdom

bilateral agreements 138

domestic court investigation of extraterritorial actions 217

excision of territory as deregulated area 116

Haitian interdiction programme, UK Court of Appeal on Sale decision regarding 122

human rights and living standards in 29

Immigration Act 1971 116

Immigration, Asylum, and Nationality Act 2006 161, 167, 182

immigration officers posted to foreign territory 126, 127, 130, 131–3

juxtaposed controls scheme, Anglo-French 126, 127, 163, 182, 193

New Hebrides, Anglo-French condominium over 152

non-refoulement principle, interpretation of 62, 75, 79–80

privatisation

accountability issues 220

attribution of governmental authority to private actors 182

of border control 161

carrier sanctions 172

of detention facilities 161

due diligence principle 196, 197, 198, 201

of extraterritorial controls 163, 193

public and private, distinction between 166, 167

state, private conduct authorised, directed, or controlled by 187, 190

Race Relations Act 1976 132

security information requirements for carriers 164

United States

Detainee Treatment Act of 2005 154

detention facilities, privatisation of 162

Dominican Republic, bilateral agreement with 137, 138

Florida Keys 115, 141

Guantánamo Bay leased from Cuba 33, 34, 40

Guantánamo detainees, habeas corpus rights of 154, 217, 230

Haitian interdiction

See Haitian interdiction programme

Immigration and Nationality Act (1952) 125, 160

immigration officers posted to foreign territory 131

Mexican border

Minutemen patrolling 36, 162, 199

private installation of surveillance system along (SBINet) 2, 36, 161, 166, 187, 191

Military Commissions Act of 2006 217

non-refoulement principle, interpretation of 45, 55–6, 57, 59, 60, 61, 72, 75, 77–9, 84, 90, 99, 238

Passenger Act (1902) 160

privatisation

accountability issues 221

attribution of governmental authority to private actors 185

carrier sanctions 160, 165

due diligence principle 199, 201

extraterritorial migration controls 193

public and private, distinction between 167

state, private conduct authorised, directed, or controlled by 187, 190

US–Mexican border, private surveillance system at 2, 36, 161, 166, 187, 191

Refugee Convention (1951), drafting of 48, 49

security information requirements for carriers 164

shiprider agreements with Caribbean states 106

TSA 165

wet-foot, dry-foot policy for Cuban asylum-seekers 115–16

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) 14

van Boetzelaer, Baron (Dutch representative to Refugee Convention drafting) 50, 52, 57, 70

Vattel, Emmerich de 13, 40

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969)

good faith principle 97

objective interpretation of wording, precedence given to 58

refouler as used in 56

state practice, significance of 72

on travaux préparatoires 47, 57

on treaty interpretation within their contemporary international legal context 82

vigilantes 36, 162, 199

visas

commercial visa processing companies 36, 163–4

extraterritorial jurisdiction and 133–5

rights of refugees within a state's jurisdiction but outside its territory 103

state, defining encounter of refugee with 1–3

West Bank 2, 36, 161, 187

wet-foot, dry-foot US policy for Cuban asylum-seekers 115–16

Woomera Immigration Reception and Processing Centre, Australia 212

Zutter, Mr (Swiss representative to Refugee Convention drafting) 50, 52, 53, 57, 70




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