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Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation

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  • 1 b/w illus.
  • Page extent: 162 pages
  • Size: 228 x 152 mm
  • Weight: 0.25 kg

Paperback

 (ISBN-13: 9781107689343)

Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation
Cambridge University Press
9781107015135 - Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation - By Patrick Bateson and Paul Martin
Index

Index

adaptability 56

adaptability driver hypothesis 53–54

Baldwin effect 51

Aesop’s fabled crow and real rooks 69–70

agreeableness 62

alcohol 115–116

and creativity 117

creative people using 116

creativity experiment with 116

effects on health 116

Alternate Uses Task 55

alternative tactics 39–41

animals finding novel solutions 69–70

developmental studies of tool use 74

discovering process 75–76

dolphins’ behavioural patterns 72–74

humpback whales’ behaviour 74

individual’s generalisation from experience 74–75

novel behaviour patterns 70–71

novel use of tools 71–72

research with chimpanzees 70

tactical deception behaviour 71

bad play 15–16,

See social play

behaviour

player 12

play-like 16

sensitivity 12

social forms of 12

stick-carrying 14

tactical deception 71

Big Five personality traits 62

biological functions of play

active engagement with environment 31

character of play in animals 30

consequences of animals’ play experience 37–38

empirical ambiguity 34–35

evidence for biological benefits 34

hypotheses in young animal 28–29

identification approach 38

knowledge and resilience acquisition 32–33

negative evidence 36–37

play features 31

playful engagement with environment 33

pre-adult mortality 38–39

predatory behaviour development 40

questions about organism feature 28–29

risks to wild-living animals 35

self-handicapping 32

studying harming effects 36

theories about 30

brainstorming 81–82

Burghardt, Gordon 12

analysis with social play 49

factors for play evolution 42

play benefits 44

possibility of play in taxonomic groups 16

Caro, Tim

critical analysis effect 34–35

documenting risks to cheetah cubs 35

examining evidence for play benefits 34

review about animal play 34

social play analysis 18

cheetah

predation threat from 29

Tim Caro’s analysis in 18

childhood play 89

alternative ways of development 100–102

and creativity 92–93

children’s security, concerns 98–99

concerns about lack of 98

constraints in schools 99–100

declining effects 100

effects on problem-solving 94–95

losses in 124–125

meta-analysis 95

studying casuality 91–92

conscientiousness 62

creative dreaming 112–113

creativity 3–4, 44, 45

drug effects on 119–120

playful thought and behaviour 124

psychological experiences of humans 120

role of play in 48,

Crick, Francis 59,

Darwin, Charles 49, 103

Darwinian evolutionary theory 49

and Modern Synthesis 50

evolutionary changes 50

Lloyd Morgan’s perspective 51–52

Spalding’s mechanism on 50–51

daydreaming 114

and creativity 114

brain function during 115

Delbruck, Max 58

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 59

developmental scaffolding 33

disinhibition 126

diverging and converging thinking 55

dolphins 17

dreaming 110

dreams 110–111, 126–127

benefits of 111

creative dreaming 112–113

creative solutions 111–112

hypnagogic 113

lucid dreaming 113–114

enhancing opportunities for play 36, 93

equifinality 34, 94

Escher, M.C. 57

evo–devo.

See evolutionary developmental biology movement

evolution

behaviour patterns 52

chain of events 53

impact of play on 49

evolution of play

benefits in 43–44

brain functionality 46–47

evolutionary origins 46

factors about 42

role in creativity and innovation 48

testing evolutionary theories 45

tools for theory analysis 45–46

tools used in birds and mammals 47–48

evolutionary developmental biology movement 50

extraversion 62

Fagen, Robert 8, 10, 30, 33

Fagen’s approach 8

Feynman, Richard 58

Fleming, Alexander 58

flexibility 56

flow 61

fluency 56

Geim, Andre 59, 60

generalisation and insight 74–75

genetic algorithm 68

global optimum 4

Goodall, Jane 70, 71

graphene 59

Guilford’s distinction between convergers and divergers 55

Health, Environments, Research and Design (HERD) 84

human creativity 55,

and personality 63

and playfulness 57–60

brainstorming 81–82

components of 55–56

diversity of participants 81

effect of mood 79–80

empirical research 83–84

enhancement 78–79

gene effect in 64

Guilford’s distinction 55

importance of mood 60–62

in groups 80–81

measurement requirement 56–57

organisation features 82–83

play and playfulness, role in 84–85

psychiatric disorders 63

range and variety of contacts 79

Remote Associates Test 56

Semmelweis’s observations 66

working condition effect 83

See also innovation

human laughter

effects 106

functions 107

stereotypical vocal patterns 106

humour 126

and laughter 106–107

and playfulness 108–109

and well-being 107–108

as signal 107

features of 104

generating things 105–106

jokes 104–105

play and 103

hypnagogic dreams 113

incongruity 105

individual creativity

creative process stages 77–78

environmental and epigenetic factors influence 78

individual differences in behaviour 21, 25

environmental effects 23

genetic differences in playfulness 22

in mammals 22–23

responses to environmental conditions 23–25

sex differences 23

See also behaviour

individuals 64

Big Five personality traits 62

diverging and converging 55

experiencing flow 61

psychoticism 62–63

innovation 3–4, 85, 124

academic study of 87–88

and creative ideas 65

innovators 87

investigating commercial ideas 65–66, 67

playful creativity 86

role of play in 48

Semmelweis’s observations 66

successfulness 86

winnowing of ideas 67–68, 86

intrinsic motivation 61

James, William 67, 117

Johnson, Steven 65, 66, 80

jokes 104–105

Kahneman, Daniel 60

Koestler, Arthur 105, 110

Köhler, Wolfgang 70

learning 52

ecological niches 53

from playfulness 95–96

sensitive period for 96

local optimum 4

LSD 118–119

lucid dreaming 113–114

meercat 36

mescaline 117, 119

Modern Synthesis 50

mood

effect on human creativity 79–80

importance in creativity 60–62

motivation to play 20

external rewards 20–21

motivational system changes 21

primary and secondary reinforcers 21

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus 57

Nettle, Daniel 62, 63

neural correlates of play 25–27

neuroticism 62

neurotransmitter systems 25

Novoselov, Konstantin 59, 60,

openness 62

opium 117–118

originality 56, 64

personality 78

Piaget, Jean 7, 133

Picasso, Pablo 57

placebo effects 120, 134

plasticity 53,

play 1, , 122

across animal kingdom 16

applied to animal behaviour 10–11

applied to thoughts 5

benefits for young animals 44–45

biological costs 34, 35, 123

effect in animal survival 39

evidence for biological benefits 34

experience 6

features of 11–13, 122

for creativity and innovation 45

functions of 123,

global optimum 4

historical overview 6–8

in biological literature 10

in brown bears 38

in cats 17, , 18

in dolphins 17

in humans 13–14

in mammals 16–17

in rats 19, 24, , 25, 37, 106

local optimum 4

neural activity in brain for 25–27

occurrence in life cycle 18–19

protected context 2, 5

relationship with ecological conditions 48–49

role in human creativity 84–85

scepticism 11

sensitivity 19–20, 39

play behaviour 130

play face 18, 122

playful creativity 86

playful play 2, 13, 57

importance in creativity 3

playfulness 13

playfulness 1, 2, 13

and creativity 90

and education 95–96

and human creativity 57–60, 84–85

and humour 108–109

behavioural differences in mammals 22–23

genetic differences in 22

in humans 6

polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 118

positive mood 61, 80

Power, Thomas 130

pretend play 14, 93

behaviour 14

long-term changes in 94

negative thing in 15

of older children 14

psychoactive drugs.

alcohol 115–116

LSD 118–119

opium 117–118

See also creativity

psychoticism 62–63

Ramachandran’s theory 109

reinforcers, primary and secondary 21

Remote Associates Test 56, 108

resilience 32, 80, 96

rough-and-tumble play 13

scaffolding analogy 33

scepticism 11

schizotypy 62

seal, Southern fur 35

self-handicapping 32

sensitive period.

for learning 96

Moyles’ recommendations 97

POST report 97

See also childhood play

Smith, Peter 89

social play 17–18, 59

in cats 17

occurrence in life cycle 18

patterns of ‘serious’ behaviour 18

self-handicapping 32

Spalding, Douglas 50–51

surplus energy hypothesis 42–43

Suslov’s theory 105

tactical deception 71

Tinbergen, Niko 28

tool use

in Galapagos woodpecker finch 51

in New Caledonian crow 71

in non-human species 109

Torrance Test 100

Torrance, Paul 55

Tversky, Amos 60

UK Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (POST) 96, 97

Vygotsky, Lev 7

Watson, Jim 59

weaning and play 23, 24, , 25, 40

well-being 19, 107–108




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